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ABFAB                                                         J. Howlett
Internet-Draft                                                     Janet
Intended status: Informational                                S. Hartman
Expires: February 8, 2016                              Painless Security
                                                    A. Perez-Mendez, Ed.
                                                    University of Murcia
                                                          August 7, 2015


   A RADIUS Attribute, Binding, Profiles, Name Identifier Format, and
                     Confirmation Methods for SAML
                      draft-ietf-abfab-aaa-saml-11

Abstract

   This document describes the use of the Security Assertion Mark-up
   Language (SAML) with RADIUS in the context of the ABFAB architecture.
   It defines two RADIUS attributes, a SAML binding, a SAML name
   identifier format, two SAML profiles, and two SAML confirmation
   methods.  The RADIUS attributes permit encapsulation of SAML
   assertions and protocol messages within RADIUS, allowing SAML
   entities to communicate using the binding.  The two profiles describe
   the application of this binding for ABFAB authentication and
   assertion query/request, enabling a Relying Party to request
   authentication of, or assertions for, users or machines (Clients).
   These Clients may be named using a NAI name identifier format.
   Finally, the subject confirmation methods allow requests and queries
   to be issued for a previously authenticated user or machine without
   needing to explicitly identify them as the subject.  These artifacts
   have been defined to permit application in AAA scenarios other than
   ABFAB, such as network access.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 8, 2016.



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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  RADIUS SAML Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  SAML-Assertion attribute  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  SAML-Message attribute  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  SAML RADIUS Binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.1.  Required Information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.2.  Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.3.  Processing of names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.3.1.  AAA names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.3.2.  SAML names  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.3.3.  Mapping of AAA names in SAML metadata . . . . . . . .  10
       4.3.4.  Example of SAML metadata including AAA names  . . . .  12
     4.4.  Use of XML Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.5.  Metadata Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   5.  Network Access Identifier Name Identifier Format  . . . . . .  13
   6.  RADIUS State Confirmation Method Identifiers  . . . . . . . .  13
   7.  ABFAB Authentication Profile  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     7.1.  Required Information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     7.2.  Profile Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     7.3.  Profile Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       7.3.1.  Client Request to Relying Party . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       7.3.2.  Relying Party Issues <samlp:AuthnRequest> to Identity
               Provider  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       7.3.3.  Identity Provider Identifies Client . . . . . . . . .  17
       7.3.4.  Identity Provider Issues <samlp:Response> to Relying
               Party . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       7.3.5.  Relying Party Grants or Denies Access to Client . . .  17
     7.4.  Use of Authentication Request Protocol  . . . . . . . . .  17
       7.4.1.  <samlp:AuthnRequest> Usage  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18



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       7.4.2.  <samlp:Response> Message Usage  . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       7.4.3.  <samlp:Response> Message Processing Rules . . . . . .  19
       7.4.4.  Unsolicited Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       7.4.5.  Use of the SAML RADIUS Binding  . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       7.4.6.  Use of XML Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       7.4.7.  Metadata Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   8.  ABFAB Assertion Query/Request Profile . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     8.1.  Required Information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     8.2.  Profile Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     8.3.  Profile Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       8.3.1.  Differences from the SAML V2.0 Assertion
               Query/Request Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       8.3.2.  Use of the SAML RADIUS Binding  . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       8.3.3.  Use of XML Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       8.3.4.  Metadata Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   9.  Privacy considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     11.1.  RADIUS Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     11.2.  ABFAB Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     11.3.  Registration of the ABFAB URN Namespace  . . . . . . . .  25
   12. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
   13. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     13.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     13.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28

1.  Introduction

   Within the ABFAB architecture [I-D.ietf-abfab-arch] it is often
   desirable to convey Security Assertion Mark-up Language (SAML)
   assertions and protocol messages.

   SAML typically only considers the use of HTTP-based transports, known
   as bindings [OASIS.saml-bindings-2.0-os], which are primarily
   intended for use with the SAML V2.0 Web Browser Single Sign-On
   Profile [OASIS.saml-profiles-2.0-os].  However the goal of ABFAB is
   to extend the applicability of federated identity beyond the Web to
   other applications by building on the AAA framework.  Consequently
   there exists a requirement for SAML to integrate with the AAA
   framework and protocols such as RADIUS [RFC2865] and Diameter
   [RFC3588], in addition to HTTP.

   In summary this document specifies:

   o  Two RADIUS attributes to encapsulate SAML assertions and protocol
      messages respectively.




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   o  A SAML RADIUS binding that defines how SAML assertions and
      protocol messages can be transported by RADIUS within a SAML
      exchange.

   o  A SAML name identifier format in the form of a Network Access
      Identifier.

   o  A profile of the SAML Authentication Request Protocol that uses
      the SAML RADIUS binding to effect SAML-based authentication and
      authorization.

   o  A profile of the SAML Assertion Query And Request Protocol that
      uses the SAML RADIUS binding to effect the query and request of
      SAML assertions.

   o  Two SAML Subject Confirmation Methods for indicating that a user
      or machine client is the subject of an assertion.

   This document adheres to the guidelines stipulated by
   [OASIS.saml-bindings-2.0-os] and [OASIS.saml-profiles-2.0-os] for
   defining new SAML bindings and profiles respectively, and other
   conventions applied formally or otherwise within SAML.  In particular
   where this document provides a 'Required Information' section for the
   binding and profiles that enumerate:

   o  A URI that uniquely identifies the protocol binding or profile.

   o  Postal or electronic contact information for the author.

   o  A reference to previously defined bindings or profiles that the
      new binding updates or obsoletes.

   o  In the case of a profile, any SAML confirmation method identifiers
      defined and/or utilized by the profile.

