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Versions: (draft-carpenter-anima-gdn-protocol) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15

Network Working Group                                         C. Bormann
Internet-Draft                                   Universitaet Bremen TZI
Intended status: Standards Track                       B. Carpenter, Ed.
Expires: January 8, 2018                               Univ. of Auckland
                                                             B. Liu, Ed.
                                            Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
                                                            July 7, 2017


             A Generic Autonomic Signaling Protocol (GRASP)
                       draft-ietf-anima-grasp-15

Abstract

   This document specifies the GeneRic Autonomic Signaling Protocol
   (GRASP), which enables autonomic nodes and autonomic service agents
   to dynamically discover peers, to synchronize state with each other,
   and to negotiate parameter settings with each other.  GRASP depends
   on an external security environment that is described elsewhere.  The
   technical objectives and parameters for specific application
   scenarios are to be described in separate documents.  Appendices
   briefly discuss requirements for the protocol and existing protocols
   with comparable features.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 8, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents



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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  GRASP Protocol Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.2.  High Level Deployment Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     2.3.  High Level Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     2.4.  Quick Operating Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     2.5.  GRASP Protocol Basic Properties and Mechanisms  . . . . .  12
       2.5.1.  Required External Security Mechanism  . . . . . . . .  12
       2.5.2.  Discovery Unsolicited Link-Local (DULL) GRASP . . . .  13
       2.5.3.  Transport Layer Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       2.5.4.  Discovery Mechanism and Procedures  . . . . . . . . .  15
       2.5.5.  Negotiation Procedures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       2.5.6.  Synchronization and Flooding Procedures . . . . . . .  21
     2.6.  GRASP Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     2.7.  Session Identifier (Session ID) . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     2.8.  GRASP Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       2.8.1.  Message Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       2.8.2.  GRASP Message Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       2.8.3.  Message Size  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       2.8.4.  Discovery Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       2.8.5.  Discovery Response Message  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
       2.8.6.  Request Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
       2.8.7.  Negotiation Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       2.8.8.  Negotiation End Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       2.8.9.  Confirm Waiting     Message . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       2.8.10. Synchronization Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
       2.8.11. Flood Synchronization Message . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
       2.8.12. Invalid Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
       2.8.13. No Operation Message  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
     2.9.  GRASP Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       2.9.1.  Format of GRASP Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       2.9.2.  Divert Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       2.9.3.  Accept Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       2.9.4.  Decline Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       2.9.5.  Locator Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     2.10. Objective Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
       2.10.1.  Format of Objective Options  . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
       2.10.2.  Objective flags  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38



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       2.10.3.  General Considerations for Objective Options . . . .  38
       2.10.4.  Organizing of Objective Options  . . . . . . . . . .  39
       2.10.5.  Experimental and Example Objective Options . . . . .  41
   3.  Implementation Status [RFC Editor: please remove] . . . . . .  41
     3.1.  BUPT C++ Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
     3.2.  Python Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
   5.  CDDL Specification of GRASP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
   7.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
   Appendix A.  Open Issues [RFC Editor: This section should be
                empty. Please remove]  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
   Appendix B.  Closed Issues [RFC Editor: Please remove]  . . . . .  54
   Appendix C.  Change log [RFC Editor: Please remove] . . . . . . .  62
   Appendix D.  Example Message Formats  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70
     D.1.  Discovery Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
     D.2.  Flood Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
     D.3.  Synchronization Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
     D.4.  Simple Negotiation Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  72
     D.5.  Complete Negotiation Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  72
   Appendix E.  Requirement Analysis of Discovery, Synchronization
                and Negotiation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
     E.1.  Requirements for Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
     E.2.  Requirements for Synchronization and Negotiation
           Capability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  75
     E.3.  Specific Technical Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . .  77
   Appendix F.  Capability Analysis of Current Protocols . . . . . .  78
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  81

1.  Introduction

   The success of the Internet has made IP-based networks bigger and
   more complicated.  Large-scale ISP and enterprise networks have
   become more and more problematic for human based management.  Also,
   operational costs are growing quickly.  Consequently, there are
   increased requirements for autonomic behavior in the networks.
   General aspects of autonomic networks are discussed in [RFC7575] and
   [RFC7576].

   One approach is to largely decentralize the logic of network
   management by migrating it into network elements.  A reference model
   for autonomic networking on this basis is given in
   [I-D.ietf-anima-reference-model].  The reader should consult this
   document to understand how various autonomic components fit together.
   In order to fulfill autonomy, devices that embody Autonomic Service



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   Agents (ASAs, [RFC7575]) have specific signaling requirements.  In
   particular they need to discover each other, to synchronize state
   with each other, and to negotiate parameters and resources directly
   with each other.  There is no limitation on the types of parameters
   and resources concerned, which can include very basic information
   needed for addressing and routing, as well as anything else that
   might be configured in a conventional non-autonomic network.  The
   atomic unit of discovery, synchronization or negotiation is referred
   to as a technical objective, i.e, a configurable parameter or set of
   parameters (defined more precisely in Section 2.1).

   Negotiation is an iterative process, requiring multiple message
   exchanges forming a closed loop between the negotiating entities.  In
   fact, these entities are ASAs, normally but not necessarily in
   different network devices.  State synchronization, when needed, can
   be regarded as a special case of negotiation, without iteration.
   Both negotiation and synchronization must logically follow discovery.
   More details of the requirements are found in Appendix E.
   Section 2.3 describes a behavior model for a protocol intended to
   support discovery, synchronization and negotiation.  The design of
   GeneRic Autonomic Signaling Protocol (GRASP) in Section 2 of this
   document is based on this behavior model.  The relevant capabilities
   of various existing protocols are reviewed in Appendix F.

   The proposed discovery mechanism is oriented towards synchronization
   and negotiation objectives.  It is based on a neighbor discovery
   process on the local link, but also supports diversion to peers on
   other links.  There is no assumption of any particular form of
   network topology.  When a device starts up with no pre-configuration,
   it has no knowledge of the topology.  The protocol itself is capable
   of being used in a small and/or flat network structure such as a
   small office or home network as well as in a large professionally
   managed network.  Therefore, the discovery mechanism needs to be able
   to allow a device to bootstrap itself without making any prior
   assumptions about network structure.

   Because GRASP can be used as part of a decision process among
   distributed devices or between networks, it must run in a secure and
   strongly authenticated environment.

   In realistic deployments, not all devices will support GRASP.
   Therefore, some autonomic service agents will directly manage a group
   of non-autonomic nodes, and other non-autonomic nodes will be managed
   traditionally.  Such mixed scenarios are not discussed in this
   specification.






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2.  GRASP Protocol Overview

2.1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119] when they appear in ALL CAPS.  When these words are not in
   ALL CAPS (such as "should" or "Should"), they have their usual
   English meanings, and are not to be interpreted as [RFC2119] key
   words.

   This document uses terminology defined in [RFC7575].

   The following additional terms are used throughout this document:

   o  Discovery: a process by which an ASA discovers peers according to
      a specific discovery objective.  The discovery results may be
      different according to the different discovery objectives.  The
      discovered peers may later be used as negotiation counterparts or
      as sources of synchronization data.

   o  Negotiation: a process by which two ASAs interact iteratively to
      agree on parameter settings that best satisfy the objectives of
      both ASAs.

   o  State Synchronization: a process by which ASAs interact to receive
      the current state of parameter values stored in other ASAs.  This
      is a special case of negotiation in which information is sent but
      the ASAs do not request their peers to change parameter settings.
      All other definitions apply to both negotiation and
      synchronization.

   o  Technical Objective (usually abbreviated as Objective): A
      technical objective is a data structure, whose main contents are a
      name and a value.  The value consists of a single configurable
      parameter or a set of parameters of some kind.  The exact format
      of an objective is defined in Section 2.10.1.  An objective occurs
      in three contexts: Discovery, Negotiation and Synchronization.
      Normally, a given objective will not occur in negotiation and
      synchronization contexts simultaneously.

      *  One ASA may support multiple independent objectives.

      *  The parameter(s) in the value of a given objective apply to a
         specific service or function or action.  They may in principle
         be anything that can be set to a specific logical, numerical or
         string value, or a more complex data structure, by a network



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         node.  Each node is expected to contain one or more ASAs which
         may each manage subsidiary non-autonomic nodes.

      *  Discovery Objective: an objective in the process of discovery.
         Its value may be undefined.

      *  Synchronization Objective: an objective whose specific
         technical content needs to be synchronized among two or more
         ASAs.  Thus, each ASA will maintain its own copy of the
         objective.

      *  Negotiation Objective: an objective whose specific technical
         content needs to be decided in coordination with another ASA.
         Again, each ASA will maintain its own copy of the objective.

      A detailed discussion of objectives, including their format, is
      found in Section 2.10.

   o  Discovery Initiator: an ASA that starts discovery by sending a
      discovery message referring to a specific discovery objective.

   o  Discovery Responder: a peer that either contains an ASA supporting
      the discovery objective indicated by the discovery initiator, or
      caches the locator(s) of the ASA(s) supporting the objective.  It
      sends a Discovery Response, as described later.

   o  Synchronization Initiator: an ASA that starts synchronization by
      sending a request message referring to a specific synchronization
      objective.

   o  Synchronization Responder: a peer ASA which responds with the
      value of a synchronization objective.

   o  Negotiation Initiator: an ASA that starts negotiation by sending a
      request message referring to a specific negotiation objective.

   o  Negotiation Counterpart: a peer with which the Negotiation
      Initiator negotiates a specific negotiation objective.

   o  GRASP Instance: This refers to an instantiation of a GRASP
      protocol engine, likely including multiple threads or processes as
      well as dynamic data structures such as a discovery cache, running
      in a given security environment on a single device.

   o  GRASP Core: This refers to the code and shared data structures of
      a GRASP instance, which will communicate with individual ASAs via
      a suitable Application Programming Interface (API).




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   o  Interface or GRASP Interface: Unless otherwise stated, these refer
      to a network interface - which might be physical or virtual - that
      a specific instance of GRASP is currently using.  A device might
      have other interfaces that are not used by GRASP and which are
      outside the scope of the autonomic network.

2.2.  High Level Deployment Model

   A GRASP implementation will be part of the Autonomic Networking
   Infrastructure (ANI) in an autonomic node, which must also provide an
   appropriate security environment.  In accordance with
   [I-D.ietf-anima-reference-model], this SHOULD be the Autonomic
   Control Plane (ACP) [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane].  As a
   result, all autonomic nodes in the ACP are able to trust each other.
   It is expected that GRASP will access the ACP by using a typical
   socket programming interface and the ACP will make available only
   network interfaces within the autonomic network.  If there is no ACP,
   the considerations described in Section 2.5.1 apply.

   There will also be one or more Autonomic Service Agents (ASAs).  In
   the minimal case of a single-purpose device, these components might
   be fully integrated with GRASP and the ACP.  A more common model is
   expected to be a multi-purpose device capable of containing several
   ASAs, such as a router or large switch.  In this case it is expected
   that the ACP, GRASP and the ASAs will be implemented as separate
   processes, which are able to support asynchronous and simultaneous
   operations, for example by multi-threading.

   In some scenarios, a limited negotiation model might be deployed
   based on a limited trust relationship such as that between two
   administrative domains.  ASAs might then exchange limited information
   and negotiate some particular configurations.

   GRASP is explicitly designed to operate within a single addressing
   realm.  Its discovery and flooding mechanisms do not support
   autonomic operations that cross any form of address translator or
   upper layer proxy.

   A suitable Application Programming Interface (API) will be needed
   between GRASP and the ASAs.  In some implementations, ASAs would run
   in user space with a GRASP library providing the API, and this
   library would in turn communicate via system calls with core GRASP
   functions.  Details of the API are out of scope for the present
   document.  For further details of possible deployment models, see
   [I-D.ietf-anima-reference-model].

   An instance of GRASP must be aware of the network interfaces it will
   use, and of the appropriate global-scope and link-local addresses.



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   In the presence of the ACP, such information will be available from
   the adjacency table discussed in [I-D.ietf-anima-reference-model].
   In other cases, GRASP must determine such information for itself.
   Details depend on the device and operating system.  In the rest of
   this document, the terms 'interfaces' or 'GRASP interfaces' refers
   only to the set of network interfaces that a specific instance of
   GRASP is currently using.

   Because GRASP needs to work with very high reliability, especially
   during bootstrapping and during fault conditions, it is essential
   that every implementation continues to operate in adverse conditions.
   For example, discovery failures, or any kind of socket exception at
   any time, must not cause irrecoverable failures in GRASP itself, and
   must return suitable error codes through the API so that ASAs can
   also recover.

   GRASP must not depend upon non-volatile data storage.  All run time
   error conditions, and events such as address renumbering, network
   interface failures, and CPU sleep/wake cycles, must be handled in
   such a way that GRASP will still operate correctly and securely
   (Section 2.5.1) afterwards.

   An autonomic node will normally run a single instance of GRASP, used
   by multiple ASAs.  Possible exceptions are mentioned below.

2.3.  High Level Design

   This section describes the behavior model and general design of
   GRASP, supporting discovery, synchronization and negotiation, to act
   as a platform for different technical objectives.

   o  A generic platform:

      The protocol design is generic and independent of the
      synchronization or negotiation contents.  The technical contents
      will vary according to the various technical objectives and the
      different pairs of counterparts.


   o  Normally, a single main instance of the GRASP protocol engine will
      exist in an autonomic node, and each ASA will run as an
      independent asynchronous process.  However, scenarios where
      multiple instances of GRASP run in a single node, perhaps with
      different security properties, are possible (Section 2.5.2).  In
      this case, each instance MUST listen independently for GRASP link-
      local multicasts, and all instances MUST be woken by each such
      multicast, in order for discovery and flooding to work correctly.




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   o  Security infrastructure:

      As noted above, the protocol itself has no built-in security
      functionality, and relies on a separate secure infrastructure.


   o  Discovery, synchronization and negotiation are designed together:

      The discovery method and the synchronization and negotiation
      methods are designed in the same way and can be combined when this
      is useful, allowing a rapid mode of operation described in
      Section 2.5.4.  These processes can also be performed
      independently when appropriate.

      *  Thus, for some objectives, especially those concerned with
         application layer services, another discovery mechanism such as
         the future DNS Service Discovery [RFC7558] MAY be used.  The
         choice is left to the designers of individual ASAs.


   o  A uniform pattern for technical objectives:

      The synchronization and negotiation objectives are defined
      according to a uniform pattern.  The values that they contain
      could be carried either in a simple binary format or in a complex
      object format.  The basic protocol design uses the Concise Binary
      Object Representation (CBOR) [RFC7049], which is readily
      extensible for unknown future requirements.


   o  A flexible model for synchronization:

      GRASP supports synchronization between two nodes, which could be
      used repeatedly to perform synchronization among a small number of
      nodes.  It also supports an unsolicited flooding mode when large
      groups of nodes, possibly including all autonomic nodes, need data
      for the same technical objective.

      *  There may be some network parameters for which a more
         traditional flooding mechanism such as DNCP [RFC7787] is
         considered more appropriate.  GRASP can coexist with DNCP.


   o  A simple initiator/responder model for negotiation:

      Multi-party negotiations are very complicated to model and cannot
      readily be guaranteed to converge.  GRASP uses a simple bilateral
      model and can support multi-party negotiations by indirect steps.



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   o  Organizing of synchronization or negotiation content:

      The technical content transmitted by GRASP will be organized
      according to the relevant function or service.  The objectives for
      different functions or services are kept separate, because they
      may be negotiated or synchronized with different counterparts or
      have different response times.  Thus a normal arrangement would be
      a single ASA managing a small set of closely related objectives,
      with a version of that ASA in each relevant autonomic node.
      Further discussion of this aspect is out of scope for the current
      document.


   o  Requests and responses in negotiation procedures:

      The initiator can negotiate a specific negotiation objective with
      relevant counterpart ASAs.  It can request relevant information
      from a counterpart so that it can coordinate its local
      configuration.  It can request the counterpart to make a matching
      configuration.  It can request simulation or forecast results by
      sending some dry run conditions.

      Beyond the traditional yes/no answer, the responder can reply with
      a suggested alternative value for the objective concerned.  This
      would start a bi-directional negotiation ending in a compromise
      between the two ASAs.


   o  Convergence of negotiation procedures:

      To enable convergence, when a responder suggests a new value or
      condition in a negotiation step reply, it should be as close as
      possible to the original request or previous suggestion.  The
      suggested value of later negotiation steps should be chosen
      between the suggested values from the previous two steps.  GRASP
      provides mechanisms to guarantee convergence (or failure) in a
      small number of steps, namely a timeout and a maximum number of
      iterations.



   o  Extensibility:

      GRASP intentionally does not have a version number, and can be
      extended by adding new message types and options.  The Invalid
      Message (M_INVALID) will be used to signal that an implementation
      does not recognize a message or option sent by another




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      implementation.  In normal use, new semantics will be added by
      defining new synchronization or negotiation objectives.

