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Versions: (draft-pritikin-anima-bootstrapping-keyinfra) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

ANIMA WG                                                     M. Pritikin
Internet-Draft                                                     Cisco
Intended status: Standards Track                           M. Richardson
Expires: October 28, 2018                                      Sandelman
                                                            M. Behringer

                                                            S. Bjarnason
                                                          Arbor Networks
                                                               K. Watsen
                                                        Juniper Networks
                                                          April 26, 2018


        Bootstrapping Remote Secure Key Infrastructures (BRSKI)
               draft-ietf-anima-bootstrapping-keyinfra-15

Abstract

   This document specifies automated bootstrapping of a remote secure
   key infrastructure (BRSKI) using manufacturer installed X.509
   certificate, in combination with a manufacturer's authorizing
   service, both online and offline.  Bootstrapping a new device can
   occur using a routable address and a cloud service, or using only
   link-local connectivity, or on limited/disconnected networks.
   Support for lower security models, including devices with minimal
   identity, is described for legacy reasons but not encouraged.
   Bootstrapping is complete when the cryptographic identity of the new
   key infrastructure is successfully deployed to the device but the
   established secure connection can be used to deploy a locally issued
   certificate to the device as well.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 28, 2018.




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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.1.  Prior Bootstrapping Approaches  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     1.3.  Scope of solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       1.3.1.  Support environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       1.3.2.  Constrained environments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       1.3.3.  Network Access Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     1.4.  Leveraging the new key infrastructure / next steps  . . .  11
     1.5.  Requirements for Autonomic Network Infrastructure (ANI)
           devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   2.  Architectural Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     2.1.  Behavior of a Pledge  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     2.2.  Secure Imprinting using Vouchers  . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     2.3.  Initial Device Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       2.3.1.  Identification of the Pledge  . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       2.3.2.  MASA URI extension  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     2.4.  Protocol Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     2.5.  Architectural Components  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       2.5.1.  Pledge  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       2.5.2.  Join Proxy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       2.5.3.  Domain Registrar  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       2.5.4.  Manufacturer Service  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       2.5.5.  Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     2.6.  Certificate Time Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       2.6.1.  Lack of realtime clock  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       2.6.2.  Infinite Lifetime of IDevID . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     2.7.  Cloud Registrar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     2.8.  Determining the MASA to contact . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   3.  Voucher-Request artifact  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     3.1.  Tree Diagram  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     3.2.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25



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     3.3.  YANG Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   4.  Proxying details (Pledge - Proxy - Registrar) . . . . . . . .  30
     4.1.  Pledge discovery of Proxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
       4.1.1.  Proxy GRASP announcements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     4.2.  CoAP connection to Registrar  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
     4.3.  Proxy discovery of Registrar  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   5.  Protocol Details (Pledge - Registrar - MASA)  . . . . . . . .  35
     5.1.  BRSKI-EST TLS establishment details . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     5.2.  Pledge Requests Voucher from the Registrar  . . . . . . .  37
     5.3.  BRSKI-MASA TLS establishment details  . . . . . . . . . .  38
     5.4.  Registrar Requests Voucher from MASA  . . . . . . . . . .  39
       5.4.1.  MASA renewal of expired vouchers  . . . . . . . . . .  40
       5.4.2.  MASA verification of voucher-request signature
               consistency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
       5.4.3.  MASA authentication of registrar (certificate)  . . .  41
       5.4.4.  MASA revocation checking of registrar (certificate) .  41
       5.4.5.  MASA verification of pledge prior-signed-voucher-
               request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
       5.4.6.  MASA pinning of registrar . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
       5.4.7.  MASA nonce handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     5.5.  MASA and Registrar Voucher Response . . . . . . . . . . .  42
       5.5.1.  Pledge voucher verification . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
       5.5.2.  Pledge authentication of provisional TLS connection .  45
     5.6.  Pledge Voucher Status Telemetry . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
     5.7.  Registrar audit log request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
       5.7.1.  MASA audit log response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
       5.7.2.  Registrar audit log verification  . . . . . . . . . .  49
     5.8.  EST Integration for PKI bootstrapping . . . . . . . . . .  50
       5.8.1.  EST Distribution of CA Certificates . . . . . . . . .  51
       5.8.2.  EST CSR Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
       5.8.3.  EST Client Certificate Request  . . . . . . . . . . .  52
       5.8.4.  Enrollment Status Telemetry . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
       5.8.5.  Multiple certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
       5.8.6.  EST over CoAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
   6.  Reduced security operational modes  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     6.1.  Trust Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
     6.2.  Pledge security reductions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
     6.3.  Registrar security reductions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55
     6.4.  MASA security reductions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
     7.1.  Well-known EST registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
     7.2.  PKIX Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
     7.3.  Voucher Status Telemetry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
     7.4.  DNS Service Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  58
     7.5.  MUD File Extension for the MASA server  . . . . . . . . .  58
   8.  Privacy Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  58
     8.1.  MASA audit log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  58
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  59



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     9.1.  Freshness in Voucher-Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
     9.2.  Trusting manufacturers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  61
   10. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
     11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
     11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  65
   Appendix A.  IPv4 and non-ANI operations  . . . . . . . . . . . .  67
     A.1.  IPv4 Link Local addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  67
     A.2.  Use of DHCPv4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  67
   Appendix B.  mDNS / DNSSD proxy discovery options . . . . . . . .  68
   Appendix C.  IPIP Join Proxy mechanism  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  68
     C.1.  Multiple Join networks on the Join Proxy side . . . . . .  69
     C.2.  Automatic configuration of tunnels on Registrar . . . . .  70
     C.3.  Proxy Neighbor Discovery by Join Proxy  . . . . . . . . .  70
     C.4.  Use of connected sockets; or IP_PKTINFO for CoAP on
           Registrar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70
     C.5.  Use of socket extension rather than virtual interface . .  71
   Appendix D.  MUD Extension  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
   Appendix E.  Example Vouchers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
     E.1.  Keys involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
       E.1.1.  MASA key pair for voucher signatures  . . . . . . . .  73
       E.1.2.  Manufacturer key pair for IDevID signatures . . . . .  73
       E.1.3.  Registrar key pair  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
       E.1.4.  Pledge key pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  76
     E.2.  Example process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
       E.2.1.  Pledge to Registrar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
       E.2.2.  Registrar to MASA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  84
       E.2.3.  MASA to Registrar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  89
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  94

1.  Introduction

   BRSKI provides a solution for secure zero-touch (automated) bootstrap
   of virgin (untouched) devices that are called pledges in this
   document.  These pledges need to discover (or be discovered by) an
   element of the network domain to which the pledge belongs to perform
   the bootstrap.  This element (device) is called the registrar.
   Before any other operation, pledge and registrar need to establish
   mutual trust:

   1.  Registrar authenticating the pledge: "Who is this device?  What
       is its identity?"

   2.  Registrar authorizing the pledge: "Is it mine?  Do I want it?
       What are the chances it has been compromised?"

   3.  Pledge authenticating the registrar: "What is this registrar's
       identity?"



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   4.  Pledge authorizing the registrar: "Should I join it?"

   This document details protocols and messages to answer the above
   questions.  It uses a TLS connection and an PKIX (X.509v3)
   certificate (an IEEE 802.1AR [IDevID] LDevID) of the pledge to answer
   points 1 and 2.  It uses a new artifact called a "voucher" that the
   registrar receives from a "Manufacturer Authorized Signing Authority"
   and passes to the pledge to answer points 3 and 2.

   A proxy provides very limited connectivity between the pledge and the
   registrar.

   The syntactic details of vouchers are described in detail in
   [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher].  This document details automated protocol
   mechanisms to obtain vouchers, including the definition of a
   'voucher-request' message that is a minor extension to the voucher
   format (see Section 3) defined by [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher].

   BRSKI results in the pledge storing an X.509 root certificate
   sufficient for verifying the registrar identity.  In the process a
   TLS connection is established that can be directly used for
   Enrollment over Secure Transport (EST).  In effect BRSKI provides an
   automated mechanism for the "Bootstrap Distribution of CA
   Certificates" described in [RFC7030] Section 4.1.1 wherein the pledge
   "MUST [...] engage a human user to authorize the CA certificate using
   out-of-band" information".  With BRSKI the pledge now can automate
   this process using the voucher.  Integration with a complete EST
   enrollment is optional but trivial.

   BRSKI is agile enough to support bootstrapping alternative key
   infrastructures, such as a symmetric key solutions, but no such
   system is described in this document.

1.1.  Prior Bootstrapping Approaches

   To literally "pull yourself up by the bootstraps" is an impossible
   action.  Similarly the secure establishment of a key infrastructure
   without external help is also an impossibility.  Today it is commonly
   accepted that the initial connections between nodes are insecure,
   until key distribution is complete, or that domain-specific keying
   material (often pre-shared keys, including mechanisms like SIM cards)
   is pre-provisioned on each new device in a costly and non-scalable
   manner.  Existing automated mechanisms are known as non-secured
   'Trust on First Use' (TOFU) [RFC7435], 'resurrecting duckling'
   [Stajano99theresurrecting] or 'pre-staging'.

   Another prior approach has been to try and minimize user actions
   during bootstrapping, but not eliminate all user-actions.  The



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   original EST protocol [RFC7030] does reduce user actions during
   bootstrap but does not provide solutions for how the following
   protocol steps can be made autonomic (not involving user actions):

   o  using the Implicit Trust Anchor database to authenticate an owner
      specific service (not an autonomic solution because the URL must
      be securely distributed),

   o  engaging a human user to authorize the CA certificate using out-
      of-band data (not an autonomic solution because the human user is
      involved),

   o  using a configured Explicit TA database (not an autonomic solution
      because the distribution of an explicit TA database is not
      autonomic),

   o  and using a Certificate-Less TLS mutual authentication method (not
      an autonomic solution because the distribution of symmetric key
      material is not autonomic).

   These "touch" methods do not meet the requirements for zero-touch.

   There are "call home" technologies where the pledge first establishes
   a connection to a well known manufacturer service using a common
   client-server authentication model.  After mutual authentication,
   appropriate credentials to authenticate the target domain are
   transfered to the pledge.  This creates serveral problems and
   limitations:

   o  the pledge requires realtime connectivity to the manufacturer
      service,

   o  the domain identity is exposed to the manufacturer service (this
      is a privacy concern),

   o  the manufacturer is responsible for making the authorization
      decisions (this is a liability concern),

   BRSKI addresses these issues by defining extensions to the EST
   protocol for the automated distribution of vouchers.

1.2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].




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   The following terms are defined for clarity:

   domainID:  The domain IDentity is the 160-bit SHA-1 hash of the BIT
      STRING of the subjectPublicKey of the pinned-domain-cert leaf,
      i.e. the Registrars' certificate.  This is consistent with the
      subject key identifier (Section 4.2.1.2 [RFC5280]).

   drop ship:  The physical distribution of equipment containing the
      "factory default" configuration to a final destination.  In zero-
      touch scenarios there is no staging or pre-configuration during
      drop-ship.

   imprint:  The process where a device obtains the cryptographic key
      material to identify and trust future interactions with a network.
      This term is taken from Konrad Lorenz's work in biology with new
      ducklings: during a critical period, the duckling would assume
      that anything that looks like a mother duck is in fact their
      mother.  An equivalent for a device is to obtain the fingerprint
      of the network's root certification authority certificate.  A
      device that imprints on an attacker suffers a similar fate to a
      duckling that imprints on a hungry wolf.  Securely imprinting is a
      primary focus of this document [imprinting].  The analogy to
      Lorenz's work was first noted in [Stajano99theresurrecting].

   enrollment:  The process where a device presents key material to a
      network and acquires a network specific identity.  For example
      when a certificate signing request is presented to a certification
      authority and a certificate is obtained in response.

   Pledge:  The prospective device, which has an identity installed at
      the factory.

   Voucher:  A signed artifact from the MASA that indicates to a pledge
      the cryptographic identity of the registrar it should trust.
      There are different types of vouchers depending on how that trust
      is asserted.  Multiple voucher types are defined in
      [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher]

   Domain:  The set of entities that share a common local trust anchor.
      This includes the proxy, registrar, Domain Certificate Authority,
      Management components and any existing entity that is already a
      member of the domain.

   Domain CA:  The domain Certification Authority (CA) provides
      certification functionalities to the domain.  At a minimum it
      provides certification functionalities to a registrar and manages
      the private key that defines the domain.  Optionally, it certifies
      all elements.



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   Join Registrar (and Coordinator):  A representative of the domain
      that is configured, perhaps autonomically, to decide whether a new
      device is allowed to join the domain.  The administrator of the
      domain interfaces with a "join registrar (and coordinator)" to
      control this process.  Typically a join registrar is "inside" its
      domain.  For simplicity this document often refers to this as just
      "registrar".  Within [I-D.ietf-anima-reference-model] this is
      refered to as the "join registrar autonomic service agent".  Other
      communities use the abbreviation "JRC".

   (Public) Key Infrastructure:  The collection of systems and processes
      that sustain the activities of a public key system.  The registrar
      acts as an [RFC5280] and [RFC5272] (see section 7) "Registration
      Authority".

   Join Proxy:  A domain entity that helps the pledge join the domain.
      A join proxy facilitates communication for devices that find
      themselves in an environment where they are not provided
      connectivity until after they are validated as members of the
      domain.  For simplicity this document sometimes uses the term of
      'proxy' to indicate the join proxy.  The pledge is unaware that
      they are communicating with a proxy rather than directly with a
      registrar.

   Circuit Proxy:  A stateful implementation of the join proxy.  This is
      the assumed type of proxy.

   IPIP Proxy:  A stateless proxy alternative.

   MASA Service:  A third-party Manufacturer Authorized Signing
      Authority (MASA) service on the global Internet.  The MASA signs
      vouchers.  It also provides a repository for audit log information
      of privacy protected bootstrapping events.  It does not track
      ownership.

   Ownership Tracker:  An Ownership Tracker service on the global
      internet.  The Ownership Tracker uses business processes to
      accurately track ownership of all devices shipped against domains
      that have purchased them.  Although optional, this component
      allows vendors to provide additional value in cases where their
      sales and distribution channels allow for accurately tracking of
      such ownership.  Ownership tracking information is indicated in
      vouchers as described in [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher]

   IDevID:  An Initial Device Identity X.509 certificate installed by
      the vendor on new equipment.





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   TOFU:  Trust on First Use. Used similarly to [RFC7435].  This is
      where a pledge device makes no security decisions but rather
      simply trusts the first registrar it is contacted by.  This is
      also known as the "resurrecting duckling" model.

   nonced:  a voucher (or request) that contains a nonce (the normal
      case).

   nonceless:  a voucher (or request) that does not contain a nonce,
      relying upon accurate clocks for expiration, or which does not
      expire.

   manufacturer:  the term manufacturer is used throughout this document
      to be the entity that created the device.  This is typically the
      "original equipment manufacturer" or OEM, but in more complex
      situations it could be a "value added retailer" (VAR), or possibly
      even a systems integrator.  In general, it a goal of BRSKI to
      eliminate small distinctions between different sales channels.
      The reason for this is that it permits a single device, with a
      uniform firmware load, to be shipped directly to all customers.
      This eliminates costs for the manufacturer.  This also reduces the
      number of products supported in the field increasing the chance
      that firmware will be more up to date.

   ANI:  The Autonomic Network Infrastructure as defined by
      [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane].  This document details
      specific requirements for pledges, proxies and registrars when
      they are part of an ANI.

   offline:  When an architectural component cannot perform realtime
      communications with a peer, either due to network connectivity or
      because the peer is turned off, the operation is said to be
      occurring offline.

1.3.  Scope of solution

1.3.1.  Support environment

   This solution (BRSKI) can support large router platforms with multi-
   gigabit inter-connections, mounted in controlled access data centers.
   But this solution is not exclusive to large equipment: it is intended
   to scale to thousands of devices located in hostile environments,
   such as ISP provided CPE devices which are drop-shipped to the end
   user.  The situation where an order is fulfilled from distributed
   warehouse from a common stock and shipped directly to the target
   location at the request of a domain owner is explicitly supported.
   That stock ("SKU") could be provided to a number of potential domain




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   owners, and the eventual domain owner will not know a-priori which
   device will go to which location.

   The bootstrapping process can take minutes to complete depending on
   the network infrastructure and device processing speed.  The network
   communication itself is not optimized for speed; for privacy reasons,
   the discovery process allows for the pledge to avoid announcing its
   presence through broadcasting.

   Nomadic or mobile devices often need to aquire credentials to access
   the network at the new location.  An example of this is mobile phone
   roaming among network operators, or even between cell towers.  This
   is usually called handoff.  BRSKI does not provide a low-latency
   handoff which is usually a requirement in such situations.  For these
   solutions BRSKI can be used to create a relationship (an LDevID) with
   the "home" domain owner.  The resulting credentials are then used to
   provide credentials more appropriate for a low-latency handoff.

1.3.2.  Constrained environments

   Questions have been posed as to whether this solution is suitable in
   general for Internet of Things (IoT) networks.  This depends on the
   capabilities of the devices in question.  The terminology of
   [RFC7228] is best used to describe the boundaries.

   The solution described in this document is aimed in general at non-
   constrained (i.e., class 2+) devices operating on a non-Challenged
   network.  The entire solution as described here is not intended to be
   useable as-is by constrained devices operating on challenged networks
   (such as 802.15.4 LLNs).

   Specifically, there are protocol aspects described here that might
   result in congestion collapse or energy-exhaustion of intermediate
   battery powered routers in an LLN.  Those types of networks SHOULD
   NOT use this solution.  These limitations are predominately related
   to the large credential and key sizes required for device
   authentication.  Defining symmetric key techniques that meet the
   operational requirements is out-of-scope but the underlying protocol
   operations (TLS handshake and signing structures) have sufficient
   algorithm agility to support such techniques when defined.

   The imprint protocol described here could, however, be used by non-
   energy constrained devices joining a non-constrained network (for
   instance, smart light bulbs are usually mains powered, and speak
   802.11).  It could also be used by non-constrained devices across a
   non-energy constrained, but challenged network (such as 802.15.4).
   The certificate contents, and the process by which the four questions




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   above are resolved do apply to constrained devices.  It is simply the
   actual on-the-wire imprint protocol that could be inappropriate.

1.3.3.  Network Access Controls

   This document presumes that network access control has either already
   occurred, is not required, or is integrated by the proxy and
   registrar in such a way that the device itself does not need to be
   aware of the details.  Although the use of an X.509 Initial Device
   Identity is consistant with IEEE 802.1AR [IDevID], and allows for
   alignment with 802.1X network access control methods, its use here is
   for pledge authentication rather than network access control.
   Integrating this protocol with network access control, perhaps as an
   Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) method (see [RFC3748]), is
   out-of-scope.

1.4.  Leveraging the new key infrastructure / next steps

   As a result of the protocol described herein, the bootstrapped
   devices have the Domain CA trust anchor in common.  An end entity
   certificate has optionally been issued from the Domain CA.  This
   makes it possible to automatically deploy services across the domain
   in a secure manner.

   Services that benefit from this:

   o  Device management.

   o  Routing authentication.

   o  Service discovery.

   The major beneficiary is that it possible to use the credentials
   deployed by this protocol to secure the Autonomic Control Plane (ACP)
   ([I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane]).

1.5.  Requirements for Autonomic Network Infrastructure (ANI) devices

   The BRSKI protocol can be used in a number of environments.  Some of
   the flexibility in this document is the result of users out of the
   ANI scope.  This section defines the base requirements for ANI
   devices.

   For devices that intend to become part of an Autonomic Network
   Infrastructure (ANI) ([I-D.ietf-anima-reference-model]) that includes
   an Autonomic Control Plane
   ([I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane]), the following actions are
   required and MUST be performed by the pledge:



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   o  BRSKI: Request Voucher

   o  EST: CA Certificates Request

   o  EST: CSR Attributes

   o  EST: Client Certificate Request

   o  BRSKI: Enrollment status Telemetry

   The ANI Join Registrar ASA MUST support all the BRSKI and above
   listed EST operations.

   All ANI devices SHOULD support the BRSKI proxy function, using
   circuit proxies.  Other proxy methods are optional, and MUST NOT
   enabled unless the Join Registrar ASA indicates support for them in
   it's announcement.  (See Section 4.3)

2.  Architectural Overview

   The logical elements of the bootstrapping framework are described in
   this section.  Figure 1 provides a simplified overview of the
   components.




























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                                              +------------------------+
      +--------------Drop Ship--------------->| Vendor Service         |
      |                                       +------------------------+
      |                                       | M anufacturer|         |
      |                                       | A uthorized  |Ownership|
      |                                       | S igning     |Tracker  |
      |                                       | A uthority   |         |
      |                                       +--------------+---------+
      |                                                      ^
      |                                                      |  BRSKI-
      V                                                      |   MASA
   +-------+     ............................................|...
   |       |     .                                           |  .
   |       |     .  +------------+       +-----------+       |  .
   |       |     .  |            |       |           |       |  .
   |Pledge |     .  |   Join     |       | Domain    <-------+  .
   |       |     .  |   Proxy    |       | Registrar |          .
   |       <-------->............<-------> (PKI RA)  |          .
   |       |        |        BRSKI-EST   |           |          .
   |       |     .  |            |       +-----+-----+          .
   |IDevID |     .  +------------+             | EST RFC7030    .
   |       |     .           +-----------------+----------+     .
   |       |     .           | Key Infrastructure         |     .
   |       |     .           | (e.g., PKI Certificate     |     .
   +-------+     .           |       Authority)           |     .
                 .           +----------------------------+     .
                 .                                              .
                 ................................................
                               "Domain" components

   Figure 1

   We assume a multi-vendor network.  In such an environment there could
   be a Manufacturer Service for each manufacturer that supports devices
   following this document's specification, or an integrator could
   provide a generic service authorized by multiple manufacturers.  It
   is unlikely that an integrator could provide Ownership Tracking
   services for multiple manufacturers due to the required sales channel
   integrations necessary to track ownership.

   The domain is the managed network infrastructure with a Key
   Infrastructure the pledge is joining.  The domain provides initial
   device connectivity sufficient for bootstrapping through a proxy.
   The domain registrar authenticates the pledge, makes authorization
   decisions, and distributes vouchers obtained from the Manufacturer
   Service.  Optionally the registrar also acts as a PKI Registration
   Authority.




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2.1.  Behavior of a Pledge

   The pledge goes through a series of steps, which are outlined here at
   a high level.

                +--------------+
                |   Factory    |
                |   default    |
                +------+-------+
                       |
                +------v-------+
                | (1) Discover |
   +------------>              |
   |            +------+-------+
   |                   |
   |            +------v-------+
   |            | (2) Identity |
   ^------------+              |
   | rejected   +------+-------+
   |                   |
   |            +------v-------+
   |            | (3) Request  |
   |            |     Join     |
   |            +------+-------+
   |                   |
   |            +------v-------+
   |            | (4) Imprint  |
   ^------------+              |
   | Bad MASA   +------+-------+
   | response          |  send Voucher Status Telemetry
   |            +------v-------+
   |            | (5) Enroll   |
   ^------------+              |
   | Enroll     +------+-------+
   | Failure           |
   |            +------v-------+
   |            | (6) Enrolled |
   ^------------+              |
    Factory     +--------------+
    reset


   Figure 2

   State descriptions for the pledge are as follows:

   1.  Discover a communication channel to a registrar.




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   2.  Identify itself.  This is done by presenting an X.509 IDevID
       credential to the discovered registrar (via the proxy) in a TLS
       handshake.  (The registrar credentials are only provisionally
       accepted at this time).

   3.  Request to join the discovered registrar.  A unique nonce can be
       included ensuring that any responses can be associated with this
       particular bootstrapping attempt.

   4.  Imprint on the registrar.  This requires verification of the
       manufacturer service provided voucher.  A voucher contains
       sufficient information for the pledge to complete authentication
       of a registrar.  (The embedded 'pinned-domain-certificate'
       enables the pledge to finish authentication of the registrar TLS
       server certificate).

   5.  Enroll.  By accepting the domain specific information from a
       registrar, and by obtaining a domain certificate from a registrar
       using a standard enrollment protocol, e.g.  Enrollment over
       Secure Transport (EST) [RFC7030].