1.1.  Terminology

   This document uses terminology from a number of related standards,
   which tend to addopt different terms for similar or identical
   concepts.  In general the document uses, when possible, the ABFAB
   term for the entity, as described in [I-D.ietf-abfab-arch].  For
   reference we include this table which maps the different terms into a
   single view.








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      +----------+-----------+------------------+-------------------+
      | Protocol | Client    | Relying Party    | Identity Provider |
      +----------+-----------+------------------+-------------------+
      | ABFAB    | Client    | Relying Party    | Identity Provider |
      |          |           |                  |                   |
      | SAML     | Subject   | Service Provider | Identity Provider |
      |          | Principal | Requester        | Responder         |
      |          |           | Consumer         | Issuer            |
      |          |           |                  |                   |
      | RADIUS   | User      | NAS              | AS                |
      |          |           | RADIUS client    | RADIUS server     |
      +----------+-----------+------------------+-------------------+

                           Table 1.  Terminology

2.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

3.  RADIUS SAML Attributes

   The RADIUS SAML binding defined in Section 4 of this document uses
   two attributes to convey SAML assertions and protocol messages
   respectively [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os].  Owing to the typical size of
   these structures, these attributes use the Long Extended Type format
   [RFC6929] to encapsulate their data.

3.1.  SAML-Assertion attribute

   This attribute is used to encode a SAML assertion.  The following
   figure represents the format of this attribute.

                           1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   Type        |    Length     | Extended-Type |M|  Reserved   |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   Value...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                      Figure 1: SAML-Assertion format

   Type

      245 (To be confirmed by IANA)




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   Length

      >= 5

   Extended-Type

      TBD1

   M (More)

      As described in [RFC6929].

   Reserved

      As described in [RFC6929].

   Value

      One or more octets encoding a SAML assertion.

3.2.  SAML-Message attribute

   This attribute is used to encode a SAML protocol message.  The
   following figure represents the format of this attribute.

                           1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   Type        |    Length     | Extended-Type |M|  Reserved   |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   Value...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                       Figure 2: SAML-Message format

   Type

      245 (To be confirmed by IANA)

   Length

      >= 5

   Extended-Type

      TBD2

   M (More)



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      As described in [RFC6929].

   Reserved

      As described in [RFC6929].

   Value

      One or more octets encoding a SAML protocol message.

4.  SAML RADIUS Binding

   The SAML RADIUS binding defines how RADIUS [RFC2865] can be used to
   enable a RADIUS client and server to exchange SAML assertions and
   protocol messages.

4.1.  Required Information

   Identification: urn:ietf:params:abfab:bindings:radius

   Contact information: iesg@ietf.org

   Updates: None.

4.2.  Operation

   RADIUS can be used over multiple underlying transports.  It is
   REQUIRED that the RADIUS exchange is protected using TLS encryption
   for RADIUS [RFC6614] to provide confidentiality and improve integrity
   protection, unless alternative methods are used to ensure
   confidentiality, such as IPSEC tunnels or a sufficiently secure
   internal network.

   Implementations of this profile can take advantage of mechanisms to
   permit the transport of longer SAML messages over RADIUS transports,
   such as the Support of fragmentation of RADIUS packets [RFC7499] or
   Larger Packets for RADIUS over TCP [I-D.ietf-radext-bigger-packets].

   There are two system models for the use of SAML over RADIUS.  The
   first is a request-response model, using the RADIUS SAML-Message
   attribute defined in Section 3 to encapsulate the SAML protocol
   messages.

   1.  The RADIUS client, acting as a Relying Party (RP), transmits a
       SAML request element within a RADIUS Access-Request message.
       This message MUST include a single instance of the RADIUS User-
       Name attribute whose value MUST conform to the Network Access




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       Identifier [RFC7542] scheme.  The Relying Party MUST NOT include
       more than one SAML request element.

   2.  The RADIUS server, acting as an Identity Provider (IdP), returns
       a SAML protocol message within a RADIUS Access-Accept or Access-
       Reject message.  These messages necessarily conclude a RADIUS
       exchange and therefore this is the only opportunity for the
       Identity Provider to send a response in the context of this
       exchange.  The Identity Provider MUST NOT include more than one
       SAML response.  An IdP that refuses to perform a message exchange
       with the Relying Party can silently discard the SAML request
       (this could subsequently be followed by a RADIUS Access-Reject,
       as the same conditions that cause the IdP to discard the SAML
       request may also cause the RADIUS server to fail to
       authenticate).

   The second system model permits a RADIUS server acting as an Identity
   Provider to use the RADIUS SAML-Assertion attribute defined in
   Section 3 to encapsulate an unsolicited SAML assertion.  This
   attribute MUST be included in a RADIUS Access-Accept message.  When
   included, the attribute MUST contain a single SAML assertion.

   RADIUS servers MUST NOT include both the SAML-Message and the SAML-
   Assertion attribute in the same RADIUS message.  If an IdP is
   producing a response to a SAML request, then the first system model
   is used.  An IdP MAY ignore a SAML request and send an unsolicited
   assertion using the second system model using the RADIUS SAML-
   Assertion attribute.

   In either system model, Identity Providers SHOULD return a RADIUS
   state attribute as part of the Access-Accept message so that future
   SAML queries or requests can be run against the same context of an
   authentication exchange.

   This binding is intended to be composed with other uses of RADIUS,
   such as network access.  Therefore, other arbitrary RADIUS attributes
   will be used in either the request or response.

   In the case of a SAML processing error and successful authentication,
   the RADIUS server SHOULD include a SAML-specified <samlp:Status>
   element in the SAML response that is transported within the Access-
   Accept packet sent by the RADIUS server.

   In the case of a SAML processing error and failed authentication, the
   RADIUS server MAY include a SAML-specified <samlp:Status> element in
   the SAML response that is transported within the Access-Reject packet
   sent by the RADIUS server.