2.4.  Quick Operating Overview

   An instance of GRASP is expected to run as a separate core module,
   providing an API (such as [I-D.liu-anima-grasp-api]) to interface to
   various ASAs.  These ASAs may operate without special privilege,
   unless they need it for other reasons (such as configuring IP
   addresses or manipulating routing tables).

   The GRASP mechanisms used by the ASA are built around GRASP
   objectives defined as data structures containing administrative
   information such as the objective's unique name, and its current
   value.  The format and size of the value is not restricted by the
   protocol, except that it must be possible to serialize it for
   transmission in CBOR, which is no restriction at all in practice.

   GRASP provides the following mechanisms:

   o  A discovery mechanism (M_DISCOVERY, M_RESPONSE), by which an ASA
      can discover other ASAs supporting a given objective.

   o  A negotiation request mechanism (M_REQ_NEG), by which an ASA can
      start negotiation of an objective with a counterpart ASA.  Once a
      negotiation has started, the process is symmetrical, and there is
      a negotiation step message (M_NEGOTIATE) for each ASA to use in
      turn.  Two other functions support negotiating steps (M_WAIT,
      M_END).

   o  A synchronization mechanism (M_REQ_SYN), by which an ASA can
      request the current value of an objective from a counterpart ASA.
      With this, there is a corresponding response function (M_SYNCH)
      for an ASA that wishes to respond to synchronization requests.

   o  A flood mechanism (M_FLOOD), by which an ASA can cause the current
      value of an objective to be flooded throughout the autonomic
      network so that any ASA can receive it.  One application of this
      is to act as an announcement, avoiding the need for discovery of a
      widely applicable objective.

   Some example messages and simple message flows are provided in
   Appendix D.








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2.5.  GRASP Protocol Basic Properties and Mechanisms

2.5.1.  Required External Security Mechanism

   GRASP does not specify transport security because it is meant to be
   adapted to different environments.  Every solution adopting GRASP
   MUST specify a security and transport substrate used by GRASP in that
   solution.

   The substrate MUST enforce sending and receiving GRASP messages only
   between members of a mutually trusted group running GRASP.  Each
   group member is an instance of GRASP.  The group members are nodes of
   a connected graph.  The group and graph is created by the security
   and transport substrate and called the GRASP domain.  The substrate
   must support unicast messages between any group members and (link-
   local) multicast messages between adjacent group members.  It must
   deny messages between group members and non group members.  With this
   model, security is provided by enforcing group membership, but any
   member of the trusted group can attack the entire network until
   revoked.

   Substrates MUST use cryptographic member authentication and message
   integrity for GRASP messages.  This can be end-to-end or hop-by-hop
   across the domain.  The security and transport substrate MUST provide
   mechanisms to remove untrusted members from the group.

   If the substrate does not mandate and enforce GRASP message
   encryption then any service using GRASP in such a solution MUST
   provide protection and encryption for message elements whose exposure
   could constitute an attack vector.

   The security and transport substrate for GRASP in the ANI is the ACP.
   Unless otherwise noted, we assume this security and transport
   substrate in the remainder of this document.  The ACP does mandate
   the use of encryption; therefore GRASP in the ANI can rely on GRASP
   message being encrypted.  The GRASP domain is the ACP: all nodes in
   an autonomic domain connected by encrypted virtual links formed by
   the ACP.  The ACP uses hop-by-hop security (authentication/
   encryption) of messages.  Removal of nodes relies on standard PKI
   certificate revocation or expiry of sufficiently short lived
   certificates.  Refer to [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane] for
   more details.

   As mentioned in Section 2.3, some GRASP operations might be performed
   across an administrative domain boundary by mutual agreement, without
   the benefit of an ACP.  Such operations MUST be confined to a
   separate instance of GRASP with its own copy of all GRASP data
   structures running across a separate GRASP domain with a security and



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   transport substrate.  In the most simple case, each point-to-point
   interdomain GRASP peering could be a separate domain and the security
   and transport substrate could be built using transport or network
   layer security protocols.  This is subject to future specifications.

   An exception to the requirements for the security and transport
   substrate exists for highly constrained subsets of GRASP meant to
   support the establishment of a security and transport substrate,
   described in the following section.

2.5.2.  Discovery Unsolicited Link-Local (DULL) GRASP

   Some services may need to use insecure GRASP discovery, response and
   flood messages without being able to use pre-existing security
   associations, for example as part of discovery for establishing
   security associations such as a security substrate for GRASP.

   Such operations being intrinsically insecure, they need to be
   confined to link-local use to minimize the risk of malicious actions.
   Possible examples include discovery of candidate ACP neighbors
   [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane], discovery of bootstrap
   proxies [I-D.ietf-anima-bootstrapping-keyinfra] or perhaps
   initialization services in networks using GRASP without being fully
   autonomic (e.g., no ACP).  Such usage MUST be limited to link-local
   operations on a single interface and MUST be confined to a separate
   insecure instance of GRASP with its own copy of all GRASP data
   structures.  This instance is nicknamed DULL - Discovery Unsolicited
   Link-Local.

   The detailed rules for the DULL instance of GRASP are as follows:

   o  An initiator MAY send Discovery or Flood Synchronization link-
      local multicast messages which MUST have a loop count of 1, to
      prevent off-link operations.  Other unsolicited GRASP message
      types MUST NOT be sent.

   o  A responder MUST silently discard any message whose loop count is
      not 1.

   o  A responder MUST silently discard any message referring to a GRASP
      Objective that is not directly part of a service that requires
      this insecure mode.

   o  A responder MUST NOT relay any multicast messages.

   o  A Discovery Response MUST indicate a link-local address.

   o  A Discovery Response MUST NOT include a Divert option.



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   o  A node MUST silently discard any message whose source address is
      not link-local.

   To minimize traffic possibly observed by third parties, GRASP traffic
   SHOULD be minimized by using only Flood Synchronization to announce
   objectives and their associated locators, rather than by using
   Discovery and Response.  Further details are out of scope for this
   document

2.5.3.  Transport Layer Usage

   All GRASP messages, after they are serialized as a CBOR byte string,
   are transmitted as such directly over the transport protocol in use.
   The transport protocol(s) for a GRASP domain are specified by the
   security and transport substrate as introduced in Section 2.5.1.

   GRASP discovery and flooding messages are designed for GRASP domain
   wide flooding through hop-by-hop link-local multicast forwarding
   between adjacent GRASP nodes.  The GRASP security and transport
   substrate needs to specify how these link local multicasts are
   transported.  This can be unreliable transport (UDP) but it SHOULD be
   reliable transport (e.g., TCP).

   If the substrate specifies an unreliable transport such as UDP for
   discovery and flooding messages, then it MUST NOT use IP
   fragmentation because of its loss characteristic, especially in
   multi-hop flooding.  GRASP MUST then enforce at the user API level a
   limit to the size of discovery and flooding messages, so that no
   fragmentation can occur.  For IPv6 transport this means that those
   messages must be at most 1280 bytes sized IPv6 packets (unless there
   is a known larger minimum link MTU across the whole GRASP domain).

   All other GRASP messages are unicast beteween group members of the
   GRASP domain.  These MUST use a reliable transport protocol because
   GRASP itself does not provide for error detection, retransmission or
   flow control.  Unless otherwise specified by the security and
   transport substrate, TCP MUST be used.

   The security and transport substrate for GRASP in the ANI is the ACP.
   Unless otherwise noted, we assume this security and transport
   substrate in the remainder of this document when describing GRASPs
   message transport.  In the ACP, TCP is used for GRASP unicast
   messages.  GRASP discovery and flooding messages also use TCP: These
   link-local messages are forwarded by replicating them to all adjacent
   GRASP nodes on the link via TCP connections to those adjacent GRASP
   nodes.  Because of this, GRASP in the ANI has no limitations on the
   size of discovery and flooding messages with respect to fragmentation




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   issues.  UDP is used in the ANI with GRASP only with DULL when the
   ACP is built to discover ACP/GRASP neighbors on links.

   For link-local UDP multicast, the GRASP protocol listens to the well-
   known GRASP Listen Port (Section 2.6).  Transport connections for
   Discovery and Flooding on relay nodes must terminate in GRASP
   instances (eg: GRASP ASAs) so that link-local multicast, hop-by-hop
   flooding of M_DISCOVERY and M_FLOOD and hop-by-hop forwarding of
   M_RESPONSE and caching of those responses along the path work
   correctly.

   Unicast transport connections used for synchronization and
   negotiation can terminate directly in ASAs that implement objectives
   and therefore this traffic does not need to pass through GRASP
   instances.  For this, the ASA listens on its own dynamically assigned
   ports, which are communicated to its peers during discovery.
   Alternatively, the GRASP instance can also terminate the unicast
   transport connections and pass the traffic from/to the ASA if that is
   preferrable in some implementation (eg: to better decouple ASAs from
   network connections).

2.5.4.  Discovery Mechanism and Procedures

2.5.4.1.  Separated discovery and negotiation mechanisms

   Although discovery and negotiation or synchronization are defined
   together in GRASP, they are separate mechanisms.  The discovery
   process could run independently from the negotiation or
   synchronization process.  Upon receiving a Discovery (Section 2.8.4)
   message, the recipient node should return a response message in which
   it either indicates itself as a discovery responder or diverts the
   initiator towards another more suitable ASA.  However, this response
   may be delayed if the recipient needs to relay the discovery onwards,
   as described below.

   The discovery action (M_DISCOVERY) will normally be followed by a
   negotiation (M_REQ_NEG) or synchronization (M_REQ_SYN) action.  The
   discovery results could be utilized by the negotiation protocol to
   decide which ASA the initiator will negotiate with.

   The initiator of a discovery action for a given objective need not be
   capable of responding to that objective as a Negotiation Counterpart,
   as a Synchronization Responder or as source for flooding.  For
   example, an ASA might perform discovery even if it only wishes to act
   a Synchronization Initiator or Negotiation Initiator.  Such an ASA
   does not itself need to respond to discovery messages.





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   It is also entirely possible to use GRASP discovery without any
   subsequent negotiation or synchronization action.  In this case, the
   discovered objective is simply used as a name during the discovery
   process and any subsequent operations between the peers are outside
   the scope of GRASP.

2.5.4.2.  Discovery Overview

   A complete discovery process will start with a multicast (of
   M_DISCOVERY) on the local link.  On-link neighbors supporting the
   discovery objective will respond directly (with M_RESPONSE).  A
   neighbor with multiple interfaces may respond with a cached discovery
   response.  If it has no cached response, it will relay the discovery
   on its other GRASP interfaces.  If a node receiving the relayed
   discovery supports the discovery objective, it will respond to the
   relayed discovery.  If it has a cached response, it will respond with
   that.  If not, it will repeat the discovery process, which thereby
   becomes iterative.  The loop count and timeout will ensure that the
   process ends.  Further details are given below.

   A Discovery message MAY be sent unicast to a peer node, which SHOULD
   then proceed exactly as if the message had been multicast, except
   that when TCP is used, the response will be on the same socket as the
   query.  However, this mode does not guarantee successful discovery in
   the general case.

2.5.4.3.  Discovery Procedures

   Discovery starts as an on-link operation.  The Divert option can tell
   the discovery initiator to contact an off-link ASA for that discovery
   objective.  If the security and transport substrate of the GRASP
   domain (see Section 2.5.3) uses UDP link-local multicast then the
   discovery initiator sends these to the ALL_GRASP_NEIGHBORS link-local
   multicast address (Section 2.6) and and all GRASP nodes need to
   listen to this address to act as discovery responder.  Because this
   port is unique in a device, this is a function of the GRASP instance
   and not of an individual ASA.  As a result, each ASA will need to
   register the objectives that it supports with the local GRASP
   instance.

   If an ASA in a neighbor device supports the requested discovery
   objective, the device SHOULD respond to the link-local multicast with
   a unicast Discovery Response message (Section 2.8.5) with locator
   option(s), unless it is temporarily unavailable.  Otherwise, if the
   neighbor has cached information about an ASA that supports the
   requested discovery objective (usually because it discovered the same
   objective before), it SHOULD respond with a Discovery Response
   message with a Divert option pointing to the appropriate Discovery



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   Responder.  However, it SHOULD NOT respond with a cached response on
   an interface if it learnt that information from the same interface,
   because the peer in question will answer directly if still
   operational.

   If a device has no information about the requested discovery
   objective, and is not acting as a discovery relay (see below) it MUST
   silently discard the Discovery message.

   The discovery initiator MUST set a reasonable timeout on the
   discovery process.  A suggested value is 100 milliseconds multiplied
   by the loop count embedded in the objective.

   If no discovery response is received within the timeout, the
   Discovery message MAY be repeated, with a newly generated Session ID
   (Section 2.7).  An exponential backoff SHOULD be used for subsequent
   repetitions, to limit the load during busy periods.  The details of
   the backoff algorithm will depend on the use case for the objective
   concerned but MUST be consistent with the recommendations in
   [RFC8085] for low data-volume multicast.  Frequent repetition might
   be symptomatic of a denial of service attack.

   After a GRASP device successfully discovers a locator for a Discovery
   Responder supporting a specific objective, it SHOULD cache this
   information, including the interface index [RFC3493] via which it was
   discovered.  This cache record MAY be used for future negotiation or
   synchronization, and the locator SHOULD be passed on when appropriate
   as a Divert option to another Discovery Initiator.

   The cache mechanism MUST include a lifetime for each entry.  The
   lifetime is derived from a time-to-live (ttl) parameter in each
   Discovery Response message.  Cached entries MUST be ignored or
   deleted after their lifetime expires.  In some environments,
   unplanned address renumbering might occur.  In such cases, the
   lifetime SHOULD be short compared to the typical address lifetime.
   The discovery mechanism needs to track the node's current address to
   ensure that Discovery Responses always indicate the correct address.

   If multiple Discovery Responders are found for the same objective,
   they SHOULD all be cached, unless this creates a resource shortage.
   The method of choosing between multiple responders is an
   implementation choice.  This choice MUST be available to each ASA but
   the GRASP implementation SHOULD provide a default choice.

   Because Discovery Responders will be cached in a finite cache, they
   might be deleted at any time.  In this case, discovery will need to
   be repeated.  If an ASA exits for any reason, its locator might still




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   be cached for some time, and attempts to connect to it will fail.
   ASAs need to be robust in these circumstances.

2.5.4.4.  Discovery Relaying

   A GRASP instance with multiple link-layer interfaces (typically
   running in a router) MUST support discovery on all GRASP interfaces.
   We refer to this as a 'relaying instance'.

   DULL Instances (Section 2.5.2) are always single-interface instances
   and therefore MUST NOT perform discovery relaying.

   If a relaying instance receives a Discovery message on a given
   interface for a specific objective that it does not support and for
   which it has not previously cached a Discovery Responder, it MUST
   relay the query by re-issuing a new Discovery message as a link-local
   multicast on its other GRASP interfaces.

   The relayed discovery message MUST have the same Session ID and
   Initiator field as the incoming (see Section 2.8.4).  The Initiator
   IP address field is only used to allow for disambiguation of the
   Session ID and is never used to address Response packets.  Response
   packets are sent back to the relaying instance, not the original
   initiator.

   The M_DISCOVERY message does not encode the transport address of the
   originator or relay.  Response packets must therefore be sent to the
   transport layer address of the connection on which the M_DISCOVERY
   message was received.  If the M_DISCOVERY was relayed via a reliable
   hop-by-hop transport connection, the response is simply sent back via
   the same connection.

   If the M_DISCOVERY was relayed via link-local (eg: UDP) multicast,
   the response is sent back via a reliable hop-by-hop transport
   connection with the same port number as the source port of the link-
   local multicast.  Therefore, if link-local multicast is used and
   M_RESPONSE messages are required (which is the case in almost all
   GRASP instances except for the limited use of DULL instances in the
   ANI), GRASP needs to be able to bind to one port number on UDP from
   which to originate the link-local multicast M_DISCOVERY messages and
   the same port number on the reliable hop-by-hop transport (eg: TCP by
   default) to be able to respond to transport connections from
   responders that want to send M_RESPONSE messages back.  Note that
   this port does not need to be the GRASP_LISTEN_PORT.

   The relaying instance MUST decrement the loop count within the
   objective, and MUST NOT relay the Discovery message if the result is
   zero.  Also, it MUST limit the total rate at which it relays



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   discovery messages to a reasonable value, in order to mitigate
   possible denial of service attacks.  For example, the rate limit
   could be set to a small multiple of the observed rate of discovery
   messages during normal operation.  The relaying instance MUST cache
   the Session ID value and initiator address of each relayed Discovery
   message until any Discovery Responses have arrived or the discovery
   process has timed out.  To prevent loops, it MUST NOT relay a
   Discovery message which carries a given cached Session ID and
   initiator address more than once.  These precautions avoid discovery
   loops and mitigate potential overload.