   6.  The pledge is now a member of, and can be managed by, the domain
       and will only repeat the discovery aspects of bootstrapping if it
       is returned to factory default settings.

   After imprint a secure transport exists between pledge and registrar.
   This specification details integration with EST enrollment so that
   pledges can optionally obtain a locally issued certificate, although
   any REST interface could be integrated in future work.

2.2.  Secure Imprinting using Vouchers

   A voucher is a cryptographically protected artifact (a digital
   signature) to the pledge device authorizing a zero-touch imprint on
   the registrar domain.

   The format and cryptographic mechanism of vouchers is described in
   detail in [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher].

   Vouchers provide a flexible mechanism to secure imprinting: the
   pledge device only imprints when a voucher can be validated.  At the
   lowest security levels the MASA server can indiscriminately issue
   vouchers and log claims of ownership by domains.  At the highest
   security levels issuance of vouchers can be integrated with complex
   sales channel integrations that are beyond the scope of this
   document.  The sales channel integration would verify actual (legal)
   ownership of the pledge by the domain.  This provides the flexibility
   for a number of use cases via a single common protocol mechanism on



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   the pledge and registrar devices that are to be widely deployed in
   the field.  The MASA services have the flexibility to leverage either
   the currently defined claim mechanisms or to experiment with higher
   or lower security levels.

   Vouchers provide a signed but non-encrypted communication channel
   among the pledge, the MASA, and the registrar.  The registrar
   maintains control over the transport and policy decisions allowing
   the local security policy of the domain network to be enforced.

2.3.  Initial Device Identifier

   Pledge authentication and pledge voucher-request signing is via a
   PKIX certificate installed during the manufacturing process.  This is
   the 802.1AR Initial Device Identifier (IDevID), and it provides a
   basis for authenticating the pledge during the protocol exchanges
   described here.  There is no requirement for a common root PKI
   hierarchy.  Each device manufacturer can generate its own root
   certificate.  Specifically, the IDevID:

   1.  Uniquely identifying the pledge by the Distinguished Name (DN)
       and subjectAltName (SAN) parameters in the IDevID.  The unique
       identification of a pledge in the voucher objects are derived
       from those parameters as described below.

   2.  Securely authentating the pledges identity via TLS connection to
       registrar.  This provides protection against cloned/fake pledged.

   3.  Secure auto-discovery of the pledges MASA by the registrar via
       the MASA URI in IDevID as explained below.

   4.  (Optionally) communicating the MUD URL (see Appendix D.

   5.  (Optional) Signing of voucher-request by the pledges IDevID to
       enable MASA to generate voucher only to a registrar that has a
       connection to the pledge.

   6.  Authorizing pledge (via registrar) to receive certificate from
       domain CA, by signing the Certificate Signing Request (CSR).

2.3.1.  Identification of the Pledge

   In the context of BRSKI, pledges are uniquely identified by a
   "serial-number".  This serial-number is used both in the "serial-
   number" field of voucher or voucher-requests (see Section 3) and in
   local policies on registrar or MASA (see Section 5).

   The following fields are defined in [IDevID] and [RFC5280]:



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   o  The subject field's DN encoding MUST include the "serialNumber"
      attribute with the device's unique serial number.  (from [IDevID]
      section 7.2.8, and [RFC5280] section 4.1.2.4's list of standard
      attributes)

   o  The subject-alt field's encoding MAY include a non-critical
      version of the RFC4108 defined HardwareModuleName.  (from [IDevID]
      section 7.2.9) If the IDevID is stored in a Trusted Platform
      Module (TPM), then this field MAY contain the TPM identification
      rather than the device's serial number.  If both fields are
      present, then the subject field takes precedence.

   and they are used as follows by the pledge to build the "serial-
   number" that is placed in the voucher-request.  In order to build it,
   the fields need to be converted into a serial-number of "type
   string".  The following methods are used depending on the first
   available IDevID certificate field (attempted in this order):

   1.  [RFC4519] section 2.31 provides an example ("WI-3005") of the
       Distinguished Name "serialNumber" attribute, formatted according
       to RFC4514 rules.

   2.  The HardwareModuleName hwSerialNum OCTET STRING, base64 encoded.

2.3.2.  MASA URI extension

   The following newly defined field SHOULD be in the PKIX IDevID
   certificate: A PKIX non-critical certificate extension that contains
   a single Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that points to an on-line
   Manufacturer Authorized Signing Authority.  The URI is represented as
   described in Section 7.4 of [RFC5280].

   Any Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs) MUST be mapped to
   URIs as specified in Section 3.1 of [RFC3987] before they are placed
   in the certificate extension.  The URI provides the authority
   information.  The BRSKI "/.well-known" tree ([RFC5785]) is described
   in Section 5.

   The new extension is identified as follows:












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   <CODE BEGINS>

   MASAURLExtnModule-2016 { iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
   internet(1) security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7)
   id-mod(0) id-mod-MASAURLExtn2016(TBD) }

   DEFINITIONS IMPLICIT TAGS ::= BEGIN

   -- EXPORTS ALL --

   IMPORTS
   EXTENSION
   FROM PKIX-CommonTypes-2009
   { iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1)
   security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0)
   id-mod-pkixCommon-02(57) }

   id-pe
   FROM PKIX1Explicit-2009
   { iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1)
   security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0)
   id-mod-pkix1-explicit-02(51) } ;
   MASACertExtensions EXTENSION ::= { ext-MASAURL, ... }
   ext-MASAURL EXTENSION ::= { SYNTAX MASAURLSyntax
   IDENTIFIED BY id-pe-masa-url }

   id-pe-masa-url OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-pe TBD }

   MASAURLSyntax ::= IA5String

   END

   <CODE ENDS>

   The choice of id-pe is based on guidance found in Section 4.2.2 of
   [RFC5280], "These extensions may be used to direct applications to
   on-line information about the issuer or the subject".  The MASA URL
   is precisely that: online information about the particular subject.

2.4.  Protocol Flow

   A representative flow is shown in Figure 3:









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   +--------+         +---------+    +------------+     +------------+
   | Pledge |         | Circuit |    | Domain     |     | Vendor     |
   |        |         | Join    |    | Registrar  |     | Service    |
   |        |         | Proxy   |    |  (JRC)     |     | (MASA)     |
   +--------+         +---------+    +------------+     +------------+
     |                     |                   |           Internet |
     |<-RFC4862 IPv6 addr  |                   |                    |
     |<-RFC3927 IPv4 addr  | Appendix A        |  Legend            |
     |-------------------->|                   |  C - circuit       |
     | optional: mDNS query| Appendix B        |      join proxy    |
     | RFC6763/RFC6762     |                   |  P - provisional   |
     |<--------------------|                   |    TLS connection  |
     | GRASP M_FLOOD       |                   |                    |
     |   periodic broadcast|                   |                    |
     |<------------------->C<----------------->|                    |
     |              TLS via the Join Proxy     |                    |
     |<--Registrar TLS server authentication---|                    |
   [PROVISIONAL accept of server cert]         |                    |
     P---X.509 client authentication---------->|                    |
     P                     |                   |                    |
     P---Voucher Request (include nonce)------>|                    |
     P                     |       /--->       |                    |
     P                     |       |      [accept device?]          |
     P                     |       |      [contact Vendor]          |
     P                     |       |           |--Pledge ID-------->|
     P                     |       |           |--Domain ID-------->|
     P                     |       |           |--optional:nonce--->|
     P                     |       |           |     [extract DomainID]
     P                     |    optional:      |     [update audit log]
     P                     |       |can        |                    |
     P                     |       |occur      |                    |
     P                     |       |in         |                    |
     P                     |       |advance    |                    |
     P                     |       |if         |                    |
     P                     |       |nonceless  |                    |
     P                     |       |           |<- voucher ---------|
     P                     |       \---->      |                    |
     P<------voucher---------------------------|                    |
   [verify voucher , [verify provisional cert| |                    |
     |---------------------------------------->|                    |
     |      [voucher status telemetry]         |<-device audit log--|
     |                     |       [verify audit log and voucher]   |
     |<--------------------------------------->|                    |
     | Continue with RFC7030 enrollment        |                    |
     | using now bidirectionally authenticated |                    |
     | TLS session.        |                   |                    |

   Figure 3



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2.5.  Architectural Components

2.5.1.  Pledge

   The pledge is the device that is attempting to join.  Until the
   pledge completes the enrollment process, it has link-local network
   connectivity only to the proxy.

2.5.2.  Join Proxy

   The join proxy provides HTTPS connectivity between the pledge and the
   registrar.  A circuit proxy mechanism is described in Section 4, with
   an optional stateless IPIP proxy mechanism described in Appendix C.

2.5.3.  Domain Registrar

   The domain's registrar operates as the BRSKI-MASA client when
   requesting vouchers from the MASA (see Section 5.3).  The registrar
   operates as the BRSKI-EST server when pledges request vouchers (see
   Section 5.1).  The registrar operates as the BRSKI-EST server
   "Registration Authority" if the pledge requests an end entity
   certificate over the BRSKI-EST connection (see Section 5.8).

   The registrar uses an Implicit Trust Anchor database for
   authenticating the BRSKI-MASA TLS connection MASA server certificate.
   The registrar uses a different Implicit Trust Anchor database for
   authenticating the BRSKI-EST TLS connection pledge client
   certificate.  Configuration or distribution of these trust anchor
   databases is out-of-scope of this specification.

2.5.4.  Manufacturer Service

   The Manufacturer Service provides two logically seperate functions:
   the Manufacturer Authorized Signing Authority (MASA) described in
   Section 5.4 and Section 5.5, and an ownership tracking/auditing
   function described in Section 5.6 and Section 5.7.

2.5.5.  Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)

   The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) administers certificates for the
   domain of concerns, providing the trust anchor(s) for it and allowing
   enrollment of pledges with domain certificates.

   The voucher provides a method for the distribution of a single PKI
   trust anchor (as the "pinned-domain-cert").  A distribution of the
   full set of current trust anchors is possible using the optional EST
   integration.




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   The domain's registrar acts as an [RFC5272] Registration Authority,
   requesting certificates for pledges from the Key Infrastructure.

   The expectations of the PKI are unchanged from EST [[RFC7030]].  This
   document does not place any additional architectural requirements on
   the Public Key Infrastructure.

2.6.  Certificate Time Validation

2.6.1.  Lack of realtime clock

   Many devices when bootstrapping do not have knowledge of the current
   time.  Mechanisms such as Network Time Protocols cannot be secured
   until bootstrapping is complete.  Therefore bootstrapping is defined
   in a method that does not require knowledge of the current time.

   Unfortunately there are moments during bootstrapping when
   certificates are verified, such as during the TLS handshake, where
   validity periods are confirmed.  This paradoxical "catch-22" is
   resolved by the pledge maintaining a concept of the current "window"
   of presumed time validity that is continually refined throughout the
   bootstrapping process as follows:

   o  Initially the pledge does not know the current time.

   o  Bootstrapping pledges that have a Realtime Clock (RTC), SHOULD use
      it to verify certificate validity.  However, they MUST be prepared
      for the recognize that the RTC might be completely wrong when a
      RTC battery fails and resets to an origin time (e.g., Jan. 1,
      1970)

   o  If the pledge has any stable storage (such as from where firmware
      is loaded) then it SHOULD assume that the clock CAN NOT be before
      the date at which the firmware or the the storage was last time
      stamped.  The pledge SHOULD NOT update the timestamps in any file
      systems until it has a secure time source.  This provides an
      earliest date which is reasonable.  Call this the current
      reasonable date (CRD).  This value MUST NOT be used for any future
      Registration attempt.  The current reasonable date (CRD) may only
      increase during a single attempt.

   o  The pledge is exposed to dates in the following five places
      (registrar certificate, notBefore and notAfter.  Voucher created-
      on, and expires-on.  Additionally, CMS signatures contain a
      signingTime)

   o  During the initial connection with the registrar, the pledge sees
      the registrar's Certificate.  It has an inception date (notBefore)



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      and an expiry date (notAfter).  It is reasonable that the
      notBefore date be after the pledge's current working reasonable
      date.  It is however, suspicious for the notAfter date to be
      before the pledge's current reasonable date.  No action is
      recommended, other than an internal audit entry for this.

   o  If the notBefore date of the registrar's certificate is newer than
      the pledge's reasonable date, then it MAY update it's current
      reasonable date to the notBefore value.

   o  After the voucher request process, the pledge will have a voucher.
      It can validate the signature on the voucher, as it has been (by
      literal construction) provided with the MASA's key as a trust
      anchor.  The time values (created-on, expires-on) in the voucher
      can not in general be validated as the pledge has no certain real
      time clock.  There are some reasonable assumptions that can be
      made: the voucher's expires-on time can not be prior to the
      pledge's current reasonable date.  For nonceless vouchers, the
      voucher's created-on time COULD be earlier if the as well if a
      long-lived voucher was obtained some time in the past, and the
      pledge has since gone through a firmware update and factory reset.

   o  If the voucher contains a nonce then the pledge MUST confirm the
      nonce matches the original pledge voucher-request.  This ensures
      the voucher is fresh.  See / (Section 5.2).  In that case, the
      voucher's created-on date MUST NOT be prior to the pledge's
      current reasonable date.  In addition, when there is a valid
      nonce, the current reasonable date MAY be incremented to that of
      the CMS signingTime.

   o  Once the voucher is accepted the validity period of the pinned-
      domain-cert in the voucher now serves as a valid time window.  As
      explained in Section 5.4.4, the MASA has checked the registrar's
      certificate against real clocks , the endorsement of the MASA
      allows the pledge to treat the notBefore and notAfter dates as
      being constraints on any subsequent certificate validity periods
      that may need to be checked: for instance, validating peer
      certificates during ANIMA ACP setup.

   o  When accepting an enrollment certificate the validity period
      within the new certificate is assumed to be valid by the pledge.
      The pledge is now willing to use this credential for client
      authentication.








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2.6.2.  Infinite Lifetime of IDevID

   [RFC5280] explains that long lived pledge certificates "SHOULD be
   assigned the GeneralizedTime value of 99991231235959Z".  Registrars
   MUST support such lifetimes and SHOULD support ignoring pledge
   lifetimes if they did not follow the RFC5280 recommendations.

   For example, IDevID may have incorrect lifetime of N <= 3 years,
   rendering replacement pledges from storage useless after N years
   unless registrars support ignoring such a lifetime.

2.7.  Cloud Registrar

   There exist operationally open network wherein devices gain
   unauthenticated access to the internet at large.  In these use cases
   the management domain for the device needs to be discovered within
   the larger internet.  These are less likely within the anima scope
   but may be more important in the future.

   There are additionally some greenfield situations involving an
   entirely new installation where a device may have some kind of
   management uplink that it can use (such as via 3G network for
   instance).  In such a future situation, the device might use this
   management interface to learn that it should configure itself by to-
   be-determined mechanism (such as an Intent) to become the local
   registrar.

   In order to support these scenarios, the pledge MAY contact a well
   known URI of a cloud registrar if a local registrar cannot be
   discovered or if the pledge's target use cases do not include a local
   registrar.

   If the pledge uses a well known URI for contacting a cloud registrar
   an Implicit Trust Anchor database (see [RFC7030]) MUST be used to
   authenticate service as described in [RFC6125].  This is consistent
   with the human user configuration of an EST server URI in [RFC7030]
   which also depends on RFC6125.

2.8.  Determining the MASA to contact

   The registrar needs to be able to contact a MASA that is trusted by
   the pledge in order to obtain vouchers.  There are three mechanisms
   described:

   The device's Initial Device Identifier will normally contain the MASA
   URL as detailed in Section 2.3.  This is the RECOMMENDED mechanism.





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   If the registrar is integrated with [I-D.ietf-opsawg-mud] and the
   pledge IDevID contains the id-pe-mud-url then the registrar MAY
   attempt to obtain the MASA URL from the MUD file.  The MUD file
   extension for the MASA URL is defined in Appendix D.

   It can be operationally difficult to ensure the necessary X.509
   extensions are in the pledge's IDevID due to the difficulty of
   aligning current pledge manufacturing with software releases and
   development.  As a final fallback the registrar MAY be manually
   configured or distributed with a MASA URL for each manufacturer.
   Note that the registrar can only select the configured MASA URL based
   on the trust anchor -- so manufacturers can only leverage this
   approach if they ensure a single MASA URL works for all pledge's
   associated with each trust anchor.

3.  Voucher-Request artifact

   Voucher-requests are how vouchers are requested.  The semantics of
   the vouchers are described below, in the YANG model.

   A pledge forms the "pledge voucher-request" and submits it to the
   registrar.

   The registrar in turn forms the "registrar voucher-request", and
   submits it to the MASA server.

   The "proximity-registrar-cert" leaf is used in the pledge voucher-
   requests.  This provides a method for the pledge to assert the
   registrar's proximity.

   The "prior-signed-voucher-request" leaf is used in registrar voucher-
   requests.  If present, it is the encoded (signed form) of the pledge
   voucher-request.  This provides a method for the registrar to forward
   the pledge's signed request to the MASA.  This completes transmission
   of the signed "proximity-registrar-cert" leaf.

   A registrar MAY also retrieve nonceless vouchers by sending nonceless
   voucher-requests to the MASA in order to obtain vouchers for use when
   the registrar does not have connectivity to the MASA.  No "prior-
   signed-voucher-request" leaf would be included.  The registrar will
   also need to know the serial number of the pledge.  This document
   does not provide a mechanism for the registrar to learn that in an
   automated fashion.  Typically this will be done via scanning of bar-
   code or QR-code on packaging, or via some sales channel integration.

   Unless otherwise signaled (outside the voucher-request artifact), the
   signing structure is as defined for vouchers, see
   [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher].



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3.1.  Tree Diagram

   The following tree diagram illustrates a high-level view of a
   voucher-request document.  The notation used in this diagram is
   described in [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher].  Each node in the diagram is
   fully described by the YANG module in Section 3.3.  Please review the
   YANG module for a detailed description of the voucher-request format.

   module: ietf-voucher-request

     grouping voucher-request-grouping
       +---- voucher
          +---- created-on?                      yang:date-and-time
          +---- expires-on?                      yang:date-and-time
          +---- assertion                        enumeration
          +---- serial-number                    string
          +---- idevid-issuer?                   binary
          +---- pinned-domain-cert?              binary
          +---- domain-cert-revocation-checks?   boolean
          +---- nonce?                           binary
          +---- last-renewal-date?               yang:date-and-time
          +---- prior-signed-voucher-request?    binary
          +---- proximity-registrar-cert?        binary

3.2.  Examples

   This section provides voucher-request examples for illustration
   purposes.  These examples conform to the encoding rules defined in
   [RFC7951].

   Example (1)  The following example illustrates a pledge voucher-
                request.  The assertion leaf is indicated as 'proximity'
                and the registrar's TLS server certificate is included
                in the 'proximity-registrar-cert' leaf.  See
                Section 5.2.

   {
       "ietf-voucher-request:voucher": {
           "nonce": "62a2e7693d82fcda2624de58fb6722e5",
           "created-on": "2017-01-01T00:00:00.000Z",
           "assertion": "proximity",
           "proximity-registrar-cert": "base64encodedvalue=="
       }
   }

   Example (2)  The following example illustrates a registrar voucher-
                request.  The 'prior-signed-voucher-request' leaf is
                populated with the pledge's voucher-request (such as the



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                prior example).  The pledge's voucher-request, if a
                signed artifact with a CMS format signature is a binary
                object.  In the JSON encoding used here it must be
                base64 encoded.  The nonce, created-on and assertion is
                carried forward.  The serial-number is extracted from
                the pledge's Client Certificate from the TLS connection.
                See Section 5.4.

   {
       "ietf-voucher-request:voucher": {
           "nonce": "62a2e7693d82fcda2624de58fb6722e5",
           "created-on": "2017-01-01T00:00:02.000Z",
           "assertion": "proximity",
           "idevid-issuer": "base64encodedvalue=="
           "serial-number": "JADA123456789"
           "prior-signed-voucher": "base64encodedvalue=="
       }
   }

   Example (3)  The following example illustrates a registrar voucher-
                request.  The 'prior-signed-voucher-request' leaf is not
                populated with the pledge's voucher-request nor is the
                nonce leaf.  This form might be used by a registrar
                requesting a voucher when the pledge can not communicate
                with the registrar (such as when it is powered down, or
                still in packaging), and therefore could not submit a
                nonce.  This scenario is most useful when the registrar
                is aware that it will not be able to reach the MASA
                during deployment.  See Section 5.4.

   {
       "ietf-voucher-request:voucher": {
           "created-on": "2017-01-01T00:00:02.000Z",
           "assertion": "TBD",
           "idevid-issuer": "base64encodedvalue=="
           "serial-number": "JADA123456789"
       }
   }

   Example (4)  The following example illustrates a registrar voucher-
                request.  The 'prior-signed-voucher-request' leaf is not
                populated with the pledge voucher-request because the
                pledge did not sign its own request.  This form might be
                used when more constrained pledges are being deployed.
                The nonce is populated from the pledge's request.  See
                Section 5.4.





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   {
       "ietf-voucher-request:voucher": {
           "nonce": "62a2e7693d82fcda2624de58fb6722e5",
           "created-on": "2017-01-01T00:00:02.000Z",
           "assertion": "proximity",
           "idevid-issuer": "base64encodedvalue=="
           "serial-number": "JADA123456789"
       }
   }

3.3.  YANG Module

   Following is a YANG [RFC7950] module formally extending the
   [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher] voucher into a voucher-request.

<CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-voucher-request@2018-02-14.yang"
module ietf-voucher-request {
  yang-version 1.1;

  namespace
    "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-voucher-request";
  prefix "vch";

  import ietf-restconf {
    prefix rc;
    description "This import statement is only present to access
       the yang-data extension defined in RFC 8040.";
    reference "RFC 8040: RESTCONF Protocol";
  }

  import ietf-voucher {
    prefix v;
    description "This module defines the format for a voucher,
        which is produced by a pledge's manufacturer or
        delegate (MASA) to securely assign a pledge to
        an 'owner', so that the pledge may establish a secure
        conn ection to the owner's network infrastructure";

    reference "RFC YYYY: Voucher Profile for Bootstrapping Protocols";
  }

  organization
   "IETF ANIMA Working Group";

  contact
   "WG Web:   <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/anima/>
    WG List:  <mailto:anima@ietf.org>
    Author:   Kent Watsen



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              <mailto:kwatsen@juniper.net>
    Author:   Max Pritikin
              <mailto:pritikin@cisco.com>
    Author:   Michael Richardson
              <mailto:mcr+ietf@sandelman.ca>
    Author:   Toerless Eckert
              <mailto:tte+ietf@cs.fau.de>";

  description
   "This module module defines the format for a voucher request.
    It is a superset of the voucher itself.
    This artifact may be optionally signed.
    It provides content to the MASA for consideration
    during a voucher request.

    The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL NOT',
    'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in
    the module text are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

    Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
    authors of the code. All rights reserved.

    Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
    modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to the license
    terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License set forth in Section
    4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
    (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

    This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX; see the RFC
    itself for full legal notices.";

  revision "2018-02-14" {
    description
     "Initial version";
    reference
     "RFC XXXX: Voucher Profile for Bootstrapping Protocols";
  }

  // Top-level statement
  rc:yang-data voucher-request-artifact {
    uses voucher-request-grouping;
  }

  // Grouping defined for future usage
  grouping voucher-request-grouping {
    description
      "Grouping to allow reuse/extensions in future work.";




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    uses v:voucher-artifact-grouping {
      refine "voucher/created-on" {
        mandatory false;
      }

      refine "voucher/pinned-domain-cert" {
        mandatory false;
      }

      augment "voucher"  {
        description
          "Adds leaf nodes appropriate for requesting vouchers.";

        leaf prior-signed-voucher-request {
          type binary;
          description
            "If it is necessary to change a voucher, or re-sign and
             forward a voucher that was previously provided along a
             protocol path, then the previously signed voucher SHOULD be
             included in this field.