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4.3.  Processing of names

   SAML entities using profiles of this binding will typically possess
   both the SAML and AAA names of their correspondents.  Frequently
   these entities will need to apply policies using these names; for
   example, when deciding to release attributes.  Often these policies
   will be security-sensitive, and so it is important that policy is
   applied on these names consistently.

4.3.1.  AAA names

   These rules relate to the processing of AAA names by SAML entities
   using profiles of this binding.

   o  Identity Providers SHOULD apply policy based on the Relying
      Party's identity associated with the RADIUS Access-Request.

   o  Relying Parties SHOULD apply policy based on the NAI realm
      associated with the RADIUS Access-Accept.

4.3.2.  SAML names

   These rules relate to the processing of SAML names by SAML entities
   using profiles of this binding.

   Identity Providers MAY apply policy based on the Relying Party's SAML
   <entityId>.  In such cases, at least one of the following methods is
   required in order to establish a relation between the SAML name and
   the AAA name of the Relying Party:

   o  RADIUS client identity in trusted digitally signed SAML request.

   o  RADIUS client identity in trusted SAML federation metadata (as in
      [OASIS.saml-metadata-2.0-os]).

   A digitally signed SAML request without the RADIUS client identity is
   not sufficient, since a malicious RADIUS entity can observe a SAML
   message and include it in a different RADIUS message without the
   consent of the issuer of that SAML message.  If an Identity Provider
   were to process the SAML message without confirming that it applied
   to the RADIUS message, inappropriate policy would be used.

   Relying Parties MAY apply policy based on the SAML issuer's
   <entityId>.  In such cases, at least one of the following methods is
   required in order to establish a relation between the SAML name and
   the AAA name of the Identity Provider:





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   o  RADIUS realm in trusted digitally signed SAML response or
      assertion.

   o  RADIUS realm in trusted SAML federation metadata.

   A digitally signed SAML response alone is not sufficient for the same
   reasons described above for SAML requests.

4.3.3.  Mapping of AAA names in SAML metadata

   This section defines the extensions to the SAML metadata
   specification [OASIS.saml-metadata-2.0-os] that are required in order
   to represent AAA names associated to a particular <EntityDescriptor>
   element.

   In SAML metadata, each single entity may act in many different roles
   in the support of multiple profiles.  This document defines two new
   roles: RADIUS IDP and RADIUS RP, requiring the declaration of two new
   subtypes of RoleDescriptorType: RADIUSIDPDescriptor and
   RADIUSRPDescriptor.  These subtypes define the additional elements
   required to represent AAA names for IDP and RP entities respectively.

4.3.3.1.  <RADIUSIDPDescriptor>

   The <RADIUSIDPDescriptor> element extends RoleDescriptorType with
   elements common to IdPs that support RADIUS.  Its
   RADIUSIDPDescriptorType complex type contains the following
   additional elements:

   <RADIUSIDPService> [Zero or More]  Zero or more elements of type
      EndpointType that describe RADIUS endpoints that are associated to
      this Entity.

   <RADIUSRealm> [Zero or More]  Zero or more elements of type xs:string
      that represent the acceptable values of the RADIUS realm
      associated to this Entity, obtained from the realm part of RADIUS
      User-Name attribute.

   The following schema fragment defines the <RADIUSIDPDescriptor>
   element and its RADIUSIDPDescriptorType complex type:











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      <element name="RADIUSIDPDescriptor"
               type="md:RADIUSIDPDescriptorType"/>
          <complexType name="RADIUSIDPDescriptorType">
              <complexContent>
                  <extension base="md:RoleDescriptorType">
                      <sequence>
                          <element ref="md:RADIUSIDPService"
                                   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                          <element ref="md:RADIUSRealm"
                                   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                      </sequence>
                  </extension>
              </complexContent>
          </complexType>
      <element name="RADIUSIDPService" type="md:EndpointType"/>
      <element name="RADIUSRealm" type="xs:string"/>

                   Figure 3: RADIUSIDPDescriptor schema

4.3.3.2.  <RADIUSRPDescriptor>

   The <RADIUSRPDescriptor> element extends RoleDescriptorType with
   elements common to RPs that support RADIUS.  Its
   RADIUSRPDescriptorType complex type contains the following additional
   elements:

   <RADIUSRPService> [Zero or More]  Zero or more elements of type
      EndpointType that describe RADIUS endpoints that are associated to
      this Entity.

   <RADIUSNasIpAddress> [Zero or More]  Zero or more elements of type
      xs:string that represent the acceptable values of the RADIUS NAS-
      IP-Address attribute associated to this Entity.

   <RADIUSNasIdentifier> [Zero or More]  Zero or more elements of type
      xs:string that represent the acceptable values of the RADIUS NAS-
      Identifier attribute associated to this Entity.

   <RADIUSGssEapName> [Zero or More]  Zero or more elements of type
      xs:string that represent the acceptable values of the GSS-EAP
      acceptor name associated to this Entity.  The format for this name
      is described in section 3.1 of [RFC7055], while section 3.4
      describes how that name is decomposed and transported using RADIUS
      attributes.

