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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 RFC 6434

Internet Engineering Task Force                              J. Loughney
Internet-Draft                                                     Nokia
Intended status: Standards Track                        February 7, 2008
Expires: August 10, 2008


                  IPv6 Node Requirements RFC 4294-bis
                  draft-ietf-6man-node-req-bis-00.txt

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 10, 2008.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).

Abstract

   This document defines requirements for IPv6 nodes.  It is expected
   that IPv6 will be deployed in a wide range of devices and situations.
   Specifying the requirements for IPv6 nodes allows IPv6 to function
   well and interoperate in a large number of situations and
   deployments.






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Table of Contents

   1.  Requirements Language  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.1.  Scope of This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.2.  Description of IPv6 Nodes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Abbreviations Used in This Document  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Sub-IP Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.1.  Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet Networks -
           RFC 2464 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.2.  IP version 6 over PPP - RFC 5072 . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.3.  IPv6 over ATM Networks - RFC 2492  . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   5.  IP Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     5.1.  Internet Protocol Version 6 - RFC 2460 . . . . . . . . . .  6
     5.2.  Neighbor Discovery for IPv6 - RFC 4861 . . . . . . . . . .  7
     5.3.  Path MTU Discovery and Packet Size . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       5.3.1.  Path MTU Discovery - RFC 1981  . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.4.  IPv6 Jumbograms - RFC 2675 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.5.  ICMP for the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) - RFC
           4443 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.6.  Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       5.6.1.  IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture - RFC 4291  . . .  8
       5.6.2.  IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration - RFC 4862  .  8
       5.6.3.  Privacy Extensions for Address Configuration in
               IPv6 - RFC 4941  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       5.6.4.  Default Address Selection for IPv6 - RFC 3484  . . . .  9
       5.6.5.  Stateful Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.7.  Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) for IPv6 - RFC 2710 . .  9
   6.  DNS and DHCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     6.1.  DNS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     6.2.  Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)
           - RFC 3315 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       6.2.1.  5.2.1.  Managed Address Configuration  . . . . . . . . 10
       6.2.2.  Other Configuration Information  . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       6.2.3.  Use of Router Advertisements in Managed
               Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   7.  IPv4 Support and Transition  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     7.1.  Transition Mechanisms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       7.1.1.  Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers -
               RFC 2893 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   8.  Mobile IP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   9.  Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     9.1.  Basic Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     9.2.  Security Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     9.3.  Transforms and Algorithms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     9.4.  Key Management Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   10. Router-Specific Functionality  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     10.1. General  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13



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       10.1.1. IPv6 Router Alert Option - RFC 2711  . . . . . . . . . 13
       10.1.2. Neighbor Discovery for IPv6 - RFC 4861 . . . . . . . . 13
   11. Network Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     11.1. Management Information Base Modules (MIBs) . . . . . . . . 14
       11.1.1. IP Forwarding Table MIB  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       11.1.2. Management Information Base for the Internet
               Protocol (IP)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   12. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   13. Authors and Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 20





































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1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1].


2.  Introduction

   The goal of this document is to define the common functionality
   required from both IPv6 hosts and routers.  Many IPv6 nodes will
   implement optional or additional features, but this document
   summarizes requirements from other published Standards Track
   documents in one place.

   This document tries to avoid discussion of protocol details, and
   references RFCs for this purpose.  This document is informational in
   nature and does not update Standards Track RFCs.

   Although the document points to different specifications, it should
   be noted that in most cases, the granularity of requirements are
   smaller than a single specification, as many specifications define
   multiple, independent pieces, some of which may not be mandatory.

   As it is not always possible for an implementer to know the exact
   usage of IPv6 in a node, an overriding requirement for IPv6 nodes is
   that they should adhere to Jon Postel's Robustness Principle:

   Be conservative in what you do, be liberal in what you accept from
   others [38].