             For example, a pledge might sign a proximity voucher, which
             an intermediate registrar then re-signs to make its own
             proximity assertion.  This is a simple mechanism for a
             chain of trusted parties to change a voucher, while
             maintaining the prior signature information.

             The pledge MUST ignore all prior voucher information when
             accepting a voucher for imprinting. Other parties MAY
             examine the prior signed voucher information for the
             purposes of policy decisions. For example this information
             could be useful to a MASA to determine that both pledge and
             registrar agree on proximity assertions. The MASA SHOULD
             remove all prior-signed-voucher-request information when
             signing a voucher for imprinting so as to minimize the
             final voucher size.";
        }

        leaf proximity-registrar-cert {
          type binary;
          description
            "An X.509 v3 certificate structure as specified by RFC 5280,
             Section 4 encoded using the ASN.1 distinguished encoding
             rules (DER), as specified in ITU-T X.690.

             The first certificate in the Registrar TLS server
             certificate_list sequence  (see [RFC5246]) presented by
             the Registrar to the Pledge. This MUST be populated in a



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             Pledge's voucher request if the proximity assertion is
             populated.";
        }
      }
    }
  }

}

<CODE ENDS>

4.  Proxying details (Pledge - Proxy - Registrar)

   The role of the proxy is to facilitate communications.  The proxy
   forwards packets between the pledge and a registrar that has been
   provisioned to the proxy via GRASP discovery.

   This section defines a stateful proxy mechanism which is refered to
   as a "circuit" proxy.

   The proxy does not terminate the TLS handshake: it passes streams of
   bytes onward without examination.

   A proxy MAY assume TLS framing for auditing purposes, but MUST NOT
   assume any TLS version.

   Registrars are assumed to have logically a locally integrated circuit
   proxy to support directly (subnet) connected pledges - because
   registrars themself does not define any functions for pledges to
   discover them.  Such a logical local proxy does not need to provide
   actual TCP proxying (just discovery) as long as the registrar can
   operate with subnet (link) local addresses on the interfaces where
   pledges may connect to.

   As a result of the proxy Discovery process in Section 4.1.1, the port
   number exposed by the proxy does not need to be well known, or
   require an IANA allocation.

   In the ANI, the Autonomic Control Plane (ACP) secured instance of
   GRASP ([I-D.ietf-anima-grasp]) MUST be used for discovery of ANI
   registrar ACP addresses and ports by ANI proxies.  The TCP leg of the
   proxy connection between ANI proxy and ANI registrar therefore also
   runs across the ACP.

   During the discovery of the Registrar by the Join Proxy, the Join
   Proxy will also learn which kinds of proxy mechanisms are available.
   This will allow the Join Proxy to use the lowest impact mechanism
   which the Join Proxy and Registrar have in common.



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   For the IPIP encapsulation methods (described in Appendix C), the
   port announced by the proxy SHOULD be the same as on the registrar in
   order for the proxy to remain stateless.

   In order to permit the proxy functionality to be implemented on the
   maximum variety of devices the chosen mechanism SHOULD use the
   minimum amount of state on the proxy device.  While many devices in
   the ANIMA target space will be rather large routers, the proxy
   function is likely to be implemented in the control plane CPU of such
   a device, with available capabilities for the proxy function similar
   to many class 2 IoT devices.

   The document [I-D.richardson-anima-state-for-joinrouter] provides a
   more extensive analysis and background of the alternative proxy
   methods.

4.1.  Pledge discovery of Proxy

   The result of discovery is a logical communication with a registrar,
   through a proxy.  The proxy is transparent to the pledge but is
   always assumed to exist.

   To discover the proxy the pledge performs the following actions:

   1.  MUST: Obtains a local address using IPv6 methods as described in
       [RFC4862] IPv6 Stateless Address AutoConfiguration.  Use of
       [RFC4941] temporary addresses is encouraged.  A new temporary
       address SHOULD be allocated whenever the discovery process is
       forced to restart due to failures.  Pledges will generally prefer
       use of IPv6 Link-Local addresses, and discovery of proxy will be
       by Link-Local mechanisms.  IPv4 methods are described in
       Appendix A

   2.  MUST: Listen for GRASP M_FLOOD ([I-D.ietf-anima-grasp])
       announcements of the objective: "AN_Proxy".  See section
       Section 4.1.1 for the details of the objective.  The pledge MAY
       listen concurrently for other sources of information, see
       Appendix B.

   Once a proxy is discovered the pledge communicates with a registrar
   through the proxy using the bootstrapping protocol defined in
   Section 5.

   While the GRASP M_FLOOD mechanism is passive for the pledge, the
   optional other methods (mDNS, and IPv4 methods) are active.  The
   pledge SHOULD run those methods in parallel with listening to for the
   M_FLOOD.  The active methods SHOULD exponentially back-off to a
   maximum of one hour to avoid overloading the network with discovery



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   attempts.  Detection of change of physical link status (ethernet
   carrier for instance) SHOULD reset the exponential back off.

   The pledge could discover more than one proxy on a given physical
   interface.  The pledge can have a multitude of physical interfaces as
   well: a layer-2/3 ethernet switch may have hundreds of physical
   ports.

   Each possible proxy offer SHOULD be attempted up to the point where a
   voucher is received: while there are many ways in which the attempt
   may fail, it does not succeed until the voucher has been validated.

   The connection attempts via a single proxy SHOULD exponentially back-
   off to a maximum of one hour to avoid overloading the network
   infrastructure.  The back-off timer for each MUST be independent of
   other connection attempts.

   Connection attempts SHOULD be run in parallel to avoid head of queue
   problems wherein an attacker running a fake proxy or registrar could
   perform protocol actions intentionally slowly.  The pledge SHOULD
   continue to listen to for additional GRASP M_FLOOD messages during
   the connection attempts.

   Once a connection to a registrar is established (e.g. establishment
   of a TLS session key) there are expectations of more timely
   responses, see Section 5.2.

   Once all discovered services are attempted (assuming that none
   succeeded) the device MUST return to listening for GRASP M_FLOOD.  It
   SHOULD periodically retry the manufacturer specific mechanisms.  The
   pledge MAY prioritize selection order as appropriate for the
   anticipated environment.

4.1.1.  Proxy GRASP announcements

   A proxy uses the DULL GRASP M_FLOOD mechanism to announce itself.
   This announcement can be within the same message as the ACP
   announcement detailed in [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane].
   The M_FLOOD is formatted as follows:

  [M_FLOOD, 12340815, h'fe800000000000000000000000000001', 180000,
              ["AN_Proxy", 4, 1, ""],
              [O_IPv6_LOCATOR,
                h'fe800000000000000000000000000001', IPPROTO_TCP, 4443]]

   Figure 6b: Proxy Discovery

   The formal CDDL definition is:



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   flood-message = [M_FLOOD, session-id, initiator, ttl,
                    +[objective, (locator-option / [])]]

   objective = ["AN_Proxy", objective-flags, loop-count,
                                          objective-value]

   ttl             = 180000     ; 180,000 ms (3 minutes)
   initiator = ACP address to contact Registrar
   objective-flags = sync-only  ; as in GRASP spec
   sync-only       =  4         ; M_FLOOD only requires synchronization
   loop-count      =  1         ; one hop only
   objective-value =  any         ; none

   locator         = [ O_IPv6_LOCATOR, ipv6-address,
                       transport-proto, port-number ]
   ipv6-address     = the v6 LL of the Proxy
   transport-proto  = IPPROTO_TCP / IPPROTO_UDP / IPPROTO_IPV6
   port-number      = selected by Proxy

   Figure 6c: AN_Proxy CDDL

4.2.  CoAP connection to Registrar

   The use of CoAP to connect from pledge to registrar is out of scope
   for this document, and may be described in future work.

4.3.  Proxy discovery of Registrar

   The registrar SHOULD announce itself so that proxies can find it and
   determine what kind of connections can be terminated.

   The registrar announces itself using ACP instance of GRASP using
   M_FLOOD messages.  They MUST support ANI TLS circuit proxy and
   therefore BRSKI across HTTPS/TLS native across the ACP.  ANI
   registrars MAY support the IPIP proxy method by implementing IPIP
   tunneling for their HTTPS/TLS traffic across the ACP.  ANI proxies
   MUST support GRASP discovery of registrars.

   The M_FLOOD is formatted as follows:

   [M_FLOOD, 12340815, h'fda379a6f6ee00000200000064000001', 180000,
               ["AN_join_registrar", 4, 255, "EST-TLS"],
               [O_IPv6_LOCATOR,
                 h'fda379a6f6ee00000200000064000001', IPPROTO_TCP, 80]]

   Figure 7a: Registrar Discovery

   The formal CDDL definition is:



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   flood-message = [M_FLOOD, session-id, initiator, ttl,
                    +[objective, (locator-option / [])]]

   objective = ["AN_join_registrar", objective-flags, loop-count,
                                          objective-value]

   initiator = ACP address to contact Registrar
   objective-flags = sync-only  ; as in GRASP spec
   sync-only =  4               ; M_FLOOD only requires synchronization
   loop-count      = 255        ; mandatory maximum
   objective-value = text       ; name of the (list of) of supported
                                ; protocols: "EST-TLS" for RFC7030.

   Figure 7: AN_join_registrar CDDL

   The M_FLOOD message MUST be sent periodically.  The period is subject
   to network administrator policy (EST server configuration).  It must
   be sufficiently low that the aggregate amount of periodic M_FLOODs
   from all EST servers causes negligible traffic across the ACP.

   The locators are to be interpreted as follows:

   locator1  = [O_IPv6_LOCATOR, fd45:1345::6789, 6,  443]
   locator2  = [O_IPv6_LOCATOR, fd45:1345::6789, 17, 5683]
   locator3  = [O_IPv6_LOCATOR, fe80::1234, 41, nil]

   A protocol of 6 indicates that TCP proxying on the indicated port is
   desired.  A protocol of 17 indicates that UDP proxying on the
   indicated port is desired.  In each case, the traffic SHOULD be
   proxied to the same port at the ULA address provided.

   A protocol of 41 indicates that packets may be IPIP proxy'ed.  In the
   case of that IPIP proxying is used, then the provided link-local
   address MUST be advertised on the local link using proxy neighbour
   discovery.  The proxy MAY limit forwarded traffic to the protocol (6
   and 17) and port numbers indicated by locator1 and locator2.  The
   address to which the IPIP traffic should be sent is the initiator
   address (an ACP address of the registrar), not the address given in
   the locator.

   Registrars MUST accept TCP / UDP traffic on the ports given at the
   ACP address of the registrar.  If the registrar supports IPIP
   tunnelling, it MUST also accept traffic encapsulated with IPIP.

   Registrars MUST accept HTTPS/EST traffic on the TCP ports indicated.
   Registrars MAY accept DTLS/CoAP/EST traffic on the UDP ports, in
   addition to TCP traffic.




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5.  Protocol Details (Pledge - Registrar - MASA)

   The pledge MUST initiate BRSKI after boot if it is unconfigured.  The
   pledge MUST NOT automatically initiate BRSKI if it has been
   configured or is in the process of being configured.

   BRSKI is described as extensions to EST [RFC7030].  The goal of these
   extensions is to reduce the number of TLS connections and crypto
   operations required on the pledge.  The registrar implements the
   BRSKI REST interface within the same "/.well-known" URI tree as the
   existing EST URIs as described in EST [RFC7030] section 3.2.2.  The
   communication channel between the pledge and the registrar is
   referred to as "BRSKI-EST" (see Figure 1).

   The communication channel between the registrar and MASA is similarly
   described as extensions to EST within the same "/.well-known" tree.
   For clarity this channel is referred to as "BRSKI-MASA".  (See
   Figure 1).

   MASA URI is "https://" authority "/.well-known/est".

   BRSKI uses existing CMS message formats for existing EST operations.
   BRSKI uses JSON [RFC7159] for all new operations defined here, and
   voucher formats.

   While EST section 3.2 does not insist upon use of HTTP 1.1 persistent
   connections, BRSKI-EST connections SHOULD use persistent connections.
   The intention of this guidance is to ensure the provisional TLS state
   occurs only once, and that the subsequent resolution of the provision
   state is not subject to a MITM attack during a critical phase.

   Summarized automation extensions for the BRSKI-EST flow are:

   o  The pledge provisionally accepts the registrar certificate during
      the TLS handshake as detailed in Section 5.1.

   o  The pledge either attempts concurrent connections, or it times out
      quickly and tries connections in series.

   o  The pledge requests and validates a voucher using the new REST
      calls described below.

   o  The pledge completes authentication of the server certificate as
      detailed in Section 5.5.1.  This moves the BRSKI-EST TLS
      connection out of the provisional state.

   o  Mandatory boostrap steps conclude with voucher status telemetry
      (see Section 5.6).



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   The BRSKI-EST TLS connection can now be used for EST enrollment.

   The extensions for a registrar (equivalent to EST server) are:

   o  Client authentication is automated using Initial Device Identity
      (IDevID) as per the EST certificate based client authentication.
      The subject field's DN encoding MUST include the "serialNumber"
      attribute with the device's unique serial number.

   o  In the language of [RFC6125] this provides for a SERIALNUM-ID
      category of identifier that can be included in a certificate and
      therefore that can also be used for matching purposes.  The
      SERIALNUM-ID whitelist is collated according to manufacturer trust
      anchor since serial numbers are not globally unique.

   o  The registrar requests and validates the voucher from the MASA.

   o  The registrar forwards the voucher to the pledge when requested.

   o  The registrar performs log verifications in addition to local
      authorization checks before accepting optional pledge device
      enrollment requests.

5.1.  BRSKI-EST TLS establishment details

   The pledge establishes the TLS connection with the registrar through
   the circuit proxy (see Section 4) but the TLS handshake is with the
   registrar.  The BRSKI-EST pledge is the TLS client and the BRSKI-EST
   registrar is the TLS server.  All security associations established
   are between the pledge and the registrar regardless of proxy
   operations.

   Establishment of the BRSKI-EST TLS connection is as specified in EST
   [RFC7030] section 4.1.1 "Bootstrap Distribution of CA Certificates"
   [RFC7030] wherein the client is authenticated with the IDevID
   certificate, and the EST server (the registrar) is provisionally
   authenticated with an unverified server certificate.

   The pledge maintains a security paranoia concerning the provisional
   state, and all data received, until a voucher is received and
   verified as specified in Section 5.5.1

   To avoid blocking on a single erroneous registrar the pledge MUST
   drop the connection after 5 seconds in which there has been no
   progress on the TCP connection.  It should proceed to connect to any
   other registrar's via any other discovered proxies if there are any.
   If there were no other proxies discovered, the pledge MAY continue to




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   wait, as long as it is concurrently listening for new proxy
   announcements.

5.2.  Pledge Requests Voucher from the Registrar

   When the pledge bootstraps it makes a request for a voucher from a
   registrar.

   This is done with an HTTPS POST using the operation path value of
   "/.well-known/est/requestvoucher".

   The request media types are:

   application/voucher-cms+json  The request is a "YANG-defined JSON
      document that has been signed using a CMS structure" as described
      in Section 3 using the JSON encoding described in [RFC7951].  The
      pledge SHOULD sign the request using the Section 2.3 credential.

   application/json  The request is the "YANG-defined JSON document" as
      described in Section 3 with the exception that it is not within a
      CMS structure.  It is protected only by the TLS client
      authentication.  This reduces the cryptographic requirements on
      the pledge.

   For simplicity the term 'voucher-request' is used to refer to either
   of these media types.  Registrar impementations SHOULD anticipate
   future media types but of course will simply fail the request if
   those types are not yet known.

   The pledge populates the voucher-request fields as follows:

   created-on:  Pledges that have a realtime clock are RECOMMENDED to
      populate this field.  This provides additional information to the
      MASA.

   nonce:  The pledge voucher-request MUST contain a cryptographically
      strong random or pseudo-random number nonce.  Doing so ensures
      Section 2.6.1 functionality.  The nonce MUST NOT be reused for
      multiple bootstrapping attempts.

   assertion:  The pledge voucher-request MAY contain an assertion of
      "proximity".

   proximity-registrar-cert:  In a pledge voucher-request this is the
      first certificate in the TLS server 'certificate_list' sequence
      (see [RFC5246]) presented by the registrar to the pledge.  This
      MUST be populated in a pledge voucher-request if the "proximity"
      assertion is populated.



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   All other fields MAY be omitted in the pledge voucher-request.

   An example JSON payload of a pledge voucher-request is in Section 3.2
   Example 1.

   The registrar validates the client identity as described in EST
   [RFC7030] section 3.3.2.  If the request is signed the registrar
   confirms that the 'proximity' asserion and associated 'proximity-
   registrar-cert' are correct.  The registrar performs authorization as
   detailed in [[EDNOTE: UNRESOLVED.  See Appendix D "Pledge
   Authorization"]].  If these validations fail the registrar SHOULD
   respond with an appropriate HTTP error code.

   If authorization is successful the registrar obtains a voucher from
   the MASA service (see Section 5.4) and returns that MASA signed
   voucher to the pledge as described in Section 5.5.

5.3.  BRSKI-MASA TLS establishment details

   The BRSKI-MASA TLS connection is a 'normal' TLS connection
   appropriate for HTTPS REST interfaces.  The registrar initiates the
   connection and uses the MASA URL obtained as described in Section 2.8
   for [RFC6125] authentication of the MASA server.

   The primary method of registrar "authentication" by the MASA is
   detailed in Section 5.4.  As detailed in Section 9 the MASA might
   find it necessary to request additional registrar authentication.

   The MASA and the registrars SHOULD be prepared to support TLS client
   certificate authentication and/or HTTP Basic or Digest authentication
   as described in RFC7030 for EST clients.  This connection MAY also
   have no client authentication at all (Section 6.4)

   The authentication of the BRSKI-MASA connection does not affect the
   voucher-request process, as voucher-requests are already signed by
   the registrar.  Instead, this authentication provides access control
   to the audit log.

   Implementors are advised that contacting the MASA is to establish a
   secured REST connection with a web service and that there are a
   number of authentication models being explored within the industry.
   Registrars are RECOMMENDED to fail gracefully and generate useful
   administrative notifications or logs in the advent of unexpected HTTP
   401 (Unauthorized) responses from the MASA.







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5.4.  Registrar Requests Voucher from MASA

   When a registrar receives a pledge voucher-request it in turn submits
   a registrar voucher-request to the MASA service via an HTTPS RESTful
   interface ([RFC7231]).

   This is done with an HTTP POST using the operation path value of
   "/.well-known/est/requestvoucher".

   The request media type is defined in [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher] and is
   application/voucher-cms+json.  It is a JSON document that has been
   signed using a CMS structure.  The registrar MUST sign the registrar
   voucher-request.  The entire registrar certificate chain, up to and
   including the Domain CA, MUST be included in the CMS structure.

   MASA impementations SHOULD anticipate future media types but of
   course will simply fail the request if those types are not yet known.

   The registrar populates the voucher-request fields as follows:

   created-on:  Registrars are RECOMMENDED to populate this field.  This
      provides additional information to the MASA.

   nonce:  The optional nonce value from the pledge request if desired
      (see below).

   serial-number:  The serial number of the pledge the registrar would
      like a voucher for.  The registrar determines this value by
      parsing the authenticated pledge IDevID certificate.  See
      Section 2.3.  The registrar SHOULD verify that the serial number
      field it parsed matches the serial number field the pledge
      provided in its voucher-request.  This provides a sanity check
      useful for detecting error conditions and logging.  The registrar
      MUST NOT simply copy the serial number field from a pledge voucher
      request as that field is claimed but not certified.

   idevid-issuer:  The idevid-issuer value from the pledge certificate
      is included to ensure a statistically unique identity.

   prior-signed-voucher-request:  If a signed pledge voucher-request was
      received then it SHOULD be included in the registrar voucher-
      request.  (NOTE: what is included is the complete pledge voucher-
      request, inclusive of the 'assertion', 'proximity-registrar-cert',
      etc wrapped by the pledge's original signature).  If a signed
      voucher-request was not recieved from the pledge then this leaf is
      omitted from the registrar voucher request.





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   A nonceless registrar voucher-request MAY be submitted to the MASA.
   Doing so allows the registrar to request a voucher when the pledge is
   offline, or when the registrar anticipates not being able to connect
   to the MASA while the pledge is being deployed.  Some use cases
   require the registrar to learn the appropriate IDevID SerialNumber
   field from the physical device labeling or from the sales channel
   (out-of-scope for this document).

   All other fields MAY be omitted in the registrar voucher-request.

   Example JSON payloads of registrar voucher-requests are in
   Section 3.2 Examples 2 through 4.

   The MASA verifies that the registrar voucher-request is internally
   consistent but does not necessarily authenticate the registrar
   certificate since the registrar is not known to the MASA server in
   advance.  The MASA performs the actions and validation checks
   described in the following sub-sections before issuing a voucher.

5.4.1.  MASA renewal of expired vouchers

   As described in [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher] vouchers are normally short
   lived to avoid revocation issues.  If the request is for a previous
   (expired) voucher using the same registrar then the request for a
   renewed voucher SHOULD be automatically authorized.  The MASA has
   sufficient information to determine this by examining the request,
   the registrar authentication, and the existing audit log.  The
   issuance of a renewed voucher is logged as detailed in Section 5.5.

   To inform the MASA that existing vouchers are not to be renewed one
   can update or revoke the registrar credentials used to authorize the
   request (see Section 5.4.3 and Section 5.4.4).  More flexible methods
   will likely involve sales channel integration and authorizations
   (details are out-of-scope of this document).

5.4.2.  MASA verification of voucher-request signature consistency

   The MASA MUST verify that the registrar voucher-request is signed by
   a registrar.  This is confirmed by verifying that the id-kp-cmcRA
   extended key usage extension field (as detailed in EST RFC7030
   section 3.6.1) exists in the certificate of the entity that signed
   the registrar voucher-request.  This verification is only a
   consistency check that the unauthenticated domain CA intended the
   voucher-request signer to be a registrar.  Performing this check
   provides value to the domain PKI by assuring the domain administrator
   that the MASA service will only respect claims from authorized
   Registration Authorities of the domain.




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   The MASA verifies that the domain CA certificate is included in the
   CMS structure as detailed in Section 5.4.

5.4.3.  MASA authentication of registrar (certificate)

   If a nonceless voucher-request is submitted the MASA server MUST
   authenticate the registrar as described in either EST [RFC7030]
   section 3.2, section 3.3, or by validating the registrar's
   certificate used to sign the registrar voucher-request.  Any of these
   methods reduce the risk of DDoS attacks and provide an authenticated
   identity as an input to sales channel integration and authorizations
   (details are out-of-scope of this document).

   In the nonced case, validation of the registrar MAY be omitted if the
   device policy is to accept audit-only vouchers.

5.4.4.  MASA revocation checking of registrar (certificate)

   As noted in Section 5.4.3 the MASA performs registrar authentication
   in a subset of situations (e.g. nonceless voucher requests).  Normal
   PKIX revocation checking is assumed during either EST client
   authentication or voucher-request signature validation.  Similarly,
   as noted in Section 5.4.2, the MASA performs normal PKIX revocation
   checking during signature consistency checks (a signature by a
   registrar certificate that has been revoked is an inconsistency).

5.4.5.  MASA verification of pledge prior-signed-voucher-request

   The MASA server MAY verify that the registrar voucher-request
   includes the 'prior-signed-voucher-request' field.  If so the prior-
   signed-voucher-request MUST include a 'proximity-registrar-cert' that
   is consistent with the certificate used to sign the registrar
   voucher-request.  Additionally the voucher-request serial-number leaf
   MUST match the pledge serial-number that the MASA extracts from the
   signing certificate of the prior-signed-voucher-request.  The MASA
   server is aware of which pledges support signing of their voucher
   requests and can use this information to confirm proximity of the
   pledge with the registrar, thus ensuring that the BRSKI-EST TLS
   connection has no man-in-the-middle.

   If these checks succeed the MASA updates the voucher and audit log
   assertion leafs with the "proximity" assertion.

5.4.6.  MASA pinning of registrar

   The registrar's certificate chain is extracted from the signature
   method.  The chain includes the domain CA certificate as specified in
   Section 5.4.  This certificate is used to populate the "pinned-



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   domain-cert" of the voucher being issued.  The domainID (e.g., hash
   of the root public key) is determined from the pinned-domain-cert and
   is used to update the audit log.

