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Versions: (draft-melnikov-acme-email-smime) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06

Network Working Group                                        A. Melnikov
Internet-Draft                                                 Isode Ltd
Intended status: Informational                          November 1, 2019
Expires: May 4, 2020


Extensions to Automatic Certificate Management Environment for end user
                          S/MIME certificates
                     draft-ietf-acme-email-smime-06

Abstract

   This document specifies identifiers and challenges required to enable
   the Automated Certificate Management Environment (ACME) to issue
   certificates for use by email users that want to use S/MIME.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 4, 2020.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.




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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   3.  Use of ACME for issuing end user S/MIME certificates  . . . .   2
     3.1.  ACME challenge email  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.2.  ACME response email . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   8.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   Appendix A.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10

1.  Introduction

   ACME [RFC8555] is a mechanism for automating certificate management
   on the Internet.  It enables administrative entities to prove
   effective control over resources like domain names, and automates the
   process of generating and issuing certificates.

   This document describes an extension to ACME for use by S/MIME.
   Section 3 defines extensions for issuing end user S/MIME [RFC8550]
   certificates.

2.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Use of ACME for issuing end user S/MIME certificates

   ACME [RFC8555] defines "dns" Identifier Type that is used to verify
   that a particular entity has control over a domain or specific
   service associated with the domain.  In order to be able to issue
   end-user S/MIME certificates, ACME needs a new Identifier Type that
   proves ownership of an email address.

   This document defines a new Identifier Type "email" which corresponds
   to an (all ASCII) email address [RFC5321] or Internationalized Email
   addresses [RFC6531].  (When Internationalized Email addresses are
   used, both U-labels and A-labels [RFC5890] are allowed in the domain
   part.)  This can be used with S/MIME or other similar service that
   requires posession of a certificate tied to an email address.





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   Any identifier of type "email" in a newOrder request MUST NOT have a
   wildcard ("*") character in its value.

   A new challenge type "email-reply-00" is used with "email" Identifier
   Type, which provides proof that an ACME client has control over an
   email address:

   1.  ACME server generates a "challenge" email message with the
       subject "ACME: <token-part1>", where <token-part1> is the
       base64url encoded [RFC4648] first part of the token, which
       contains at least 64 bit of entropy.  The challenge email message
       structure is described in more details in Section 3.1.  The
       second part of the token (token-part2, which also contains at
       least 64 bit of entropy) is returned over HTTPS [RFC2818] to the
       ACME client.

   2.  ACME client concatenates "token-part1" and "token-part2" to
       create "token", calculates key-authz (as per Section 8.1 of
       [RFC8555]), then includes the base64url encoded SHA-256 digest
       [FIPS180-4] of the key authorization in the body of a response
       email message containing a single text/plain MIME body part
       [RFC2045].  The response email message structure is described in
       more details in Section 3.2

   For an identifier of type "email", CSR MUST contain the request email
   address in an extensionRequest attribute [RFC2985] requesting a
   subjectAltName extension.

3.1.  ACME challenge email

   A "challenge" email message MUST have the following structure:

   1.  The message Subject header field has the following syntax: "ACME:
       <token-part1>", where the prefix "ACME:" is followed by folding
       white space (FWS, see [RFC5322]) and then by <token-part1> is the
       base64url encoded first part of the ACME token that MUST be at
       least 64 octet long after decoding.  Due to recommended 78 octet
       line length limit in [RFC5322], the subject line can be folded,
       so whitespaces (if any) within the <token-part1> MUST be ignored.
       [RFC2231] encoding of subject MUST be supported, but when used,
       only "UTF-8" and "US-ASCII" charsets MUST be used (i.e. other
       charsets MUST NOT be used).

   2.  The message MUST include the "Auto-Submitted: auto-generated"
       header field [RFC3834].  The "Auto-Submitted" header field SHOULD
       include "type=acme" parameter.  It MAY include other optional
       parameters as allowed by syntax of Auto-Submitted header field.




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   3.  The message MAY contain Reply-To header field.

   4.  In order to prove authenticity of a challenge message, it MUST be
       either DKIM [RFC6376] signed or S/MIME [RFC8551] signed.  If DKIM
       signing is used, the resulting DKIM-Signature header field MUST
       contain the "h=" tag that includes at least "From", "Sender",
       "Reply-To", "To", "CC", "Subject", "Date", "In-Reply-To",
       "References", "Message-ID", "Content-Type" and "Content-Transfer-
       Encoding" header fields.  The message MUST also pass DMARC
       validation [RFC7489], which implies DKIM and SPF validation
       [RFC7208].

   5.  If S/MIME signing is not used to prove authenticity of the
       challenge message, then the message MUST have a single text/plain
       MIME body part [RFC2045], that contains human readable
       explanation of the purpose of the message.  If S/MIME signing is
       used, then the text/plain message is used to construct a
       multipart/signed or "application/pkcs7-mime; smime-type=signed-
       data;".  Either way, it MUST use S/MIME header protection.