2.1.  Scope of This Document

   IPv6 covers many specifications.  It is intended that IPv6 will be
   deployed in many different situations and environments.  Therefore,
   it is important to develop the requirements for IPv6 nodes to ensure
   interoperability.

   This document assumes that all IPv6 nodes meet the minimum
   requirements specified here.

2.2.  Description of IPv6 Nodes

   From the Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification [2], we
   have the following definitions:

   Description of an IPv6 Node




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   - a device that implements IPv6.

   Description of an IPv6 router

   - a node that forwards IPv6 packets not explicitly addressed to
   itself.

   Description of an IPv6 Host

   - any node that is not a router.


3.  Abbreviations Used in This Document

      ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
      AH Authentication Header
      DAD Duplicate Address Detection
      ESP Encapsulating Security Payload
      ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol
      IKE Internet Key Exchange
      MIB Management Information Base
      MLD Multicast Listener Discovery
      MTU Maximum Transfer Unit
      NA Neighbor Advertisement
      NBMA Non-Broadcast Multiple Access
      ND Neighbor Discovery
      NS Neighbor Solicitation
      NUD Neighbor Unreachability Detection
      PPP Point-to-Point Protocol
      PVC Permanent Virtual Circuit
      SVC Switched Virtual Circuit


4.  Sub-IP Layer

   An IPv6 node must include support for one or more IPv6 link-layer
   specifications.  Which link-layer specifications are included will
   depend upon what link-layers are supported by the hardware available
   on the system.  It is possible for a conformant IPv6 node to support
   IPv6 on some of its interfaces and not on others.

   As IPv6 is run over new layer 2 technologies, it is expected that new
   specifications will be issued.  This section highlights some major
   layer 2 technologies and is not intended to be complete.







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4.1.  Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet Networks - RFC 2464

   Nodes supporting IPv6 over Ethernet interfaces MUST implement
   Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet Networks [39].

4.2.  IP version 6 over PPP - RFC 5072

   Nodes supporting IPv6 over PPP MUST implement IPv6 over PPP [3].

4.3.  IPv6 over ATM Networks - RFC 2492

   Nodes supporting IPv6 over ATM Networks MUST implement IPv6 over ATM
   Networks [40].  Additionally, RFC 2492 states:

      A minimally conforming IPv6/ATM driver SHALL support the PVC mode
      of operation.  An IPv6/ATM driver that supports the full SVC mode
      SHALL also support PVC mode of operation.


5.  IP Layer

5.1.  Internet Protocol Version 6 - RFC 2460

   The Internet Protocol Version 6 is specified in [2].  This
   specification MUST be supported.

   Unrecognized options in Hop-by-Hop Options or Destination Options
   extensions MUST be processed as described in RFC 2460.

   The node MUST follow the packet transmission rules in RFC 2460.

   Nodes MUST always be able to send, receive, and process fragment
   headers.  All conformant IPv6 implementations MUST be capable of
   sending and receiving IPv6 packets; the forwarding functionality MAY
   be supported.

   RFC 2460 specifies extension headers and the processing for these
   headers.

   A full implementation of IPv6 includes implementation of the
   following extension headers: Hop-by-Hop Options, Routing (Type 0),
   Fragment, Destination Options, Authentication and Encapsulating
   Security Payload [2].

   An IPv6 node MUST be able to process these headers.  It should be
   noted that there is some discussion about the use of Routing Headers
   and possible security threats 'IPv6-RH' that they cause.




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5.2.  Neighbor Discovery for IPv6 - RFC 4861

   Neighbor Discovery SHOULD be supported. [4] states:

      Unless specified otherwise (in a document that covers operating IP
      over a particular link type) this document applies to all link
      types.  However, because ND uses link-layer multicast for some of
      its services, it is possible that on some link types (e.g., NBMA
      links) alternative protocols or mechanisms to implement those
      services will be specified (in the appropriate document covering
      the operation of IP over a particular link type).  The services
      described in this document that are not directly dependent on
      multicast, such as Redirects, Next-hop determination, Neighbor
      Unreachability Detection, etc., are expected to be provided as
      specified in this document.  The details of how one uses ND on
      NBMA links is an area for further study.