5.4.7.  MASA nonce handling

   The MASA does not verify the nonce itself.  It MAY perform a simple
   consistency check: If the registrar voucher-request contains a nonce
   and the prior-signed-voucher-request exists then the nonce in both
   MUST be consistent.  (Recall from above that the voucher-request
   might not contain a nonce, see Section 5.4 and Section 5.4.3).

   The MASA MUST use the nonce from the registrar voucher-request for
   the resulting voucher and audit log.  The prior-signed-voucher-
   request nonce is ignored during this operation.

5.5.  MASA and Registrar Voucher Response

   The MASA voucher response to the registrar is forwarded without
   changes to the pledge; therefore this section applies to both the
   MASA and the registrar.  The HTTP signaling described applies to both
   the MASA and registrar responses.  A registrar either caches prior
   MASA responses or dynamically requests a new voucher based on local
   policy (it does not generate or sign a voucher).

   If the voucher-request is successful, the server (MASA responding to
   registrar or registrar responding to pledge) response MUST contain an
   HTTP 200 response code.  The server MUST answer with a suitable 4xx
   or 5xx HTTP [RFC2616] error code when a problem occurs.  In this
   case, the response data from the MASA server MUST be a plaintext
   human-readable (ASCII, English) error message containing explanatory
   information describing why the request was rejected.

   The registrar MAY respond with an HTTP 202 ("the request has been
   accepted for processing, but the processing has not been completed")
   as described in EST [RFC7030] section 4.2.3 wherein the client "MUST
   wait at least the specified 'Retry-After' time before repeating the
   same request".  (see [RFC7231] section 6.6.4) The pledge is
   RECOMMENDED to provide local feedback (blinked LED etc) during this
   wait cycle if mechanisms for this are available.  To prevent an
   attacker registrar from significantly delaying bootstrapping the
   pledge MUST limit the 'Retry-After' time to 60 seconds.  Ideally the
   pledge would keep track of the appropriate Retry-After header values
   for any number of outstanding registrars but this would involve a
   state table on the pledge.  Instead the pledge MAY ignore the exact
   Retry-After value in favor of a single hard coded value.  A registrar
   that is unable to complete the transaction the first time due to
   timing reasons will have future chances.



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   In order to avoid infinite redirect loops, which a malicious
   registrar might do in order to keep the pledge from discovering the
   correct registrar, the pledge MUST NOT follow more than one
   redirection (3xx code) to another web origins.  EST supports
   redirection but requires user input; this change allows the pledge to
   follow a single redirection without a user interaction.

   A 403 (Forbidden) response is appropriate if the voucher-request is
   not signed correctly, stale, or if the pledge has another outstanding
   voucher that cannot be overridden.

   A 404 (Not Found) response is appropriate when the request is for a
   device that is not known to the MASA.

   A 406 (Not Acceptable) response is appropriate if a voucher of the
   desired type or using the desired algorithms (as indicated by the
   Accept: headers, and algorithms used in the signature) cannot be
   issued such as because the MASA knows the pledge cannot process that
   type.  The registrar SHOULD use this response if it determines the
   pledge is unacceptable due to inventory control, MASA audit logs, or
   any other reason.

   A 415 (Unsupported Media Type) response is approriate for a request
   that has a voucher encoding that is not understood.

   The response media type is:

   application/voucher-cms+json  The response is a "YANG-defined JSON
      document that has been signed using a CMS structure" as described
      in [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher] using the JSON encoded described in
      [RFC7951].  The MASA MUST sign the response.

   The syntactic details of vouchers are described in detail in
   [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher].  For example, the voucher consists of:

   {
     "ietf-voucher:voucher": {
       "nonce": "62a2e7693d82fcda2624de58fb6722e5",
       "assertion": "logging"
       "pinned-domain-cert": "base64encodedvalue=="
       "serial-number": "JADA123456789"
     }
   }

   The MASA populates the voucher fields as follows:

   nonce:  The nonce from the pledge if available.  See Section 5.4.7.




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   assertion:  The method used to verify assertion.  See Section 5.4.5.

   pinned-domain-cert:  The domain CA cert.  See Section 5.4.6.

   serial-number:  The serial-number as provided in the voucher-request.
      Also see Section 5.4.5.

   domain-cert-revocation-checks:  Set as appropriate for the pledge's
      capabilities and as documented in [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher].  The
      MASA MAY set this field to 'false' since setting it to 'true'
      would require that revocation information be available to the
      pledge and this document does not make normative requirements for
      [RFC6961] or equivalent integrations.

   expires-on:  This is set for nonceless vouchers.  The MASA ensures
      the voucher lifetime is consistent with any revocation or pinned-
      domain-cert consistency checks the pledge might perform.  See
      section Section 2.6.1.  There are three times to consider: (a) a
      configured voucher lifetime in the MASA, (b) the expiry time for
      the registrar's certificate, (c) any certificate revocation
      information (CRL) lifetime.  The expires-on field SHOULD be before
      the earliest of these three values.  Typically (b) will be some
      significant time in the future, but (c) will typically be short
      (on the order of a week or less).  The RECOMMENDED period for (a)
      is on the order of 20 minutes, so it will typically determine the
      lifespan of the resulting voucher.

   Whenever a voucher is issued the MASA MUST update the audit log
   appropriately.  The internal state requirements to maintain the audit
   log are out-of-scope.  See Section 5.7.1 for a discussion of
   reporting the log to a registrar.

5.5.1.  Pledge voucher verification

   The pledge MUST verify the voucher signature using the manufacturer
   installed trust anchor associated with the manufacturer's MASA (this
   is likely included in the pledge's firmware).

   The pledge MUST verify the serial-number field of the signed voucher
   matches the pledge's own serial-number.

   The pledge MUST verify that the voucher nonce field is accurate and
   matches the nonce the pledge submitted to this registrar, or that the
   voucher is nonceless (see Section 6.2).

   The pledge MUST be prepared to parse and fail gracefully from a
   voucher response that does not contain a 'pinned-domain-cert' field.




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   The pledge MUST be prepared to ignore additional fields that it does
   not recognize.

5.5.2.  Pledge authentication of provisional TLS connection

   The 'pinned-domain-cert' element of the voucher contains the domain
   CA's public key.  The pledge MUST use the 'pinned-domain-cert' trust
   anchor to immediately complete authentication of the provisional TLS
   connection.

   If a registrar's credentials cannot be verified using the pinned-
   domain-cert trust anchor from the voucher then the TLS connection is
   immediately discarded and the pledge abandons attempts to bootstrap
   with this discovered registrar.  The pledge SHOULD send voucher
   status telemetry (described below) before closing the TLS connection.
   The pledge MUST attempt to enroll using any other proxies it has
   found.  It SHOULD return to the same proxy again after attempting
   with other proxies.  Attempts should be attempted in the exponential
   backoff described earlier.  Attempts SHOULD be repeated as failure
   may be the result of a temporary inconsistently (an inconsistently
   rolled registrar key, or some other mis-configuration).  The
   inconsistently could also be the result an active MITM attack on the
   EST connection.

   The registrar MUST use a certificate that chains to the pinned-
   domain-cert as its TLS server certificate.

   The pledge's PKIX path validation of a registrar certificate's
   validity period information is as described in Section 2.6.1.  Once
   the PKIX path validation is successful the TLS connection is no
   longer provisional.

   The pinned-domain-cert MAY be installed as an trust anchor for future
   operations.  It can therefore can be used to authenticate any
   dynamically discovered EST server that contain the id-kp-cmcRA
   extended key usage extension as detailed in EST RFC7030 section 
   3.6.1; but to reduce system complexity the pledge SHOULD avoid
   additional discovery operations.  Instead the pledge SHOULD
   communicate directly with the registrar as the EST server.  The
   'pinned-domain-cert' is not a complete distribution of the [RFC7030]
   section 4.1.3 CA Certificate Response, which is an additional
   justification for the recommendation to proceed with EST key
   management operations.  Once a full CA Certificate Response is
   obtained it is more authoritative for the domain than the limited
   'pinned-domain-cert' response.






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5.6.  Pledge Voucher Status Telemetry

   The domain is expected to provide indications to the system
   administrators concerning device lifecycle status.  To facilitate
   this it needs telemetry information concerning the device's status.

   To indicate pledge status regarding the voucher, the pledge MUST post
   a status message.

   The posted data media type: application/json

   The client HTTP POSTs the following to the server at the EST well
   known URI "/voucher_status".  The Status field indicates if the
   voucher was acceptable.  If it was not acceptable the Reason string
   indicates why.  In the failure case this message may be sent to an
   unauthenticated, potentially malicious registrar and therefore the
   Reason string SHOULD NOT provide information beneficial to an
   attacker.  The operational benefit of this telemetry information is
   balanced against the operational costs of not recording that an
   voucher was ignored by a client the registrar expected to continue
   joining the domain.

   {
     "version":"1",
     "Status":FALSE /* TRUE=Success, FALSE=Fail"
     "Reason":"Informative human readable message"
     "reason-context": { additional JSON }
   }

   The server SHOULD respond with an HTTP 200 but MAY simply fail with
   an HTTP 404 error.  The client ignores any response.  Within the
   server logs the server SHOULD capture this telemetry information.

   The reason-context attribute is an arbitrary JSON object (literal
   value or hash of values) which provides additional information
   specific to this pledge.  The contents of this field are not subject
   to standardization.

   Additional standard responses MAY be added via Specification
   Required.

5.7.  Registrar audit log request

   After receiving the voucher status telemetry Section 5.6, the
   registrar SHOULD request the MASA audit log from the MASA service.

   This is done with an HTTP GET using the operation path value of
   "/.well-known/est/requestauditlog".



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   The registrar SHOULD HTTP POST the same registrar voucher-request as
   it did when requesting a voucher.  It is posted to the
   /requestauditlog URI instead.  The "idevid-issuer" and "serial-
   number" informs the MASA server which log is requested so the
   appropriate log can be prepared for the response.  Using the same
   media type and message minimizes cryptographic and message operations
   although it results in additional network traffic.  The relying MASA
   server implementation MAY leverage internal state to associate this
   request with the original, and by now already validated, voucher-
   request so as to avoid an extra crypto validation.

   A registrar MAY request logs at future times.  If the registrar
   generates a new request then the MASA is forced to perform the
   additional cryptographic operations to verify the new request.

   A MASA that receives a request for a device that does not exist, or
   for which the requesting owner was never an owner returns an HTTP 404
   ("Not found") code.

   Rather than returning the audit log as a response to the POST (with a
   return code 200), the MASA MAY instead return a 201 ("Created")
   RESTful response ([RFC7231] section 7.1) containing a URL to the
   prepared (and easily cachable) audit response.

   In order to avoid enumeration of device audit logs, MASA servers that
   return URLs SHOULD take care to make the returned URL unguessable.
   For instance, rather than returning URLs containing a database number
   such as https://example.com/auditlog/1234 or the EUI of the device
   such https://example.com/auditlog/10-00-00-11-22-33, the MASA SHOULD
   return a randomly generated value (a "slug" in web parlance).  The
   value is used to find the relevant database entry.

   A MASA that returns a code 200 MAY also include a Location: header
   for future reference by the registrar.

   The request media type is:

   application/voucher-cms+json  The request is a "YANG-defined JSON
      document that has been signed using a CMS structure" as described
      in Section 3 using the JSON encoded described in [RFC7951].  The
      registrar MUST sign the request.  The entire registrar certificate
      chain, up to and including the Domain CA, MUST be included in the
      CMS structure.








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5.7.1.  MASA audit log response

   A log data file is returned consisting of all log entries.  The
   returned data is in JSON format ([RFC7951]), and the Content-Type
   SHOULD be "application/json".  For example:

   {
     "version":"1",
     "events":[
       {
        "date":"<date/time of the entry>",
        "domainID":"<domainID extracted from voucher-request>",
        "nonce":"<any nonce if supplied (or the exact string 'NULL')>"
        "assertion":"<the value from the voucher assertion leaf>"
       },
       {
        "date":"<date/time of the entry>",
        "domainID":"<anotherDomainID extracted from voucher-request>",
        "nonce":"<any nonce if supplied (or the exact string 'NULL')>"
        "assertion":"<the value from the voucher assertion leaf>"
       }
     ],
     "truncation": {
       "nonced duplicates": <number of entries truncated>,
       "nonceless duplicates": <number of entries truncated>,
       "arbitrary": <number of entries trucated>
       }
   }

   Distribution of a large log is less than ideal.  This structure can
   be optimized as follows: Nonced or Nonceless entries for the same
   domainID MAY be truncated from the log leaving only the single most
   recent nonced or nonceless entry.  The log SHOULD NOT be further
   reduced but there could exist operational situation where maintaining
   the full log is not possible.  In such situations the log MAY be
   arbitrarily truncated for length.  The trunctation method(s) used
   MUST be indicated in the JSON truncation dictionary using "nonced
   duplicates", "nonceless duplicates", and "arbitrary" where the number
   of entries that have been truncation is indicated.  If the truncation
   count exceeds 1024 then the MASA MAY use this value without further
   incrementing it.

   A log where duplicate entries for the same domain have been truncated
   ("nonced duplicates" and/or "nonceless duplicates) could still be
   acceptable for informed decisions.  A log that has had "arbitrary"
   truncations is less acceptable but manufacturer transparency is
   better than hidden truncations.




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   This document specifies a simple log format as provided by the MASA
   service to the registrar.  This format could be improved by
   distributed consensus technologies that integrate vouchers with
   technologies such as block-chain or hash trees or optimized logging
   approaches.  Doing so is out of the scope of this document but is an
   anticipated improvement for future work.  As such, the registrar
   client SHOULD anticipate new kinds of responses, and SHOULD provide
   operator controls to indicate how to process unknown responses.

5.7.2.  Registrar audit log verification

   Each time the Manufacturer Authorized Signing Authority (MASA) issues
   a voucher, it places it into the audit log for that device.  The
   details are described in Section 5.7.  The contents of the audit log
   can express a variety of trust levels, and this section explains what
   kind of trust a registrar can derive from the entries.

   While the audit log provides a list of vouchers that were issued by
   the MASA, the vouchers are issued in response to voucher-requests,
   and it is the contents of the voucher-requests which determines how
   meaningful the audit log entries are.

   A registrar SHOULD use the log information to make an informed
   decision regarding the continued bootstrapping of the pledge.  The
   exact policy is out of scope of this document as it depends on the
   security requirements within the registrar domain.  Equipment that is
   purchased pre-owned can be expected to have an extensive history.
   The following dicussion is provided to help explain the value of each
   log element:

   date:  The date field provides the registrar an opportunity to divide
      the log around known events such as the purchase date.  Depending
      on context known to the registrar or administrator evens before/
      after certain dates can have different levels of importance.  For
      example for equipment that is expected to be new, and thus have no
      history, it would be a surprise to find prior entries.

   domainID:  If the log includes an unexpected domainID then the pledge
      could have imprinted on an unexpected domain.  The registrar can
      be expected to use a variety of techniques to define "unexpected"
      ranging from white lists of prior domains to anomoly detection
      (e.g. "this device was previously bound to a different domain than
      any other device deployed").  Log entries can also be compared
      against local history logs in search of discrepancies (e.g. "this
      device was re-deployed some number of times internally but the
      external audit log shows additional re-deployments our internal
      logs are unaware of").




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   nonce:  Nonceless entries mean the logged domainID could
      theoretically trigger a reset of the pledge and then take over
      management by using the existing nonceless voucher.

   assertion:  The assetion leaf in the voucher and audit log indicates
      why the MASA issued the voucher.  A "verified" entry means that
      the MASA issued the associated voucher as a result of positive
      verification of ownership but this can still be problematic for
      registrar's that expected only new (not pre-owned) pledges.  A
      "logged" assertion informs the registrar that the prior vouchers
      were issued with minimal verification.  A "proximity" assertion
      assures the registrar that the pledge was truly communicating with
      the prior domain and thus provides assurance that the prior domain
      really has deployed the pledge.

   A relatively simple policy is to white list known (internal or
   external) domainIDs and to require all vouchers to have a nonce and/
   or require that all nonceless vouchers be from a subset (e.g. only
   internal) domainIDs.  A simple action is to revoke any locally issued
   credentials for the pledge in question or to refuse to forward the
   voucher.  A registrar MAY be configured to ignore the history of the
   device but it is RECOMMENDED that this only be configured if hardware
   assisted NEA [RFC5209] is supported.

5.8.  EST Integration for PKI bootstrapping

   The pledge SHOULD follow the BRSKI operations with EST enrollment
   operations including "CA Certificates Request", "CSR Attributes" and
   "Client Certificate Request" or "Server-Side Key Generation", etc.
   This is a relatively seamless integration since BRSKI REST calls
   provide an automated alternative to the manual bootstrapping method
   described in [RFC7030].  As noted above, use of HTTP 1.1 persistent
   connections simplifies the pledge state machine.

   An ANIMA ANI pledge MUST implement the EST automation extensions
   described below.  They supplement the [RFC7030] EST to better support
   automated devices that do not have an end user.

   Although EST allows clients to obtain multiple certificates by
   sending multiple CSR requests BRSKI mandates use of the CSR
   Attributes request and mandates that the registrar validate the CSR
   against the expected attributes.  This implies that client requests
   will "look the same" and therefore result in a single logical
   certificate being issued even if the client were to make multiple
   requests.  Registrars MAY contain more complex logic but doing so is
   out-of-scope of this specification.  BRSKI does not signal any
   enhancement or restriction to this capability.




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5.8.1.  EST Distribution of CA Certificates

   The pledge SHOULD request the full EST Distribution of CA
   Certificates message.  See RFC7030, section 4.1.

   This ensures that the pledge has the complete set of current CA
   certificates beyond the pinned-domain-cert (see Section 5.5.1 for a
   discussion of the limitations inherent in having a single certificate
   instead of a full CA Certificates response.)  Although these
   limitations are acceptable during initial bootstrapping, they are not
   appropriate for ongoing PKIX end entity certificate validation.

5.8.2.  EST CSR Attributes

   Automated bootstrapping occurs without local administrative
   configuration of the pledge.  In some deployments it is plausible
   that the pledge generates a certificate request containing only
   identity information known to the pledge (essentially the X.509
   IDevID information) and ultimately receives a certificate containing
   domain specific identity information.  Conceptually the CA has
   complete control over all fields issued in the end entity
   certificate.  Realistically this is operationally difficult with the
   current status of PKI certificate authority deployments, where the
   CSR is submitted to the CA via a number of non-standard protocols.
   Even with all standardized protocols used, it could operationally be
   problematic to expect that service specific certificate fields can be
   created by a CA that is likely operated by a group that has no
   insight into different network services/protocols used.  For example,
   the CA could even be outsourced.

   To alleviate these operational difficulties, the pledge MUST request
   the EST "CSR Attributes" from the EST server and the EST server needs
   to be able to reply with the attributes necessary for use of the
   certificate in its intended protocols/services.  This approach allows
   for minimal CA integrations and instead the local infrastructure (EST
   server) informs the pledge of the proper fields to include in the
   generated CSR.  This approach is beneficial to automated boostrapping
   in the widest number of environments.

   If the hardwareModuleName in the X.509 IDevID is populated then it
   SHOULD by default be propagated to the LDevID along with the
   hwSerialNum.  The EST server SHOULD support local policy concerning
   this functionality.

   In networks using the BRSKI enrolled certificate to authenticate the
   ACP (Autonomic Control Plane), the EST attributes MUST include the
   "ACP information" field.  See
   [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane] for more details.



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   The registrar MUST also confirm that the resulting CSR is formatted
   as indicated before forwarding the request to a CA.  If the registrar
   is communicating with the CA using a protocol such as full CMC, which
   provides mechanisms to override the CSR attributes, then these
   mechanisms MAY be used even if the client ignores CSR Attribute
   guidance.

5.8.3.  EST Client Certificate Request

   The pledge MUST request a new client certificate.  See RFC7030,
   section 4.2.

5.8.4.  Enrollment Status Telemetry

   For automated bootstrapping of devices, the adminstrative elements
   providing bootstrapping also provide indications to the system
   administrators concerning device lifecycle status.  This might
   include information concerning attempted bootstrapping messages seen
   by the client, MASA provides logs and status of credential
   enrollment.  [RFC7030] assumes an end user and therefore does not
   include a final success indication back to the server.  This is
   insufficient for automated use cases.

   To indicate successful enrollment the client SHOULD re-negotiate the
   EST TLS session using the newly obtained credentials.  This occurs by
   the client initiating a new TLS ClientHello message on the existing
   TLS connection.  The client MAY simply close the old TLS session and
   start a new one.  The server MUST support either model.

   In the case of a FAIL, the Reason string indicates why the most
   recent enrollment failed.  The SubjectKeyIdentifier field MUST be
   included if the enrollment attempt was for a keypair that is locally
   known to the client.  If EST /serverkeygen was used and failed then
   the field is omitted from the status telemetry.

   In the case of a SUCCESS the Reason string is omitted.  The
   SubjectKeyIdentifier is included so that the server can record the
   successful certificate distribution.

   Status media type: application/json

   The client HTTP POSTs the following to the server at the new EST well
   known URI /enrollstatus.








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   {
     "version":"1",
     "Status":TRUE /* TRUE=Success, FALSE=Fail"
     "Reason":"Informative human readable message"
     "reason-context": "Additional information"
   }

   The server SHOULD respond with an HTTP 200 but MAY simply fail with
   an HTTP 404 error.

   Within the server logs the server MUST capture if this message was
   received over an TLS session with a matching client certificate.
   This allows for clients that wish to minimize their crypto operations
   to simply POST this response without renegotiating the TLS session -
   at the cost of the server not being able to accurately verify that
   enrollment was truly successful.

5.8.5.  Multiple certificates

   Pledges that require multiple certificates could establish direct EST
   connections to the registrar.

5.8.6.  EST over CoAP

   This document describes extensions to EST for the purposes of
   bootstrapping of remote key infrastructures.  Bootstrapping is
   relevant for CoAP enrollment discussions as well.  The defintion of
   EST and BRSKI over CoAP is not discussed within this document beyond
   ensuring proxy support for CoAP operations.  Instead it is
   anticipated that a definition of CoAP mappings will occur in
   subsequent documents such as [I-D.vanderstok-ace-coap-est] and that
   CoAP mappings for BRSKI will be discussed either there or in future
   work.

6.  Reduced security operational modes

   A common requirement of bootstrapping is to support less secure
   operational modes for support specific use cases.  The following
   sections detail specific ways that the pledge, registrar and MASA can
   be configured to run in a less secure mode for the indicated reasons.

   This section is considered non-normative: use suggested methods MUST
   be detailed in specific profiles of BRSKI.  This is the subject for
   future work.







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6.1.  Trust Model

   +--------+         +---------+    +------------+     +------------+
   | Pledge |         | Join    |    | Domain     |     |Manufacturer|
   |        |         | Proxy   |    | Registrar  |     | Service    |
   |        |         |         |    |            |     | (Internet) |
   +--------+         +---------+    +------------+     +------------+

   Figure 10

   Pledge:  The pledge could be compromised and providing an attack
      vector for malware.  The entity is trusted to only imprint using
      secure methods described in this document.  Additional endpoint
      assessment techniques are RECOMMENDED but are out-of-scope of this
      document.

   Join Proxy:  Provides proxy functionalities but is not involved in
      security considerations.

   Registrar:  When interacting with a MASA server a registrar makes all
      decisions.  For Ownership Audit Vouchers (see
      [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher]) the registrar is provided an opportunity
      to accept MASA server decisions.

   Vendor Service, MASA:  This form of manufacturer service is trusted
      to accurately log all claim attempts and to provide authoritative
      log information to registrars.  The MASA does not know which
      devices are associated with which domains.  These claims could be
      strengthened by using cryptographic log techniques to provide
      append only, cryptographic assured, publicly auditable logs.
      Current text provides only for a trusted manufacturer.

   Vendor Service, Ownership Validation:  This form of manufacturer
      service is trusted to accurately know which device is owned by
      which domain.