   Since the relay device is unaware of the timeout set by the original
   initiator it SHOULD set a suitable timeout for the relayed discovery.
   A suggested value is 100 milliseconds multiplied by the remaining
   loop count.

   The discovery results received by the relaying instance MUST in turn
   be sent as a Discovery Response message to the Discovery message that
   caused the relay action.

2.5.4.5.  Rapid Mode (Discovery with Negotiation or Synchronization )

   A Discovery message MAY include an Objective option.  This allows a
   rapid mode of negotiation (Section 2.5.5.1) or synchronization
   (Section 2.5.6.3).  Rapid mode is currently limited to a single
   objective for simplicity of design and implementation.  A possible
   future extension is to allow multiple objectives in rapid mode for
   greater efficiency.

2.5.5.  Negotiation Procedures

   A negotiation initiator opens a transport connection to a counterpart
   ASA using the address, protocol and port obtained during discovery.
   It then sends a negotiation request (using M_REQ_NEG) to the
   counterpart, including a specific negotiation objective.  It may
   request the negotiation counterpart to make a specific configuration.
   Alternatively, it may request a certain simulation or forecast result
   by sending a dry run configuration.  The details, including the
   distinction between a dry run and a live configuration change, will
   be defined separately for each type of negotiation objective.  Any
   state associated with a dry run operation, such as temporarily
   reserving a resource for subsequent use in a live run, is entirely a
   matter for the designer of the ASA concerned.

   Each negotiation session as a whole is subject to a timeout (default
   GRASP_DEF_TIMEOUT milliseconds, Section 2.6), initialised when the
   request is sent (see Section 2.8.6).  If no reply message of any kind
   is received within the timeout, the negotiation request MAY be



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   repeated, with a newly generated Session ID (Section 2.7).  An
   exponential backoff SHOULD be used for subsequent repetitions.  The
   details of the backoff algorithm will depend on the use case for the
   objective concerned.

   If the counterpart can immediately apply the requested configuration,
   it will give an immediate positive (O_ACCEPT) answer (using M_END).
   This will end the negotiation phase immediately.  Otherwise, it will
   negotiate (using M_NEGOTIATE).  It will reply with a proposed
   alternative configuration that it can apply (typically, a
   configuration that uses fewer resources than requested by the
   negotiation initiator).  This will start a bi-directional negotiation
   (using M_NEGOTIATE) to reach a compromise between the two ASAs.

   The negotiation procedure is ended when one of the negotiation peers
   sends a Negotiation Ending (M_END) message, which contains an accept
   (O_ACCEPT) or decline (O_DECLINE) option and does not need a response
   from the negotiation peer.  Negotiation may also end in failure
   (equivalent to a decline) if a timeout is exceeded or a loop count is
   exceeded.  When the procedure ends for whatever reason, the transport
   connection SHOULD be closed.  A transport session failure is treated
   as a negotiation failure.

   A negotiation procedure concerns one objective and one counterpart.
   Both the initiator and the counterpart may take part in simultaneous
   negotiations with various other ASAs, or in simultaneous negotiations
   about different objectives.  Thus, GRASP is expected to be used in a
   multi-threaded mode or its logical equivalent.  Certain negotiation
   objectives may have restrictions on multi-threading, for example to
   avoid over-allocating resources.

   Some configuration actions, for example wavelength switching in
   optical networks, might take considerable time to execute.  The ASA
   concerned needs to allow for this by design, but GRASP does allow for
   a peer to insert latency in a negotiation process if necessary
   (Section 2.8.9, M_WAIT).

2.5.5.1.  Rapid Mode (Discovery/Negotiation Linkage)

   A Discovery message MAY include a Negotiation Objective option.  In
   this case it is as if the initiator sent the sequence M_DISCOVERY,
   immediately followed by M_REQ_NEG.  This has implications for the
   construction of the GRASP core, as it must carefully pass the
   contents of the Negotiation Objective option to the ASA so that it
   may evaluate the objective directly.  When a Negotiation Objective
   option is present the ASA replies with an M_NEGOTIATE message (or
   M_END with O_ACCEPT if it is immediately satisfied with the




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   proposal), rather than with an M_RESPONSE.  However, if the recipient
   node does not support rapid mode, discovery will continue normally.

   It is possible that a Discovery Response will arrive from a responder
   that does not support rapid mode, before such a Negotiation message
   arrives.  In this case, rapid mode will not occur.

   This rapid mode could reduce the interactions between nodes so that a
   higher efficiency could be achieved.  However, a network in which
   some nodes support rapid mode and others do not will have complex
   timing-dependent behaviors.  Therefore, the rapid negotiation
   function SHOULD be disabled by default.

2.5.6.  Synchronization and Flooding Procedures

2.5.6.1.  Unicast Synchronization

   A synchronization initiator opens a transport connection to a
   counterpart ASA using the address, protocol and port obtained during
   discovery.  It then sends a synchronization request (using M_REQ_SYN)
   to the counterpart, including a specific synchronization objective.
   The counterpart responds with a Synchronization message (M_SYNCH,
   Section 2.8.10) containing the current value of the requested
   synchronization objective.  No further messages are needed and the
   transport connection SHOULD be closed.  A transport session failure
   is treated as a synchronization failure.

   If no reply message of any kind is received within a given timeout
   (default GRASP_DEF_TIMEOUT milliseconds, Section 2.6), the
   synchronization request MAY be repeated, with a newly generated
   Session ID (Section 2.7).  An exponential backoff SHOULD be used for
   subsequent repetitions.  The details of the backoff algorithm will
   depend on the use case for the objective concerned.

2.5.6.2.  Flooding

   In the case just described, the message exchange is unicast and
   concerns only one synchronization objective.  For large groups of
   nodes requiring the same data, synchronization flooding is available.
   For this, a flooding initiator MAY send an unsolicited Flood
   Synchronization message containing one or more Synchronization
   Objective option(s), if and only if the specification of those
   objectives permits it.  This is sent as a multicast message to the
   ALL_GRASP_NEIGHBORS multicast address (Section 2.6).

   Receiving flood multicasts is a function of the GRASP core, as in the
   case of discovery multicasts (Section 2.5.4.3).




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   To ensure that flooding does not result in a loop, the originator of
   the Flood Synchronization message MUST set the loop count in the
   objectives to a suitable value (the default is GRASP_DEF_LOOPCT).
   Also, a suitable mechanism is needed to avoid excessive multicast
   traffic.  This mechanism MUST be defined as part of the specification
   of the synchronization objective(s) concerned.  It might be a simple
   rate limit or a more complex mechanism such as the Trickle algorithm
   [RFC6206].

   A GRASP device with multiple link-layer interfaces (typically a
   router) MUST support synchronization flooding on all GRASP
   interfaces.  If it receives a multicast Flood Synchronization message
   on a given interface, it MUST relay it by re-issuing a Flood
   Synchronization message as a link-local multicast on its other GRASP
   interfaces.  The relayed message MUST have the same Session ID as the
   incoming message and MUST be tagged with the IP address of its
   original initiator.

   Link-layer Flooding is supported by GRASP by setting the loop count
   to 1, and sending with a link-local source address.  Floods with
   link-local source addresses and a loop count other than 1 are
   invalid, and such messages MUST be discarded.

   The relaying device MUST decrement the loop count within the first
   objective, and MUST NOT relay the Flood Synchronization message if
   the result is zero.  Also, it MUST limit the total rate at which it
   relays Flood Synchronization messages to a reasonable value, in order
   to mitigate possible denial of service attacks.  For example, the
   rate limit could be set to a small multiple of the observed rate of
   flood messages during normal operation.  The relaying device MUST
   cache the Session ID value and initiator address of each relayed
   Flood Synchronization message for a time not less than twice
   GRASP_DEF_TIMEOUT milliseconds.  To prevent loops, it MUST NOT relay
   a Flood Synchronization message which carries a given cached Session
   ID and initiator address more than once.  These precautions avoid
   synchronization loops and mitigate potential overload.

   Note that this mechanism is unreliable in the case of sleeping nodes,
   or new nodes that join the network, or nodes that rejoin the network
   after a fault.  An ASA that initiates a flood SHOULD repeat the flood
   at a suitable frequency, which MUST be consistent with the
   recommendations in [RFC8085] for low data-volume multicast.  The ASA
   SHOULD also act as a synchronization responder for the objective(s)
   concerned.  Thus nodes that require an objective subject to flooding
   can either wait for the next flood or request unicast synchronization
   for that objective.





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   The multicast messages for synchronization flooding are subject to
   the security rules in Section 2.5.1.  In practice this means that
   they MUST NOT be transmitted and MUST be ignored on receipt unless
   there is an operational ACP or equivalent strong security in place.
   However, because of the security weakness of link-local multicast
   (Section 4), synchronization objectives that are flooded SHOULD NOT
   contain unencrypted private information and SHOULD be validated by
   the recipient ASA.

2.5.6.3.  Rapid Mode (Discovery/Synchronization Linkage)

   A Discovery message MAY include a Synchronization Objective option.
   In this case the Discovery message also acts as a Request
   Synchronization message to indicate to the Discovery Responder that
   it could directly reply to the Discovery Initiator with a
   Synchronization message Section 2.8.10 with synchronization data for
   rapid processing, if the discovery target supports the corresponding
   synchronization objective.  The design implications are similar to
   those discussed in Section 2.5.5.1.

   It is possible that a Discovery Response will arrive from a responder
   that does not support rapid mode, before such a Synchronization
   message arrives.  In this case, rapid mode will not occur.

   This rapid mode could reduce the interactions between nodes so that a
   higher efficiency could be achieved.  However, a network in which
   some nodes support rapid mode and others do not will have complex
   timing-dependent behaviors.  Therefore, the rapid synchronization
   function SHOULD be configured off by default and MAY be configured on
   or off by Intent.

2.6.  GRASP Constants

   o  ALL_GRASP_NEIGHBORS

      A link-local scope multicast address used by a GRASP-enabled
      device to discover GRASP-enabled neighbor (i.e., on-link) devices.
      All devices that support GRASP are members of this multicast
      group.

      *  IPv6 multicast address: TBD1

      *  IPv4 multicast address: TBD2

   o  GRASP_LISTEN_PORT (TBD3)

      A well-known UDP user port that every GRASP-enabled network device
      MUST listen to for link-local multicasts when UDP is used for



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      M_DISCOVERY or M_FLOOD messages in the GRASP instance This user
      port MAY also be used to listen for TCP or UDP unicast messages in
      a simple implementation of GRASP (Section 2.5.3).

   o  GRASP_DEF_TIMEOUT (60000 milliseconds)

      The default timeout used to determine that an operation has failed
      to complete.

   o  GRASP_DEF_LOOPCT (6)

      The default loop count used to determine that a negotiation has
      failed to complete, and to avoid looping messages.

   o  GRASP_DEF_MAX_SIZE (2048)

      The default maximum message size in bytes.

2.7.  Session Identifier (Session ID)

   This is an up to 32-bit opaque value used to distinguish multiple
   sessions between the same two devices.  A new Session ID MUST be
   generated by the initiator for every new Discovery, Flood
   Synchronization or Request message.  All responses and follow-up
   messages in the same discovery, synchronization or negotiation
   procedure MUST carry the same Session ID.

   The Session ID SHOULD have a very low collision rate locally.  It
   MUST be generated by a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) using a
   locally generated seed which is unlikely to be used by any other
   device in the same network.  The PRNG SHOULD be cryptographically
   strong [RFC4086].  When allocating a new Session ID, GRASP MUST check
   that the value is not already in use and SHOULD check that it has not
   been used recently, by consulting a cache of current and recent
   sessions.  In the unlikely event of a clash, GRASP MUST generate a
   new value.

   However, there is a finite probability that two nodes might generate
   the same Session ID value.  For that reason, when a Session ID is
   communicated via GRASP, the receiving node MUST tag it with the
   initiator's IP address to allow disambiguation.  In the highly
   unlikely event of two peers opening sessions with the same Session ID
   value, this tag will allow the two sessions to be distinguished.
   Multicast GRASP messages and their responses, which may be relayed
   between links, therefore include a field that carries the initiator's
   global IP address.





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   There is a highly unlikely race condition in which two peers start
   simultaneous negotiation sessions with each other using the same
   Session ID value.  Depending on various implementation choices, this
   might lead to the two sessions being confused.  See Section 2.8.6 for
   details of how to avoid this.

2.8.  GRASP Messages

2.8.1.  Message Overview

   This section defines the GRASP message format and message types.
   Message types not listed here are reserved for future use.

   The messages currently defined are:

      Discovery and Discovery Response (M_DISCOVERY, M_RESPONSE).

      Request Negotiation, Negotiation, Confirm Waiting and Negotiation
      End (M_REQ_NEG, M_NEGOTIATE, M_WAIT, M_END).

      Request Synchronization, Synchronization, and Flood
      Synchronization (M_REQ_SYN, M_SYNCH, M_FLOOD.

      No Operation and Invalid (M_NOOP, M_INVALID).

2.8.2.  GRASP Message Format

   GRASP messages share an identical header format and a variable format
   area for options.  GRASP message headers and options are transmitted
   in Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR) [RFC7049].  In this
   specification, they are described using CBOR data definition language
   (CDDL) [I-D.greevenbosch-appsawg-cbor-cddl].  Fragmentary CDDL is
   used to describe each item in this section.  A complete and normative
   CDDL specification of GRASP is given in Section 5, including
   constants such as message types.

   Every GRASP message, except the No Operation message, carries a
   Session ID (Section 2.7).  Options are then presented serially in the
   options field.

   In fragmentary CDDL, every GRASP message follows the pattern:










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     grasp-message = (message .within message-structure) / noop-message

     message-structure = [MESSAGE_TYPE, session-id, ?initiator,
                          *grasp-option]

     MESSAGE_TYPE = 1..255
     session-id = 0..4294967295 ;up to 32 bits
     grasp-option = any

   The MESSAGE_TYPE indicates the type of the message and thus defines
   the expected options.  Any options received that are not consistent
   with the MESSAGE_TYPE SHOULD be silently discarded.

   The No Operation (noop) message is described in Section 2.8.13.

   The various MESSAGE_TYPE values are defined in Section 5.

   All other message elements are described below and formally defined
   in Section 5.

   If an unrecognized MESSAGE_TYPE is received in a unicast message, an
   Invalid message (Section 2.8.12) MAY be returned.  Otherwise the
   message MAY be logged and MUST be discarded.  If an unrecognized
   MESSAGE_TYPE is received in a multicast message, it MAY be logged and
   MUST be silently discarded.

2.8.3.  Message Size

   GRASP nodes MUST be able to receive unicast messages of at least
   GRASP_DEF_MAX_SIZE bytes.  GRASP nodes MUST NOT send unicast messages
   longer than GRASP_DEF_MAX_SIZE bytes unless a longer size is
   explicitly allowed for the objective concerned.  For example, GRASP
   negotiation itself could be used to agree on a longer message size.

   The message parser used by GRASP should be configured to know about
   the GRASP_DEF_MAX_SIZE, or any larger negotiated message size, so
   that it may defend against overly long messages.

   The maximum size of multicast messages (M_DISCOVERY and M_FLOOD)
   depends on the link layer technology or link adaptation layer in use.

2.8.4.  Discovery Message

   In fragmentary CDDL, a Discovery message follows the pattern:

     discovery-message = [M_DISCOVERY, session-id, initiator, objective]





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   A discovery initiator sends a Discovery message to initiate a
   discovery process for a particular objective option.

   The discovery initiator sends all Discovery messages via UDP to port
   GRASP_LISTEN_PORT at the link-local ALL_GRASP_NEIGHBORS multicast
   address on each link-layer interface in use by GRASP.  It then
   listens for unicast TCP responses on a given port, and stores the
   discovery results (including responding discovery objectives and
   corresponding unicast locators).

   The listening port used for TCP MUST be the same port as used for
   sending the Discovery UDP multicast, on a given interface.  In an
   implementation with a single GRASP instance in a node this MAY be
   GRASP_LISTEN_PORT.  To support multiple instances in the same node,
   the GRASP discovery mechanism in each instance needs to find, for
   each interface, a dynamic port that it can bind to for both sending
   UDP link-local multicast and listening for TCP, before initiating any
   discovery.

   The 'initiator' field in the message is a globally unique IP address
   of the initiator, for the sole purpose of disambiguating the Session
   ID in other nodes.  If for some reason the initiator does not have a
   globally unique IP address, it MUST use a link-local address for this
   purpose that is highly likely to be unique, for example using
   [RFC7217].  Determination of a node's globally unique IP address is
   implementation-dependent.