   Some detailed analysis of Neighbor Discovery follows:

   Router Discovery is how hosts locate routers that reside on an
   attached link.  Router Discovery MUST be supported for
   implementations.

   Prefix Discovery is how hosts discover the set of address prefixes
   that define which destinations are on-link for an attached link.
   Prefix discovery MUST be supported for implementations.  Neighbor
   Unreachability Detection (NUD) MUST be supported for all paths
   between hosts and neighboring nodes.  It is not required for paths
   between routers.  However, when a node receives a unicast Neighbor
   Solicitation (NS) message (that may be a NUD's NS), the node MUST
   respond to it (i.e., send a unicast Neighbor Advertisement).

   Duplicate Address Detection MUST be supported on all links supporting
   link-layer multicast (RFC 4862, Section 5.4, specifies DAD MUST take
   place on all unicast addresses).

   A host implementation MUST support sending Router Solicitations.

   Receiving and processing Router Advertisements MUST be supported for
   host implementations.  The ability to understand specific Router
   Advertisement options is dependent on supporting the specification
   where the RA is specified.

   Sending and Receiving Neighbor Solicitation (NS) and Neighbor
   Advertisement (NA) MUST be supported.  NS and NA messages are
   required for Duplicate Address Detection (DAD).

   Redirect functionality SHOULD be supported.  If the node is a router,



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   Redirect functionality MUST be supported.

5.3.  Path MTU Discovery and Packet Size

5.3.1.  Path MTU Discovery - RFC 1981

   Path MTU Discovery [5] SHOULD be supported, though minimal
   implementations MAY choose to not support it and avoid large packets.
   The rules in RFC 2460 MUST be followed for packet fragmentation and
   reassembly.

5.4.  IPv6 Jumbograms - RFC 2675

   IPv6 Jumbograms [41] MAY be supported.

5.5.  ICMP for the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) - RFC 4443

   ICMPv6 [6] MUST be supported.

5.6.  Addressing

5.6.1.  IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture - RFC 4291

   The IPv6 Addressing Architecture [7] MUST be supported.

5.6.2.  IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration - RFC 4862

   IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration is defined in [8].  This
   specification MUST be supported for nodes that are hosts.  Static
   address can be supported as well.

   Nodes that are routers MUST be able to generate link local addresses
   as described in RFC 4862 [8].

   From 4862:

      The autoconfiguration process specified in this document applies
      only to hosts and not routers.  Since host autoconfiguration uses
      information advertised by routers, routers will need to be
      configured by some other means.  However, it is expected that
      routers will generate link-local addresses using the mechanism
      described in this document.  In addition, routers are expected to
      successfully pass the Duplicate Address Detection procedure
      described in this document on all addresses prior to assigning
      them to an interface.

   Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) MUST be supported.




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5.6.3.  Privacy Extensions for Address Configuration in IPv6 - RFC 4941

   Privacy Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration [9] SHOULD
   be supported.  It is recommended that this behavior be configurable
   on a connection basis within each application when available.  It is
   noted that a number of applications do not work with addresses
   generated with this method, while other applications work quite well
   with them.

5.6.4.  Default Address Selection for IPv6 - RFC 3484

   The rules specified in the Default Address Selection for IPv6 [10]
   document MUST be implemented.  It is expected that IPv6 nodes will
   need to deal with multiple addresses.

5.6.5.  Stateful Address Autoconfiguration

   Stateful Address Autoconfiguration MAY be supported.  DHCPv6 [11] is
   the standard stateful address configuration protocol; see Section 5.3
   for DHCPv6 support.