6.2.  Pledge security reductions

   The pledge can choose to accept vouchers using less secure methods.
   These methods enable offline and emergency (touch based) deployment
   use cases:

   1.  The pledge MUST accept nonceless vouchers.  This allows for a use
       case where the registrar can not connect to the MASA at the
       deployment time.  Logging and validity periods address the
       security considerations of supporting these use cases.





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   2.  The pledge MAY support "trust on first use" for physical
       interfaces such as a local console port or physical user
       interface but MUST NOT support "trust on first use" on network
       interfaces.  This is because "trust on first use" permanently
       degrades the security for all use cases.

   3.  The pledge MAY have an operational mode where it skips voucher
       validation one time.  For example if a physical button is
       depressed during the bootstrapping operation.  This can be useful
       if the manufacturer service is unavailable.  This behavior SHOULD
       be available via local configuration or physical presence methods
       (such as use of a serial/craft console) to ensure new entities
       can always be deployed even when autonomic methods fail.  This
       allows for unsecured imprint.

   It is RECOMMENDED that "trust on first use" or skipping voucher
   validation only be available if hardware assisted Network Endpoint
   Assessment [RFC5209] is supported.  This recommendation ensures that
   domain network monitoring can detect innappropriate use of offline or
   emergency deployment procedures.

6.3.  Registrar security reductions

   A registrar can choose to accept devices using less secure methods.
   These methods are acceptable when low security models are needed, as
   the security decisions are being made by the local administrator, but
   they MUST NOT be the default behavior:

   1.  A registrar MAY choose to accept all devices, or all devices of a
       particular type, at the administrator's discretion.  This could
       occur when informing all registrars of unique identifiers of new
       entities might be operationally difficult.

   2.  A registrar MAY choose to accept devices that claim a unique
       identity without the benefit of authenticating that claimed
       identity.  This could occur when the pledge does not include an
       X.509 IDevID factory installed credential.  New Entities without
       an X.509 IDevID credential MAY form the Section 5.2 request using
       the Section 5.4 format to ensure the pledge's serial number
       information is provided to the registrar (this includes the
       IDevID AuthorityKeyIdentifier value, which would be statically
       configured on the pledge.)  The pledge MAY refuse to provide a
       TLS client certificate (as one is not available.)  The pledge
       SHOULD support HTTP-based or certificate-less TLS authentication
       as described in EST RFC7030 section 3.3.2.  A registrar MUST NOT
       accept unauthenticated New Entities unless it has been configured
       to do so by an administrator that has verified that only expected




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       new entities can communicate with a registrar (presumably via a
       physically secured perimeter.)

   3.  A registrar MAY submit a nonceless voucher-requests to the MASA
       service (by not including a nonce in the voucher-request.)  The
       resulting vouchers can then be stored by the registrar until they
       are needed during bootstrapping operations.  This is for use
       cases where the target network is protected by an air gap and
       therefore cannot contact the MASA service during pledge
       deployment.

   4.  A registrar MAY ignore unrecognized nonceless log entries.  This
       could occur when used equipment is purchased with a valid history
       being deployed in air gap networks that required permanent
       vouchers.

6.4.  MASA security reductions

   Lower security modes chosen by the MASA service affect all device
   deployments unless bound to the specific device identities.  In which
   case these modes can be provided as additional features for specific
   customers.  The MASA service can choose to run in less secure modes
   by:

   1.  Not enforcing that a nonce is in the voucher.  This results in
       distribution of a voucher that never expires and in effect makes
       the Domain an always trusted entity to the pledge during any
       subsequent bootstrapping attempts.  That this occurred is
       captured in the log information so that the registrar can make
       appropriate security decisions when a pledge joins the Domain.
       This is useful to support use cases where registrars might not be
       online during actual device deployment.  Because this results in
       a long lived voucher and does not require the proof that the
       device is online, this is only accepted when the registrar is
       authenticated by the MASA server and authorized to provide this
       functionality.  The MASA server is RECOMMENDED to use this
       functionality only in concert with an enhanced level of ownership
       tracking (out-of-scope.)  If the pledge device is known to have a
       real-time-clock that is set from the factory, use of a voucher
       validity period is RECOMMENDED.

   2.  Not verifying ownership before responding with a voucher.  This
       is expected to be a common operational model because doing so
       relieves the manufacturer providing MASA services from having to
       track ownership during shipping and supply chain and allows for a
       very low overhead MASA service.  A registrar uses the audit log
       information as a defense in depth strategy to ensure that this
       does not occur unexpectedly (for example when purchasing new



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       equipment the registrar would throw an error if any audit log
       information is reported.)  The MASA SHOULD verify the 'prior-
       signed-voucher-request' information for pledges that support that
       functionality.  This provides a proof-of-proximity check that
       reduces the need for ownership verification.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document requires the following IANA actions:

7.1.  Well-known EST registration

   This document extends the definitions of "est" (so far defined via
   RFC7030) in the "https://www.iana.org/assignments/well-known-uris/
   well-known-uris.xhtml" registry as follows:

   o  add /.well-known/est/requestvoucher (see Section 5.4 )

   o  add /.well-known/est/requestauditlog (see Section 5.6)

7.2.  PKIX Registry

   IANA is requested to register the following:

   This document requests a number for id-mod-MASAURLExtn2016(TBD) from
   the pkix(7) id-mod(0) Registry.  [[EDNOTE: fix names]]

   This document requests a number from the id-pe registry for id-pe-
   masa-url.  XXX

7.3.  Voucher Status Telemetry

   IANA is requested to create a registry entitled: _Voucher Status
   Telemetry Attributes_.  New items can be added using the
   Specification Required.  The following items are to be in the initial
   registration, with this document as the reference:

   o  version

   o  Status

   o  Reason

   o  reason-context







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7.4.  DNS Service Names

   IANA is requested to register the following Service Names:

   Service Name: _brski-proxy
   Transport Protocol(s): tcp
   Assignee: IESG <iesg@ietf.org>.
   Contact: IETF Chair <chair@ietf.org>
   Description: The Bootstrapping Remote Secure Key
                Infrastructures Proxy
   Reference: [This document]

   Service Name: _brski-registrar
   Transport Protocol(s): tcp
   Assignee: IESG <iesg@ietf.org>.
   Contact: IETF Chair <chair@ietf.org>
   Description: The Bootstrapping Remote Secure Key
                Infrastructures Registrar
   Reference: [This document]

7.5.  MUD File Extension for the MASA server

   The IANA is requested to list the name "masa" in the MUD extensions
   registry defined in [I-D.ietf-opsawg-mud].  Its use is documented in
   Appendix D.

8.  Privacy Considerations

8.1.  MASA audit log

   The MASA audit log includes a hash of the domainID for each Registrar
   a voucher has been issued to.  This information is closely related to
   the actual domain identity, especially when paired with the anti-DDoS
   authentication information the MASA might collect.  This could
   provide sufficient information for the MASA service to build a
   detailed understanding the devices that have been provisioned within
   a domain.

   There are a number of design choices that mitigate this risk.  The
   domain can maintain some privacy since it has not necessarily been
   authenticated and is not authoritatively bound to the supply chain.

   Additionally the domainID captures only the unauthenticated subject
   key identifier of the domain.  A privacy sensitive domain could
   theoretically generate a new domainID for each device being deployed.
   Similarly a privacy sensitive domain would likely purchase devices
   that support proximity assertions from a manufacturer that does not
   require sales channel integrations.  This would result in a



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   significant level of privacy while maintaining the security
   characteristics provided by Registrar based audit log inspection.

9.  Security Considerations

   There are uses cases where the MASA could be unavailable or
   uncooperative to the Registrar.  They include planned and unplanned
   network partitions, changes to MASA policy, or other instances where
   MASA policy rejects a claim.  These introduce an operational risk to
   the Registrar owner that MASA behavior might limit the ability to re-
   boostrap a pledge device.  For example this might be an issue during
   disaster recovery.  This risk can be mitigated by Registrars that
   request and maintain long term copies of "nonceless" vouchers.  In
   that way they are guaranteed to be able to repeat bootstrapping for
   their devices.

   The issuance of nonceless vouchers themselves creates a security
   concern.  If the Registrar of a previous domain can intercept
   protocol communications then it can use a previously issued nonceless
   voucher to establish management control of a pledge device even after
   having sold it.  This risk is mitigated by recording the issuance of
   such vouchers in the MASA audit log that is verified by the
   subsequent Registrar.  This reduces the resale value of the equipment
   because future owners will detect the lowered security inherent in
   the existence of a nonceless voucher that would be trusted by their
   pledge.  This reflects a balance between partition resistant recovery
   and security of future bootstrapping.  Registrars take the pledge's
   audit history into account when applying policy to new devices.

   The MASA server is exposed to DoS attacks wherein attackers claim an
   unbounded number of devices.  Ensuring a registrar is representative
   of a valid manufacturer customer, even without validating ownership
   of specific pledge devices, helps to mitigate this.  Pledge
   signatures on the pledge voucher-request, as forwarded by the
   registrar in the prior-signed-voucher-request field of the registrar
   voucher-request, significantly reduce this risk by ensuring the MASA
   can confirm proximity between the pledge and the registrar making the
   request.  This mechanism is optional to allow for constrained
   devices.

   To facilitate logging and administrative oversight in addition to
   triggering Registration verification of MASA logs the pledge reports
   on voucher parsing status to the registrar.  In the case of a
   failure, this information is informative to a potentially malicious
   registrar but this is mandated anyway because of the operational
   benefits of an informed administrator in cases where the failure is
   indicative of a problem.  The registrar is RECOMMENDED to verify MASA
   logs if voucher status telemetry is not received.



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   To facilitate truely limited clients EST RFC7030 section 3.3.2
   requirements that the client MUST support a client authentication
   model have been reduced in Section 6 to a statement that the
   registrar "MAY" choose to accept devices that fail cryptographic
   authentication.  This reflects current (poor) practices in shipping
   devices without a cryptographic identity that are NOT RECOMMENDED.

   During the provisional period of the connection the pledge MUST treat
   all HTTP header and content data as untrusted data.  HTTP libraries
   are regularly exposed to non-secured HTTP traffic: mature libraries
   should not have any problems.

   Pledges might chose to engage in protocol operations with multiple
   discovered registrars in parallel.  As noted above they will only do
   so with distinct nonce values, but the end result could be multiple
   vouchers issued from the MASA if all registrars attempt to claim the
   device.  This is not a failure and the pledge choses whichever
   voucher to accept based on internal logic.  The registrar's verifying
   log information will see multiple entries and take this into account
   for their analytics purposes.

9.1.  Freshness in Voucher-Requests

   A concern has been raised that the pledge voucher-request should
   contain some content (a nonce) provided by the registrar and/or MASA
   in order for those actors to verify that the pledge voucher-request
   is fresh.

   There are a number of operational problems with getting a nonce from
   the MASA to the pledge.  It is somewhat easier to collect a random
   value from the registrar, but as the registrar is not yet vouched
   for, such a registrar nonce has little value.  There are privacy and
   logistical challenges to addressing these operational issues, so if
   such a thing were to be considered, it would have to provide some
   clear value.  This section examines the impacts of not having a fresh
   pledge voucher-request.

   Because the registrar authenticates the pledge, a full Man-in-the-
   Middle attack is not possible, despite the provisional TLS
   authentication by the pledge (see Section 5.)  Instead we examine the
   case of a fake registrar (Rm) that communicates with the pledge in
   parallel or in close time proximity with the intended registrar.
   (This scenario is intentionally supported as described in
   Section 4.1.)

   The fake registrar (Rm) can obtain a voucher signed by the MASA
   either directly or through arbitrary intermediaries.  Assuming that
   the MASA accepts the registrar voucher-request (either because Rm is



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   collaborating with a legitimate registrar according to supply chain
   information, or because the MASA is in audit-log only mode), then a
   voucher linking the pledge to the registrar Rm is issued.

   Such a voucher, when passed back to the pledge, would link the pledge
   to registrar Rm, and would permit the pledge to end the provisional
   state.  It now trusts Rm and, if it has any security vulnerabilities
   leveragable by an Rm with full administrative control, can be assumed
   to be a threat against the intended registrar.

   This flow is mitigated by the intended registrar verifying the audit
   logs available from the MASA as described in Section 5.7.  Rm might
   chose to wait until after the intended registrar completes the
   authorization process before submitting the now-stale pledge voucher-
   request.  The Rm would need to remove the pledge's nonce.

   In order to successfully use the resulting "stale voucher" Rm would
   have to attack the pledge and return it to a bootstrapping enabled
   state.  This would require wiping the pledge of current configuration
   and triggering a re-bootstrapping of the pledge.  This is no more
   likely than simply taking control of the pledge directly but if this
   is a consideration the target network is RECOMMENDED to take the
   following steps:

   o  Ongoing network monitoring for unexpected bootstrapping attempts
      by pledges.

   o  Retreival and examination of MASA log information upon the
      occurance of any such unexpected events.  Rm will be listed in the
      logs.

9.2.  Trusting manufacturers

   The BRSKI extensions to EST permit a new pledge to be completely
   configured with domain specific trust anchors.  The link from built-
   in manufacturer-provided trust anchors to domain-specific trust
   anchors is mediated by the signed voucher artifact.

   If the manufacturer's IDevID signing key is not properly validated,
   then there is a risk that the network will accept a pledge that
   should not be a member of the network.  As the address of the
   manufacturer's MASA is provided in the IDevID using the extension
   from Section 2.3, the malicious pledge will have no problem
   collaborating with it's MASA to produce a completely valid voucher.

   BRSKI does not, however, fundamentally change the trust model from
   domain owner to manufacturer.  Assuming that the pledge used its




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   IDevID with RFC7030 EST and BRSKI, the domain (registrar) still needs
   to trust the manufacturer.

   Establishing this trust between domain and manufacturer is outside
   the scope of BRSKI.  There are a number of mechanisms that can
   adopted including:

   o  Manually configuring each manufacturer's trust anchor.

   o  A Trust-On-First-Use (TOFU) mechanism.  A human would be queried
      upon seeing a manufacturer's trust anchor for the first time, and
      then the trust anchor would be installed to the trusted store.
      There are risks with this; even if the key to name is validated
      using something like the WebPKI, there remains the possibility
      that the name is a look alike: e.g, c1sco.com, ..

   o  scanning the trust anchor from a QR code that came with the
      packaging (this is really a manual TOFU mechanism)

   o  some sales integration process where trust anchors are provided as
      part of the sales process, probably included in a digital packing
      "slip", or a sales invoice.

   o  consortium membership, where all manufacturers of a particular
      device category (e.g, a light bulb, or a cable-modem) are signed
      by an certificate authority specifically for this.  This is done
      by CableLabs today.  It is used for authentication and
      authorization as part of TR-79: [docsisroot] and [TR069].

   The existing WebPKI provides a reasonable anchor between manufacturer
   name and public key.  It authenticates the key.  It does not provide
   a reasonable authorization for the manufacturer, so it is not
   directly useable on it's own.

10.  Acknowledgements

   We would like to thank the various reviewers for their input, in
   particular William Atwood, Brian Carpenter, Toerless Eckert, Fuyu
   Eleven, Eliot Lear, Sergey Kasatkin, Anoop Kumar, Markus Stenberg,
   and Peter van der Stok

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References







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   [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane]
              Eckert, T., Behringer, M., and S. Bjarnason, "An Autonomic
              Control Plane (ACP)", draft-ietf-anima-autonomic-control-
              plane-13 (work in progress), December 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-anima-grasp]
              Bormann, C., Carpenter, B., and B. Liu, "A Generic
              Autonomic Signaling Protocol (GRASP)", draft-ietf-anima-
              grasp-15 (work in progress), July 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher]
              Watsen, K., Richardson, M., Pritikin, M., and T. Eckert,
              "Voucher Profile for Bootstrapping Protocols", draft-ietf-
              anima-voucher-07 (work in progress), January 2018.

   [IDevID]   IEEE Standard, "IEEE 802.1AR Secure Device Identifier",
              December 2009, <http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/
              standard/802.1AR-2009.html>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3542]  Stevens, W., Thomas, M., Nordmark, E., and T. Jinmei,
              "Advanced Sockets Application Program Interface (API) for
              IPv6", RFC 3542, DOI 10.17487/RFC3542, May 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3542>.

   [RFC3748]  Aboba, B., Blunk, L., Vollbrecht, J., Carlson, J., and H.
              Levkowetz, Ed., "Extensible Authentication Protocol
              (EAP)", RFC 3748, DOI 10.17487/RFC3748, June 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3748>.

   [RFC3927]  Cheshire, S., Aboba, B., and E. Guttman, "Dynamic
              Configuration of IPv4 Link-Local Addresses", RFC 3927,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3927, May 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3927>.

   [RFC4519]  Sciberras, A., Ed., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
              (LDAP): Schema for User Applications", RFC 4519,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4519, June 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4519>.

   [RFC4862]  Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
              Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4862, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4862>.



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   [RFC4941]  Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy
              Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in
              IPv6", RFC 4941, DOI 10.17487/RFC4941, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4941>.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.

   [RFC5272]  Schaad, J. and M. Myers, "Certificate Management over CMS
              (CMC)", RFC 5272, DOI 10.17487/RFC5272, June 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5272>.

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5280>.

   [RFC5386]  Williams, N. and M. Richardson, "Better-Than-Nothing
              Security: An Unauthenticated Mode of IPsec", RFC 5386,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5386, November 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5386>.

   [RFC5652]  Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", STD 70,
              RFC 5652, DOI 10.17487/RFC5652, September 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5652>.

   [RFC5660]  Williams, N., "IPsec Channels: Connection Latching",
              RFC 5660, DOI 10.17487/RFC5660, October 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5660>.

   [RFC6125]  Saint-Andre, P. and J. Hodges, "Representation and
              Verification of Domain-Based Application Service Identity
              within Internet Public Key Infrastructure Using X.509
              (PKIX) Certificates in the Context of Transport Layer
              Security (TLS)", RFC 6125, DOI 10.17487/RFC6125, March
              2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6125>.

   [RFC6762]  Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Multicast DNS", RFC 6762,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6762, February 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6762>.

   [RFC6763]  Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS-Based Service
              Discovery", RFC 6763, DOI 10.17487/RFC6763, February 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6763>.




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   [RFC7030]  Pritikin, M., Ed., Yee, P., Ed., and D. Harkins, Ed.,
              "Enrollment over Secure Transport", RFC 7030,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7030, October 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7030>.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, DOI 10.17487/RFC7159, March
              2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7159>.

   [RFC7228]  Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
              Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7228, May 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7228>.

   [RFC7950]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language",
              RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7950>.

   [RFC7951]  Lhotka, L., "JSON Encoding of Data Modeled with YANG",
              RFC 7951, DOI 10.17487/RFC7951, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7951>.

11.2.  Informative References

   [docsisroot]
              CableLabs, "CableLabs Digital Certificate Issuance
              Service", February 2018,
              <https://www.cablelabs.com/resources/
              digital-certificate-issuance-service/>.

   [I-D.ietf-anima-reference-model]
              Behringer, M., Carpenter, B., Eckert, T., Ciavaglia, L.,
              and J. Nobre, "A Reference Model for Autonomic
              Networking", draft-ietf-anima-reference-model-06 (work in
              progress), February 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-netconf-zerotouch]
              Watsen, K., Abrahamsson, M., and I. Farrer, "Zero Touch
              Provisioning for Networking Devices", draft-ietf-netconf-
              zerotouch-21 (work in progress), March 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-opsawg-mud]
              Lear, E., Droms, R., and D. Romascanu, "Manufacturer Usage
              Description Specification", draft-ietf-opsawg-mud-20 (work
              in progress), April 2018.






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   [I-D.richardson-anima-state-for-joinrouter]
              Richardson, M., "Considerations for stateful vs stateless
              join router in ANIMA bootstrap", draft-richardson-anima-
              state-for-joinrouter-02 (work in progress), January 2018.

   [I-D.vanderstok-ace-coap-est]
              Stok, P., Kampanakis, P., Kumar, S., Richardson, M.,
              Furuhed, M., and S. Raza, "EST over secure CoAP (EST-
              coaps)", draft-vanderstok-ace-coap-est-04 (work in
              progress), January 2018.

   [imprinting]
              Wikipedia, "Wikipedia article: Imprinting", July 2015,
              <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imprinting_(psychology)>.

   [RFC2473]  Conta, A. and S. Deering, "Generic Packet Tunneling in
              IPv6 Specification", RFC 2473, DOI 10.17487/RFC2473,
              December 1998, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2473>.

   [RFC2663]  Srisuresh, P. and M. Holdrege, "IP Network Address
              Translator (NAT) Terminology and Considerations",
              RFC 2663, DOI 10.17487/RFC2663, August 1999,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2663>.

   [RFC5785]  Nottingham, M. and E. Hammer-Lahav, "Defining Well-Known
              Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs)", RFC 5785,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5785, April 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5785>.

   [RFC6960]  Santesson, S., Myers, M., Ankney, R., Malpani, A.,
              Galperin, S., and C. Adams, "X.509 Internet Public Key
              Infrastructure Online Certificate Status Protocol - OCSP",
              RFC 6960, DOI 10.17487/RFC6960, June 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6960>.

   [RFC6961]  Pettersen, Y., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS)
              Multiple Certificate Status Request Extension", RFC 6961,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6961, June 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6961>.

   [RFC7217]  Gont, F., "A Method for Generating Semantically Opaque
              Interface Identifiers with IPv6 Stateless Address
              Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)", RFC 7217,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7217, April 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7217>.






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   [RFC7231]  Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
              Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content", RFC 7231,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7231, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7231>.

   [RFC7435]  Dukhovni, V., "Opportunistic Security: Some Protection
              Most of the Time", RFC 7435, DOI 10.17487/RFC7435,
              December 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7435>.

   [RFC7575]  Behringer, M., Pritikin, M., Bjarnason, S., Clemm, A.,
              Carpenter, B., Jiang, S., and L. Ciavaglia, "Autonomic
              Networking: Definitions and Design Goals", RFC 7575,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7575, June 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7575>.

   [Stajano99theresurrecting]
              Stajano, F. and R. Anderson, "The resurrecting duckling:
              security issues for ad-hoc wireless networks", 1999,
              <https://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~fms27/
              papers/1999-StajanoAnd-duckling.pdf>.

   [TR069]    Broadband Forum, "TR-69: CPE WAN Management Protocol",
              February 2018, <https://www.broadband-forum.org/
              standards-and-software/technical-specifications/
              tr-069-files-tools>.

Appendix A.  IPv4 and non-ANI operations

   The secification of BRSKI in Section 4 intentionally only covers the
   mechanisms for an IPv6 pledge using Link-Local addresses.  This
   section describes non-normative extensions that can be used in other
   environments.

A.1.  IPv4 Link Local addresses

   Instead of an IPv6 link-local address, an IPv4 address may be
   generated using [RFC3927]  Dynamic Configuration of IPv4 Link-Local
   Addresses.

   In the case that an IPv4 Link-Local address is formed, then the
   bootstrap process would continue as in the IPv6 case by looking for a
   (circuit) proxy.

A.2.  Use of DHCPv4

   The Plege MAY obtain an IP address via DHCP [RFC2131].  The DHCP
   provided parameters for the Domain Name System can be used to perform
   DNS operations if all local discovery attempts fail.



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Appendix B.  mDNS / DNSSD proxy discovery options

   Pledge discovery of the proxy (Section 4.1) MAY be performed with
   DNS-based Service Discovery [RFC6763] over Multicast DNS [RFC6762] to
   discover the proxy at "_brski-proxy._tcp.local.".

   Proxy discovery of the registrar (Section 4.3) MAY be performed with
   DNS-based Service Discovery over Multicast DNS to discover registrars
   by searching for the service "_brski-registrar._tcp.local.".

   To prevent unaccceptable levels of network traffic, when using mDNS,
   the congestion avoidance mechanisms specified in [RFC6762] section 7
   MUST be followed.  The pledge SHOULD listen for an unsolicited
   broadcast response as described in [RFC6762].  This allows devices to
   avoid announcing their presence via mDNS broadcasts and instead
   silently join a network by watching for periodic unsolicited
   broadcast responses.