   A Discovery message MUST include exactly one of the following:

   o  a discovery objective option (Section 2.10.1).  Its loop count
      MUST be set to a suitable value to prevent discovery loops
      (default value is GRASP_DEF_LOOPCT).  If the discovery initiator
      requires only on-link responses, the loop count MUST be set to 1.

   o  a negotiation objective option (Section 2.10.1).  This is used
      both for the purpose of discovery and to indicate to the discovery
      target that it MAY directly reply to the discovery initiatior with
      a Negotiation message for rapid processing, if it could act as the
      corresponding negotiation counterpart.  The sender of such a
      Discovery message MUST initialize a negotiation timer and loop
      count in the same way as a Request Negotiation message
      (Section 2.8.6).

   o  a synchronization objective option (Section 2.10.1).  This is used
      both for the purpose of discovery and to indicate to the discovery
      target that it MAY directly reply to the discovery initiator with
      a Synchronization message for rapid processing, if it could act as
      the corresponding synchronization counterpart.  Its loop count



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      MUST be set to a suitable value to prevent discovery loops
      (default value is GRASP_DEF_LOOPCT).

   As mentioned in Section 2.5.4.2, a Discovery message MAY be sent
   unicast to a peer node, which SHOULD then proceed exactly as if the
   message had been multicast.

2.8.5.  Discovery Response Message

   In fragmentary CDDL, a Discovery Response message follows the
   pattern:

     response-message = [M_RESPONSE, session-id, initiator, ttl,
                        (+locator-option // divert-option), ?objective)]

     ttl = 0..4294967295 ; in milliseconds

   A node which receives a Discovery message SHOULD send a Discovery
   Response message if and only if it can respond to the discovery.

      It MUST contain the same Session ID and initiator as the Discovery
      message.

      It MUST contain a time-to-live (ttl) for the validity of the
      response, given as a positive integer value in milliseconds.  Zero
      implies a value significantly greater than GRASP_DEF_TIMEOUT
      milliseconds (Section 2.6).  A suggested value is ten times that
      amount.

      It MAY include a copy of the discovery objective from the
      Discovery message.

   It is sent to the sender of the Discovery message via TCP at the port
   used to send the Discovery message (as explained in Section 2.8.4).
   In the case of a relayed Discovery message, the Discovery Response is
   thus sent to the relay, not the original initiator.

   In all cases, the transport session SHOULD be closed after sending
   the Discovery Response.  A transport session failure is treated as no
   response.

   If the responding node supports the discovery objective of the
   discovery, it MUST include at least one kind of locator option
   (Section 2.9.5) to indicate its own location.  A sequence of multiple
   kinds of locator options (e.g.  IP address option and FQDN option) is
   also valid.





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   If the responding node itself does not support the discovery
   objective, but it knows the locator of the discovery objective, then
   it SHOULD respond to the discovery message with a divert option
   (Section 2.9.2) embedding a locator option or a combination of
   multiple kinds of locator options which indicate the locator(s) of
   the discovery objective.

   More details on the processing of Discovery Responses are given in
   Section 2.5.4.

2.8.6.  Request Messages

   In fragmentary CDDL, Request Negotiation and Request Synchronization
   messages follow the patterns:


   request-negotiation-message = [M_REQ_NEG, session-id, objective]

   request-synchronization-message = [M_REQ_SYN, session-id, objective]


   A negotiation or synchronization requesting node sends the
   appropriate Request message to the unicast address of the negotiation
   or synchronization counterpart, using the appropriate protocol and
   port numbers (selected from the discovery result).  If the discovery
   result is an FQDN, it will be resolved first.

   A Request message MUST include the relevant objective option.  In the
   case of Request Negotiation, the objective option MUST include the
   requested value.

   When an initiator sends a Request Negotiation message, it MUST
   initialize a negotiation timer for the new negotiation thread.  The
   default is GRASP_DEF_TIMEOUT milliseconds.  Unless this timeout is
   modified by a Confirm Waiting message (Section 2.8.9), the initiator
   will consider that the negotiation has failed when the timer expires.

   Similarly, when an initiator sends a Request Synchronization, it
   SHOULD initialize a synchronization timer.  The default is
   GRASP_DEF_TIMEOUT milliseconds.  The initiator will consider that
   synchronization has failed if there is no response before the timer
   expires.

   When an initiator sends a Request message, it MUST initialize the
   loop count of the objective option with a value defined in the
   specification of the option or, if no such value is specified, with
   GRASP_DEF_LOOPCT.




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   If a node receives a Request message for an objective for which no
   ASA is currently listening, it MUST immediately close the relevant
   socket to indicate this to the initiator.  This is to avoid
   unnecessary timeouts if, for example, an ASA exits prematurely but
   the GRASP core is listening on its behalf.

   To avoid the highly unlikely race condition in which two nodes
   simultaneously request sessions with each other using the same
   Session ID (Section 2.7), when a node receives a Request message, it
   MUST verify that the received Session ID is not already locally
   active.  In case of a clash, it MUST discard the Request message, in
   which case the initiator will detect a timeout.

2.8.7.  Negotiation Message

   In fragmentary CDDL, a Negotiation message follows the pattern:

     negotiate-message = [M_NEGOTIATE, session-id, objective]

   A negotiation counterpart sends a Negotiation message in response to
   a Request Negotiation message, a Negotiation message, or a Discovery
   message in Rapid Mode.  A negotiation process MAY include multiple
   steps.

   The Negotiation message MUST include the relevant Negotiation
   Objective option, with its value updated according to progress in the
   negotiation.  The sender MUST decrement the loop count by 1.  If the
   loop count becomes zero the message MUST NOT be sent.  In this case
   the negotiation session has failed and will time out.

2.8.8.  Negotiation End Message

   In fragmentary CDDL, a Negotiation End message follows the pattern:

     end-message = [M_END, session-id, accept-option / decline-option]

   A negotiation counterpart sends an Negotiation End message to close
   the negotiation.  It MUST contain either an accept or a decline
   option, defined in Section 2.9.3 and Section 2.9.4.  It could be sent
   either by the requesting node or the responding node.

2.8.9.  Confirm Waiting Message

   In fragmentary CDDL, a Confirm Waiting message follows the pattern:

     wait-message = [M_WAIT, session-id, waiting-time]
     waiting-time = 0..4294967295 ; in milliseconds




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   A responding node sends a Confirm Waiting message to ask the
   requesting node to wait for a further negotiation response.  It might
   be that the local process needs more time or that the negotiation
   depends on another triggered negotiation.  This message MUST NOT
   include any other options.  When received, the waiting time value
   overwrites and restarts the current negotiation timer
   (Section 2.8.6).

   The responding node SHOULD send a Negotiation, Negotiation End or
   another Confirm Waiting message before the negotiation timer expires.
   If not, when the initiator's timer expires, the initiator MUST treat
   the negotiation procedure as failed.

2.8.10.  Synchronization Message

   In fragmentary CDDL, a Synchronization message follows the pattern:

     synch-message = [M_SYNCH, session-id, objective]

   A node which receives a Request Synchronization, or a Discovery
   message in Rapid Mode, sends back a unicast Synchronization message
   with the synchronization data, in the form of a GRASP Option for the
   specific synchronization objective present in the Request
   Synchronization.

2.8.11.  Flood Synchronization Message

   In fragmentary CDDL, a Flood Synchronization message follows the
   pattern:

     flood-message = [M_FLOOD, session-id, initiator, ttl,
                     +[objective, (locator-option / [])]]

     ttl = 0..4294967295 ; in milliseconds

   A node MAY initiate flooding by sending an unsolicited Flood
   Synchronization Message with synchronization data.  This MAY be sent
   to port GRASP_LISTEN_PORT at the link-local ALL_GRASP_NEIGHBORS
   multicast address, in accordance with the rules in Section 2.5.6.

      The initiator address is provided, as described for Discovery
      messages (Section 2.8.4), only to disambiguate the Session ID.

      The message MUST contain a time-to-live (ttl) for the validity of
      the contents, given as a positive integer value in milliseconds.
      There is no default; zero indicates an indefinite lifetime.





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      The synchronization data are in the form of GRASP Option(s) for
      specific synchronization objective(s).  The loop count(s) MUST be
      set to a suitable value to prevent flood loops (default value is
      GRASP_DEF_LOOPCT).

      Each objective option MAY be followed by a locator option
      associated with the flooded objective.  In its absence, an empty
      option MUST be included to indicate a null locator.

   A node that receives a Flood Synchronization message MUST cache the
   received objectives for use by local ASAs.  Each cached objective
   MUST be tagged with the locator option sent with it, or with a null
   tag if an empty locator option was sent.  If a subsequent Flood
   Synchronization message carrying an objective with same name and the
   same tag, the corresponding cached copy of the objective MUST be
   overwritten.  If a subsequent Flood Synchronization message carrying
   an objective with same name arrives with a different tag, a new
   cached entry MUST be created.

   Note: the purpose of this mechanism is to allow the recipient of
   flooded values to distinguish between different senders of the same
   objective, and if necessary communicate with them using the locator,
   protocol and port included in the locator option.  Many objectives
   will not need this mechanism, so they will be flooded with a null
   locator.

   Cached entries MUST be ignored or deleted after their lifetime
   expires.

2.8.12.  Invalid Message

   In fragmentary CDDL, an Invalid message follows the pattern:

     invalid-message = [M_INVALID, session-id, ?any]

   This message MAY be sent by an implementation in response to an
   incoming unicast message that it considers invalid.  The session-id
   MUST be copied from the incoming message.  The content SHOULD be
   diagnostic information such as a partial copy of the invalid message
   up to the maximum message size.  An M_INVALID message MAY be silently
   ignored by a recipient.  However, it could be used in support of
   extensibility, since it indicates that the remote node does not
   support a new or obsolete message or option.

   An M_INVALID message MUST NOT be sent in response to an M_INVALID
   message.





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2.8.13.  No Operation Message

   In fragmentary CDDL, a No Operation message follows the pattern:

     noop-message = [M_NOOP]

   This message MAY be sent by an implementation that for practical
   reasons needs to initialize a socket.  It MUST be silently ignored by
   a recipient.

2.9.  GRASP Options

   This section defines the GRASP options for the negotiation and
   synchronization protocol signaling.  Additional options may be
   defined in the future.

2.9.1.  Format of GRASP Options

   GRASP options are CBOR objects that MUST start with an unsigned
   integer identifying the specific option type carried in this option.
   These option types are formally defined in Section 5.  Apart from
   that the only format requirement is that each option MUST be a well-
   formed CBOR object.  In general a CBOR array format is RECOMMENDED to
   limit overhead.

   GRASP options may be defined to include encapsulated GRASP options.

2.9.2.  Divert Option

   The Divert option is used to redirect a GRASP request to another
   node, which may be more appropriate for the intended negotiation or
   synchronization.  It may redirect to an entity that is known as a
   specific negotiation or synchronization counterpart (on-link or off-
   link) or a default gateway.  The divert option MUST only be
   encapsulated in Discovery Response messages.  If found elsewhere, it
   SHOULD be silently ignored.

   A discovery initiator MAY ignore a Divert option if it only requires
   direct discovery responses.

   In fragmentary CDDL, the Divert option follows the pattern:

     divert-option = [O_DIVERT, +locator-option]

   The embedded Locator Option(s) (Section 2.9.5) point to diverted
   destination target(s) in response to a Discovery message.





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2.9.3.  Accept Option

   The accept option is used to indicate to the negotiation counterpart
   that the proposed negotiation content is accepted.

   The accept option MUST only be encapsulated in Negotiation End
   messages.  If found elsewhere, it SHOULD be silently ignored.

   In fragmentary CDDL, the Accept option follows the pattern:

     accept-option = [O_ACCEPT]

2.9.4.  Decline Option

   The decline option is used to indicate to the negotiation counterpart
   the proposed negotiation content is declined and end the negotiation
   process.

   The decline option MUST only be encapsulated in Negotiation End
   messages.  If found elsewhere, it SHOULD be silently ignored.

   In fragmentary CDDL, the Decline option follows the pattern:

     decline-option = [O_DECLINE, ?reason]
     reason = text  ;optional UTF-8 error message

   Note: there might be scenarios where an ASA wants to decline the
   proposed value and restart the negotiation process.  In this case it
   is an implementation choice whether to send a Decline option or to
   continue with a Negotiate message, with an objective option that
   contains a null value, or one that contains a new value that might
   achieve convergence.

2.9.5.  Locator Options

   These locator options are used to present reachability information
   for an ASA, a device or an interface.  They are Locator IPv6 Address
   Option, Locator IPv4 Address Option, Locator FQDN (Fully Qualified
   Domain Name) Option and URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) Option.

   Since ASAs will normally run as independent user programs, locator
   options need to indicate the network layer locator plus the transport
   protocol and port number for reaching the target.  For this reason,
   the Locator Options for IP addresses and FQDNs include this
   information explicitly.  In the case of the URI Option, this
   information can be encoded in the URI itself.





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   Note: It is assumed that all locators used in locator options are in
   scope throughout the GRASP domain.  As stated in Section 2.2, GRASP
   is not intended to work across disjoint addressing or naming realms.

2.9.5.1.  Locator IPv6 address option

   In fragmentary CDDL, the IPv6 address option follows the pattern:

     ipv6-locator-option = [O_IPv6_LOCATOR, ipv6-address,
                            transport-proto, port-number]
     ipv6-address = bytes .size 16

     transport-proto = IPPROTO_TCP / IPPROTO_UDP
     IPPROTO_TCP = 6
     IPPROTO_UDP = 17
     port-number = 0..65535

   The content of this option is a binary IPv6 address followed by the
   protocol number and port number to be used.

   Note 1: The IPv6 address MUST normally have global scope.  However,
   during initialization, a link-local address MAY be used for specific
   objectives only (Section 2.5.2).  In this case the corresponding
   Discovery Response message MUST be sent via the interface to which
   the link-local address applies.

   Note 2: A link-local IPv6 address MUST NOT be used when this option
   is included in a Divert option.

   Note 3: The IPPROTO values are taken from the existing IANA Protocol
   Numbers registry in order to specify TCP or UDP.  If GRASP requires
   future values that are not in that registry, a new registry for
   values outside the range 0..255 will be needed.

2.9.5.2.  Locator IPv4 address option

   In fragmentary CDDL, the IPv4 address option follows the pattern:

     ipv4-locator-option = [O_IPv4_LOCATOR, ipv4-address,
                            transport-proto, port-number]
     ipv4-address = bytes .size 4

   The content of this option is a binary IPv4 address followed by the
   protocol number and port number to be used.

   Note: If an operator has internal network address translation for
   IPv4, this option MUST NOT be used within the Divert option.




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2.9.5.3.  Locator FQDN option

   In fragmentary CDDL, the FQDN option follows the pattern:

     fqdn-locator-option = [O_FQDN_LOCATOR, text,
                            transport-proto, port-number]

   The content of this option is the Fully Qualified Domain Name of the
   target followed by the protocol number and port number to be used.

   Note 1: Any FQDN which might not be valid throughout the network in
   question, such as a Multicast DNS name [RFC6762], MUST NOT be used
   when this option is used within the Divert option.

   Note 2: Normal GRASP operations are not expected to use this option.
   It is intended for special purposes such as discovering external
   services.

2.9.5.4.  Locator URI option

   In fragmentary CDDL, the URI option follows the pattern:

     uri-locator = [O_URI_LOCATOR, text,
                    transport-proto / null, port-number / null]

   The content of this option is the Uniform Resource Identifier of the
   target followed by the protocol number and port number to be used (or
   by null values if not required) [RFC3986].

   Note 1: Any URI which might not be valid throughout the network in
   question, such as one based on a Multicast DNS name [RFC6762], MUST
   NOT be used when this option is used within the Divert option.

   Note 2: Normal GRASP operations are not expected to use this option.
   It is intended for special purposes such as discovering external
   services.  Therefore its use is not further described in this
   specification.

2.10.  Objective Options

2.10.1.  Format of Objective Options

   An objective option is used to identify objectives for the purposes
   of discovery, negotiation or synchronization.  All objectives MUST be
   in the following format, described in fragmentary CDDL:






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  objective = [objective-name, objective-flags, loop-count, ?objective-value]

  objective-name = text
  objective-value = any
  loop-count = 0..255

   All objectives are identified by a unique name which is a UTF-8
   string [RFC3629], to be compared byte by byte.

   The names of generic objectives MUST NOT include a colon (":") and
   MUST be registered with IANA (Section 6).

   The names of privately defined objectives MUST include at least one
   colon (":").  The string preceding the last colon in the name MUST be
   globally unique and in some way identify the entity or person
   defining the objective.  The following three methods MAY be used to
   create such a globally unique string:

   1.  The unique string is a decimal number representing a registered
       32 bit Private Enterprise Number (PEN) [RFC5612] that uniquely
       identifies the enterprise defining the objective.

   2.  The unique string is a fully qualified domain name that uniquely
       identifies the entity or person defining the objective.

   3.  The unique string is an email address that uniquely identifies
       the entity or person defining the objective.

   The GRASP protocol treats the objective name as an opaque string.
   For example, "EX1", "32473:EX1", "example.com:EX1", "example.org:EX1
   and "user@example.org:EX1" would be five different objectives.