   Nodes which do not support Stateful Address Autoconfiguration may be
   unable to obtain any IPv6 addresses, aside from link-local addresses,
   when it receives a router advertisement with the 'M' flag (Managed
   address configuration) set and that contains no prefixes advertised
   for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (see Section 4.5.2).
   Additionally, such nodes will be unable to obtain other configuration
   information, such as the addresses of DNS servers when it is
   connected to a link over which the node receives a router
   advertisement in which the 'O' flag (Other stateful configuration) is
   set.

5.7.  Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) for IPv6 - RFC 2710

   Nodes that need to join multicast groups SHOULD implement MLDv2 [12].
   However, if the node has applications that only need support for Any-
   Source Multicast [42], the node MAY implement MLDv1 [13] instead.  If
   the node has applications that need support for Source-Specific
   Multicast [42], [14], the node MUST support MLDv2 [12].

   When MLD is used, the rules in the Source Address Selection for the
   Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Protocol [15] MUST be followed.


6.  DNS and DHCP






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6.1.  DNS

   DNS is described in [43], [16], [17], and [18].  Not all nodes will
   need to resolve names; those that will never need to resolve DNS
   names do not need to implement resolver functionality.  However, the
   ability to resolve names is a basic infrastructure capability that
   applications rely on and generally needs to be supported.  All nodes
   that need to resolve names SHOULD implement stub-resolver [43]
   functionality, as in RFC 1034, Section 5.3.1, with support for:

      - AAAA type Resource Records [18];
      - reverse addressing in ip6.arpa using PTR records [18];
      - EDNS0 [19] to allow for DNS packet sizes larger than 512 octets.

   Those nodes are RECOMMENDED to support DNS security extensions [44],
   [45], and [46].

   Those nodes are NOT RECOMMENDED to support the experimental A6
   Resource Records [17].

6.2.  Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) - RFC 3315

6.2.1.  5.2.1.  Managed Address Configuration

   The method by which IPv6 nodes that use DHCP for address assignment
   can obtain IPv6 addresses and other configuration information upon
   receipt of a Router Advertisement with the \'M' flag set is described
   in Section 5.5.3 of RFC 4862.

   In addition, in the absence of a router, those IPv6 nodes that use
   DHCP for address assignment MUST initiate DHCP to obtain IPv6
   addresses and other configuration information, as described in
   Section 5.5.2 of RFC 4862.  Those IPv6 nodes that do not use DHCP for
   address assignment can ignore the 'M' flag in Router Advertisements.

6.2.2.  Other Configuration Information

   The method by which IPv6 nodes that use DHCP to obtain other
   configuration information can obtain other configuration information
   upon receipt of a Router Advertisement with the \'O' flag set is
   described in Section 5.5.3 of RFC 4862.

   Those IPv6 nodes that use DHCP to obtain other configuration
   information initiate DHCP for other configuration information upon
   receipt of a Router Advertisement with the 'O' flag set, as described
   in Section 5.5.3 of RFC 4862.  Those IPv6 nodes that do not use DHCP
   for other configuration information can ignore the 'O' flag in Router
   Advertisements.



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   An IPv6 node can use the subset of DHCP (described in [47]) to obtain
   other configuration information.

6.2.3.  Use of Router Advertisements in Managed Environments

   Nodes using the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)
   are expected to determine their default router information and on-
   link prefix information from received Router Advertisements.


7.  IPv4 Support and Transition

   IPv6 nodes MAY support IPv4.

7.1.  Transition Mechanisms

7.1.1.  Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers - RFC 2893

   If an IPv6 node implements dual stack and tunneling, then [48] MUST
   be supported.


8.  Mobile IP

   The Mobile IPv6 [20] specification defines requirements for the
   following types of nodes:

      - mobile nodes
      - correspondent nodes with support for route optimization
      - home agents
      - all IPv6 routers

   Hosts MAY support mobile node functionality described in Section 8.5
   of [20], including support of generic packet tunneling [21] and
   secure home agent communications [22].