   Discovery of registrar MAY also be performed with DNS-based service
   discovery by searching for the service "_brski-
   registrar._tcp.example.com".  In this case the domain "example.com"
   is discovered as described in [RFC6763] section 11 (Appendix A.2
   suggests the use of DHCP parameters).

   If no local proxy or registrar service is located using the GRASP
   mechanisms or the above mentioned DNS-based Service Discovery methods
   the pledge MAY contact a well known manufacturer provided
   bootstrapping server by performing a DNS lookup using a well known
   URI such as "brski-registrar.manufacturer.example.com".  The details
   of the URI are manufacturer specific.  Manufacturers that leverage
   this method on the pledge are responsible for providing the registrar
   service.  Also see Section 2.7.

   The current DNS services returned during each query are maintained
   until bootstrapping is completed.  If bootstrapping fails and the
   pledge returns to the Discovery state, it picks up where it left off
   and continues attempting bootstrapping.  For example, if the first
   Multicast DNS _bootstrapks._tcp.local response doesn't work then the
   second and third responses are tried.  If these fail the pledge moves
   on to normal DNS-based Service Discovery.

Appendix C.  IPIP Join Proxy mechanism

   The circuit proxy mechanism suffers from requiring a state on the
   proxy for each connection that is relayed.  The proxy can be
   considered a kind of Algorithm Gateway (see [RFC2663], section 2.9).





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   An alternative to proxying at the TCP layer is to selectively forward
   at the IP layer.  This moves all per-connection state to the
   registrar.  The IPIP tunnel statelessly forwards packets.  This
   section provides explanation of some of the details of the registrar
   discovery procotol, which are not important to proxy, and some
   implementation advice.

   The IPIP tunnel is described in [RFC2473].  Each such tunnel is
   considered a unidirectional construct, but two tunnels may be
   associated to form a bidirectional mechanism.  An IPIP tunnel is
   setup as follows.  The outer addresses are an ACP address of the
   proxy, and the ACP address of the join registrar.  The inner
   addresses seen in the tunnel are the link-local addresses of the
   network on which the join activity is occurring.

   One way to look at this construct is to consider that the registrar
   is extending an interface to attaching to the network on which the
   proxy is physically present.  The registrar then interacts as if it
   were present on that network using link-local (fe80::) addresses.
   The registrar is unaware that the traffic is being proxied through a
   tunnel, and does not need any special routing.

   There are a number of considerations with this mechanism which cause
   some minor amounts of complexity.  Note that due to the tunnels, the
   registrar sees multiple connections to a fe80::/10 network on not
   just physical interfaces, but on each of the virtual interfaces
   representing the tunnels.

C.1.  Multiple Join networks on the Join Proxy side

   The proxy will in the general case be a routing device with multiple
   interfaces.  Even a device as simple as a wifi access point may have
   wired, and multiple frequencies of wireless interfaces, potentially
   with multiple ESSIDs.

   Each of these interfaces on the proxy may be separate L3 routing
   domains, and therefore will have a unique set of link-local
   addresses.  An IPIP packet being returned by the registrar needs to
   be forwarded to the correct interface, so the proxy needs an
   additional key to distinguish which network the packet should be
   returned to.

   The simplest way to get this additional key is to allocate an
   additional ACP address; one address for each network on which join
   traffic is occurring.






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C.2.  Automatic configuration of tunnels on Registrar

   The proxy is expected to do a GRASP negotiation with the proxy for
   each interface that it needs to relay traffic from.  This is to
   permit registrars to configure the appropriate virtual interfaces
   before traffic arrives.

   A registrar serving a large number of interfaces may not wish to
   allocate resources to every interface at all times, but can instead
   dynamically allocate interfaces.  It can do this by monitoring IPIP
   traffic that arrives on its ACP interface, and when packets arrive
   from new proxys, it can dynamically configure virtual interfaces.

   A more sophisticated registrar willing to modify the behaviour of its
   TCP and UDP stack could note the IPIP traffic origination in the
   socket control block and make information available to the TCP layer
   (for HTTPS connections), or to the application (for CoAP connections)
   via a proprietary extension to the socket API.

C.3.  Proxy Neighbor Discovery by Join Proxy

   The proxy MUST answer neighbor discovery messages for the address
   given by the registrar as being its link-local address.  The proxy
   must also advertise this address as the address to which to connect
   when advertising its existence.

   This proxy neighbor discovery means that the pledge will create TCP
   and UDP connections to the correct registrar address.  This matters
   as the TCP and UDP pseudo-header checksum includes the destination
   address, and for the proxy to remain completely stateless, it must
   not be necessary for the checksum to be updated.

C.4.  Use of connected sockets; or IP_PKTINFO for CoAP on Registrar

   TCP connections on the registrar SHOULD properly capture the ifindex
   of the incoming connection into the socket structure.  This is normal
   IPv6 socket API processing.  The outgoing responses will go out on
   the same (virtual) interface by ifindex.

   When using UDP sockets with CoAP, the application will have to pay
   attention to the incoming ifindex on the socket.  Access to this
   information is available using the IP_PKTINFO auxiliary extension,
   which is a standard part of the IPv6 sockets API [RFC3542].

   A registrar application could, after receipt of an initial CoAP
   message from the pledge, create a connected UDP socket (including the
   ifindex information.)  The kernel would then take care of accurate




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   demultiplexing upon receive, and subsequent transmission to the
   correct interface.

C.5.  Use of socket extension rather than virtual interface

   Some operating systems on which a registrar needs to be implemented
   may find need for a virtual interface per proxy to be problematic.
   There are other mechanisms which can be implemented.

   If the IPIP decapsulator can mark the (SYN) packet inside the kernel
   with the address of the proxy sending the traffic, then an interface
   per proxy may not be needed.  The outgoing path need just pay
   attention to this extra information and add an appropriate IPIP
   header on outgoing.  A CoAP over UDP mechanism may need to expose
   this extra information to the application as the UDP sockets are
   often not connected, and the application will need to specify the
   outgoing path on each packet sent.

   Such an additional socket mechanism has not been standardized.
   Terminating L2TP connections over IPsec transport mode suffers from
   the same challenges.

Appendix D.  MUD Extension

   The following extension augments the MUD model to include a single
   node, as described in [I-D.ietf-opsawg-mud] section 3.6, using the
   following sample module that has the following tree structure:

   module: ietf-mud-brski-masa
   augment /ietf-mud:mud:
   +--rw masa-server?   inet:uri

   The model is defined as follows:


















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   <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-mud-extension@2018-02-14.yang"
   module ietf-mud-brski-masa {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-mud-brski-masa";
     prefix ietf-mud-brski-masa;
     import ietf-mud {
       prefix ietf-mud;
     }
     import ietf-inet-types {
       prefix inet;
     }

     organization
       "IETF ANIMA (Autonomic Networking Integrated Model and
       Approach) Working Group";
       contact
       "WG Web: http://tools.ietf.org/wg/anima/
       WG List: anima@ietf.org
       ";
     description
       "BRSKI extension to a MUD file to indicate the
       MASA URL.";

     revision 2018-02-14 {
       description
       "Initial revision.";
       reference
       "RFC XXXX: Manufacturer Usage Description
       Specification";
     }

     augment "/ietf-mud:mud" {
       description
       "BRSKI extension to a MUD file to indicate the
       MASA URL.";
       leaf masa-server {
         type inet:uri;
         description
         "This value is the URI of the MASA server";
       }
     }
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

   The MUD extensions string "masa" is defined, and MUST be included in
   the extensions array of the mud container of a MUD file when this
   extension is used.




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Appendix E.  Example Vouchers

   Three entities are involved in a voucher: the MASA issues (signs) it,
   the registrar's public key is mentioned in the voucher, and the
   pledge validates it.  In order to provide reproduceable examples the
   public and private keys for an example MASA and registrar are first
   listed.

E.1.  Keys involved

   The Manufacturer has a Certificate Authority that signs the pledge's
   IDevID.  In addition the Manufacturer's signing authority (the MASA)
   signs the vouchers, and that certificate must distributed to the
   devices at manufacturing time so that vouchers can be validated.

E.1.1.  MASA key pair for voucher signatures

   This private key signs vouchers:

   -----BEGIN EC PRIVATE KEY-----
   MIGkAgEBBDAgiRoYqKoEcfOfvRvmZ5P5Azn58tuI7nSnIy7OgFnCeiNo+BmbgMho
   r6lcU60gwVagBwYFK4EEACKhZANiAATZAH3Rb2FvIJOnts+vXuWW35ofyNbCHzjA
   zOi2kWZFE1ByurKImNcNMFGirGnRXIXGqWCfw5ICgJ8CuM3vV5ty9bf7KUlOkejz
   Tvv+5PV++elkP9HQ83vqTAws2WwWTxI=
   -----END EC PRIVATE KEY-----

   This public key validates vouchers:

   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIBzzCCAVagAwIBAgIBATAKBggqhkjOPQQDAjBNMRIwEAYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYC
   Y2ExGTAXBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEZFglzYW5kZWxtYW4xHDAaBgNVBAMME1Vuc3RydW5n
   IEhpZ2h3YXkgQ0EwHhcNMTcwMzI2MTYxOTQwWhcNMTkwMzI2MTYxOTQwWjBHMRIw
   EAYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYCY2ExGTAXBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEZFglzYW5kZWxtYW4xFjAU
   BgNVBAMMDVVuc3RydW5nIE1BU0EwdjAQBgcqhkjOPQIBBgUrgQQAIgNiAATZAH3R
   b2FvIJOnts+vXuWW35ofyNbCHzjAzOi2kWZFE1ByurKImNcNMFGirGnRXIXGqWCf
   w5ICgJ8CuM3vV5ty9bf7KUlOkejzTvv+5PV++elkP9HQ83vqTAws2WwWTxKjEDAO
   MAwGA1UdEwEB/wQCMAAwCgYIKoZIzj0EAwIDZwAwZAIwGb0oyM0doP6t3/LSPL5O
   DuatEwMYh7WGO+IYTHC8K7EyHBOmCYReKT2+GhV/CLWzAjBNy6UMJTt1tsxJsJqd
   MPUIFj+4wZg1AOIb/JoA6M7r33pwLQTrHRxEzVMGfWOkYUw=
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

E.1.2.  Manufacturer key pair for IDevID signatures

   This private key signs IDevID certificates:







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   -----BEGIN EC PRIVATE KEY-----
   MIGkAgEBBDAgiRoYqKoEcfOfvRvmZ5P5Azn58tuI7nSnIy7OgFnCeiNo+BmbgMho
   r6lcU60gwVagBwYFK4EEACKhZANiAATZAH3Rb2FvIJOnts+vXuWW35ofyNbCHzjA
   zOi2kWZFE1ByurKImNcNMFGirGnRXIXGqWCfw5ICgJ8CuM3vV5ty9bf7KUlOkejz
   Tvv+5PV++elkP9HQ83vqTAws2WwWTxI=
   -----END EC PRIVATE KEY-----

   This public key validates IDevID certificates:

   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIBzzCCAVagAwIBAgIBATAKBggqhkjOPQQDAjBNMRIwEAYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYC
   Y2ExGTAXBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEZFglzYW5kZWxtYW4xHDAaBgNVBAMME1Vuc3RydW5n
   IEhpZ2h3YXkgQ0EwHhcNMTcwMzI2MTYxOTQwWhcNMTkwMzI2MTYxOTQwWjBHMRIw
   EAYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYCY2ExGTAXBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEZFglzYW5kZWxtYW4xFjAU
   BgNVBAMMDVVuc3RydW5nIE1BU0EwdjAQBgcqhkjOPQIBBgUrgQQAIgNiAATZAH3R
   b2FvIJOnts+vXuWW35ofyNbCHzjAzOi2kWZFE1ByurKImNcNMFGirGnRXIXGqWCf
   w5ICgJ8CuM3vV5ty9bf7KUlOkejzTvv+5PV++elkP9HQ83vqTAws2WwWTxKjEDAO
   MAwGA1UdEwEB/wQCMAAwCgYIKoZIzj0EAwIDZwAwZAIwGb0oyM0doP6t3/LSPL5O
   DuatEwMYh7WGO+IYTHC8K7EyHBOmCYReKT2+GhV/CLWzAjBNy6UMJTt1tsxJsJqd
   MPUIFj+4wZg1AOIb/JoA6M7r33pwLQTrHRxEzVMGfWOkYUw=
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

E.1.3.  Registrar key pair

   The registrar key (or chain) is the representative of the domain
   owner.  This key signs registrar voucher-requests:

   -----BEGIN EC PRIVATE KEY-----
   MHcCAQEEIF+obiToYYYeMifPsZvrjWJ0yFsCJwIFhpokmT/TULmXoAoGCCqGSM49
   AwEHoUQDQgAENWQOzcNMUjP0NrtfeBc0DJLWfeMGgCFdIv6FUz4DifM1ujMBec/g
   6W/P6boTmyTGdFOh/8HwKUerL5bpneK8sg==
   -----END EC PRIVATE KEY-----

   The public key is indicated in a pledge voucher-request to show
   proximity.

   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIBrjCCATOgAwIBAgIBAzAKBggqhkjOPQQDAzBOMRIwEAYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYC
   Y2ExGTAXBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEZFglzYW5kZWxtYW4xHTAbBgNVBAMMFFVuc3RydW5n
   IEZvdW50YWluIENBMB4XDTE3MDkwNTAxMTI0NVoXDTE5MDkwNTAxMTI0NVowQzES
   MBAGCgmSJomT8ixkARkWAmNhMRkwFwYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYJc2FuZGVsbWFuMRIw
   EAYDVQQDDAlsb2NhbGhvc3QwWTATBgcqhkjOPQIBBggqhkjOPQMBBwNCAAQ1ZA7N
   w0xSM/Q2u194FzQMktZ94waAIV0i/oVTPgOJ8zW6MwF5z+Dpb8/puhObJMZ0U6H/
   wfApR6svlumd4ryyow0wCzAJBgNVHRMEAjAAMAoGCCqGSM49BAMDA2kAMGYCMQC3
   /iTQJ3evYYcgbXhbmzrp64t3QC6qjIeY2jkDx062nuNifVKtyaara3F30AIkKSEC
   MQDi29efbTLbdtDk3tecY/rD7V77XaJ6nYCmdDCR54TrSFNLgxvt1lyFM+0fYpYR
   c3o=
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----



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   The registrar public certificate as decoded by openssl's x509
   utility.  Note that the registrar certificate is marked with the
   cmcRA extension.

   Certificate:
       Data:
           Version: 3 (0x2)
           Serial Number: 3 (0x3)
       Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA384
           Issuer: DC=ca, DC=sandelman, CN=Unstrung Fountain CA
           Validity
               Not Before: Sep  5 01:12:45 2017 GMT
               Not After : Sep  5 01:12:45 2019 GMT
           Subject: DC=ca, DC=sandelman, CN=localhost
           Subject Public Key Info:
               Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
                   Public-Key: (256 bit)
                   pub:
                       04:35:64:0e:cd:c3:4c:52:33:f4:36:bb:5f:7
   8:17:
                       34:0c:92:d6:7d:e3:06:80:21:5d:22:fe:85:5
   3:3e:
                       03:89:f3:35:ba:33:01:79:cf:e0:e9:6f:cf:e
   9:ba:
                       13:9b:24:c6:74:53:a1:ff:c1:f0:29:47:ab:2
   f:96:
                       e9:9d:e2:bc:b2
                   ASN1 OID: prime256v1
                   NIST CURVE: P-256
           X509v3 extensions:
               X509v3 Basic Constraints:
                   CA:FALSE
       Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA384
            30:66:02:31:00:b7:fe:24:d0:27:77:af:61:87:20:6d:78:
   5b:
            9b:3a:e9:eb:8b:77:40:2e:aa:8c:87:98:da:39:03:c7:4e:
   b6:
            9e:e3:62:7d:52:ad:c9:a6:ab:6b:71:77:d0:02:24:29:21:
   02:
            31:00:e2:db:d7:9f:6d:32:db:76:d0:e4:de:d7:9c:63:fa:
   c3:
            ed:5e:fb:5d:a2:7a:9d:80:a6:74:30:91:e7:84:eb:48:53:
   4b:
            83:1b:ed:d6:5c:85:33:ed:1f:62:96:11:73:7a







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E.1.4.  Pledge key pair

   The pledge has an IDevID key pair built in at manufacturing time:

   -----BEGIN EC PRIVATE KEY-----
   MHcCAQEEIL+ue8PQcN+M7LFBGPsompYwobI/rsoHnTb2a+0hO+8joAoGCCqGSM49
   AwEHoUQDQgAEumBVaDlX87WyME8CJToyt9NWy6sYw0DTbjjJIn79pgr7ALa//Y8p
   r70WpK1SIaiUeeFw7e+lCzTp1Z+wJu14Bg==
   -----END EC PRIVATE KEY-----

   The public key is used by the registrar to find the MASA.  The MASA
   URL is in an extension described in Section 2.3.  RFC-EDITOR: Note
   that these certificates are using a Private Enterprise Number for the
   not-yet-assigned by IANA MASA URL, and need to be replaced before
   AUTH48.

   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIICMjCCAbegAwIBAgIBDDAKBggqhkjOPQQDAjBNMRIwEAYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYC
   Y2ExGTAXBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEZFglzYW5kZWxtYW4xHDAaBgNVBAMME1Vuc3RydW5n
   IEhpZ2h3YXkgQ0EwIBcNMTcxMDEyMTM1MjUyWhgPMjk5OTEyMzEwMDAwMDBaMEsx
   EjAQBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEZFgJjYTEZMBcGCgmSJomT8ixkARkWCXNhbmRlbG1hbjEa
   MBgGA1UEAwwRMDAtRDAtRTUtRjItMDAtMDIwWTATBgcqhkjOPQIBBggqhkjOPQMB
   BwNCAARJp5i0dU1aUnR2u8wMRwgkNupNbNM7m1n0mj+0KJZjcPIqID+trPjTSobt
   uIdpRPfGZ8hU/nIUveqwyoYI8BPbo4GHMIGEMB0GA1UdDgQWBBQdMRZhthFQmzz6
   E7YVXzkL7XZDKjAJBgNVHRMEAjAAMCsGA1UdEQQkMCKgIAYJKwYBBAGC7lIBoBMM
   ETAwLUQwLUU1LUYyLTAwLTAyMCsGCSsGAQQBgu5SAgQeDBxodHRwczovL2hpZ2h3
   YXkuc2FuZGVsbWFuLmNhMAoGCCqGSM49BAMCA2kAMGYCMQDhJ1N+eanW1U/e5qoM
   SGvUvWHR7uic8cJbh7vXy580nBs8bpNn60k/+IzvEUetMzICMQCr1uxvdYeKq7mb
   RXCR4ZCJsw67fJ7jyXZbCUSir+3wBT2+lWggzPDRgYB5ABb7sAw=
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

   The pledge public certificate as decoded by openssl's x509 utility so
   that the extensions can be seen.  A second custom Extension is
   included to provided to contain the EUI48/EUI64 that the pledge will
   configure.
















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   Certificate:
       Data:
           Version: 3 (0x2)
           Serial Number: 12 (0xc)
       Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
           Issuer: DC=ca, DC=sandelman, CN=Unstrung Highway CA
           Validity
               Not Before: Oct 12 13:52:52 2017 GMT
               Not After : Dec 31 00:00:00 2999 GMT
           Subject: DC=ca, DC=sandelman, CN=00-D0-E5-F2-00-02
           Subject Public Key Info:
               Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
                   Public-Key: (256 bit)
                   pub:
                       04:49:a7:98:b4:75:4d:5a:52:74:76:bb:cc:0
   c:47:
                       08:24:36:ea:4d:6c:d3:3b:9b:59:f4:9a:3f:b
   4:28:
                       96:63:70:f2:2a:20:3f:ad:ac:f8:d3:4a:86:e
   d:b8:
                       87:69:44:f7:c6:67:c8:54:fe:72:14:bd:ea:b
   0:ca:
                       86:08:f0:13:db
                   ASN1 OID: prime256v1
                   NIST CURVE: P-256
           X509v3 extensions:
               X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
                   1D:31:16:61:B6:11:50:9B:3C:FA:13:B6:15:5F:39
   :0B:ED:76:43:2A
               X509v3 Basic Constraints:
                   CA:FALSE
               X509v3 Subject Alternative Name:
                   othername:<unsupported>
               1.3.6.1.4.1.46930.2:
                   ..https://highway.sandelman.ca
       Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
            30:66:02:31:00:e1:27:53:7e:79:a9:d6:d5:4f:de:e6:aa:
   0c:
            48:6b:d4:bd:61:d1:ee:e8:9c:f1:c2:5b:87:bb:d7:cb:9f:
   34:
            9c:1b:3c:6e:93:67:eb:49:3f:f8:8c:ef:11:47:ad:33:32:
   02:
            31:00:ab:d6:ec:6f:75:87:8a:ab:b9:9b:45:70:91:e1:90:
   89:
            b3:0e:bb:7c:9e:e3:c9:76:5b:09:44:a2:af:ed:f0:05:3d:
   be:
            95:68:20:cc:f0:d1:81:80:79:00:16:fb:b0:0c




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E.2.  Example process

   RFC-EDITOR: these examples will need to be replaced with CMS versions
   once IANA has assigned the eContentType in [I-D.ietf-anima-voucher].