   The 'objective-flags' field is described below.

   The 'loop-count' field is used for terminating negotiation as
   described in Section 2.8.7.  It is also used for terminating
   discovery as described in Section 2.5.4, and for terminating flooding
   as described in Section 2.5.6.2.  It is placed in the objective
   rather than in the GRASP message format because, as far as the ASA is
   concerned, it is a property of the objective itself.

   The 'objective-value' field is to express the actual value of a
   negotiation or synchronization objective.  Its format is defined in
   the specification of the objective and may be a simple value or a
   data structure of any kind, as long as it can be represented in CBOR.
   It is optional because it is optional in a Discovery or Discovery
   Response message.




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2.10.2.  Objective flags

   An objective may be relevant for discovery only, for discovery and
   negotiation, or for discovery and synchronization.  This is expressed
   in the objective by logical flag bits:

     objective-flags = uint .bits objective-flag
     objective-flag = &(
     F_DISC: 0    ; valid for discovery
     F_NEG: 1     ; valid for negotiation
     F_SYNCH: 2   ; valid for synchronization
     F_NEG_DRY: 3 ; negotiation is dry-run
     )

   These bits are independent and may be combined appropriately, e.g.
   (F_DISC and F_SYNCH) or (F_DISC and F_NEG) or (F_DISC and F_NEG and
   F_NEG_DRY).

   Note that for a given negotiation session, an objective must be
   either used for negotiation, or for dry-run negotiation.  Mixing the
   two modes in a single negotiation is not possible.

2.10.3.  General Considerations for Objective Options

   As mentioned above, Objective Options MUST be assigned a unique name.
   As long as privately defined Objective Options obey the rules above,
   this document does not restrict their choice of name, but the entity
   or person concerned SHOULD publish the names in use.

   Names are expressed as UTF-8 strings for convenience in designing
   Objective Options for localized use.  For generic usage, names
   expressed in the ASCII subset of UTF-8 are RECOMMENDED.  Designers
   planning to use non-ASCII names are strongly advised to consult
   [RFC7564] or its successor to understand the complexities involved.
   Since the GRASP protocol compares names byte by byte, all issues of
   Unicode profiling and canonicalization MUST be specified in the
   design of the Objective Option.

   All Objective Options MUST respect the CBOR patterns defined above as
   "objective" and MUST replace the "any" field with a valid CBOR data
   definition for the relevant use case and application.

   An Objective Option that contains no additional fields beyond its
   "loop-count" can only be a discovery objective and MUST only be used
   in Discovery and Discovery Response messages.

   The Negotiation Objective Options contain negotiation objectives,
   which vary according to different functions/services.  They MUST be



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   carried by Discovery, Request Negotiation or Negotiation messages
   only.  The negotiation initiator MUST set the initial "loop-count" to
   a value specified in the specification of the objective or, if no
   such value is specified, to GRASP_DEF_LOOPCT.

   For most scenarios, there should be initial values in the negotiation
   requests.  Consequently, the Negotiation Objective options MUST
   always be completely presented in a Request Negotiation message, or
   in a Discovery message in rapid mode.  If there is no initial value,
   the value field SHOULD be set to the 'null' value defined by CBOR.

   Synchronization Objective Options are similar, but MUST be carried by
   Discovery, Discovery Response, Request Synchronization, or Flood
   Synchronization messages only.  They include value fields only in
   Synchronization or Flood Synchronization messages.

   The design of an objective interacts in various ways with the design
   of the ASAs that will use it.  ASA design considerations are
   discussed in [I-D.carpenter-anima-asa-guidelines].

2.10.4.  Organizing of Objective Options

   Generic objective options MUST be specified in documents available to
   the public and SHOULD be designed to use either the negotiation or
   the synchronization mechanism described above.

   As noted earlier, one negotiation objective is handled by each GRASP
   negotiation thread.  Therefore, a negotiation objective, which is
   based on a specific function or action, SHOULD be organized as a
   single GRASP option.  It is NOT RECOMMENDED to organize multiple
   negotiation objectives into a single option, nor to split a single
   function or action into multiple negotiation objectives.

   It is important to understand that GRASP negotiation does not support
   transactional integrity.  If transactional integrity is needed for a
   specific objective, this must be ensured by the ASA.  For example, an
   ASA might need to ensure that it only participates in one negotiation
   thread at the same time.  Such an ASA would need to stop listening
   for incoming negotiation requests before generating an outgoing
   negotiation request.

   A synchronization objective SHOULD be organized as a single GRASP
   option.

   Some objectives will support more than one operational mode.  An
   example is a negotiation objective with both a "dry run" mode (where
   the negotiation is to find out whether the other end can in fact make
   the requested change without problems) and a "live" mode, as



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   explained in Section 2.5.5.  The semantics of such modes will be
   defined in the specification of the objectives.  These objectives
   SHOULD include flags indicating the applicable mode(s).

   An issue requiring particular attention is that GRASP itself is not a
   transactionally safe protocol.  Any state associated with a dry run
   operation, such as temporarily reserving a resource for subsequent
   use in a live run, is entirely a matter for the designer of the ASA
   concerned.

   As indicated in Section 2.1, an objective's value may include
   multiple parameters.  Parameters might be categorized into two
   classes: the obligatory ones presented as fixed fields; and the
   optional ones presented in some other form of data structure embedded
   in CBOR.  The format might be inherited from an existing management
   or configuration protocol, with the objective option acting as a
   carrier for that format.  The data structure might be defined in a
   formal language, but that is a matter for the specifications of
   individual objectives.  There are many candidates, according to the
   context, such as ABNF, RBNF, XML Schema, YANG, etc.  The GRASP
   protocol itself is agnostic on these questions.  The only restriction
   is that the format can be mapped into CBOR.

   It is NOT RECOMMENDED to mix parameters that have significantly
   different response time characteristics in a single objective.
   Separate objectives are more suitable for such a scenario.

   All objectives MUST support GRASP discovery.  However, as mentioned
   in Section 2.3, it is acceptable for an ASA to use an alternative
   method of discovery.

   Normally, a GRASP objective will refer to specific technical
   parameters as explained in Section 2.1.  However, it is acceptable to
   define an abstract objective for the purpose of managing or
   coordinating ASAs.  It is also acceptable to define a special-purpose
   objective for purposes such as trust bootstrapping or formation of
   the ACP.

   To guarantee convergence, a limited number of rounds or a timeout is
   needed for each negotiation objective.  Therefore, the definition of
   each negotiation objective SHOULD clearly specify this, for example a
   default loop count and timeout, so that the negotiation can always be
   terminated properly.  If not, the GRASP defaults will apply.

   There must be a well-defined procedure for concluding that a
   negotiation cannot succeed, and if so deciding what happens next
   (e.g., deadlock resolution, tie-breaking, or revert to best-effort




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   service).  This MUST be specified for individual negotiation
   objectives.

2.10.5.  Experimental and Example Objective Options

   The names "EX0" through "EX9" have been reserved for experimental
   options.  Multiple names have been assigned because a single
   experiment may use multiple options simultaneously.  These
   experimental options are highly likely to have different meanings
   when used for different experiments.  Therefore, they SHOULD NOT be
   used without an explicit human decision and MUST NOT be used in
   unmanaged networks such as home networks.

   These names are also RECOMMENDED for use in documentation examples.

3.  Implementation Status [RFC Editor: please remove]

   Two prototype implementations of GRASP have been made.

3.1.  BUPT C++ Implementation

   o  Name: BaseNegotiator.cpp, msg.cpp, Client.cpp, Server.cpp

   o  Description: C++ implementation of GRASP core and API

   o  Maturity: Prototype code, interoperable between Ubuntu.

   o  Coverage: Corresponds to draft-carpenter-anima-gdn-protocol-03.
      Since it was implemented based on the old version draft, the most
      significant limitations comparing to current protocol design
      include:

      *  Not support CBOR

      *  Not support Flooding

      *  Not support loop avoidance

      *  only coded for IPv6, any IPv4 is accidental

   o  Licensing: Huawei License.

   o  Experience: https://github.com/liubingpang/IETF-Anima-Signaling-
      Protocol/blob/master/README.md

   o  Contact: https://github.com/liubingpang/IETF-Anima-Signaling-
      Protocol




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3.2.  Python Implementation

   o  Name: graspy

   o  Description: Python 3 implementation of GRASP core and API.

   o  Maturity: Prototype code, interoperable between Windows 7 and
      Linux.

   o  Coverage: Corresponds to draft-ietf-anima-grasp-13.  Limitations
      include:

      *  insecure: uses a dummy ACP module

      *  only coded for IPv6, any IPv4 is accidental

      *  FQDN and URI locators incompletely supported

      *  no code for rapid mode

      *  relay code is lazy (no rate control)

      *  all unicast transactions use TCP (no unicast UDP).
         Experimental code for unicast UDP proved to be complex and
         brittle.

      *  optional Objective option in Response messages not implemented

      *  workarounds for defects in Python socket module and Windows
         socket peculiarities

   o  Licensing: Simplified BSD

   o  Experience: Tested on Windows, Linux and MacOS.
      https://www.cs.auckland.ac.nz/~brian/graspy/graspy.pdf

   o  Contact: https://www.cs.auckland.ac.nz/~brian/graspy/

4.  Security Considerations

   A successful attack on negotiation-enabled nodes would be extremely
   harmful, as such nodes might end up with a completely undesirable
   configuration that would also adversely affect their peers.  GRASP
   nodes and messages therefore require full protection.  As explained
   in Section 2.5.1, GRASP MUST run within a secure environment such as
   the Autonomic Control Plane [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane],
   except for the constrained instances described in Section 2.5.2.




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   - Authentication

      A cryptographically authenticated identity for each device is
      needed in an autonomic network.  It is not safe to assume that a
      large network is physically secured against interference or that
      all personnel are trustworthy.  Each autonomic node MUST be
      capable of proving its identity and authenticating its messages.
      GRASP relies on a separate external certificate-based security
      mechanism to support authentication, data integrity protection,
      and anti-replay protection.

      Since GRASP must be deployed in an existing secure environment,
      the protocol itself specifies nothing concerning the trust anchor
      and certification authority.  For example, in the Autonomic
      Control Plane [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane], all nodes
      can trust each other and the ASAs installed in them.

      If GRASP is used temporarily without an external security
      mechanism, for example during system bootstrap (Section 2.5.1),
      the Session ID (Section 2.7) will act as a nonce to provide
      limited protection against third parties injecting responses.  A
      full analysis of the secure bootstrap process is in
      [I-D.ietf-anima-bootstrapping-keyinfra].

   - Authorization and Roles

      The GRASP protocol is agnostic about the roles and capabilities of
      individual ASAs and about which objectives a particular ASA is
      authorized to support.  An implementation might support
      precautions such as allowing only one ASA in a given node to
      modify a given objective, but this may not be appropriate in all
      cases.  For example, it might be operationally useful to allow an
      old and a new version of the same ASA to run simultaneously during
      an overlap period.  These questions are out of scope for the
      present specification.

   - Privacy and confidentiality

      GRASP is intended for network management purposes involving
      network elements, not end hosts.  Therefore, no personal
      information is expected to be involved in the signaling protocol,
      so there should be no direct impact on personal privacy.
      Nevertheless, applications that do convey personal information
      cannot be excluded.  Also, traffic flow paths, VPNs, etc. could be
      negotiated, which could be of interest for traffic analysis.
      Operators generally want to conceal details of their network
      topology and traffic density from outsiders.  Therefore, since
      insider attacks cannot be excluded in a large network, the



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      security mechanism for the protocol MUST provide message
      confidentiality.  This is why Section 2.5.1 requires either an ACP
      or an alternative security mechanism.

   - Link-local multicast security

      GRASP has no reasonable alternative to using link-local multicast
      for Discovery or Flood Synchronization messages and these messages
      are sent in clear and with no authentication.  They are only sent
      on interfaces within the autonomic network (see Section 2.1 and
      Section 2.5.1).  They are however available to on-link
      eavesdroppers, and could be forged by on-link attackers.  In the
      case of Discovery, the Discovery Responses are unicast and will
      therefore be protected (Section 2.5.1), and an untrusted forger
      will not be able to receive responses.  In the case of Flood
      Synchronization, an on-link eavesdropper will be able to receive
      the flooded objectives but there is no response message to
      consider.  Some precautions for Flood Synchronization messages are
      suggested in Section 2.5.6.2.

   - DoS Attack Protection

      GRASP discovery partly relies on insecure link-local multicast.
      Since routers participating in GRASP sometimes relay discovery
      messages from one link to another, this could be a vector for
      denial of service attacks.  Some mitigations are specified in
      Section 2.5.4.  However, malicious code installed inside the
      Autonomic Control Plane could always launch DoS attacks consisting
      of spurious discovery messages, or of spurious discovery
      responses.  It is important that firewalls prevent any GRASP
      messages from entering the domain from an unknown source.

   - Security during bootstrap and discovery

      A node cannot trust GRASP traffic from other nodes until the
      security environment (such as the ACP) has identified the trust
      anchor and can authenticate traffic by validating certificates for
      other nodes.  Also, until it has succesfully enrolled
      [I-D.ietf-anima-bootstrapping-keyinfra] a node cannot assume that
      other nodes are able to authenticate its own traffic.  Therefore,
      GRASP discovery during the bootstrap phase for a new device will
      inevitably be insecure.  Secure synchronization and negotiation
      will be impossible until enrollment is complete.  Further details
      are given in Section 2.5.2.

   - Security of discovered locators





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      When GRASP discovery returns an IP address, it MUST be that of a
      node within the secure environment (Section 2.5.1).  If it returns
      an FQDN or a URI, the ASA that receives it MUST NOT assume that
      the target of the locator is within the secure environment.

5.  CDDL Specification of GRASP

<CODE BEGINS>
grasp-message = (message .within message-structure) / noop-message

message-structure = [MESSAGE_TYPE, session-id, ?initiator,
                     *grasp-option]

MESSAGE_TYPE = 0..255
session-id = 0..4294967295 ;up to 32 bits
grasp-option = any

message /= discovery-message
discovery-message = [M_DISCOVERY, session-id, initiator, objective]

message /= response-message ;response to Discovery
response-message = [M_RESPONSE, session-id, initiator, ttl,
                   (+locator-option // divert-option), ?objective]

message /= synch-message ;response to Synchronization request
synch-message = [M_SYNCH, session-id, objective]

message /= flood-message
flood-message = [M_FLOOD, session-id, initiator, ttl,
                +[objective, (locator-option / [])]]

message /= request-negotiation-message
request-negotiation-message = [M_REQ_NEG, session-id, objective]

message /= request-synchronization-message
request-synchronization-message = [M_REQ_SYN, session-id, objective]

message /= negotiation-message
negotiation-message = [M_NEGOTIATE, session-id, objective]

message /= end-message
end-message = [M_END, session-id, accept-option / decline-option ]

message /= wait-message
wait-message = [M_WAIT, session-id, waiting-time]

message /= invalid-message
invalid-message = [M_INVALID, session-id, ?any]



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noop-message = [M_NOOP]

divert-option = [O_DIVERT, +locator-option]

accept-option = [O_ACCEPT]

decline-option = [O_DECLINE, ?reason]
reason = text  ;optional UTF-8 error message

waiting-time = 0..4294967295 ; in milliseconds
ttl = 0..4294967295 ; in milliseconds

locator-option /= [O_IPv4_LOCATOR, ipv4-address,
                   transport-proto, port-number]
ipv4-address = bytes .size 4

locator-option /= [O_IPv6_LOCATOR, ipv6-address,
                   transport-proto, port-number]
ipv6-address = bytes .size 16

locator-option /= [O_FQDN_LOCATOR, text, transport-proto, port-number]

locator-option /= [O_URI_LOCATOR, text,
                   transport-proto / null, port-number / null]

transport-proto = IPPROTO_TCP / IPPROTO_UDP
IPPROTO_TCP = 6
IPPROTO_UDP = 17
port-number = 0..65535

initiator = ipv4-address / ipv6-address

objective-flags = uint .bits objective-flag

objective-flag = &(
  F_DISC: 0    ; valid for discovery
  F_NEG: 1     ; valid for negotiation
  F_SYNCH: 2   ; valid for synchronization
  F_NEG_DRY: 3 ; negotiation is dry-run
)

objective = [objective-name, objective-flags, loop-count, ?objective-value]

objective-name = text ;see section "Format of Objective Options"

objective-value = any

loop-count = 0..255



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; Constants for message types and option types

M_NOOP = 0
M_DISCOVERY = 1
M_RESPONSE = 2
M_REQ_NEG = 3
M_REQ_SYN = 4
M_NEGOTIATE = 5
M_END = 6
M_WAIT = 7
M_SYNCH = 8
M_FLOOD = 9
M_INVALID = 99

O_DIVERT = 100
O_ACCEPT = 101
O_DECLINE = 102
O_IPv6_LOCATOR = 103
O_IPv4_LOCATOR = 104
O_FQDN_LOCATOR = 105
O_URI_LOCATOR = 106
<CODE ENDS>

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document defines the GeneRic Autonomic Signaling Protocol
   (GRASP).