   Hosts SHOULD support route optimization requirements for
   correspondent nodes described in Section 8.2 of [20].

   Routers SHOULD support the generic mobility-related requirements for
   all IPv6 routers described in Section 8.3 of [20].  Routers MAY
   support the home agent functionality described in Section 8.4 of
   [20], including support of [21] and [22].


9.  Security

   This section describes the specification of IPsec for the IPv6 node.



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9.1.  Basic Architecture

   Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol [23] MUST be
   supported.

9.2.  Security Protocols

   ESP [24] MUST be supported.  AH [25] MAY be supported.

9.3.  Transforms and Algorithms

   Current IPsec RFCs specify the support of transforms and algorithms
   for use with AH and ESP: NULL encryption, DES-CBC, HMAC-SHA-1-96, and
   HMAC-MD5-96.  However, 'Cryptographic Algorithm Implementation
   Requirements For ESP and AH' [26] contains the current set of
   mandatory to implement algorithms for ESP and AH.  It also specifies
   algorithms that should be implemented because they are likely to be
   promoted to mandatory at some future time.  IPv6 nodes SHOULD conform
   to the requirements in [26], as well as the requirements specified
   below.

   Since ESP encryption and authentication are both optional, support
   for the NULL encryption algorithm [27] and the NULL authentication
   algorithm [24] MUST be provided to maintain consistency with the way
   these services are negotiated.  However, while authentication and
   encryption can each be NULL, they MUST NOT both be NULL.  The NULL
   encryption algorithm is also useful for debugging.

   The DES-CBC encryption algorithm [28] SHOULD NOT be supported within
   ESP.  Security issues related to the use of DES are discussed in
   'DESDIFF', 'DESINT', and 'DESCRACK'.  DES-CBC is still listed as
   required by the existing IPsec RFCs, but updates to these RFCs will
   be published in the near future.  DES provides 56 bits of protection,
   which is no longer considered sufficient.

   The use of the HMAC-SHA-1-96 algorithm [29] within AH and ESP MUST be
   supported.  The use of the HMAC-MD5-96 algorithm [30] within AH and
   ESP MAY also be supported.

   The 3DES-CBC encryption algorithm [31] does not suffer from the same
   security issues as DES-CBC, and the 3DES-CBC algorithm within ESP
   MUST be supported to ensure interoperability.

   The AES-128-CBC algorithm [32] MUST also be supported within ESP.
   AES-128 is expected to be a widely available, secure, and efficient
   algorithm.  While AES-128-CBC is not required by the current IPsec
   RFCs, it is expected to become required in the future.




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9.4.  Key Management Methods

   An implementation MUST support the manual configuration of the
   security key and SPI.  The SPI configuration is needed in order to
   delineate between multiple keys.

   Key management SHOULD be supported.  Examples of key management
   systems include IKEv2 [49] and Kerberos; S/MIME and TLS include key
   management functions.

   Where key refresh, anti-replay features of AH and ESP, or on-demand
   creation of Security Associations (SAs) is required, automated keying
   MUST be supported.

   Key management methods for multicast traffic are also being worked on
   by the MSEC WG.


10.  Router-Specific Functionality

   This section defines general host considerations for IPv6 nodes that
   act as routers.  Currently, this section does not discuss routing-
   specific requirements.

10.1.  General

10.1.1.  IPv6 Router Alert Option - RFC 2711

   The IPv6 Router Alert Option [33] is an optional IPv6 Hop-by-Hop
   Header that is used in conjunction with some protocols (e.g., RSVP
   [50] or MLD [13]).  The Router Alert option will need to be
   implemented whenever protocols that mandate its usage are
   implemented.  See Section 4.6.

10.1.2.  Neighbor Discovery for IPv6 - RFC 4861

   Sending Router Advertisements and processing Router Solicitation MUST
   be supported.


11.  Network Management

   Network Management MAY be supported by IPv6 nodes.  However, for IPv6
   nodes that are embedded devices, network management may be the only
   possible way of controlling these nodes.