   The following schema fragment defines the <RADIUSRPDescriptor>
   element and its RADIUSRPDescriptorType complex type:




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      <element name="RADIUSRPDescriptor"
               type="md:RADIUSRPDescriptorType"/>
          <complexType name="RADIUSRPDescriptorType">
              <complexContent>
                  <extension base="md:RoleDescriptorType">
                      <sequence>
                          <element ref="md:RADIUSRPService"
                                   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                          <element ref="md:RADIUSNasIpAddress"
                                   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                          <element ref="md:RADIUSNasIdentifier"
                                   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                          <element ref="md:RADIUSGssEapName"
                                   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                      </sequence>
                  </extension>
              </complexContent>
          </complexType>
      <element name="RADIUSRPService" type="md:EndpointType"/>
      <element name="RADIUSNasIpAddress" type="xs:string"/>
      <element name="RADIUSNasIdentifier" type="xs:string"/>
      <element name="RADIUSGssEapName" type="xs:string"/>

                    Figure 4: RADIUSRPDescriptor schema

4.3.4.  Example of SAML metadata including AAA names

   The following figures illustrate an example of metadata including AAA
   names for and IDP and a RP respectively.  The IDP's SAML name is
   "https://IdentityProvider.com/", whereas its RADIUS realm is
   "idp.com".  The RP's SAML name is "https://RelyingParty.com/SAML",
   being its GSS-EAP acceptor name "nfs/fileserver.rp.com@RP.COM".

     <EntityDescriptor xmlns="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:metadata"
                       entityID="https://IdentityProvider.com/SAML">
         <RADIUSIDPDescriptor protocolSupportEnumeration=
                                 "urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:protocol">
             <RADIUSRealm>
                 idp.com
             </RADIUSRealm>
         </RADIUSIDPDescriptor>
     </EntityDescriptor>

                      Figure 5: Metadata for the IDP







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     <EntityDescriptor xmlns="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:metadata"
                       entityID="https://RelyingParty.com/SAML">
         <RADIUSRPDescriptor protocolSupportEnumeration=
                                 "urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:protocol">
             <RADIUSGssEapName>
                 nfs/fileserver.rp.com@RP.COM
             </RADIUSGssEapName>
         </RADIUSRPDescriptor>
     </EntityDescriptor>

                       Figure 6: Metadata for the RP

4.4.  Use of XML Signatures

   This binding calls for the use of SAML elements that support XML
   signatures.  To promote interoperability, implementations of this
   binding MUST support a default configuration that does not require
   the use of XML signatures.  Implementations MAY choose to use XML
   signatures.

4.5.  Metadata Considerations

   There are no metadata considerations particular to this binding,
   because this binding and profiles of this binding are mostly intended
   to be used without metadata.  In this usage, RADIUS infrastructure is
   used to provide integrity and naming of the SAML messages and
   assertions.  RADIUS configuration is used to provide policy,
   including which attributes are accepted from a Relying Party and
   which attributes are sent by an Identity Provider.

   Nevertheless, implementations MAY support other configurations
   including the use of metadata.

5.  Network Access Identifier Name Identifier Format

   URI: urn:ietf:params:abfab:nameid-format:nai

   Indicates that the content of the element is in the form of a Network
   Access Identifier (NAI) using the syntax described by [RFC7542].

6.  RADIUS State Confirmation Method Identifiers

   URI: urn:ietf:params:abfab:cm:user

   URI: urn:ietf:params:abfab:cm:machine

   Indicates that the Subject is the system entity (either the user or
   machine) authenticated by a previously transmitted RADIUS Access-



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   Accept message, as identified by the value of that RADIUS message's
   State attribute.

7.  ABFAB Authentication Profile

   In the scenario supported by the ABFAB Authentication Profile, a
   Client controlling a User Agent requests access to a Relying Party.
   The Relying Party uses RADIUS to authenticate the Client.  In
   particular, the Relying Party, acting as a RADIUS client, attempts to
   validate the Client's credentials against a RADIUS server acting as
   the Client's Identity Provider.  If the Identity Provider
   successfully authenticates the Client, it produces an authentication
   assertion which is consumed by the Relying Party.  This assertion MAY
   include a name identifier that can be used between the Relying Party
   and the Identity Provider to refer to the Client.

7.1.  Required Information

   Identification: urn:ietf:params:abfab:profiles:authentication

   Contact information: iesg@ietf.org

   SAML Confirmation Method Identifiers: The SAML V2.0 "RADIUS State"
   confirmation method identifiers, either urn:ietf:params:abfab:cm:user
   or urn:ietf:params:abfab:cm:machine, are used by this profile.

   Updates: None.

7.2.  Profile Overview

   To implement this scenario, a profile of the SAML Authentication
   Request protocol is used in conjunction with the SAML RADIUS binding
   defined in Section 4.

   This profile is based on the SAML V2.0 Web Browser Single Sign-On
   Profile [OASIS.saml-profiles-2.0-os].  There are some important
   differences, specifically:

   Authentication:  This profile does not require the use of any
      particular authentication method.  The ABFAB architecture does
      require the use of EAP [RFC3579], but this specification may be
      used in other non-ABFAB scenarios.

   Bindings:  This profile does not use HTTP-based bindings.  Instead
      all SAML protocol messages are transported using the SAML RADIUS
      binding defined in Section 4.  This is intended to reduce the
      number of bindings that implementations must support to be
      interoperable.



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   Requests:  The profile does not permit the Relying Party to name the
      <saml:Subject> of the <samlp:AuthnRequest>.  This is intended to
      simplify implementation and interoperability.

   Responses:  The profile only permits the Identity Provider to return
      a single SAML message or assertion that MUST contain exactly one
      authentication statement.  Other statements may be included within
      this assertion at the discretion of the Identity Provider.  This
      is intended to simplify implementation and interoperability.

   Figure 7 below illustrates the flow of messages within this profile.

       Client            Relying Party             Identity Provider
         |                     |                           |
         |         (1)         |                           |
         | - - - - - - - - - > |                           |
         |                     |                           |
         |                     |            (2)            |
         |                     | - - - - - - - - - - - - > |
         |                     |                           |
         |              (3)    |                           |
         | < - - - - - - - - - |- - - - - - - - - - - - - >|
         |                     |                           |
         |                     |            (4)            |
         |                     | < - - - - - - - - - - - - |
         |                     |                           |
         |         (5)         |                           |
         | < - - - - - - - - - |                           |
         |                     |                           |
         V                     V                           V

   The following steps are described by the profile.  Within an
   individual step, there may be one or more actual message exchanges.