   Section 2.6 explains the following link-local multicast addresses,
   which IANA is requested to assign for use by GRASP:

   ALL_GRASP_NEIGHBORS multicast address  (IPv6): (TBD1).  Assigned in
      the IPv6 Link-Local Scope Multicast Addresses registry.

   ALL_GRASP_NEIGHBORS multicast address  (IPv4): (TBD2).  Assigned in
      the IPv4 Multicast Local Network Control Block.

   Section 2.6 explains the following User Port, which IANA is requested
   to assign for use by GRASP for both UDP and TCP:

   GRASP_LISTEN_PORT: (TBD3)
   Service Name: Generic Autonomic Signaling Protocol (GRASP)
   Transport Protocols: UDP, TCP
   Assignee: iesg@ietf.org
   Contact: chair@ietf.org
   Description: See Section 2.6
   Reference: RFC XXXX (this document)




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   The IANA is requested to create a GRASP Parameter Registry including
   two registry tables.  These are the GRASP Messages and Options
   Table and the GRASP Objective Names Table.

   GRASP Messages and Options Table.  The values in this table are names
   paired with decimal integers.  Future values MUST be assigned using
   the Standards Action policy defined by [RFC8126].  The following
   initial values are assigned by this document:

   M_NOOP = 0
   M_DISCOVERY = 1
   M_RESPONSE = 2
   M_REQ_NEG = 3
   M_REQ_SYN = 4
   M_NEGOTIATE = 5
   M_END = 6
   M_WAIT = 7
   M_SYNCH = 8
   M_FLOOD = 9
   M_INVALID = 99

   O_DIVERT = 100
   O_ACCEPT = 101
   O_DECLINE = 102
   O_IPv6_LOCATOR = 103
   O_IPv4_LOCATOR = 104
   O_FQDN_LOCATOR = 105
   O_URI_LOCATOR = 106

   GRASP Objective Names Table.  The values in this table are UTF-8
   strings which MUST NOT include a colon (":"), according to
   Section 2.10.1.  Future values MUST be assigned using the
   Specification Required policy defined by [RFC8126].

   To assist expert review of a new objective, the specification should
   include a precise description of the format of the new objective,
   with sufficient explanation of its semantics to allow independent
   implementations.  See Section 2.10.3 for more details.  If the new
   objective is similar in name or purpose to a previously registered
   objective, the specification should explain why a new objective is
   justified.

   The following initial values are assigned by this document:








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    EX0
    EX1
    EX2
    EX3
    EX4
    EX5
    EX6
    EX7
    EX8
    EX9

7.  Acknowledgements

   A major contribution to the original version of this document was
   made by Sheng Jiang and significant contributions were made by
   Toerless Eckert.  Significant early review inputs were received from
   Joel Halpern, Barry Leiba, Charles E.  Perkins, and Michael
   Richardson.  William Atwood provided important assistance in
   debugging a prototype implementation.

   Valuable comments were received from Michael Behringer, Jeferson
   Campos Nobre, Laurent Ciavaglia, Zongpeng Du, Yu Fu, Joel Jaeggli,
   Zhenbin Li, Dimitri Papadimitriou, Pierre Peloso, Reshad Rahman,
   Markus Stenberg, Martin Stiemerling, Rene Struik, Martin Thomson,
   Dacheng Zhang, and participants in the NMRG research group, the ANIMA
   working group, and the IESG.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.greevenbosch-appsawg-cbor-cddl]
              Birkholz, H., Vigano, C., and C. Bormann, "Concise data
              definition language (CDDL): a notational convention to
              express CBOR data structures", draft-greevenbosch-appsawg-
              cbor-cddl-11 (work in progress), July 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane]
              Behringer, M., Eckert, T., and S. Bjarnason, "An Autonomic
              Control Plane", draft-ietf-anima-autonomic-control-
              plane-07 (work in progress), July 2017.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.





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   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, DOI 10.17487/RFC3629, November
              2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3629>.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>.

   [RFC4086]  Eastlake 3rd, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker,
              "Randomness Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4086, June 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4086>.

   [RFC7049]  Bormann, C. and P. Hoffman, "Concise Binary Object
              Representation (CBOR)", RFC 7049, DOI 10.17487/RFC7049,
              October 2013, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7049>.

   [RFC7217]  Gont, F., "A Method for Generating Semantically Opaque
              Interface Identifiers with IPv6 Stateless Address
              Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)", RFC 7217,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7217, April 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7217>.

   [RFC8085]  Eggert, L., Fairhurst, G., and G. Shepherd, "UDP Usage
              Guidelines", BCP 145, RFC 8085, DOI 10.17487/RFC8085,
              March 2017, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8085>.

8.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.carpenter-anima-asa-guidelines]
              Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Guidelines for Autonomic
              Service Agents", draft-carpenter-anima-asa-guidelines-02
              (work in progress), July 2017.

   [I-D.chaparadza-intarea-igcp]
              Behringer, M., Chaparadza, R., Petre, R., Li, X., and H.
              Mahkonen, "IP based Generic Control Protocol (IGCP)",
              draft-chaparadza-intarea-igcp-00 (work in progress), July
              2011.

   [I-D.ietf-anima-bootstrapping-keyinfra]
              Pritikin, M., Richardson, M., Behringer, M., Bjarnason,
              S., and K. Watsen, "Bootstrapping Remote Secure Key
              Infrastructures (BRSKI)", draft-ietf-anima-bootstrapping-
              keyinfra-07 (work in progress), July 2017.





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   [I-D.ietf-anima-reference-model]
              Behringer, M., Carpenter, B., Eckert, T., Ciavaglia, L.,
              Pierre, P., Liu, B., Nobre, J., and J. Strassner, "A
              Reference Model for Autonomic Networking", draft-ietf-
              anima-reference-model-04 (work in progress), July 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-anima-stable-connectivity]
              Eckert, T. and M. Behringer, "Using Autonomic Control
              Plane for Stable Connectivity of Network OAM", draft-ietf-
              anima-stable-connectivity-03 (work in progress), July
              2017.

   [I-D.liu-anima-grasp-api]
              Carpenter, B., Liu, B., Wang, W., and X. Gong, "Generic
              Autonomic Signaling Protocol Application Program Interface
              (GRASP API)", draft-liu-anima-grasp-api-04 (work in
              progress), June 2017.

   [I-D.stenberg-anima-adncp]
              Stenberg, M., "Autonomic Distributed Node Consensus
              Protocol", draft-stenberg-anima-adncp-00 (work in
              progress), March 2015.

   [RFC2205]  Braden, R., Ed., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., and S.
              Jamin, "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- Version 1
              Functional Specification", RFC 2205, DOI 10.17487/RFC2205,
              September 1997, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2205>.

   [RFC2334]  Luciani, J., Armitage, G., Halpern, J., and N. Doraswamy,
              "Server Cache Synchronization Protocol (SCSP)", RFC 2334,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2334, April 1998,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2334>.

   [RFC2608]  Guttman, E., Perkins, C., Veizades, J., and M. Day,
              "Service Location Protocol, Version 2", RFC 2608,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2608, June 1999,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2608>.

   [RFC2865]  Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson,
              "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)",
              RFC 2865, DOI 10.17487/RFC2865, June 2000,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2865>.

   [RFC3315]  Droms, R., Ed., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins,
              C., and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
              for IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, DOI 10.17487/RFC3315, July
              2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3315>.




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   [RFC3416]  Presuhn, R., Ed., "Version 2 of the Protocol Operations
              for the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)",
              STD 62, RFC 3416, DOI 10.17487/RFC3416, December 2002,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3416>.

   [RFC3493]  Gilligan, R., Thomson, S., Bound, J., McCann, J., and W.
              Stevens, "Basic Socket Interface Extensions for IPv6",
              RFC 3493, DOI 10.17487/RFC3493, February 2003,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3493>.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>.

   [RFC5612]  Eronen, P. and D. Harrington, "Enterprise Number for
              Documentation Use", RFC 5612, DOI 10.17487/RFC5612, August
              2009, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5612>.

   [RFC5971]  Schulzrinne, H. and R. Hancock, "GIST: General Internet
              Signalling Transport", RFC 5971, DOI 10.17487/RFC5971,
              October 2010, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5971>.

   [RFC6206]  Levis, P., Clausen, T., Hui, J., Gnawali, O., and J. Ko,
              "The Trickle Algorithm", RFC 6206, DOI 10.17487/RFC6206,
              March 2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6206>.

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.

   [RFC6733]  Fajardo, V., Ed., Arkko, J., Loughney, J., and G. Zorn,
              Ed., "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 6733,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6733, October 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6733>.

   [RFC6762]  Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Multicast DNS", RFC 6762,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6762, February 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6762>.

   [RFC6763]  Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS-Based Service
              Discovery", RFC 6763, DOI 10.17487/RFC6763, February 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6763>.







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   [RFC6887]  Wing, D., Ed., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., and
              P. Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)", RFC 6887,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6887, April 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6887>.

   [RFC7558]  Lynn, K., Cheshire, S., Blanchet, M., and D. Migault,
              "Requirements for Scalable DNS-Based Service Discovery
              (DNS-SD) / Multicast DNS (mDNS) Extensions", RFC 7558,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7558, July 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7558>.

   [RFC7564]  Saint-Andre, P. and M. Blanchet, "PRECIS Framework:
              Preparation, Enforcement, and Comparison of
              Internationalized Strings in Application Protocols",
              RFC 7564, DOI 10.17487/RFC7564, May 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7564>.

   [RFC7575]  Behringer, M., Pritikin, M., Bjarnason, S., Clemm, A.,
              Carpenter, B., Jiang, S., and L. Ciavaglia, "Autonomic
              Networking: Definitions and Design Goals", RFC 7575,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7575, June 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7575>.

   [RFC7576]  Jiang, S., Carpenter, B., and M. Behringer, "General Gap
              Analysis for Autonomic Networking", RFC 7576,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7576, June 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7576>.

   [RFC7787]  Stenberg, M. and S. Barth, "Distributed Node Consensus
              Protocol", RFC 7787, DOI 10.17487/RFC7787, April 2016,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7787>.

   [RFC7788]  Stenberg, M., Barth, S., and P. Pfister, "Home Networking
              Control Protocol", RFC 7788, DOI 10.17487/RFC7788, April
              2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7788>.

   [RFC8040]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
              Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>.

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.







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Appendix A.  Open Issues [RFC Editor: This section should be empty.
             Please remove]

   o  68.  (Placeholder)

Appendix B.  Closed Issues [RFC Editor: Please remove]

   o  1.  UDP vs TCP: For now, this specification suggests UDP and TCP
      as message transport mechanisms.  This is not clarified yet.  UDP
      is good for short conversations, is necessary for multicast
      discovery, and generally fits the discovery and divert scenarios
      well.  However, it will cause problems with large messages.  TCP
      is good for stable and long sessions, with a little bit of time
      consumption during the session establishment stage.  If messages
      exceed a reasonable MTU, a TCP mode will be required in any case.
      This question may be affected by the security discussion.

      RESOLVED by specifying UDP for short message and TCP for longer
      one.

   o  2.  DTLS or TLS vs built-in security mechanism.  For now, this
      specification has chosen a PKI based built-in security mechanism
      based on asymmetric cryptography.  However, (D)TLS might be chosen
      as security solution to avoid duplication of effort.  It also
      allows essentially similar security for short messages over UDP
      and longer ones over TCP.  The implementation trade-offs are
      different.  The current approach requires expensive asymmetric
      cryptographic calculations for every message.  (D)TLS has startup
      overheads but cheaper crypto per message.  DTLS is less mature
      than TLS.

      RESOLVED by specifying external security (ACP or (D)TLS).

   o  The following open issues applied only if the original security
      model was retained:

      *  2.1.  For replay protection, GRASP currently requires every
         participant to have an NTP-synchronized clock.  Is this OK for
         low-end devices, and how does it work during device
         bootstrapping?  We could take the Timestamp out of signature
         option, to become an independent and OPTIONAL (or RECOMMENDED)
         option.

      *  2.2.  The Signature Option states that this option could be any
         place in a message.  Wouldn't it be better to specify a
         position (such as the end)?  That would be much simpler to
         implement.




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      RESOLVED by changing security model.

   o  3.  DoS Attack Protection needs work.

      RESOLVED by adding text.

   o  4.  Should we consider preferring a text-based approach to
      discovery (after the initial discovery needed for bootstrapping)?
      This could be a complementary mechanism for multicast based
      discovery, especially for a very large autonomic network.
      Centralized registration could be automatically deployed
      incrementally.  At the very first stage, the repository could be
      empty; then it could be filled in by the objectives discovered by
      different devices (for example using Dynamic DNS Update).  The
      more records are stored in the repository, the less the multicast-
      based discovery is needed.  However, if we adopt such a mechanism,
      there would be challenges: stateful solution, and security.

      RESOLVED for now by adding optional use of DNS-SD by ASAs.
      Subsequently removed by editors as irrelevant to GRASP istelf.

   o  5.  Need to expand description of the minimum requirements for the
      specification of an individual discovery, synchronization or
      negotiation objective.

      RESOLVED for now by extra wording.

   o  6.  Use case and protocol walkthrough.  A description of how a
      node starts up, performs discovery, and conducts negotiation and
      synchronisation for a sample use case would help readers to
      understand the applicability of this specification.  Maybe it
      should be an artificial use case or maybe a simple real one, based
      on a conceptual API.  However, the authors have not yet decided
      whether to have a separate document or have it in the protocol
      document.

      RESOLVED: recommend a separate document.

   o  7.  Cross-check against other ANIMA WG documents for consistency
      and gaps.

      RESOLVED: Satisfied by WGLC.

   o  8.  Consideration of ADNCP proposal.

      RESOLVED by adding optional use of DNCP for flooding-type
      synchronization.




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   o  9.  Clarify how a GDNP instance knows whether it is running inside
      the ACP.  (Sheng)

      RESOLVED by improved text.

   o  10.  Clarify how a non-ACP GDNP instance initiates (D)TLS.
      (Sheng)

      RESOLVED by improved text and declaring DTLS out of scope for this
      draft.

   o  11.  Clarify how UDP/TCP choice is made.  (Sheng) [Like DNS? -
      Brian]

      RESOLVED by improved text.

   o  12.  Justify that IP address within ACP or (D)TLS environment is
      sufficient to prove AN identity; or explain how Device Identity
      Option is used.  (Sheng)

      RESOLVED for now: we assume that all ASAs in a device are trusted
      as soon as the device is trusted, so they share credentials.  In
      that case the Device Identity Option is useless.  This needs to be
      reviewed later.

   o  13.  Emphasise that negotiation/synchronization are independent
      from discovery, although the rapid discovery mode includes the
      first step of a negotiation/synchronization.  (Sheng)

      RESOLVED by improved text.

   o  14.  Do we need an unsolicited flooding mechanism for discovery
      (for discovery results that everyone needs), to reduce scaling
      impact of flooding discovery messages?  (Toerless)

      RESOLVED: Yes, added to requirements and solution.

   o  15.  Do we need flag bits in Objective Options to distinguish
      distinguish Synchronization and Negotiation "Request" or rapid
      mode "Discovery" messages?  (Bing)

      RESOLVED: yes, work on the API showed that these flags are
      essential.

   o  16.  (Related to issue 14).  Should we revive the "unsolicited
      Response" for flooding synchronisation data?  This has to be done
      carefully due to the well-known issues with flooding, but it could




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      be useful, e.g. for Intent distribution, where DNCP doesn't seem
      applicable.

      RESOLVED: Yes, see #14.

   o  17.  Ensure that the discovery mechanism is completely proof
      against loops and protected against duplicate responses.

      RESOLVED: Added loop count mechanism.

   o  18.  Discuss the handling of multiple valid discovery responses.

      RESOLVED: Stated that the choice must be available to the ASA but
      GRASP implementation should pick a default.

   o  19.  Should we use a text-oriented format such as JSON/CBOR
      instead of native binary TLV format?

      RESOLVED: Yes, changed to CBOR.

   o  20.  Is the Divert option needed?  If a discovery response
      provides a valid IP address or FQDN, the recipient doesn't gain
      any extra knowledge from the Divert.  On the other hand, the
      presence of Divert informs the receiver that the target is off-
      link, which might be useful sometimes.

      RESOLVED: Decided to keep Divert option.

   o  21.  Rename the protocol as GRASP (GeneRic Autonomic Signaling
      Protocol)?

      RESOLVED: Yes, name changed.

   o  22.  Does discovery mechanism scale robustly as needed?  Need hop
      limit on relaying?

      RESOLVED: Added hop limit.

   o  23.  Need more details on TTL for caching discovery responses.