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11.1.  Management Information Base Modules (MIBs)

   The following two MIBs SHOULD be supported by nodes that support an
   SNMP agent.

11.1.1.  IP Forwarding Table MIB

   IP Forwarding Table MIB [34] SHOULD be supported by nodes that
   support an SNMP agent.

11.1.2.  Management Information Base for the Internet Protocol (IP)

   IP MIB [35] SHOULD be supported by nodes that support an SNMP agent.


12.  Security Considerations

   This document does not affect the security of the Internet, but
   implementations of IPv6 are expected to support a minimum set of
   security features to ensure security on the Internet.  'IP Security
   Document Roadmap' [36] is important for everyone to read.

   The security considerations in RFC 2460 state the following:

   The security features of IPv6 are described in the Security
   Architecture for the Internet Protocol [37].

   RFC 2401 has been obsoleted by RFC 4301, therefore refer RFC 4301 for
   the security features of IPv6.


13.  Authors and Acknowledgements

   This document was written by the IPv6 Node Requirements design team:

      Jari Arkko
      jari.arkko@ericsson.com
      Marc Blanchet
      marc.blanchet@viagenie.qc.ca
      Samita Chakrabarti
      samita.chakrabarti@eng.sun.com
      Alain Durand
      alain.durand@sun.com
      Gerard Gastaud







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      gerard.gastaud@alcatel.fr
      Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino
      itojun@iijlab.net
      Atsushi Inoue
      inoue@isl.rdc.toshiba.co.jp
      Masahiro Ishiyama
      masahiro@isl.rdc.toshiba.co.jp
      John Loughney
      john.loughney@nokia.com
      Rajiv Raghunarayan
      raraghun@cisco.com
      Shoichi Sakane
      shouichi.sakane@jp.yokogawa.com
      Dave Thaler
      dthaler@windows.microsoft.com
      Juha Wiljakka
      juha.wiljakka@Nokia.com

   The authors would like to thank Ran Atkinson, Jim Bound, Brian
   Carpenter, Ralph Droms, Christian Huitema, Adam Machalek, Thomas
   Narten, Juha Ollila, and Pekka Savola for their comments.


14.  References

14.1.  Normative References

   [16]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
         specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [5]   McCann, J., Deering, S., and J. Mogul, "Path MTU Discovery for
         IP version 6", RFC 1981, August 1996.

   [1]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
         Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [37]  Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the
         Internet Protocol", RFC 2401, November 1998.

   [30]  Madson, C. and R. Glenn, "The Use of HMAC-MD5-96 within ESP and
         AH", RFC 2403, November 1998.

   [29]  Madson, C. and R. Glenn, "The Use of HMAC-SHA-1-96 within ESP
         and AH", RFC 2404, November 1998.

   [28]  Madson, C. and N. Doraswamy, "The ESP DES-CBC Cipher Algorithm
         With Explicit IV", RFC 2405, November 1998.




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   [27]  Glenn, R. and S. Kent, "The NULL Encryption Algorithm and Its
         Use With IPsec", RFC 2410, November 1998.

   [36]  Thayer, R., Doraswamy, N., and R. Glenn, "IP Security Document
         Roadmap", RFC 2411, November 1998.

   [31]  Pereira, R. and R. Adams, "The ESP CBC-Mode Cipher Algorithms",
         RFC 2451, November 1998.

   [2]   Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6)
         Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [21]  Conta, A. and S. Deering, "Generic Packet Tunneling in IPv6
         Specification", RFC 2473, December 1998.

   [19]  Vixie, P., "Extension Mechanisms for DNS (EDNS0)", RFC 2671,
         August 1999.

   [13]  Deering, S., Fenner, W., and B. Haberman, "Multicast Listener
         Discovery (MLD) for IPv6", RFC 2710, October 1999.