E.2.1.  Pledge to Registrar

   As described in Section 5.2, the pledge will sign a pledge voucher-
   request containing the registrar's public key in the proximity-
   registrar-cert field.  The base64 has been wrapped at 60 characters
   for presentation reasons.








































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   MIIHHAYJKoZIhvcNAQcCoIIHDTCCBwkCAQExDzANBglghkgBZQMEAgEFADCC
   Aw4GCSqGSIb3DQEHAaCCAv8EggL7eyJpZXRmLXZvdWNoZXItcmVxdWVzdDp2
   b3VjaGVyIjp7ImFzc2VydGlvbiI6InByb3hpbWl0eSIsImNyZWF0ZWQtb24i
   OiIyMDE3LTA5LTAxIiwic2VyaWFsLW51bWJlciI6IjAwLUQwLUU1LUYyLTAw
   LTAyIiwibm9uY2UiOiJEc3M5OXNCcjNwTk1PQUNlLUxZWTd3IiwicHJveGlt
   aXR5LXJlZ2lzdHJhci1jZXJ0IjoiTUlJQnJqQ0NBVE9nQXdJQkFnSUJBekFL
   QmdncWhrak9QUVFEQXpCT01SSXdFQVlLQ1pJbWlaUHlMR1FCR1JZQ1kyRXhH
   VEFYQmdvSmtpYUprL0lzWkFFWkZnbHpZVzVrWld4dFlXNHhIVEFiQmdOVkJB
   TU1GRlZ1YzNSeWRXNW5JRVp2ZFc1MFlXbHVJRU5CTUI0WERURTNNRGt3TlRB
   eE1USTBOVm9YRFRFNU1Ea3dOVEF4TVRJME5Wb3dRekVTTUJBR0NnbVNKb21U
   OGl4a0FSa1dBbU5oTVJrd0Z3WUtDWkltaVpQeUxHUUJHUllKYzJGdVpHVnNi
   V0Z1TVJJd0VBWURWUVFEREFsc2IyTmhiR2h2YzNRd1dUQVRCZ2NxaGtqT1BR
   SUJCZ2dxaGtqT1BRTUJCd05DQUFRMVpBN053MHhTTS9RMnUxOTRGelFNa3Ra
   OTR3YUFJVjBpL29WVFBnT0o4elc2TXdGNXorRHBiOC9wdWhPYkpNWjBVNkgv
   d2ZBcFI2c3ZsdW1kNHJ5eW93MHdDekFKQmdOVkhSTUVBakFBTUFvR0NDcUdT
   TTQ5QkFNREEya0FNR1lDTVFDMy9pVFFKM2V2WVljZ2JYaGJtenJwNjR0M1FD
   NnFqSWVZMmprRHgwNjJudU5pZlZLdHlhYXJhM0YzMEFJa0tTRUNNUURpMjll
   ZmJUTGJkdERrM3RlY1kvckQ3Vjc3WGFKNm5ZQ21kRENSNTRUclNGTkxneHZ0
   MWx5Rk0rMGZZcFlSYzNvPSJ9faCCAjYwggIyMIIBt6ADAgECAgEMMAoGCCqG
   SM49BAMCME0xEjAQBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEZFgJjYTEZMBcGCgmSJomT8ixkARkW
   CXNhbmRlbG1hbjEcMBoGA1UEAwwTVW5zdHJ1bmcgSGlnaHdheSBDQTAgFw0x
   NzEwMTIxMzUyNTJaGA8yOTk5MTIzMTAwMDAwMFowSzESMBAGCgmSJomT8ixk
   ARkWAmNhMRkwFwYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYJc2FuZGVsbWFuMRowGAYDVQQDDBEw
   MC1EMC1FNS1GMi0wMC0wMjBZMBMGByqGSM49AgEGCCqGSM49AwEHA0IABEmn
   mLR1TVpSdHa7zAxHCCQ26k1s0zubWfSaP7QolmNw8iogP62s+NNKhu24h2lE
   98ZnyFT+chS96rDKhgjwE9ujgYcwgYQwHQYDVR0OBBYEFB0xFmG2EVCbPPoT
   thVfOQvtdkMqMAkGA1UdEwQCMAAwKwYDVR0RBCQwIqAgBgkrBgEEAYLuUgGg
   EwwRMDAtRDAtRTUtRjItMDAtMDIwKwYJKwYBBAGC7lICBB4MHGh0dHBzOi8v
   aGlnaHdheS5zYW5kZWxtYW4uY2EwCgYIKoZIzj0EAwIDaQAwZgIxAOEnU355
   qdbVT97mqgxIa9S9YdHu6JzxwluHu9fLnzScGzxuk2frST/4jO8RR60zMgIx
   AKvW7G91h4qruZtFcJHhkImzDrt8nuPJdlsJRKKv7fAFPb6VaCDM8NGBgHkA
   FvuwDDGCAaUwggGhAgEBMFIwTTESMBAGCgmSJomT8ixkARkWAmNhMRkwFwYK
   CZImiZPyLGQBGRYJc2FuZGVsbWFuMRwwGgYDVQQDDBNVbnN0cnVuZyBIaWdo
   d2F5IENBAgEMMA0GCWCGSAFlAwQCAQUAoIHkMBgGCSqGSIb3DQEJAzELBgkq
   hkiG9w0BBwEwHAYJKoZIhvcNAQkFMQ8XDTE3MTAxMjE3NTQzMFowLwYJKoZI
   hvcNAQkEMSIEIP59cuKVAPkKOOlQIaIV/W1AsWKbmVmBd9wFSuD5yLafMHkG
   CSqGSIb3DQEJDzFsMGowCwYJYIZIAWUDBAEqMAsGCWCGSAFlAwQBFjALBglg
   hkgBZQMEAQIwCgYIKoZIhvcNAwcwDgYIKoZIhvcNAwICAgCAMA0GCCqGSIb3
   DQMCAgFAMAcGBSsOAwIHMA0GCCqGSIb3DQMCAgEoMAoGCCqGSM49BAMCBEYw
   RAIgYUy0NTdP+xTkm/Et69eI++S/2z3dQwPKOwdL0cDCSvACIAh3jJbybMnK
   cf7DKKnsn2G/O06HeB/8imMI+hnA7CfN

   file: examples/vr_00-D0-E5-F2-00-02.pkcs

   The ASN1 decoding of the artifact:

       0:d=0  hl=4 l=1820 cons: SEQUENCE
       4:d=1  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :pkcs7-signed



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   Data
      15:d=1  hl=4 l=1805 cons: cont [ 0 ]
      19:d=2  hl=4 l=1801 cons: SEQUENCE
      23:d=3  hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :01
      26:d=3  hl=2 l=  15 cons: SET
      28:d=4  hl=2 l=  13 cons: SEQUENCE
      30:d=5  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :sha256
      41:d=5  hl=2 l=   0 prim: NULL
      43:d=3  hl=4 l= 782 cons: SEQUENCE
      47:d=4  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :pkcs7-data
      58:d=4  hl=4 l= 767 cons: cont [ 0 ]
      62:d=5  hl=4 l= 763 prim: OCTET STRING      :{"ietf-vouch
   er-request:voucher":{"assertion":"proximity","created-on":"2
   017-09-01","serial-number":"00-D0-E5-F2-00-02","nonce":"Dss9
   9sBr3pNMOACe-LYY7w","proximity-registrar-cert":"MIIBrjCCATOg
   AwIBAgIBAzAKBggqhkjOPQQDAzBOMRIwEAYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYCY2ExGTAX
   BgoJkiaJk/IsZAEZFglzYW5kZWxtYW4xHTAbBgNVBAMMFFVuc3RydW5nIEZv
   dW50YWluIENBMB4XDTE3MDkwNTAxMTI0NVoXDTE5MDkwNTAxMTI0NVowQzES
   MBAGCgmSJomT8ixkARkWAmNhMRkwFwYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYJc2FuZGVsbWFu
   MRIwEAYDVQQDDAlsb2NhbGhvc3QwWTATBgcqhkjOPQIBBggqhkjOPQMBBwNC
   AAQ1ZA7Nw0xSM/Q2u194FzQMktZ94waAIV0i/oVTPgOJ8zW6MwF5z+Dpb8/p
   uhObJMZ0U6H/wfApR6svlumd4ryyow0wCzAJBgNVHRMEAjAAMAoGCCqGSM49
   BAMDA2kAMGYCMQC3/iTQJ3evYYcgbXhbmzrp64t3QC6qjIeY2jkDx062nuNi
   fVKtyaara3F30AIkKSECMQDi29efbTLbdtDk3tecY/rD7V77XaJ6nYCmdDCR
   54TrSFNLgxvt1lyFM+0fYpYRc3o="}}
     829:d=3  hl=4 l= 566 cons: cont [ 0 ]
     833:d=4  hl=4 l= 562 cons: SEQUENCE
     837:d=5  hl=4 l= 439 cons: SEQUENCE
     841:d=6  hl=2 l=   3 cons: cont [ 0 ]
     843:d=7  hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :02
     846:d=6  hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :0C
     849:d=6  hl=2 l=  10 cons: SEQUENCE
     851:d=7  hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :ecdsa-with-S
   HA256
     861:d=6  hl=2 l=  77 cons: SEQUENCE
     863:d=7  hl=2 l=  18 cons: SET
     865:d=8  hl=2 l=  16 cons: SEQUENCE
     867:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
     879:d=9  hl=2 l=   2 prim: IA5STRING         :ca
     883:d=7  hl=2 l=  25 cons: SET
     885:d=8  hl=2 l=  23 cons: SEQUENCE
     887:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
     899:d=9  hl=2 l=   9 prim: IA5STRING         :sandelman
     910:d=7  hl=2 l=  28 cons: SET
     912:d=8  hl=2 l=  26 cons: SEQUENCE
     914:d=9  hl=2 l=   3 prim: OBJECT            :commonName



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     919:d=9  hl=2 l=  19 prim: UTF8STRING        :Unstrung Hig
   hway CA
     940:d=6  hl=2 l=  32 cons: SEQUENCE
     942:d=7  hl=2 l=  13 prim: UTCTIME           :171012135252
   Z
     957:d=7  hl=2 l=  15 prim: GENERALIZEDTIME   :299912310000
   00Z
     974:d=6  hl=2 l=  75 cons: SEQUENCE
     976:d=7  hl=2 l=  18 cons: SET
     978:d=8  hl=2 l=  16 cons: SEQUENCE
     980:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
     992:d=9  hl=2 l=   2 prim: IA5STRING         :ca
     996:d=7  hl=2 l=  25 cons: SET
     998:d=8  hl=2 l=  23 cons: SEQUENCE
    1000:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
    1012:d=9  hl=2 l=   9 prim: IA5STRING         :sandelman
    1023:d=7  hl=2 l=  26 cons: SET
    1025:d=8  hl=2 l=  24 cons: SEQUENCE
    1027:d=9  hl=2 l=   3 prim: OBJECT            :commonName
    1032:d=9  hl=2 l=  17 prim: UTF8STRING        :00-D0-E5-F2-
   00-02
    1051:d=6  hl=2 l=  89 cons: SEQUENCE
    1053:d=7  hl=2 l=  19 cons: SEQUENCE
    1055:d=8  hl=2 l=   7 prim: OBJECT            :id-ecPublicK
   ey
    1064:d=8  hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :prime256v1
    1074:d=7  hl=2 l=  66 prim: BIT STRING
    1142:d=6  hl=3 l= 135 cons: cont [ 3 ]
    1145:d=7  hl=3 l= 132 cons: SEQUENCE
    1148:d=8  hl=2 l=  29 cons: SEQUENCE
    1150:d=9  hl=2 l=   3 prim: OBJECT            :X509v3 Subje
   ct Key Identifier
    1155:d=9  hl=2 l=  22 prim: OCTET STRING      [HEX DUMP]:04
   141D311661B611509B3CFA13B6155F390BED76432A
    1179:d=8  hl=2 l=   9 cons: SEQUENCE
    1181:d=9  hl=2 l=   3 prim: OBJECT            :X509v3 Basic
    Constraints
    1186:d=9  hl=2 l=   2 prim: OCTET STRING      [HEX DUMP]:30
   00
    1190:d=8  hl=2 l=  43 cons: SEQUENCE
    1192:d=9  hl=2 l=   3 prim: OBJECT            :X509v3 Subje
   ct Alternative Name
    1197:d=9  hl=2 l=  36 prim: OCTET STRING      [HEX DUMP]:30
   22A02006092B0601040182EE5201A0130C1130302D44302D45352D46322D
   30302D3032
    1235:d=8  hl=2 l=  43 cons: SEQUENCE



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    1237:d=9  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :1.3.6.1.4.1.
   46930.2
    1248:d=9  hl=2 l=  30 prim: OCTET STRING      [HEX DUMP]:0C
   1C68747470733A2F2F686967687761792E73616E64656C6D616E2E6361
    1280:d=5  hl=2 l=  10 cons: SEQUENCE
    1282:d=6  hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :ecdsa-with-S
   HA256
    1292:d=5  hl=2 l= 105 prim: BIT STRING
    1399:d=3  hl=4 l= 421 cons: SET
    1403:d=4  hl=4 l= 417 cons: SEQUENCE
    1407:d=5  hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :01
    1410:d=5  hl=2 l=  82 cons: SEQUENCE
    1412:d=6  hl=2 l=  77 cons: SEQUENCE
    1414:d=7  hl=2 l=  18 cons: SET
    1416:d=8  hl=2 l=  16 cons: SEQUENCE
    1418:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
    1430:d=9  hl=2 l=   2 prim: IA5STRING         :ca
    1434:d=7  hl=2 l=  25 cons: SET
    1436:d=8  hl=2 l=  23 cons: SEQUENCE
    1438:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
    1450:d=9  hl=2 l=   9 prim: IA5STRING         :sandelman
    1461:d=7  hl=2 l=  28 cons: SET
    1463:d=8  hl=2 l=  26 cons: SEQUENCE
    1465:d=9  hl=2 l=   3 prim: OBJECT            :commonName
    1470:d=9  hl=2 l=  19 prim: UTF8STRING        :Unstrung Hig
   hway CA
    1491:d=6  hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :0C
    1494:d=5  hl=2 l=  13 cons: SEQUENCE
    1496:d=6  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :sha256
    1507:d=6  hl=2 l=   0 prim: NULL
    1509:d=5  hl=3 l= 228 cons: cont [ 0 ]
    1512:d=6  hl=2 l=  24 cons: SEQUENCE
    1514:d=7  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :contentType
    1525:d=7  hl=2 l=  11 cons: SET
    1527:d=8  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :pkcs7-data
    1538:d=6  hl=2 l=  28 cons: SEQUENCE
    1540:d=7  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :signingTime
    1551:d=7  hl=2 l=  15 cons: SET
    1553:d=8  hl=2 l=  13 prim: UTCTIME           :171012175430
   Z
    1568:d=6  hl=2 l=  47 cons: SEQUENCE
    1570:d=7  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :messageDiges
   t
    1581:d=7  hl=2 l=  34 cons: SET
    1583:d=8  hl=2 l=  32 prim: OCTET STRING      [HEX DUMP]:FE
   7D72E29500F90A38E95021A215FD6D40B1629B99598177DC054AE0F9C8B6



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   9F
    1617:d=6  hl=2 l= 121 cons: SEQUENCE
    1619:d=7  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :S/MIME Capab
   ilities
    1630:d=7  hl=2 l= 108 cons: SET
    1632:d=8  hl=2 l= 106 cons: SEQUENCE
    1634:d=9  hl=2 l=  11 cons: SEQUENCE
    1636:d=10 hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :aes-256-cbc
    1647:d=9  hl=2 l=  11 cons: SEQUENCE
    1649:d=10 hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :aes-192-cbc
    1660:d=9  hl=2 l=  11 cons: SEQUENCE
    1662:d=10 hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :aes-128-cbc
    1673:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 cons: SEQUENCE
    1675:d=10 hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :des-ede3-cbc
    1685:d=9  hl=2 l=  14 cons: SEQUENCE
    1687:d=10 hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :rc2-cbc
    1697:d=10 hl=2 l=   2 prim: INTEGER           :80
    1701:d=9  hl=2 l=  13 cons: SEQUENCE
    1703:d=10 hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :rc2-cbc
    1713:d=10 hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :40
    1716:d=9  hl=2 l=   7 cons: SEQUENCE
    1718:d=10 hl=2 l=   5 prim: OBJECT            :des-cbc
    1725:d=9  hl=2 l=  13 cons: SEQUENCE
    1727:d=10 hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :rc2-cbc
    1737:d=10 hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :28
    1740:d=5  hl=2 l=  10 cons: SEQUENCE
    1742:d=6  hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :ecdsa-with-S
   HA256
    1752:d=5  hl=2 l=  70 prim: OCTET STRING      [HEX DUMP]:30
   440220614CB435374FFB14E49BF12DEBD788FBE4BFDB3DDD4303CA3B074B
   D1C0C24AF0022008778C96F26CC9CA71FEC328A9EC9F61BF3B4E87781FFC
   8A6308FA19C0EC27CD

   The JSON contained in the voucher request:

   {"ietf-voucher-request:voucher":{"assertion":"proximity","cr
   eated-on":"2017-09-01","serial-number":"00-D0-E5-F2-00-02","
   nonce":"Dss99sBr3pNMOACe-LYY7w","proximity-registrar-cert":"
   MIIBrjCCATOgAwIBAgIBAzAKBggqhkjOPQQDAzBOMRIwEAYKCZImiZPyLGQB
   GRYCY2ExGTAXBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEZFglzYW5kZWxtYW4xHTAbBgNVBAMMFFVu
   c3RydW5nIEZvdW50YWluIENBMB4XDTE3MDkwNTAxMTI0NVoXDTE5MDkwNTAx
   MTI0NVowQzESMBAGCgmSJomT8ixkARkWAmNhMRkwFwYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYJ
   c2FuZGVsbWFuMRIwEAYDVQQDDAlsb2NhbGhvc3QwWTATBgcqhkjOPQIBBggq
   hkjOPQMBBwNCAAQ1ZA7Nw0xSM/Q2u194FzQMktZ94waAIV0i/oVTPgOJ8zW6
   MwF5z+Dpb8/puhObJMZ0U6H/wfApR6svlumd4ryyow0wCzAJBgNVHRMEAjAA
   MAoGCCqGSM49BAMDA2kAMGYCMQC3/iTQJ3evYYcgbXhbmzrp64t3QC6qjIeY
   2jkDx062nuNifVKtyaara3F30AIkKSECMQDi29efbTLbdtDk3tecY/rD7V77
   XaJ6nYCmdDCR54TrSFNLgxvt1lyFM+0fYpYRc3o="}}



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E.2.2.  Registrar to MASA

   As described in Section 5.4 the registrar will sign a registrar
   voucher-request, and will include pledge's voucher request in the
   prior-signed-voucher-request.

   MIIN2gYJKoZIhvcNAQcCoIINyzCCDccCAQExDzANBglghkgBZQMEAgEFADCC
   Ck4GCSqGSIb3DQEHAaCCCj8Eggo7eyJpZXRmLXZvdWNoZXItcmVxdWVzdDp2
   b3VjaGVyIjp7ImFzc2VydGlvbiI6InByb3hpbWl0eSIsImNyZWF0ZWQtb24i
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   ZWQtdm91Y2hlci1yZXF1ZXN0IjoiTUlJSEhRWUpLb1pJaHZjTkFRY0NvSUlI
   RGpDQ0J3b0NBUUV4RHpBTkJnbGdoa2dCWlFNRUFnRUZBRENDQXc0R0NTcUdT
   SWIzRFFFSEFhQ0NBdjhFZ2dMN2V5SnBaWFJtTFhadmRXTm9aWEl0Y21WeGRX
   VnpkRHAyYjNWamFHVnlJanA3SW1GemMyVnlkR2x2YmlJNkluQnliM2hwYlds
   MGVTSXNJbU55WldGMFpXUXRiMjRpT2lJeU1ERTNMVEE1TFRBeElpd2ljMlZ5
   YVdGc0xXNTFiV0psY2lJNklqQXdMVVF3TFVVMUxVWXlMVEF3TFRBeUlpd2li
   bTl1WTJVaU9pSkVjM001T1hOQ2NqTndUazFQUVVObExVeFpXVGQzSWl3aWNI
   SnZlR2x0YVhSNUxYSmxaMmx6ZEhKaGNpMWpaWEowSWpvaVRVbEpRbkpxUTBO
   QlZFOW5RWGRKUWtGblNVSkJla0ZMUW1kbmNXaHJhazlRVVZGRVFYcENUMDFT
   U1hkRlFWbExRMXBKYldsYVVIbE1SMUZDUjFKWlExa3lSWGhIVkVGWVFtZHZT
   bXRwWVVwckwwbHpXa0ZGV2tabmJIcFpWelZyV2xkNGRGbFhOSGhJVkVGaVFt
   ZE9Wa0pCVFUxR1JsWjFZek5TZVdSWE5XNUpSVnAyWkZjMU1GbFhiSFZKUlU1
   Q1RVSTBXRVJVUlROTlJHdDNUbFJCZUUxVVNUQk9WbTlZUkZSRk5VMUVhM2RP
   VkVGNFRWUkpNRTVXYjNkUmVrVlRUVUpCUjBObmJWTktiMjFVT0dsNGEwRlNh
   MWRCYlU1b1RWSnJkMFozV1V0RFdrbHRhVnBRZVV4SFVVSkhVbGxLWXpKR2RW
   cEhWbk5pVjBaMVRWSkpkMFZCV1VSV1VWRkVSRUZzYzJJeVRtaGlSMmgyWXpO
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   bXByUkhnd05qSnVkVTVwWmxaTGRIbGhZWEpoTTBZek1FRkphMHRUUlVOTlVV
   UnBNamxsWm1KVVRHSmtkRVJyTTNSbFkxa3Zja1EzVmpjM1dHRktObTVaUTIx
   a1JFTlNOVFJVY2xOR1RreG5lSFowTVd4NVJrMHJNR1paY0ZsU1l6TnZQU0o5
   ZmFDQ0FqWXdnZ0l5TUlJQnQ2QURBZ0VDQWdFTU1Bb0dDQ3FHU000OUJBTUNN
   RTB4RWpBUUJnb0praWFKay9Jc1pBRVpGZ0pqWVRFWk1CY0dDZ21TSm9tVDhp
   eGtBUmtXQ1hOaGJtUmxiRzFoYmpFY01Cb0dBMVVFQXd3VFZXNXpkSEoxYm1j
   Z1NHbG5hSGRoZVNCRFFUQWdGdzB4TnpFd01USXhNelV5TlRKYUdBOHlPVGs1
   TVRJek1UQXdNREF3TUZvd1N6RVNNQkFHQ2dtU0pvbVQ4aXhrQVJrV0FtTmhN
   Umt3RndZS0NaSW1pWlB5TEdRQkdSWUpjMkZ1WkdWc2JXRnVNUm93R0FZRFZR
   UUREQkV3TUMxRU1DMUZOUzFHTWkwd01DMHdNakJaTUJNR0J5cUdTTTQ5QWdF
   R0NDcUdTTTQ5QXdFSEEwSUFCRW1ubUxSMVRWcFNkSGE3ekF4SENDUTI2azFz
   MHp1YldmU2FQN1FvbG1Odzhpb2dQNjJzK05OS2h1MjRoMmxFOThabnlGVCtj
   aFM5NnJES2hnandFOXVqZ1ljd2dZUXdIUVlEVlIwT0JCWUVGQjB4Rm1HMkVW
   Q2JQUG9UdGhWZk9RdnRka01xTUFrR0ExVWRFd1FDTUFBd0t3WURWUjBSQkNR
   d0lxQWdCZ2tyQmdFRUFZTHVVZ0dnRXd3Uk1EQXRSREF0UlRVdFJqSXRNREF0



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   TURJd0t3WUpLd1lCQkFHQzdsSUNCQjRNSEdoMGRIQnpPaTh2YUdsbmFIZGhl
   UzV6WVc1a1pXeHRZVzR1WTJFd0NnWUlLb1pJemowRUF3SURhUUF3WmdJeEFP
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   em9lOSsyMk56NFp3UkI5Z0FUR0w3TU1DSVFEanNzVWxaekpxcDIva0NkNFdo
   eFVoc2FDcFRGd1Bybk5ldzV3Q2tZVUY4UT09In19oIIBsjCCAa4wggEzoAMC
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   BgoJkiaJk/IsZAEZFgJjYTEZMBcGCgmSJomT8ixkARkWCXNhbmRlbG1hbjES
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   NjAxMzYxOFowLwYJKoZIhvcNAQkEMSIEIEQBM73PZzPo7tE9Mj8gQvaaYeMQ
   OsxlACaW/HenAqNwMHkGCSqGSIb3DQEJDzFsMGowCwYJYIZIAWUDBAEqMAsG
   CWCGSAFlAwQBFjALBglghkgBZQMEAQIwCgYIKoZIhvcNAwcwDgYIKoZIhvcN
   AwICAgCAMA0GCCqGSIb3DQMCAgFAMAcGBSsOAwIHMA0GCCqGSIb3DQMCAgEo
   MAoGCCqGSM49BAMCBEcwRQIgDdp5uPUlMKp7GFQAD7ypAgqFv8q+KkJt6c3O
   7iVpVI8CIQCD1u8BkxipvigwvIDmWfjlYdJxcvozNjffq5j3UHg7Rg==

   file: examples/parboiled_vr_00-D0-E5-F2-00-02.pkcs

   The ASN1 decoding of the artifact:

       0:d=0  hl=4 l=3546 cons: SEQUENCE
       4:d=1  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :pkcs7-signed
   Data
      15:d=1  hl=4 l=3531 cons: cont [ 0 ]
      19:d=2  hl=4 l=3527 cons: SEQUENCE
      23:d=3  hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :01



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      26:d=3  hl=2 l=  15 cons: SET
      28:d=4  hl=2 l=  13 cons: SEQUENCE
      30:d=5  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :sha256
      41:d=5  hl=2 l=   0 prim: NULL
      43:d=3  hl=4 l=2638 cons: SEQUENCE
      47:d=4  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :pkcs7-data
      58:d=4  hl=4 l=2623 cons: cont [ 0 ]
      62:d=5  hl=4 l=2619 prim: OCTET STRING      :{"ietf-vouch
   er-request:voucher":{"assertion":"proximity","created-on":"2
   017-09-15T00:00:00.000Z","serial-number":"JADA123456789","no
   nce":"abcd1234","prior-signed-voucher-request":"MIIHHQYJKoZI
   hvcNAQcCoIIHDjCCBwoCAQExDzANBglghkgBZQMEAgEFADCCAw4GCSqGSIb3
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   DzFsMGowCwYJYIZIAWUDBAEqMAsGCWCGSAFlAwQBFjALBglghkgBZQMEAQIw