      RESOLVED: Done.

   o  24.  Do we need "fast withdrawal" of discovery responses?

      RESOLVED: This doesn't seem necessary.  If an ASA exits or stops
      supporting a given objective, peers will fail to start future
      sessions and will simply repeat discovery.




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   o  25.  Does GDNP discovery meet the needs of multi-hop DNS-SD?

      RESOLVED: Decided not to consider this further as a GRASP protocol
      issue.  GRASP objectives could embed DNS-SD formats if needed.

   o  26.  Add a URL type to the locator options (for security bootstrap
      etc.)

      RESOLVED: Done, later renamed as URI.

   o  27.  Security of Flood multicasts (Section 2.5.6.2).

      RESOLVED: added text.

   o  28.  Does ACP support secure link-local multicast?

      RESOLVED by new text in the Security Considerations.

   o  29.  PEN is used to distinguish vendor options.  Would it be
      better to use a domain name?  Anything unique will do.

      RESOLVED: Simplified this by removing PEN field and changing
      naming rules for objectives.

   o  30.  Does response to discovery require randomized delays to
      mitigate amplification attacks?

      RESOLVED: WG feedback is that it's unnecessary.

   o  31.  We have specified repeats for failed discovery etc.  Is that
      sufficient to deal with sleeping nodes?

      RESOLVED: WG feedback is that it's unnecessary to say more.

   o  32.  We have one-to-one synchronization and flooding
      synchronization.  Do we also need selective flooding to a subset
      of nodes?

      RESOLVED: This will be discussed as a protocol extension in a
      separate draft (draft-liu-anima-grasp-distribution).

   o  33.  Clarify if/when discovery needs to be repeated.

      RESOLVED: Done.

   o  34.  Clarify what is mandatory for running in ACP, expand
      discussion of security boundary when running with no ACP - might
      rely on the local PKI infrastructure.



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      RESOLVED: Done.

   o  35.  State that role-based authorization of ASAs is out of scope
      for GRASP.  GRASP doesn't recognize/handle any "roles".

      RESOLVED: Done.

   o  36.  Reconsider CBOR definition for PEN syntax.  ( objective-name
      = text / [pen, text] ; pen = uint )

      RESOLVED: See issue 29.

   o  37.  Are URI locators really needed?

      RESOLVED: Yes, e.g. for security bootstrap discovery, but added
      note that addresses are the normal case (same for FQDN locators).

   o  38.  Is Session ID sufficient to identify relayed responses?
      Isn't the originator's address needed too?

      RESOLVED: Yes, this is needed for multicast messages and their
      responses.

   o  39.  Clarify that a node will contain one GRASP instance
      supporting multiple ASAs.

      RESOLVED: Done.

   o  40.  Add a "reason" code to the DECLINE option?

      RESOLVED: Done.

   o  41.  What happens if an ASA cannot conveniently use one of the
      GRASP mechanisms?  Do we (a) add a message type to GRASP, or (b)
      simply pass the discovery results to the ASA so that it can open
      its own socket?

      RESOLVED: Both would be possible, but (b) is preferred.

   o  42.  Do we need a feature whereby an ASA can bypass the ACP and
      use the data plane for efficiency/throughput?  This would require
      discovery to return non-ACP addresses and would evade ACP
      security.

      RESOLVED: This is considered out of scope for GRASP, but a comment
      has been added in security considerations.





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   o  43.  Rapid mode synchronization and negotiation is currently
      limited to a single objective for simplicity of design and
      implementation.  A future consideration is to allow multiple
      objectives in rapid mode for greater efficiency.

      RESOLVED: This is considered out of scope for this version.

   o  44.  In requirement T9, the words that encryption "may not be
      required in all deployments" were removed.  Is that OK?.

      RESOLVED: No objections.

   o  45.  Device Identity Option is unused.  Can we remove it
      completely?.

      RESOLVED: No objections.  Done.

   o  46.  The 'initiator' field in DISCOVER, RESPONSE and FLOOD
      messages is intended to assist in loop prevention.  However, we
      also have the loop count for that.  Also, if we create a new
      Session ID each time a DISCOVER or FLOOD is relayed, that ID can
      be disambiguated by recipients.  It would be simpler to remove the
      initiator from the messages, making parsing more uniform.  Is that
      OK?

      RESOLVED: Yes. Done.

   o  47.  REQUEST is a dual purpose message (request negotiation or
      request synchronization).  Would it be better to split this into
      two different messages (and adjust various message names
      accordingly)?

      RESOLVED: Yes. Done.

   o  48.  Should the Appendix "Capability Analysis of Current
      Protocols" be deleted before RFC publication?

      RESOLVED: No (per WG meeting at IETF 96).

   o  49.  Section 2.5.1 Should say more about signaling between two
      autonomic networks/domains.

      RESOLVED: Description of separate GRASP instance added.

   o  50.  Is Rapid mode limited to on-link only?  What happens if first
      discovery responder does not support Rapid Mode?  Section 2.5.5,
      Section 2.5.6)




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      RESOLVED: Not limited to on-link.  First responder wins.

   o  51.  Should flooded objectives have a time-to-live before they are
      deleted from the flood cache?  And should they be tagged in the
      cache with their source locator?

      RESOLVED: TTL added to Flood (and Discovery Response) messages.
      Cached flooded objectives must be tagged with their originating
      ASA locator, and multiple copies must be kept if necessary.

   o  52.  Describe in detail what is allowed and disallowed in an
      insecure instance of GRASP.

      RESOLVED: Done.

   o  53.  Tune IANA Considerations to support early assignment request.


   o  54.  Is there a highly unlikely race condition if two peers
      simultaneously choose the same Session ID and send each other
      simultaneous M_REQ_NEG messages?

      RESOLVED: Yes. Enhanced text on Session ID generation, and added
      precaution when receiving a Request message.

   o  55.  Could discovery be performed over TCP?

      RESOLVED: Unicast discovery added as an option.

   o  56.  Change Session-ID to 32 bits?

      RESOLVED: Done.

   o  57.  Add M_INVALID message?

      RESOLVED: Done.

   o  58.  Maximum message size?

      RESOLVED by specifying default maximum message size (2048 bytes).

   o  59.  Add F_NEG_DRY flag to specify a "dry run" objective?.

      RESOLVED: Done.

   o  60.  Change M_FLOOD syntax to associate a locator with each
      objective?




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      RESOLVED: Done.

   o  61.  Is the SONN constrained instance really needed?

      RESOLVED: Retained but only as an option.

   o  62.  Is it helpful to tag descriptive text with message names
      (M_DISCOVER etc.)?

      RESOLVED: Yes, done in various parts of the text.

   o  63.  Should encryption be MUST instead of SHOULD in Section 2.5.1
      and Section 2.5.1?

      RESOLVED: Yes, MUST implement in both cases.

   o  64.  Should more security text be moved from the main text into
      the Security Considerations?

      RESOLVED: No, on AD advice.

   o  65.  Do we need to formally restrict Unicode characters allowed in
      objective names?

      RESOLVED: No, but need to point to guidance from PRECIS WG.

   o  66.  Split requirements into separate document?

      RESOLVED: No, on AD advice.

   o  67.  Remove normative dependency on draft-greevenbosch-appsawg-
      cbor-cddl?

      RESOLVED: No, on AD advice.  In worst case, fix at AUTH48.

Appendix C.  Change log [RFC Editor: Please remove]

   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-15, 2017-07-07:

   Updates following additional IESG comments:

   Security (Eric Rescorla): missing brittleness of group security
   concept, attack via compromised member.

   TSV (Mirja Kuehlewind): clarification on the use of UDP, TCP, mandate
   use of TCP (or other reliable transport).

   Clarified that in ACP, UDP is not used at all.



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   Clarified that GRASP itself needs TCP listen port (was previously
   written as if this was optional).

   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-14, 2017-07-02:

   Updates following additional IESG comments:

   Updated 2.5.1 and 2.5.2 based on IESG security feedback (specify
   dependency against security substrate).

   Strengthened requirement for reliable transport protocol.

   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-13, 2017-06-06:

   Updates following additional IESG comments:

   Removed all mention of TLS, including SONN, since it was under-
   specified.

   Clarified other text about trust and security model.

   Banned Rapid Mode when multicast is insecure.

   Explained use of M_INVALID to support extensibility

   Corrected details on discovery cache TTL and discovery timeout.

   Improved description of multicast UDP w.r.t.  RFC8085.

   Clarified when transport connections are opened or closed.

   Noted that IPPROTO values come from the Protocol Numbers registry

   Protocol change: Added protocol and port numbers to URI locator.

   Removed inaccurate text about routing protocols

   Moved Requirements section to an Appendix.

   Other editorial and technical clarifications.

   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-12, 2017-05-19:

   Updates following IESG comments:

   Clarified that GRASP runs in a single addressing realm





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   Improved wording about FQDN resolution, clarified that URI usage is
   out of scope.

   Clarified description of negotiation timeout.

   Noted that 'dry run' semantics are ASA-dependent

   Made the ACP a normative reference

   Clarified that LL multicasts are limited to GRASP interfaces

   Unicast UDP moved out of scope

   Editorial clarifications

   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-11, 2017-03-30:

   Updates following IETF 98 discussion:

   Encryption changed to a MUST implement.

   Pointed to guidance on UTF-8 names.

   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-10, 2017-03-10:

   Updates following IETF Last call:

   Protocol change: Specify that an objective with no initial value
   should have its value field set to CBOR 'null'.

   Protocol change: Specify behavior on receiving unrecognized message
   type.

   Noted that UTF-8 names are matched byte-for-byte.

   Added brief guidance for Expert Reviewer of new generic objectives.

   Numerous editorial improvements and clarifications and minor text
   rearrangements, none intended to change the meaning.

   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-09, 2016-12-15:

   Protocol change: Add F_NEG_DRY flag to specify a "dry run" objective.

   Protocol change: Change M_FLOOD syntax to associate a locator with
   each objective.





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   Concentrated mentions of TLS in one section, with all details out of
   scope.

   Clarified text around constrained instances of GRASP.

   Strengthened text restricting LL addresses in locator options.

   Clarified description of rapid mode processsing.

   Specified that cached discovery results should not be returned on the
   same interface where they were learned.

   Shortened text in "High Level Design Choices"

   Dropped the word 'kernel' to avoid confusion with o/s kernel mode.

   Editorial improvements and clarifications.

   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-08, 2016-10-30:

   Protocol change: Added M_INVALID message.

   Protocol change: Increased Session ID space to 32 bits.

   Enhanced rules to avoid Session ID clashes.

   Corrected and completed description of timeouts for Request messages.

   Improved wording about exponential backoff and DoS.

   Clarified that discovery relaying is not done by limited security
   instances.

   Corrected and expanded explanation of port used for Discovery
   Response.

   Noted that Discovery message could be sent unicast in special cases.

   Added paragraph on extensibility.

   Specified default maximum message size.

   Added Appendix for sample messages.

   Added short protocol overview.

   Editorial fixes, including minor re-ordering for readability.




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   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-07, 2016-09-13:

   Protocol change: Added TTL field to Flood message (issue 51).

   Protocol change: Added Locator option to Flood message (issue 51).

   Protocol change: Added TTL field to Discovery Response message
   (corrollary to issue 51).

   Clarified details of rapid mode (issues 43 and 50).

   Description of inter-domain GRASP instance added (issue 49).

   Description of limited security GRASP instances added (issue 52).

   Strengthened advice to use TCP rather than UDP.

   Updated IANA considerations and text about well-known port usage
   (issue 53).

   Amended text about ASA authorization and roles to allow for
   overlapping ASAs.

   Added text recommending that Flood should be repeated periodically.

   Editorial fixes.

   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-06, 2016-06-27:

   Added text on discovery cache timeouts.

   Noted that ASAs that are only initiators do not need to respond to
   discovery message.

   Added text on unexpected address changes.

   Added text on robust implementation.

   Clarifications and editorial fixes for numerous review comments

   Added open issues for some review comments.

   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-05, 2016-05-13:

   Noted in requirement T1 that it should be possible to implement ASAs
   independently as user space programs.





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   Protocol change: Added protocol number and port to discovery
   response.  Updated protocol description, CDDL and IANA considerations
   accordingly.

   Clarified that discovery and flood multicasts are handled by the
   GRASP core, not directly by ASAs.

   Clarified that a node may discover an objective without supporting it
   for synchronization or negotiation.

   Added Implementation Status section.

   Added reference to SCSP.

   Editorial fixes.

   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-04, 2016-03-11:

   Protocol change: Restored initiator field in certain messages and
   adjusted relaying rules to provide complete loop detection.

   Updated IANA Considerations.

   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-03, 2016-02-24:

   Protocol change: Removed initiator field from certain messages and
   adjusted relaying requirement to simplify loop detection.  Also
   clarified narrative explanation of discovery relaying.

   Protocol change: Split Request message into two (Request Negotiation
   and Request Synchronization) and updated other message names for
   clarity.

   Protocol change: Dropped unused Device ID option.

   Further clarified text on transport layer usage.

   New text about multicast insecurity in Security Considerations.

   Various other clarifications and editorial fixes, including moving
   some material to Appendix.

   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-02, 2016-01-13:

   Resolved numerous issues according to WG discussions.

   Renumbered requirements, added D9.




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   Protocol change: only allow one objective in rapid mode.

   Protocol change: added optional error string to DECLINE option.

   Protocol change: removed statement that seemed to say that a Request
   not preceded by a Discovery should cause a Discovery response.  That
   made no sense, because there is no way the initiator would know where
   to send the Request.

   Protocol change: Removed PEN option from vendor objectives, changed
   naming rule accordingly.

   Protocol change: Added FLOOD message to simplify coding.

   Protocol change: Added SYNCH message to simplify coding.

   Protocol change: Added initiator id to DISCOVER, RESPONSE and FLOOD
   messages.  But also allowed the relay process for DISCOVER and FLOOD
   to regenerate a Session ID.

   Protocol change: Require that discovered addresses must be global
   (except during bootstrap).

   Protocol change: Receiver of REQUEST message must close socket if no
   ASA is listening for the objective.

   Protocol change: Simplified Waiting message.

   Protocol change: Added No Operation message.

   Renamed URL locator type as URI locator type.

   Updated CDDL definition.

   Various other clarifications and editorial fixes.

   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-01, 2015-10-09:

   Updated requirements after list discussion.

   Changed from TLV to CBOR format - many detailed changes, added co-
   author.

   Tightened up loop count and timeouts for various cases.

   Noted that GRASP does not provide transactional integrity.

   Various other clarifications and editorial fixes.



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   draft-ietf-anima-grasp-00, 2015-08-14:

   File name and protocol name changed following WG adoption.

   Added URL locator type.

   draft-carpenter-anima-gdn-protocol-04, 2015-06-21:

   Tuned wording around hierarchical structure.

   Changed "device" to "ASA" in many places.

   Reformulated requirements to be clear that the ASA is the main
   customer for signaling.

   Added requirement for flooding unsolicited synch, and added it to
   protocol spec.  Recognized DNCP as alternative for flooding synch
   data.

   Requirements clarified, expanded and rearranged following design team
   discussion.

   Clarified that GDNP discovery must not be a prerequisite for GDNP
   negotiation or synchronization (resolved issue 13).

   Specified flag bits for objective options (resolved issue 15).

   Clarified usage of ACP vs TLS/DTLS and TCP vs UDP (resolved issues
   9,10,11).

   Updated DNCP description from latest DNCP draft.

   Editorial improvements.

   draft-carpenter-anima-gdn-protocol-03, 2015-04-20:

   Removed intrinsic security, required external security

   Format changes to allow DNCP co-existence

   Recognized DNS-SD as alternative discovery method.

   Editorial improvements

   draft-carpenter-anima-gdn-protocol-02, 2015-02-19:

   Tuned requirements to clarify scope,




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   Clarified relationship between types of objective,

   Clarified that objectives may be simple values or complex data
   structures,

   Improved description of objective options,

   Added loop-avoidance mechanisms (loop count and default timeout,
   limitations on discovery relaying and on unsolicited responses),

   Allow multiple discovery objectives in one response,

   Provided for missing or multiple discovery responses,

   Indicated how modes such as "dry run" should be supported,

   Minor editorial and technical corrections and clarifications,

   Reorganized future work list.

   draft-carpenter-anima-gdn-protocol-01, restructured the logical flow
   of the document, updated to describe synchronization completely, add
   unsolicited responses, numerous corrections and clarifications,
   expanded future work list, 2015-01-06.

   draft-carpenter-anima-gdn-protocol-00, combination of draft-jiang-
   config-negotiation-ps-03 and draft-jiang-config-negotiation-protocol-
   02, 2014-10-08.