   [33]  Partridge, C. and A. Jackson, "IPv6 Router Alert Option",
         RFC 2711, October 1999.

   [11]  Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C., and M.
         Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6
         (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [17]  Bush, R., Durand, A., Fink, B., Gudmundsson, O., and T. Hain,
         "Representing Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Addresses in
         the Domain Name System (DNS)", RFC 3363, August 2002.

   [10]  Draves, R., "Default Address Selection for Internet Protocol
         version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 3484, February 2003.

   [15]  Haberman, B., "Source Address Selection for the Multicast
         Listener Discovery (MLD) Protocol", RFC 3590, September 2003.

   [18]  Thomson, S., Huitema, C., Ksinant, V., and M. Souissi, "DNS
         Extensions to Support IP Version 6", RFC 3596, October 2003.

   [32]  Frankel, S., Glenn, R., and S. Kelly, "The AES-CBC Cipher
         Algorithm and Its Use with IPsec", RFC 3602, September 2003.

   [20]  Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support in
         IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.

   [22]  Arkko, J., Devarapalli, V., and F. Dupont, "Using IPsec to



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         Protect Mobile IPv6 Signaling Between Mobile Nodes and Home
         Agents", RFC 3776, June 2004.

   [12]  Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener Discovery Version 2
         (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, June 2004.

   [7]   Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
         Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

   [34]  Haberman, B., "IP Forwarding Table MIB", RFC 4292, April 2006.

   [35]  Routhier, S., "Management Information Base for the Internet
         Protocol (IP)", RFC 4293, April 2006.

   [23]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the Internet
         Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [25]  Kent, S., "IP Authentication Header", RFC 4302, December 2005.

   [24]  Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", RFC 4303,
         December 2005.

   [6]   Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, "Internet Control Message
         Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
         Specification", RFC 4443, March 2006.

   [14]  Holbrook, H. and B. Cain, "Source-Specific Multicast for IP",
         RFC 4607, August 2006.

   [26]  Manral, V., "Cryptographic Algorithm Implementation
         Requirements for Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) and
         Authentication Header (AH)", RFC 4835, April 2007.

   [4]   Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
         "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
         September 2007.

   [8]   Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless Address
         Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007.

   [9]   Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy Extensions
         for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in IPv6", RFC 4941,
         September 2007.

   [3]   S.Varada, Haskins, D., and E. Allen, "IP Version 6 over PPP",
         RFC 5072, September 2007.





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14.2.  Informative References

   [38]  Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7, RFC 793,
         September 1981.

   [43]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
         STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987.

   [50]  Braden, B., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., and S. Jamin,
         "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- Version 1 Functional
         Specification", RFC 2205, September 1997.

   [39]  Crawford, M., "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet
         Networks", RFC 2464, December 1998.

   [40]  Armitage, G., Schulter, P., and M. Jork, "IPv6 over ATM
         Networks", RFC 2492, January 1999.

   [41]  Borman, D., Deering, S., and R. Hinden, "IPv6 Jumbograms",
         RFC 2675, August 1999.

   [42]  Bhattacharyya, S., "An Overview of Source-Specific Multicast
         (SSM)", RFC 3569, July 2003.

   [47]  Droms, R., "Stateless Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
         (DHCP) Service for IPv6", RFC 3736, April 2004.

   [44]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose,
         "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements", RFC 4033,
         March 2005.

   [45]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose,
         "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions", RFC 4034,
         March 2005.

   [46]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose,
         "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security Extensions",
         RFC 4035, March 2005.

   [48]  Nordmark, E. and R. Gilligan, "Basic Transition Mechanisms for
         IPv6 Hosts and Routers", RFC 4213, October 2005.

   [49]  Kaufman, C., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol",
         RFC 4306, December 2005.







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Author's Address

   John Loughney
   Nokia
   955 Page Mill Road
   Palo Alto  94303
   USA

   Phone: +1 650 283 8068
   Email: john.loughney@nokia.com









































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