   Example ACME "challenge" email (note that DKIM related header fields
   are not included for simplicity).


     Auto-Submitted: auto-generated; type=acme
     Date: Sat, 1 Sep 2018 10:08:55 +0100
     Message-ID: <A2299BB.FF7788@example.org>
     From: acme-generator@example.org
     To: alexey@example.com
     Subject: ACME: <base64url-encoded-token-with-64-octets-of-entropy>
     Content-Type: text/plain
     MIME-Version: 1.0

     This is an automatically generated ACME challenge for email address
     "alexey@example.com". If you haven't requested an S/MIME
     certificate generation for this email address, be very afraid.
     If you did request it, your email client might be able to process
     this request automatically, or you might have to paste the first
     token part into an external program.

                                 Figure 1

3.2.  ACME response email

   A "response" email message MUST have the following structure:

   1.  The message Subject header field has the following syntax:
       "<Reply-prefix> ACME: <token-part1>", where <Reply-prefix> is



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       typically the reply prefix "Re: " and the string "ACME:" is
       followed by folding white space (FWS, see [RFC5322]) and then by
       <token-part1>. <token-part1> is the base64url encoded first part
       of the ACME token (as received in the ACME challenge) that MUST
       be at least 64 octet long after decoding.  Due to recommended 78
       octet line length limit in [RFC5322], the subject line can be
       folded, so whitespaces (if any) within the <token-part1> MUST be
       ignored.  [RFC2231] encoding of subject MUST be supported, but
       when used, only "UTF-8" and "US-ASCII" charsets MUST be used
       (i.e. other charsets MUST NOT be used).

   2.  The From: header field contains the email address of the user
       that is requesting S/MIME certificate issuance.

   3.  The To: header field of the response contains the value from the
       Reply-To: header field from the challenge message (if set) or
       from the From: header field of the challenge message otherwise.

   4.  The Cc: header field is ignored if present in the "response"
       email message.

   5.  The In-Reply-To: header field SHOULD be set to the Message-ID
       header field of the challenge message according to rules in
       Section 3.6.4 of [RFC5322].

   6.  Media type of the "response" email message is either text/plain
       or multipart/alternative containing text/plain as one of the
       alternatives.  The text/plain body part MUST start with the line
       "-----BEGIN ACME RESPONSE-----", followed by one or more line
       containing base64url encoded SHA-256 digest [FIPS180-4] of the
       key authorization, calculated based on token-part1 (received over
       email) and token-part2 (received over HTTPS).  (Note that due to
       historic line length limitations in email, line endings (CRLFs)
       can be freely inserted in the middle of the encoded digest, so
       they MUST be ignored when processing it.).  The final line of the
       encoded digest is followed by the line containing "-----END ACME
       RESPONSE-----".  There should not be any text after the
       terminating line, but if any text is found, it is ignored.

   7.  There is no need to use any Content-Transfer-Encoding other than
       7bit for the text/plain body part, however use of Quoted-
       Printable or base64 is not prohibited in a "response" email
       message.

   8.  In order to prove authenticity of a response message, it MUST be
       DKIM [RFC6376] signed.  The resulting DKIM-Signature header field
       MUST contain the "h=" tag that includes at least "From",
       "Sender", "Reply-To", "To", "CC", "Subject", "Date", "In-Reply-



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       To", "References", "Message-ID", "Content-Type" and "Content-
       Transfer-Encoding" header fields.

   Example ACME "response" email (note that DKIM related header fields
   are not included for simplicity).


      Date: Sat, 1 Sep 2018 11:12:00 +0100
      Message-ID: <111-22222-3333333@example.com>
      From: alexey@example.com
      To: acme-generator@example.org
      Subject: Re: ACME: <base64url-encoded-token-with-enough-entropy>
      Content-Type: text/plain
      MIME-Version: 1.0

      -----BEGIN ACME RESPONSE-----
      LoqXcYV8q5ONbJQxbmR7SCTNo3tiAXDfowy
      jxAjEuX0.9jg46WB3rR_AHD-EBXdN7cBkH1WOu0tA3M9
      fm21mqTI
      -----END ACME RESPONSE-----

                                 Figure 2

4.  Open Issues

   [[This section should be empty before publication]]

   1.  Do we need to handle text/html or multipart/alternative in email
       challenge?  Simplicity suggests "no".  Also, for automated
       processing it might be better to define a special MIME type that
       is included as one of body parts inside multipart/mixed
       container.

5.  Internationalization Considerations

   [RFC8616] updated/clarified use of DKIM/SPF/DMARC with
   Internationalized Email addresses [RFC6531].  Please consult RFC 8616
   in regards to any changes that need to be implemented.