                                 Figure 7

   1.  Client request to Relying Party (Section 7.3.1): In step 1, the
       Client, via a User Agent, makes a request for a secured resource
       at the Relying Party.  The Relying Party determines that no
       security context for the Client exists and initiates the
       authentication process.

   2.  Relying Party issues <samlp:AuthnRequest> to Identity Provider
       (Section 7.3.2).  In step 2, the Relying Party may optionally
       issue a <samlp:AuthnRequest> message to be delivered to the
       Identity Provider using the SAML-Message RADIUS attribute.





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   3.  Identity Provider identifies Client (Section 7.3.3).  In step 3,
       the Client is authenticated and identified by the Identity
       Provider, while honoring any requirements imposed by the Relying
       Party in the <samlp:AuthnRequest> message if provided.

   4.  Identity Provider issues <samlp:Response> to Relying Party
       (Section 7.3.4).  In step 4, the Identity Provider issues a
       <samlp:Response> message to the Relying Party using the SAML
       RADIUS binding.  The response either indicates an error or
       includes a SAML Authentication Statement in exactly one SAML
       Assertion.

   5.  Relying Party grants or denies access to Client (Section 7.3.5).
       In step 5, having received the response from the Identity
       Provider, the Relying Party can respond to the Client with its
       own error, or can establish its own security context for the
       Client and return the requested resource.

7.3.  Profile Description

   The ABFAB Authentication Profile is a profile of the SAML V2.0
   Authentication Request Protocol [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os].  Where this
   specification conflicts with it, the former takes precedence.

7.3.1.  Client Request to Relying Party

   The profile is initiated by an arbitrary Client request to the
   Relying Party.  There are no restrictions on the form of the request.
   The Relying Party is free to use any means it wishes to associate the
   subsequent interactions with the original request.  The Relying
   Party, acting as a RADIUS client, attempts to authenticate the
   Client.

7.3.2.  Relying Party Issues <samlp:AuthnRequest> to Identity Provider

   The Relying Party uses RADIUS to communicate with the Client's
   Identity Provider.  The Relying Party MAY include a
   <samlp:AuthnRequest> within this RADIUS Access-Request message using
   the SAML-Message RADIUS attribute.  The next hop destination MAY be
   the Identity Provider or alternatively an intermediate RADIUS proxy.

   Profile-specific rules for the contents of the <samlp:AuthnRequest>
   element are given in Section 7.4.1.








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7.3.3.  Identity Provider Identifies Client

   The Identity Provider MUST establish the identity of the Client using
   a RADIUS authentication method, or else it will return an error.  If
   the ForceAuthn attribute on the <samlp:AuthnRequest> element (if sent
   by the Relying Party) is present and true, the Identity Provider MUST
   freshly establish this identity rather than relying on any existing
   session state it may have with the Client (for example, TLS state
   that may be used for session resumption).  Otherwise, and in all
   other respects, the Identity Provider may use any method to
   authenticate the Client, subject to the constraints called out in the
   <samlp:AuthnRequest> message.

7.3.4.  Identity Provider Issues <samlp:Response> to Relying Party

   The Identity Provider MUST conclude the authentication in a manner
   consistent with the RADIUS authentication result.  The IdP MAY issue
   a <samlp:Response> message to the Relying Party that is consistent
   with the authentication result, as described in
   [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os].  This SAML response is delivered to the
   Relying Party using the SAML RADIUS binding described in Section 4.

   Profile-specific rules regarding the contents of the <samlp:Response>
   element are given in Section 7.4.2.

7.3.5.  Relying Party Grants or Denies Access to Client

   If issued by the Identity Provider, the Relying Party MUST process
   the <samlp:Response> message and any enclosed <saml:Assertion>
   elements as described in [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os].  Any subsequent
   use of the <saml:Assertion> elements is at the discretion of the
   Relying Party, subject to any restrictions contained within the
   assertions themselves or from any previously established out-of-band
   policy that governs the interaction between the Identity Provider and
   the Relying Party.

7.4.  Use of Authentication Request Protocol

   This profile is based on the Authentication Request Protocol defined
   in [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os].  In the nomenclature of actors
   enumerated in section 3.4 of that document, the Relying Party is the
   requester, the User Agent is the attesting entity and the Client is
   the Requested Subject.








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7.4.1.  <samlp:AuthnRequest> Usage

   The Relying Party MUST NOT include a <saml:Subject> element in the
   request.  The authenticated RADIUS identity identifies the Client to
   the Identity Provider.

   A Relying Party MAY include any message content described in
   [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os], section 3.4.1.  All processing rules are as
   defined in [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os].

   If the Relying Party wishes to permit the Identity Provider to
   establish a new identifier for the Client if none exists, it MUST
   include a <saml:NameIDPolicy> element with the AllowCreate attribute
   set to "true".  Otherwise, only a Client for whom the Identity
   Provider has previously established an identifier usable by the
   Relying Party can be authenticated successfully.

   The <samlp:AuthnRequest> message MAY be signed.  Authentication and
   integrity are also provided by the SAML RADIUS binding.

7.4.2.  <samlp:Response> Message Usage

   If the Identity Provider cannot or will not satisfy the request, it
   MUST either respond with a <samlp:Response> message containing an
   appropriate error status code or codes and/or respond with a RADIUS
   Access-Reject message.