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   CgYIKoZIhvcNAwcwDgYIKoZIhvcNAwICAgCAMA0GCCqGSIb3DQMCAgFAMAcG
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   saCpTFwPrnNew5wCkYUF8Q=="}}
    2685:d=3  hl=4 l= 434 cons: cont [ 0 ]
    2689:d=4  hl=4 l= 430 cons: SEQUENCE
    2693:d=5  hl=4 l= 307 cons: SEQUENCE
    2697:d=6  hl=2 l=   3 cons: cont [ 0 ]
    2699:d=7  hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :02
    2702:d=6  hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :03
    2705:d=6  hl=2 l=  10 cons: SEQUENCE
    2707:d=7  hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :ecdsa-with-S
   HA384
    2717:d=6  hl=2 l=  78 cons: SEQUENCE
    2719:d=7  hl=2 l=  18 cons: SET
    2721:d=8  hl=2 l=  16 cons: SEQUENCE
    2723:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
    2735:d=9  hl=2 l=   2 prim: IA5STRING         :ca
    2739:d=7  hl=2 l=  25 cons: SET
    2741:d=8  hl=2 l=  23 cons: SEQUENCE
    2743:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
    2755:d=9  hl=2 l=   9 prim: IA5STRING         :sandelman
    2766:d=7  hl=2 l=  29 cons: SET
    2768:d=8  hl=2 l=  27 cons: SEQUENCE
    2770:d=9  hl=2 l=   3 prim: OBJECT            :commonName
    2775:d=9  hl=2 l=  20 prim: UTF8STRING        :Unstrung Fou
   ntain CA
    2797:d=6  hl=2 l=  30 cons: SEQUENCE
    2799:d=7  hl=2 l=  13 prim: UTCTIME           :170905011245
   Z
    2814:d=7  hl=2 l=  13 prim: UTCTIME           :190905011245
   Z
    2829:d=6  hl=2 l=  67 cons: SEQUENCE
    2831:d=7  hl=2 l=  18 cons: SET
    2833:d=8  hl=2 l=  16 cons: SEQUENCE
    2835:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
    2847:d=9  hl=2 l=   2 prim: IA5STRING         :ca
    2851:d=7  hl=2 l=  25 cons: SET
    2853:d=8  hl=2 l=  23 cons: SEQUENCE
    2855:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
    2867:d=9  hl=2 l=   9 prim: IA5STRING         :sandelman
    2878:d=7  hl=2 l=  18 cons: SET
    2880:d=8  hl=2 l=  16 cons: SEQUENCE
    2882:d=9  hl=2 l=   3 prim: OBJECT            :commonName



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    2887:d=9  hl=2 l=   9 prim: UTF8STRING        :localhost
    2898:d=6  hl=2 l=  89 cons: SEQUENCE
    2900:d=7  hl=2 l=  19 cons: SEQUENCE
    2902:d=8  hl=2 l=   7 prim: OBJECT            :id-ecPublicK
   ey
    2911:d=8  hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :prime256v1
    2921:d=7  hl=2 l=  66 prim: BIT STRING
    2989:d=6  hl=2 l=  13 cons: cont [ 3 ]
    2991:d=7  hl=2 l=  11 cons: SEQUENCE
    2993:d=8  hl=2 l=   9 cons: SEQUENCE
    2995:d=9  hl=2 l=   3 prim: OBJECT            :X509v3 Basic
    Constraints
    3000:d=9  hl=2 l=   2 prim: OCTET STRING      [HEX DUMP]:30
   00
    3004:d=5  hl=2 l=  10 cons: SEQUENCE
    3006:d=6  hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :ecdsa-with-S
   HA384
    3016:d=5  hl=2 l= 105 prim: BIT STRING
    3123:d=3  hl=4 l= 423 cons: SET
    3127:d=4  hl=4 l= 419 cons: SEQUENCE
    3131:d=5  hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :01
    3134:d=5  hl=2 l=  83 cons: SEQUENCE
    3136:d=6  hl=2 l=  78 cons: SEQUENCE
    3138:d=7  hl=2 l=  18 cons: SET
    3140:d=8  hl=2 l=  16 cons: SEQUENCE
    3142:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
    3154:d=9  hl=2 l=   2 prim: IA5STRING         :ca
    3158:d=7  hl=2 l=  25 cons: SET
    3160:d=8  hl=2 l=  23 cons: SEQUENCE
    3162:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
    3174:d=9  hl=2 l=   9 prim: IA5STRING         :sandelman
    3185:d=7  hl=2 l=  29 cons: SET
    3187:d=8  hl=2 l=  27 cons: SEQUENCE
    3189:d=9  hl=2 l=   3 prim: OBJECT            :commonName
    3194:d=9  hl=2 l=  20 prim: UTF8STRING        :Unstrung Fou
   ntain CA
    3216:d=6  hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :03
    3219:d=5  hl=2 l=  13 cons: SEQUENCE
    3221:d=6  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :sha256
    3232:d=6  hl=2 l=   0 prim: NULL
    3234:d=5  hl=3 l= 228 cons: cont [ 0 ]
    3237:d=6  hl=2 l=  24 cons: SEQUENCE
    3239:d=7  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :contentType
    3250:d=7  hl=2 l=  11 cons: SET
    3252:d=8  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :pkcs7-data
    3263:d=6  hl=2 l=  28 cons: SEQUENCE



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    3265:d=7  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :signingTime
    3276:d=7  hl=2 l=  15 cons: SET
    3278:d=8  hl=2 l=  13 prim: UTCTIME           :171026013618
   Z
    3293:d=6  hl=2 l=  47 cons: SEQUENCE
    3295:d=7  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :messageDiges
   t
    3306:d=7  hl=2 l=  34 cons: SET
    3308:d=8  hl=2 l=  32 prim: OCTET STRING      [HEX DUMP]:44
   0133BDCF6733E8EED13D323F2042F69A61E3103ACC65002696FC77A702A3
   70
    3342:d=6  hl=2 l= 121 cons: SEQUENCE
    3344:d=7  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :S/MIME Capab
   ilities
    3355:d=7  hl=2 l= 108 cons: SET
    3357:d=8  hl=2 l= 106 cons: SEQUENCE
    3359:d=9  hl=2 l=  11 cons: SEQUENCE
    3361:d=10 hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :aes-256-cbc
    3372:d=9  hl=2 l=  11 cons: SEQUENCE
    3374:d=10 hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :aes-192-cbc
    3385:d=9  hl=2 l=  11 cons: SEQUENCE
    3387:d=10 hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :aes-128-cbc
    3398:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 cons: SEQUENCE
    3400:d=10 hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :des-ede3-cbc
    3410:d=9  hl=2 l=  14 cons: SEQUENCE
    3412:d=10 hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :rc2-cbc
    3422:d=10 hl=2 l=   2 prim: INTEGER           :80
    3426:d=9  hl=2 l=  13 cons: SEQUENCE
    3428:d=10 hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :rc2-cbc
    3438:d=10 hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :40
    3441:d=9  hl=2 l=   7 cons: SEQUENCE
    3443:d=10 hl=2 l=   5 prim: OBJECT            :des-cbc
    3450:d=9  hl=2 l=  13 cons: SEQUENCE
    3452:d=10 hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :rc2-cbc
    3462:d=10 hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :28
    3465:d=5  hl=2 l=  10 cons: SEQUENCE
    3467:d=6  hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :ecdsa-with-S
   HA256
    3477:d=5  hl=2 l=  71 prim: OCTET STRING      [HEX DUMP]:30
   4502200DDA79B8F52530AA7B1854000FBCA9020A85BFCABE2A426DE9CDCE
   EE2569548F02210083D6EF019318A9BE2830BC80E659F8E561D27172FA33
   3637DFAB98F750783B46

E.2.3.  MASA to Registrar

   The MASA will return a voucher to the registrar, to be relayed to the
   pledge.




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   MIIG3AYJKoZIhvcNAQcCoIIGzTCCBskCAQExDzANBglghkgBZQMEAgEFADCC
   AxAGCSqGSIb3DQEHAaCCAwEEggL9eyJpZXRmLXZvdWNoZXI6dm91Y2hlciI6
   eyJhc3NlcnRpb24iOiJsb2dnZWQiLCJjcmVhdGVkLW9uIjoiMjAxNy0xMC0x
   MlQxMzo1NDozMS40MzktMDQ6MDAiLCJzZXJpYWwtbnVtYmVyIjoiMDAtRDAt
   RTUtRjItMDAtMDIiLCJub25jZSI6IkRzczk5c0JyM3BOTU9BQ2UtTFlZN3ci
   LCJwaW5uZWQtZG9tYWluLWNlcnQiOiJNSUlCcmpDQ0FUT2dBd0lCQWdJQkF6
   QUtCZ2dxaGtqT1BRUURBekJPTVJJd0VBWUtDWkltaVpQeUxHUUJHUllDWTJF
   eEdUQVhCZ29Ka2lhSmsvSXNaQUVaRmdsellXNWtaV3h0WVc0eEhUQWJCZ05W
   QkFNTUZGVnVjM1J5ZFc1bklFWnZkVzUwWVdsdUlFTkJNQjRYRFRFM01Ea3dO
   VEF4TVRJME5Wb1hEVEU1TURrd05UQXhNVEkwTlZvd1F6RVNNQkFHQ2dtU0pv
   bVQ4aXhrQVJrV0FtTmhNUmt3RndZS0NaSW1pWlB5TEdRQkdSWUpjMkZ1WkdW
   c2JXRnVNUkl3RUFZRFZRUUREQWxzYjJOaGJHaHZjM1F3V1RBVEJnY3Foa2pP
   UFFJQkJnZ3Foa2pPUFFNQkJ3TkNBQVExWkE3TncweFNNL1EydTE5NEZ6UU1r
   dFo5NHdhQUlWMGkvb1ZUUGdPSjh6VzZNd0Y1eitEcGI4L3B1aE9iSk1aMFU2
   SC93ZkFwUjZzdmx1bWQ0cnl5b3cwd0N6QUpCZ05WSFJNRUFqQUFNQW9HQ0Nx
   R1NNNDlCQU1EQTJrQU1HWUNNUUMzL2lUUUozZXZZWWNnYlhoYm16cnA2NHQz
   UUM2cWpJZVkyamtEeDA2Mm51TmlmVkt0eWFhcmEzRjMwQUlrS1NFQ01RRGky
   OWVmYlRMYmR0RGszdGVjWS9yRDdWNzdYYUo2bllDbWREQ1I1NFRyU0ZOTGd4
   dnQxbHlGTSswZllwWVJjM289In19oIIB0zCCAc8wggFWoAMCAQICAQEwCgYI
   KoZIzj0EAwIwTTESMBAGCgmSJomT8ixkARkWAmNhMRkwFwYKCZImiZPyLGQB
   GRYJc2FuZGVsbWFuMRwwGgYDVQQDDBNVbnN0cnVuZyBIaWdod2F5IENBMB4X
   DTE3MDMyNjE2MTk0MFoXDTE5MDMyNjE2MTk0MFowRzESMBAGCgmSJomT8ixk
   ARkWAmNhMRkwFwYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYJc2FuZGVsbWFuMRYwFAYDVQQDDA1V
   bnN0cnVuZyBNQVNBMHYwEAYHKoZIzj0CAQYFK4EEACIDYgAE2QB90W9hbyCT
   p7bPr17llt+aH8jWwh84wMzotpFmRRNQcrqyiJjXDTBRoqxp0VyFxqlgn8OS
   AoCfArjN71ebcvW3+ylJTpHo8077/uT1fvnpZD/R0PN76kwMLNlsFk8SoxAw
   DjAMBgNVHRMBAf8EAjAAMAoGCCqGSM49BAMCA2cAMGQCMBm9KMjNHaD+rd/y
   0jy+Tg7mrRMDGIe1hjviGExwvCuxMhwTpgmEXik9vhoVfwi1swIwTculDCU7
   dbbMSbCanTD1CBY/uMGYNQDiG/yaAOjO6996cC0E6x0cRM1TBn1jpGFMMYIB
   xjCCAcICAQEwUjBNMRIwEAYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYCY2ExGTAXBgoJkiaJk/Is
   ZAEZFglzYW5kZWxtYW4xHDAaBgNVBAMME1Vuc3RydW5nIEhpZ2h3YXkgQ0EC
   AQEwDQYJYIZIAWUDBAIBBQCggeQwGAYJKoZIhvcNAQkDMQsGCSqGSIb3DQEH
   ATAcBgkqhkiG9w0BCQUxDxcNMTcxMDEyMTc1NDMxWjAvBgkqhkiG9w0BCQQx
   IgQgQXnG628cIW8MoYfB1ljDDlLlJQlxED2tnjcvkLEfix0weQYJKoZIhvcN
   AQkPMWwwajALBglghkgBZQMEASowCwYJYIZIAWUDBAEWMAsGCWCGSAFlAwQB
   AjAKBggqhkiG9w0DBzAOBggqhkiG9w0DAgICAIAwDQYIKoZIhvcNAwICAUAw
   BwYFKw4DAgcwDQYIKoZIhvcNAwICASgwCgYIKoZIzj0EAwIEZzBlAjEAhzid
   /AkNjttpSP1rflNppdHsi324Z2+TXJxueewnJ8z/2NXb+Tf3DsThv7du00Oz
   AjBjyOnmkkSKHsPR2JluA5c6wovuPEnNKP32daGGeFKGEHMkTInbrqipC881
   /5K9Q+k=

   file: examples/voucher_00-D0-E5-F2-00-02.pkcs

   The ASN1 decoding of the artifact:

       0:d=0  hl=4 l=1756 cons: SEQUENCE
       4:d=1  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :pkcs7-signed
   Data



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      15:d=1  hl=4 l=1741 cons: cont [ 0 ]
      19:d=2  hl=4 l=1737 cons: SEQUENCE
      23:d=3  hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :01
      26:d=3  hl=2 l=  15 cons: SET
      28:d=4  hl=2 l=  13 cons: SEQUENCE
      30:d=5  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :sha256
      41:d=5  hl=2 l=   0 prim: NULL
      43:d=3  hl=4 l= 784 cons: SEQUENCE
      47:d=4  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :pkcs7-data
      58:d=4  hl=4 l= 769 cons: cont [ 0 ]
      62:d=5  hl=4 l= 765 prim: OCTET STRING      :{"ietf-vouch
   er:voucher":{"assertion":"logged","created-on":"2017-10-12T1
   3:54:31.439-04:00","serial-number":"00-D0-E5-F2-00-02","nonc
   e":"Dss99sBr3pNMOACe-LYY7w","pinned-domain-cert":"MIIBrjCCAT
   OgAwIBAgIBAzAKBggqhkjOPQQDAzBOMRIwEAYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYCY2ExGT
   AXBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEZFglzYW5kZWxtYW4xHTAbBgNVBAMMFFVuc3RydW5nIE
   ZvdW50YWluIENBMB4XDTE3MDkwNTAxMTI0NVoXDTE5MDkwNTAxMTI0NVowQz
   ESMBAGCgmSJomT8ixkARkWAmNhMRkwFwYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYJc2FuZGVsbW
   FuMRIwEAYDVQQDDAlsb2NhbGhvc3QwWTATBgcqhkjOPQIBBggqhkjOPQMBBw
   NCAAQ1ZA7Nw0xSM/Q2u194FzQMktZ94waAIV0i/oVTPgOJ8zW6MwF5z+Dpb8
   /puhObJMZ0U6H/wfApR6svlumd4ryyow0wCzAJBgNVHRMEAjAAMAoGCCqGSM
   49BAMDA2kAMGYCMQC3/iTQJ3evYYcgbXhbmzrp64t3QC6qjIeY2jkDx062nu
   NifVKtyaara3F30AIkKSECMQDi29efbTLbdtDk3tecY/rD7V77XaJ6nYCmdD
   CR54TrSFNLgxvt1lyFM+0fYpYRc3o="}}
     831:d=3  hl=4 l= 467 cons: cont [ 0 ]
     835:d=4  hl=4 l= 463 cons: SEQUENCE
     839:d=5  hl=4 l= 342 cons: SEQUENCE
     843:d=6  hl=2 l=   3 cons: cont [ 0 ]
     845:d=7  hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :02
     848:d=6  hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :01
     851:d=6  hl=2 l=  10 cons: SEQUENCE
     853:d=7  hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :ecdsa-with-S
   HA256
     863:d=6  hl=2 l=  77 cons: SEQUENCE
     865:d=7  hl=2 l=  18 cons: SET
     867:d=8  hl=2 l=  16 cons: SEQUENCE
     869:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
     881:d=9  hl=2 l=   2 prim: IA5STRING         :ca
     885:d=7  hl=2 l=  25 cons: SET
     887:d=8  hl=2 l=  23 cons: SEQUENCE
     889:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
     901:d=9  hl=2 l=   9 prim: IA5STRING         :sandelman
     912:d=7  hl=2 l=  28 cons: SET
     914:d=8  hl=2 l=  26 cons: SEQUENCE
     916:d=9  hl=2 l=   3 prim: OBJECT            :commonName
     921:d=9  hl=2 l=  19 prim: UTF8STRING        :Unstrung Hig



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   hway CA
     942:d=6  hl=2 l=  30 cons: SEQUENCE
     944:d=7  hl=2 l=  13 prim: UTCTIME           :170326161940
   Z
     959:d=7  hl=2 l=  13 prim: UTCTIME           :190326161940
   Z
     974:d=6  hl=2 l=  71 cons: SEQUENCE
     976:d=7  hl=2 l=  18 cons: SET
     978:d=8  hl=2 l=  16 cons: SEQUENCE
     980:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
     992:d=9  hl=2 l=   2 prim: IA5STRING         :ca
     996:d=7  hl=2 l=  25 cons: SET
     998:d=8  hl=2 l=  23 cons: SEQUENCE
    1000:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
    1012:d=9  hl=2 l=   9 prim: IA5STRING         :sandelman
    1023:d=7  hl=2 l=  22 cons: SET
    1025:d=8  hl=2 l=  20 cons: SEQUENCE
    1027:d=9  hl=2 l=   3 prim: OBJECT            :commonName
    1032:d=9  hl=2 l=  13 prim: UTF8STRING        :Unstrung MAS
   A
    1047:d=6  hl=2 l= 118 cons: SEQUENCE
    1049:d=7  hl=2 l=  16 cons: SEQUENCE
    1051:d=8  hl=2 l=   7 prim: OBJECT            :id-ecPublicK
   ey
    1060:d=8  hl=2 l=   5 prim: OBJECT            :secp384r1
    1067:d=7  hl=2 l=  98 prim: BIT STRING
    1167:d=6  hl=2 l=  16 cons: cont [ 3 ]
    1169:d=7  hl=2 l=  14 cons: SEQUENCE
    1171:d=8  hl=2 l=  12 cons: SEQUENCE
    1173:d=9  hl=2 l=   3 prim: OBJECT            :X509v3 Basic
    Constraints
    1178:d=9  hl=2 l=   1 prim: BOOLEAN           :255
    1181:d=9  hl=2 l=   2 prim: OCTET STRING      [HEX DUMP]:30
   00
    1185:d=5  hl=2 l=  10 cons: SEQUENCE
    1187:d=6  hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :ecdsa-with-S
   HA256
    1197:d=5  hl=2 l= 103 prim: BIT STRING
    1302:d=3  hl=4 l= 454 cons: SET
    1306:d=4  hl=4 l= 450 cons: SEQUENCE
    1310:d=5  hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :01
    1313:d=5  hl=2 l=  82 cons: SEQUENCE
    1315:d=6  hl=2 l=  77 cons: SEQUENCE
    1317:d=7  hl=2 l=  18 cons: SET
    1319:d=8  hl=2 l=  16 cons: SEQUENCE
    1321:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon



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   ent
    1333:d=9  hl=2 l=   2 prim: IA5STRING         :ca
    1337:d=7  hl=2 l=  25 cons: SET
    1339:d=8  hl=2 l=  23 cons: SEQUENCE
    1341:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 prim: OBJECT            :domainCompon
   ent
    1353:d=9  hl=2 l=   9 prim: IA5STRING         :sandelman
    1364:d=7  hl=2 l=  28 cons: SET
    1366:d=8  hl=2 l=  26 cons: SEQUENCE
    1368:d=9  hl=2 l=   3 prim: OBJECT            :commonName
    1373:d=9  hl=2 l=  19 prim: UTF8STRING        :Unstrung Hig
   hway CA
    1394:d=6  hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :01
    1397:d=5  hl=2 l=  13 cons: SEQUENCE
    1399:d=6  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :sha256
    1410:d=6  hl=2 l=   0 prim: NULL
    1412:d=5  hl=3 l= 228 cons: cont [ 0 ]
    1415:d=6  hl=2 l=  24 cons: SEQUENCE
    1417:d=7  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :contentType
    1428:d=7  hl=2 l=  11 cons: SET
    1430:d=8  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :pkcs7-data
    1441:d=6  hl=2 l=  28 cons: SEQUENCE
    1443:d=7  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :signingTime
    1454:d=7  hl=2 l=  15 cons: SET
    1456:d=8  hl=2 l=  13 prim: UTCTIME           :171012175431
   Z
    1471:d=6  hl=2 l=  47 cons: SEQUENCE
    1473:d=7  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :messageDiges
   t
    1484:d=7  hl=2 l=  34 cons: SET
    1486:d=8  hl=2 l=  32 prim: OCTET STRING      [HEX DUMP]:41
   79C6EB6F1C216F0CA187C1D658C30E52E5250971103DAD9E372F90B11F8B
   1D
    1520:d=6  hl=2 l= 121 cons: SEQUENCE
    1522:d=7  hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :S/MIME Capab
   ilities
    1533:d=7  hl=2 l= 108 cons: SET
    1535:d=8  hl=2 l= 106 cons: SEQUENCE
    1537:d=9  hl=2 l=  11 cons: SEQUENCE
    1539:d=10 hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :aes-256-cbc
    1550:d=9  hl=2 l=  11 cons: SEQUENCE
    1552:d=10 hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :aes-192-cbc
    1563:d=9  hl=2 l=  11 cons: SEQUENCE
    1565:d=10 hl=2 l=   9 prim: OBJECT            :aes-128-cbc
    1576:d=9  hl=2 l=  10 cons: SEQUENCE
    1578:d=10 hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :des-ede3-cbc
    1588:d=9  hl=2 l=  14 cons: SEQUENCE
    1590:d=10 hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :rc2-cbc



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Internet-Draft                    BRSKI                       April 2018


    1600:d=10 hl=2 l=   2 prim: INTEGER           :80
    1604:d=9  hl=2 l=  13 cons: SEQUENCE
    1606:d=10 hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :rc2-cbc
    1616:d=10 hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :40
    1619:d=9  hl=2 l=   7 cons: SEQUENCE
    1621:d=10 hl=2 l=   5 prim: OBJECT            :des-cbc
    1628:d=9  hl=2 l=  13 cons: SEQUENCE
    1630:d=10 hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :rc2-cbc
    1640:d=10 hl=2 l=   1 prim: INTEGER           :28
    1643:d=5  hl=2 l=  10 cons: SEQUENCE
    1645:d=6  hl=2 l=   8 prim: OBJECT            :ecdsa-with-S
   HA256
    1655:d=5  hl=2 l= 103 prim: OCTET STRING      [HEX DUMP]:30
   6502310087389DFC090D8EDB6948FD6B7E5369A5D1EC8B7DB8676F935C9C
   6E79EC2727CCFFD8D5DBF937F70EC4E1BFB76ED343B3023063C8E9E69244
   8A1EC3D1D8996E03973AC28BEE3C49CD28FDF675A1867852861073244C89
   DBAEA8A90BCF35FF92BD43E9

Authors' Addresses

   Max Pritikin
   Cisco

   Email: pritikin@cisco.com


   Michael C. Richardson
   Sandelman Software Works

   Email: mcr+ietf@sandelman.ca
   URI:   http://www.sandelman.ca/


   Michael H. Behringer

   Email: Michael.H.Behringer@gmail.com


   Steinthor Bjarnason
   Arbor Networks

   Email: sbjarnason@arbor.net


   Kent Watsen
   Juniper Networks

   Email: kwatsen@juniper.net



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