   Use of non ASCII characters in left hand sides of Internationalized
   Email addresses requires putting Internationalized Email Addresses in
   X.509 Certificates [RFC8398].

6.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is requested to register a new Identifier Type "email" which
   corresponds to an (all ASCII) email address [RFC5321] or
   Internationalized Email addresses [RFC6531].



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   And finally, IANA is requested to register the following ACME
   challenge types that are used with Identifier Type "email": "email-
   reply".  The reference for it is this document.

7.  Security Considerations

   Please see Security Considerations of [RFC8555] for general security
   considerations related to use of ACME.

   Security of "email-reply-00" challenge type depends on security of
   email system.  A third party that can can read and reply to user's
   email messages (by posessing user's password or a secret derived from
   it that can give read and reply access ("password equivalent"
   information), or by being given permissions to act on user's behalf
   using email delegation feature) can request S/MIME certificates and
   is indistinguishable from the email account owner.

   Email system in its turn depends on DNS.  A third party that can
   manipulate DNS MX records for a domain might be able to redirect
   email and can get (at least temporary) read and reply access to it.
   Similar considerations apply to SPF and DMARC TXT records in DNS.
   Use of DNSSEC by email system administrators is recommended to avoid
   easy spoofing of DNS records affecting email system.

8.  Normative References

   [FIPS180-4]
              National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure
              Hash Standard (SHS)", FIPS PUB 180-4, August 2015,
              <https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/fips/180/4/
              final>.

   [RFC2045]  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
              Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message
              Bodies", RFC 2045, DOI 10.17487/RFC2045, November 1996,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2045>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2231]  Freed, N. and K. Moore, "MIME Parameter Value and Encoded
              Word Extensions: Character Sets, Languages, and
              Continuations", RFC 2231, DOI 10.17487/RFC2231, November
              1997, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2231>.





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   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2818, May 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2818>.

   [RFC2985]  Nystrom, M. and B. Kaliski, "PKCS #9: Selected Object
              Classes and Attribute Types Version 2.0", RFC 2985,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2985, November 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2985>.

   [RFC3834]  Moore, K., "Recommendations for Automatic Responses to
              Electronic Mail", RFC 3834, DOI 10.17487/RFC3834, August
              2004, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3834>.

   [RFC4648]  Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
              Encodings", RFC 4648, DOI 10.17487/RFC4648, October 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4648>.

   [RFC5321]  Klensin, J., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", RFC 5321,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5321, October 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5321>.

   [RFC5322]  Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet Message Format", RFC 5322,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5322, October 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5322>.

   [RFC5890]  Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for
              Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework",
              RFC 5890, DOI 10.17487/RFC5890, August 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5890>.

   [RFC6376]  Crocker, D., Ed., Hansen, T., Ed., and M. Kucherawy, Ed.,
              "DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) Signatures", STD 76,
              RFC 6376, DOI 10.17487/RFC6376, September 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6376>.

   [RFC6531]  Yao, J. and W. Mao, "SMTP Extension for Internationalized
              Email", RFC 6531, DOI 10.17487/RFC6531, February 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6531>.

   [RFC7208]  Kitterman, S., "Sender Policy Framework (SPF) for
              Authorizing Use of Domains in Email, Version 1", RFC 7208,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7208, April 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7208>.

   [RFC7489]  Kucherawy, M., Ed. and E. Zwicky, Ed., "Domain-based
              Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance
              (DMARC)", RFC 7489, DOI 10.17487/RFC7489, March 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7489>.



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   [RFC8398]  Melnikov, A., Ed. and W. Chuang, Ed., "Internationalized
              Email Addresses in X.509 Certificates", RFC 8398,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8398, May 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8398>.

   [RFC8550]  Schaad, J., Ramsdell, B., and S. Turner, "Secure/
              Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) Version 4.0
              Certificate Handling", RFC 8550, DOI 10.17487/RFC8550,
              April 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8550>.

   [RFC8551]  Schaad, J., Ramsdell, B., and S. Turner, "Secure/
              Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) Version 4.0
              Message Specification", RFC 8551, DOI 10.17487/RFC8551,
              April 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8551>.

   [RFC8555]  Barnes, R., Hoffman-Andrews, J., McCarney, D., and J.
              Kasten, "Automatic Certificate Management Environment
              (ACME)", RFC 8555, DOI 10.17487/RFC8555, March 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8555>.

   [RFC8616]  Levine, J., "Email Authentication for Internationalized
              Mail", RFC 8616, DOI 10.17487/RFC8616, June 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8616>.




























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Appendix A.  Acknowledgements

   Thank you to Andreas Schulze, Gerd v.  Egidy and James A Baker for
   suggestions, comments and corrections on this document.

Author's Address

   Alexey Melnikov
   Isode Ltd
   14 Castle Mews
   Hampton, Middlesex  TW12 2NP
   UK

   EMail: alexey.melnikov@isode.com





































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