   If the Identity Provider wishes to return an error, it MUST NOT
   include any assertions in the <samlp:Response message>.  Otherwise,
   if the request is successful (or if the response is not associated
   with a request), the <samlp:Response> element is subject conform to
   the following:

   o  It MAY be signed.

   o  It MUST contain exactly one <saml:Assertion>.  The <saml:Subject>
      element of this assertion MUST refer to the authenticated RADIUS
      user.

   o  The assertion MUST contain a <saml:AuthnStatement>.  Besides, the
      assertion MUST contain a <saml:Subject> element with at least one
      <saml:SubjectConfirmation> element containing a Method of
      urn:ietf:params:abfab:cm:user or urn:ietf:params:abfab:cm:machine
      that reflects the authentication of the Client to the Identity
      Provider.  Since the containing message is in response to an
      <samlp:AuthnRequest>, the InResponseTo attribute MUST match the
      request's ID.  The <saml:Subject> element MAY use the NAI Name




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      Identifier Format described in Section 5 to establish an
      identifier between the Relying Party and the IdP.

   o  Other conditions MAY be included as requested by the Relying Party
      or at the discretion of the Identity Provider.  The Identity
      Provider is NOT obligated to honor the requested set of conditions
      in the <samlp:AuthnRequest>, if any.

7.4.3.  <samlp:Response> Message Processing Rules

   The Relying Party MUST do the following:

   o  Assume that the Client's identifier implied by a SAML <Subject>
      element, if present, takes precedence over an identifier implied
      by the RADIUS User-Name attribute.

   o  Verify that the InResponseTo attribute in the "RADIUS State"
      <saml:SubjectConfirmationData> equals the ID of its original
      <samlp:AuthnRequest> message, unless the response is unsolicited,
      in which case the attribute MUST NOT be present.

   o  If a <saml:AuthnStatement> used to establish a security context
      for the Client contains a SessionNotOnOrAfter attribute, the
      security context SHOULD be discarded once this time is reached,
      unless the Relying Party reestablishes the Client's identity by
      repeating the use of this profile.

   o  Verify that any assertions relied upon are valid according to
      processing rules in [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os].

   o  Any assertion which is not valid, or whose subject confirmation
      requirements cannot be met MUST be discarded and MUST NOT be used
      to establish a security context for the Client.

7.4.4.  Unsolicited Responses

   An Identity Provider MAY initiate this profile by delivering an
   unsolicited <saml:Assertion> to a Relying Party.  This MUST NOT
   contain any <saml:SubjectConfirmationData> elements containing an
   InResponseTo attribute.

7.4.5.  Use of the SAML RADIUS Binding

   It is RECOMMENDED that the RADIUS exchange is protected using TLS
   encryption for RADIUS [RFC6614] to provide confidentiality and
   improve integrity protection.





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7.4.6.  Use of XML Signatures

   This profile calls for the use of SAML elements that support XML
   signatures.  To promote interoperability implementations of this
   profile MUST NOT require the use of XML signatures.  Implementations
   MAY choose to use XML signatures.

7.4.7.  Metadata Considerations

   There are no metadata considerations particular to this binding.

8.  ABFAB Assertion Query/Request Profile

   This profile builds on the SAML V2.0 Assertion Query/Request Profile
   defined by [OASIS.saml-profiles-2.0-os].  That profile describes the
   use of the Assertion Query and Request Protocol defined by section
   3.3 of [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] with synchronous bindings, such as
   the SOAP binding defined in [OASIS.saml-bindings-2.0-os].

   While the SAML V2.0 Assertion Query/Request Profile is independent of
   the underlying binding, it is nonetheless useful to describe the use
   of the SAML RADIUS binding defined in Section 4 of this document, in
   the interests of promoting interoperable implementations,
   particularly as the SAML V2.0 Assertion Query/Request Profile is most
   frequently discussed and implemented in the context of the SOAP
   binding.

8.1.  Required Information

   Identification: urn:ietf:params:abfab:profiles:query

   Contact information: iesg@ietf.org

   Description: Given below.

   Updates: None.

8.2.  Profile Overview

   As with the SAML V2.0 Assertion Query/Request Profile defined by
   [OASIS.saml-profiles-2.0-os] the message exchange and basic
   processing rules that govern this profile are largely defined by
   Section 3.3 of [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] that defines the messages to
   be exchanged, in combination with the binding used to exchange the
   messages.  The SAML RADIUS binding described in this document defines
   the binding of the message exchange to RADIUS.  Unless specifically
   noted here, all requirements defined in those specifications apply.




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   Figure 8 below illustrates the basic template for the query/request
   profile.

    Relying Party                                    Identity Provider
   (SAML requester)                                  (SAML responder)
          |                                                 |
          |                       (1)                       |
          | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - > |
          |                                                 |
          |                       (2)                       |
          | < - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - |
          |                                                 |
          V                                                 V

   The following steps are described by the profile.

                                 Figure 8

   1.  Query/Request issued by Relying Party: In step 1, a Relying Party
       initiates the profile by sending an <AssertionIDRequest>,
       <SubjectQuery>, <AuthnQuery>, <AttributeQuery>, or
       <AuthzDecisionQuery> message to a SAML authority.

   2.  <Response> issued by SAML Authority: In step 2, the responding
       SAML authority (after processing the query or request) issues a
       <Response> message to the Relying Party.

8.3.  Profile Description

8.3.1.  Differences from the SAML V2.0 Assertion Query/Request Profile

   This profile is identical to the SAML V2.0 Assertion Query/Request
   Profile, with the following exceptions:

   o  When processing the SAML request, the IdP MUST give precedence to
      the Client's identifier implied by RADIUS State attribute, if
      present, over the identifier implied by the SAML request's
      <Subject>, if any.

   o  In respect to sections 6.3.1 and 6.5 of
      [OASIS.saml-profiles-2.0-os], this profile does not consider the
      use of metadata (as in [OASIS.saml-metadata-2.0-os]).  See
      Section 8.3.4.

   o  In respect to sections 6.3.2, 6.4.1, and 6.4.2 of
      [OASIS.saml-profiles-2.0-os], this profile additionally stipulates
      that implementations of this profile MUST NOT require the use of
      XML signatures.  See Section 8.3.3.



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8.3.2.  Use of the SAML RADIUS Binding

   The RADIUS Access-Request sent by the Relying Party:

   o  MUST include an instance of the RADIUS Service-Type attribute,
      having a value of Authorize-Only.

   o  SHOULD include the RADIUS State attribute, where this Query/
      Request pertains to previously authenticated Client.

   When processing the SAML request, the IdP MUST give precedence to the
   Client's identifier implied by RADIUS State attribute over the
   identifier implied by the SAML request's <Subject>, if any.

   It is RECOMMENDED that the RADIUS exchange is protected using TLS
   encryption for RADIUS [RFC6614] to provide confidentiality and
   improve integrity protection.

8.3.3.  Use of XML Signatures

   This profile calls for the use of SAML elements that support XML
   signatures.  To promote interoperability implementations of this
   profile MUST NOT require the use of XML signatures.  Implementations
   MAY choose to use XML signatures.

8.3.4.  Metadata Considerations

   There are no metadata considerations particular to this binding.

9.  Privacy considerations

   The profiles defined in this document allow a Relying Party to
   request specific information about the Client, and allow an IdP to
   disclose information about that Client.  In this sense, Identity
   Providers MUST apply policy to decide what information is released to
   a particular Relying Party.  Moreover, the identity of the Client is
   typically hidden from the Relying Party unless informed by the
   Identity Provider.  Conversely, the Relying Party does typically know
   the realm of the IdP, as it is required to being able to route the
   RADIUS packets to the right destination.

   The kind of information that is released by the IdP MAY include
   generic attributes such as affiliation shared by many Clients.  But
   even these generic attributes can help to identify a specific Client.
   Other kind of attributes MAY also provide a Relying Party with the
   ability to link the same Client between different sessions.  Finally,
   other kind of attributes MAY provide a group of Relying Parties with




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   the ability to link the Client between them or with personally
   identifiable information about the Client.

   These profiles do not directly provide a Client with a mechanism to
   express preferences about what information is released.  That
   information can be expressed out-of-band, for example as part of the
   enrollment process.

   The Relying Party MAY disclose privacy-sensitive information about
   itself as part of the request, although this is unlikely in typical
   deployments.

   If RADIUS proxies are used and encryption is not used, the attributes
   disclosed by the IdP are visible to the proxies.  This is a
   significant privacy exposure in some deployments.  Ongoing work is
   exploring mechanisms for creating TLS connections directly between
   the RADIUS client and the RADIUS server to reduce this exposure.  If
   proxies are used, the impact of exposing SAML assertions to the
   proxies needs to be carefully considered.

   The use of TLS to provide confidentiality for the RADIUS exchange is
   strongly encouraged.  Without this, passive eavesdroppers can observe
   the assertions.

10.  Security Considerations

   In this specification, the Relying Party MUST trust any statement in
   the SAML messages from the IdP in the same way that it trusts
   information contained in RADIUS attributes.  These entities MUST
   trust the RADIUS infrastructure to provide integrity of the SAML
   messages.

   Furthermore, the Relying Party MUST apply policy and filter the
   information based on what information the IdP is permitted to assert
   and on what trust is reasonable to place in proxies between them.

   XML signatures and encryption are provided as an OPTIONAL mechanism
   for end-to-end security.  These mechanism can protect SAML messages
   from being modified by proxies in the RADIUS infrastructure.  These
   mechanisms are not mandatory-to-implement.  It is believed that
   ongoing work to provide direct TLS connections between a RADIUS
   client and RADIUS server will provide similar assurances but better
   deployability.  XML security is appropriate for deployments where
   end-to-end security is required but proxies cannot be removed or
   where SAML messages need to be verified at a later time or by parties
   not involved in the authentication exchange.





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11.  IANA Considerations

11.1.  RADIUS Attributes

   The authors request that Attribute Types and Attribute Values defined
   in this document be registered by the Internet Assigned Numbers
   Authority (IANA) from the RADIUS namespaces as described in the "IANA
   Considerations" section of [RFC3575], in accordance with BCP 26
   [RFC5226].  For RADIUS packets, attributes and registries created by
   this document IANA is requested to place them at
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/radius-types.

   In particular, this document defines two new RADIUS attributes,
   entitled "SAML-Assertion" and "SAML-Message" (see Section 3), with
   assigned values of 245.TBD1 and 245.TBD2 from the Long Extended Space
   of [RFC6929]:

     Type  Ext. Type  Name            Length  Meaning
     ----  ---------  --------------  ------  ------------------------
     245   TBD1       SAML-Assertion  >=5     Encodes a SAML assertion
     245   TBD2       SAML-Message    >=5     Encodes a SAML protocol
                                              message

11.2.  ABFAB Parameters

   A new top-level registry is created titled "ABFAB Parameters".

   In this top-level registry, a sub-registry titled "ABFAB URN
   Parameters" is created.  Registration in this registry is by the IETF
   review or expert review procedures [RFC5226].

   This paragraph gives guidance to designated experts.  Registrations
   in this registry are generally only expected as part of protocols
   published as RFCs on the IETF stream; other URIs are expected to be
   better choices for non-IETF work.  Expert review is permitted mainly
   to allow early registration related to specifications under
   development when the community believes they have reached sufficient
   maturity.  The expert SHOULD evaluate the maturity and stability of
   such an IETF-stream specification.  Experts SHOULD review anything
   not from the IETF stream for consistency and consensus with current
   practice.  Today such requests would not typically be approved.

   If a parameter named "paramname" is to be registered in this
   registry, then its URN will be "urn:ietf:params:abfab:paramname".
   The initial registrations are as follows:






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                  +-------------------------+-----------+
                  | Parameter               | Reference |
                  +-------------------------+-----------+
                  | bindings:radius         | Section 4 |
                  | nameid-format:nai       | Section 5 |
                  | profiles:authentication | Section 7 |
                  | profiles:query          | Section 8 |
                  | cm:user                 | Section 6 |
                  | cm:machine              | Section 6 |
                  +-------------------------+-----------+

                             ABFAB Parameters

11.3.  Registration of the ABFAB URN Namespace

   IANA is requested to register the "abfab" URN sub-namespace in the
   IETF URN sub-namespace for protocol parameters defined in [RFC3553].

   Registry Name: abfab

   Specification: draft-ietf-abfab-aaa-saml

   Repository: ABFAB URN Parameters (Section Section 11.2)

   Index Value: Sub-parameters MUST be specified in UTF-8 using standard
   URI encoding where necessary.

12.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge the OASIS Security Services
   (SAML) Technical Committee, and Scott Cantor in particular, for their
   help with the SAML-related material.

   The authors would also like to acknowledge the collaboration of Jim
   Schaad, Leif Johansson, Klaas Wierenga, Stephen Farell, Gabriel
   Lopez, and Rafael Marin, who have provided valuable comments on this
   document.

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.





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   [RFC2865]  Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson,
              "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)",
              RFC 2865, DOI 10.17487/RFC2865, June 2000,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2865>.

   [RFC3579]  Aboba, B. and P. Calhoun, "RADIUS (Remote Authentication
              Dial In User Service) Support For Extensible
              Authentication Protocol (EAP)", RFC 3579,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3579, September 2003,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3579>.

   [RFC6614]  Winter, S., McCauley, M., Venaas, S., and K. Wierenga,
              "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Encryption for RADIUS",
              RFC 6614, DOI 10.17487/RFC6614, May 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6614>.

   [RFC6929]  DeKok, A. and A. Lior, "Remote Authentication Dial In User
              Service (RADIUS) Protocol Extensions", RFC 6929,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6929, April 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6929>.

   [RFC3575]  Aboba, B., "IANA Considerations for RADIUS (Remote
              Authentication Dial In User Service)", RFC 3575,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3575, July 2003,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3575>.

   [RFC7542]  DeKok, A., "The Network Access Identifier", RFC 7542,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7542, May 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7542>.

   [OASIS.saml-bindings-2.0-os]
              Cantor, S., Hirsch, F., Kemp, J., Philpott, R., and E.
              Maler, "Bindings for the OASIS Security Assertion Markup
              Language (SAML) V2.0", OASIS Standard saml-bindings-
              2.0-os, March 2005.

   [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os]
              Cantor, S., Kemp, J., Philpott, R., and E. Maler,
              "Assertions and Protocol for the OASIS Security Assertion
              Markup Language (SAML) V2.0", OASIS Standard saml-core-
              2.0-os, March 2005.

   [OASIS.saml-profiles-2.0-os]
              Hughes, J., Cantor, S., Hodges, J., Hirsch, F., Mishra,
              P., Philpott, R., and E. Maler, "Profiles for the OASIS
              Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) V2.0", OASIS
              Standard OASIS.saml-profiles-2.0-os, March 2005.




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   [OASIS.saml-metadata-2.0-os]
              Cantor, S., Moreh, J., Philpott, R., and E. Maler,
              "Metadata for the Security Assertion Markup Language
              (SAML) V2.0", OASIS Standard saml-metadata-2.0-os, March
              2005.

13.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3553]  Mealling, M., Masinter, L., Hardie, T., and G. Klyne, "An
              IETF URN Sub-namespace for Registered Protocol
              Parameters", BCP 73, RFC 3553, DOI 10.17487/RFC3553, June
              2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3553>.

   [RFC3588]  Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., and J.
              Arkko, "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3588, September 2003,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3588>.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5226, May 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5226>.

   [RFC7055]  Hartman, S., Ed. and J. Howlett, "A GSS-API Mechanism for
              the Extensible Authentication Protocol", RFC 7055,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7055, December 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7055>.

   [RFC7499]  Perez-Mendez, A., Ed., Marin-Lopez, R., Pereniguez-Garcia,
              F., Lopez-Millan, G., Lopez, D., and A. DeKok, "Support of
              Fragmentation of RADIUS Packets", RFC 7499,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7499, April 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7499>.

   [I-D.ietf-abfab-arch]
              Howlett, J., Hartman, S., Tschofenig, H., Lear, E., and J.
              Schaad, "Application Bridging for Federated Access Beyond
              Web (ABFAB) Architecture", draft-ietf-abfab-arch-13 (work
              in progress), July 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-radext-bigger-packets]
              Hartman, S., "Larger Packets for RADIUS over TCP", draft-
              ietf-radext-bigger-packets-03 (work in progress), March
              2015.







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Authors' Addresses

   Josh Howlett
   Janet
   Lumen House, Library Avenue, Harwell
   Oxford  OX11 0SG
   UK

   Phone: +44 1235 822363
   EMail: Josh.Howlett@ja.net


   Sam Hartman
   Painless Security

   EMail: hartmans-ietf@mit.edu


   Alejandro Perez-Mendez (editor)
   University of Murcia
   Campus de Espinardo S/N, Faculty of Computer Science
   Murcia  30100
   Spain

   Phone: +34 868 88 46 44
   EMail: alex@um.es

























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