Appendix D.  Example Message Formats

   For readers unfamiliar with CBOR, this appendix shows a number of
   example GRASP messages conforming to the CDDL syntax given in
   Section 5.  Each message is shown three times in the following
   formats:

   1.  CBOR diagnostic notation.

   2.  Similar, but showing the names of the constants.  (Details of the
       flag bit encoding are omitted.)

   3.  Hexadecimal version of the CBOR wire format.

   Long lines are split for display purposes only.







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D.1.  Discovery Example

   The initiator (2001:db8:f000:baaa:28cc:dc4c:9703:6781) multicasts a
   discovery message looking for objective EX1:

   [1, 13948744, h'20010db8f000baaa28ccdc4c97036781', ["EX1", 5, 2, 0]]
   [M_DISCOVERY, 13948744, h'20010db8f000baaa28ccdc4c97036781',
                 ["EX1", F_SYNCH_bits, 2, 0]]
   h'84011a00d4d7485020010db8f000baaa28ccdc4c970367818463455831050200'

   A peer (2001:0db8:f000:baaa:f000:baaa:f000:baaa) responds with a
   locator:

   [2, 13948744, h'20010db8f000baaa28ccdc4c97036781', 60000,
                 [103, h'20010db8f000baaaf000baaaf000baaa', 6, 49443]]
   [M_RESPONSE, 13948744, h'20010db8f000baaa28ccdc4c97036781', 60000,
                 [O_IPv6_LOCATOR, h'20010db8f000baaaf000baaaf000baaa',
                  IPPROTO_TCP, 49443]]
   h'85021a00d4d7485020010db8f000baaa28ccdc4c9703678119ea6084186750
     20010db8f000baaaf000baaaf000baaa0619c123'

D.2.  Flood Example

   The initiator multicasts a flood message.  The single objective has a
   null locator.  There is no response:

[9, 3504974, h'20010db8f000baaa28ccdc4c97036781', 10000,
             [["EX1", 5, 2, ["Example 1 value=", 100]],[] ] ]
[M_FLOOD, 3504974, h'20010db8f000baaa28ccdc4c97036781', 10000,
             [["EX1", F_SYNCH_bits, 2, ["Example 1 value=", 100]],[] ] ]
h'86091a00357b4e5020010db8f000baaa28ccdc4c97036781192710
  828463455831050282704578616d706c6520312076616c75653d186480'

D.3.  Synchronization Example

   Following successful discovery of objective EX2, the initiator
   unicasts a request:

   [4, 4038926, ["EX2", 5, 5, 0]]
   [M_REQ_SYN, 4038926, ["EX2", F_SYNCH_bits, 5, 0]]
   h'83041a003da10e8463455832050500'

   The peer responds with a value:

 [8, 4038926, ["EX2", 5, 5, ["Example 2 value=", 200]]]
 [M_SYNCH, 4038926, ["EX2", F_SYNCH_bits, 5, ["Example 2 value=", 200]]]
 h'83081a003da10e8463455832050582704578616d706c6520322076616c75653d18c8'




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D.4.  Simple Negotiation Example

   Following successful discovery of objective EX3, the initiator
   unicasts a request:

   [3, 802813, ["EX3", 3, 6, ["NZD", 47]]]
   [M_REQ_NEG, 802813, ["EX3", F_NEG_bits, 6, ["NZD", 47]]]
   h'83031a000c3ffd8463455833030682634e5a44182f'

   The peer responds with immediate acceptance.  Note that no objective
   is needed, because the initiator's request was accepted without
   change:

   [6, 802813, [101]]
   [M_END , 802813, [O_ACCEPT]]
   h'83061a000c3ffd811865'

D.5.  Complete Negotiation Example

   Again the initiator unicasts a request:

   [3, 13767778, ["EX3", 3, 6, ["NZD", 410]]]
   [M_REQ_NEG, 13767778, ["EX3", F_NEG_bits, 6, ["NZD", 410]]]
   h'83031a00d214628463455833030682634e5a4419019a'

   The responder starts to negotiate (making an offer):

   [5, 13767778, ["EX3", 3, 6, ["NZD", 80]]]
   [M_NEGOTIATE, 13767778, ["EX3", F_NEG_bits, 6, ["NZD", 80]]]
   h'83051a00d214628463455833030682634e5a441850'

   The initiator continues to negotiate (reducing its request, and note
   that the loop count is decremented):

   [5, 13767778, ["EX3", 3, 5, ["NZD", 307]]]
   [M_NEGOTIATE, 13767778, ["EX3", F_NEG_bits, 5, ["NZD", 307]]]
   h'83051a00d214628463455833030582634e5a44190133'

   The responder asks for more time:

   [7, 13767778, 34965]
   [M_WAIT, 13767778, 34965]
   h'83071a00d21462198895'

   The responder continues to negotiate (increasing its offer):






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   [5, 13767778, ["EX3", 3, 4, ["NZD", 120]]]
   [M_NEGOTIATE, 13767778, ["EX3", F_NEG_bits, 4, ["NZD", 120]]]
   h'83051a00d214628463455833030482634e5a441878'

   The initiator continues to negotiate (reducing its request):

   [5, 13767778, ["EX3", 3, 3, ["NZD", 246]]]
   [M_NEGOTIATE, 13767778, ["EX3", F_NEG_bits, 3, ["NZD", 246]]]
   h'83051a00d214628463455833030382634e5a4418f6'

   The responder refuses to negotiate further:

   [6, 13767778, [102, "Insufficient funds"]]
   [M_END , 13767778, [O_DECLINE, "Insufficient funds"]]
   h'83061a00d2146282186672496e73756666696369656e742066756e6473'

   This negotiation has failed.  If either side had sent [M_END,
   13767778, [O_ACCEPT]] it would have succeeded, converging on the
   objective value in the preceding M_NEGOTIATE.  Note that apart from
   the initial M_REQ_NEG, the process is symmetrical.

Appendix E.  Requirement Analysis of Discovery, Synchronization and
             Negotiation

   This section discusses the requirements for discovery, negotiation
   and synchronization capabilities.  The primary user of the protocol
   is an autonomic service agent (ASA), so the requirements are mainly
   expressed as the features needed by an ASA.  A single physical device
   might contain several ASAs, and a single ASA might manage several
   technical objectives.  If a technical objective is managed by several
   ASAs, any necessary coordination is outside the scope of the GRASP
   signaling protocol.  Furthermore, requirements for ASAs themselves,
   such as the processing of Intent [RFC7575], are out of scope for the
   present document.

E.1.  Requirements for Discovery

   D1.  ASAs may be designed to manage any type of configurable device
   or software, as required in Appendix E.2.  A basic requirement is
   therefore that the protocol can represent and discover any kind of
   technical objective (as defined in Section 2.1) among arbitrary
   subsets of participating nodes.

   In an autonomic network we must assume that when a device starts up
   it has no information about any peer devices, the network structure,
   or what specific role it must play.  The ASA(s) inside the device are
   in the same situation.  In some cases, when a new application session
   starts up within a device, the device or ASA may again lack



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   information about relevant peers.  For example, it might be necessary
   to set up resources on multiple other devices, coordinated and
   matched to each other so that there is no wasted resource.  Security
   settings might also need updating to allow for the new device or
   user.  The relevant peers may be different for different technical
   objectives.  Therefore discovery needs to be repeated as often as
   necessary to find peers capable of acting as counterparts for each
   objective that a discovery initiator needs to handle.  From this
   background we derive the next three requirements:

   D2.  When an ASA first starts up, it may have no knowledge of the
   specific network to which it is attached.  Therefore the discovery
   process must be able to support any network scenario, assuming only
   that the device concerned is bootstrapped from factory condition.

   D3.  When an ASA starts up, it must require no configured location
   information about any peers in order to discover them.

   D4.  If an ASA supports multiple technical objectives, relevant peers
   may be different for different discovery objectives, so discovery
   needs to be performed separately to find counterparts for each
   objective.  Thus, there must be a mechanism by which an ASA can
   separately discover peer ASAs for each of the technical objectives
   that it needs to manage, whenever necessary.

   D5.  Following discovery, an ASA will normally perform negotiation or
   synchronization for the corresponding objectives.  The design should
   allow for this by conveniently linking discovery to negotiation and
   synchronization.  It may provide an optional mechanism to combine
   discovery and negotiation/synchronization in a single protocol
   exchange.

   D6.  Some objectives may only be significant on the local link, but
   others may be significant across the routed network and require off-
   link operations.  Thus, the relevant peers might be immediate
   neighbors on the same layer 2 link, or they might be more distant and
   only accessible via layer 3.  The mechanism must therefore provide
   both on-link and off-link discovery of ASAs supporting specific
   technical objectives.

   D7.  The discovery process should be flexible enough to allow for
   special cases, such as the following:

   o  During initialization, a device must be able to establish mutual
      trust with autonomic nodes elsewhere in the network and
      participate in an authentication mechanism.  Although this will
      inevitably start with a discovery action, it is a special case
      precisely because trust is not yet established.  This topic is the



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      subject of [I-D.ietf-anima-bootstrapping-keyinfra].  We require
      that once trust has been established for a device, all ASAs within
      the device inherit the device's credentials and are also trusted.
      This does not preclude the device having multiple credentials.

   o  Depending on the type of network involved, discovery of other
      central functions might be needed, such as the Network Operations
      Center (NOC) [I-D.ietf-anima-stable-connectivity].  The protocol
      must be capable of supporting such discovery during
      initialization, as well as discovery during ongoing operation.

   D8.  The discovery process must not generate excessive traffic and
   must take account of sleeping nodes.

   D9.  There must be a mechanism for handling stale discovery results.

E.2.  Requirements for Synchronization and Negotiation Capability

   Autonomic networks need to be able to manage many different types of
   parameter and consider many dimensions, such as latency, load, unused
   or limited resources, conflicting resource requests, security
   settings, power saving, load balancing, etc.  Status information and
   resource metrics need to be shared between nodes for dynamic
   adjustment of resources and for monitoring purposes.  While this
   might be achieved by existing protocols when they are available, the
   new protocol needs to be able to support parameter exchange,
   including mutual synchronization, even when no negotiation as such is
   required.  In general, these parameters do not apply to all
   participating nodes, but only to a subset.

   SN1.  A basic requirement for the protocol is therefore the ability
   to represent, discover, synchronize and negotiate almost any kind of
   network parameter among selected subsets of participating nodes.

   SN2.  Negotiation is an iterative request/response process that must
   be guaranteed to terminate (with success or failure).  While tie-
   breaking rules must be defined specifically for each use case, the
   protocol should have some general mechanisms in support of loop and
   deadlock prevention, such as hop count limits or timeouts.

   SN3.  Synchronization must be possible for groups of nodes ranging
   from small to very large.

   SN4.  To avoid "reinventing the wheel", the protocol should be able
   to encapsulate the data formats used by existing configuration
   protocols (such as NETCONF/YANG) in cases where that is convenient.





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   SN5.  Human intervention in complex situations is costly and error-
   prone.  Therefore, synchronization or negotiation of parameters
   without human intervention is desirable whenever the coordination of
   multiple devices can improve overall network performance.  It follows
   that the protocol's resource requirements must be small enough to fit
   in any device that would otherwise need human intervention.  The
   issue of running in constrained nodes is discussed in
   [I-D.ietf-anima-reference-model].

   SN6.  Human intervention in large networks is often replaced by use
   of a top-down network management system (NMS).  It therefore follows
   that the protocol, as part of the Autonomic Networking
   Infrastructure, should be capable of running in any device that would
   otherwise be managed by an NMS, and that it can co-exist with an NMS,
   and with protocols such as SNMP and NETCONF.

   SN7.  Specific autonomic features are expected to be implemented by
   individual ASAs, but the protocol must be general enough to allow
   them.  Some examples follow:

   o  Dependencies and conflicts: In order to decide upon a
      configuration for a given device, the device may need information
      from neighbors.  This can be established through the negotiation
      procedure, or through synchronization if that is sufficient.
      However, a given item in a neighbor may depend on other
      information from its own neighbors, which may need another
      negotiation or synchronization procedure to obtain or decide.
      Therefore, there are potential dependencies and conflicts among
      negotiation or synchronization procedures.  Resolving dependencies
      and conflicts is a matter for the individual ASAs involved.  To
      allow this, there need to be clear boundaries and convergence
      mechanisms for negotiations.  Also some mechanisms are needed to
      avoid loop dependencies or uncontrolled growth in a tree of
      dependencies.  It is the ASA designer's responsibility to avoid or
      detect looping dependencies or excessive growth of dependency
      trees.  The protocol's role is limited to bilateral signaling
      between ASAs, and the avoidance of loops during bilateral
      signaling.

   o  Recovery from faults and identification of faulty devices should
      be as automatic as possible.  The protocol's role is limited to
      discovery, synchronization and negotiation.  These processes can
      occur at any time, and an ASA may need to repeat any of these
      steps when the ASA detects an event such as a negotiation
      counterpart failing.

   o  Since a major goal is to minimize human intervention, it is
      necessary that the network can in effect "think ahead" before



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      changing its parameters.  One aspect of this is an ASA that relies
      on a knowledge base to predict network behavior.  This is out of
      scope for the signaling protocol.  However, another aspect is
      forecasting the effect of a change by a "dry run" negotiation
      before actually installing the change.  Signaling a dry run is
      therefore a desirable feature of the protocol.

   Note that management logging, monitoring, alerts and tools for
   intervention are required.  However, these can only be features of
   individual ASAs, not of the protocol itself.  Another document
   [I-D.ietf-anima-stable-connectivity] discusses how such agents may be
   linked into conventional OAM systems via an Autonomic Control Plane
   [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane].

   SN8.  The protocol will be able to deal with a wide variety of
   technical objectives, covering any type of network parameter.
   Therefore the protocol will need a flexible and easily extensible
   format for describing objectives.  At a later stage it may be
   desirable to adopt an explicit information model.  One consideration
   is whether to adopt an existing information model or to design a new
   one.

E.3.  Specific Technical Requirements

   T1.  It should be convenient for ASA designers to define new
   technical objectives and for programmers to express them, without
   excessive impact on run-time efficiency and footprint.  In
   particular, it should be convenient for ASAs to be implemented
   independently of each other as user space programs rather than as
   kernel code, where such a programming model is possible.  The classes
   of device in which the protocol might run is discussed in
   [I-D.ietf-anima-reference-model].

   T2.  The protocol should be easily extensible in case the initially
   defined discovery, synchronization and negotiation mechanisms prove
   to be insufficient.

   T3.  To be a generic platform, the protocol payload format should be
   independent of the transport protocol or IP version.  In particular,
   it should be able to run over IPv6 or IPv4.  However, some functions,
   such as multicasting on a link, might need to be IP version
   dependent.  By default, IPv6 should be preferred.

   T4.  The protocol must be able to access off-link counterparts via
   routable addresses, i.e., must not be restricted to link-local
   operation.





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   T5.  It must also be possible for an external discovery mechanism to
   be used, if appropriate for a given technical objective.  In other
   words, GRASP discovery must not be a prerequisite for GRASP
   negotiation or synchronization.

   T6.  The protocol must be capable of distinguishing multiple
   simultaneous operations with one or more peers, especially when wait
   states occur.

   T7.  Intent: Although the distribution of Intent is out of scope for
   this document, the protocol must not by design exclude its use for
   Intent distribution.

   T8.  Management monitoring, alerts and intervention: Devices should
   be able to report to a monitoring system.  Some events must be able
   to generate operator alerts and some provision for emergency
   intervention must be possible (e.g.  to freeze synchronization or
   negotiation in a mis-behaving device).  These features might not use
   the signaling protocol itself, but its design should not exclude such
   use.

   T9.  Because this protocol may directly cause changes to device
   configurations and have significant impacts on a running network, all
   protocol exchanges need to be fully secured against forged messages
   and man-in-the middle attacks, and secured as much as reasonably
   possible against denial of service attacks.  There must also be an
   encryption mechanism to resist unwanted monitoring.  However, it is
   not required that the protocol itself provides these security
   features; it may depend on an existing secure environment.

Appendix F.  Capability Analysis of Current Protocols

   This appendix discusses various existing protocols with properties
   related to the requirements described in Appendix E.  The purpose is
   to evaluate whether any existing protocol, or a simple combination of
   existing protocols, can meet those requirements.

   Numerous protocols include some form of discovery, but these all
   appear to be very specific in their applicability.  Service Location
   Protocol (SLP) [RFC2608] provides service discovery for managed
   networks, but requires configuration of its own servers.  DNS-SD
   [RFC6763] combined with mDNS [RFC6762] provides service discovery for
   small networks with a single link layer.  [RFC7558] aims to extend
   this to larger autonomous networks but this is not yet standardized.
   However, both SLP and DNS-SD appear to target primarily application
   layer services, not the layer 2 and 3 objectives relevant to basic
   network configuration.  Both SLP and DNS-SD are text-based protocols.




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   Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) [RFC3416] uses a command/
   response model not well suited for peer negotiation.  Network
   Configuration Protocol (NETCONF) [RFC6241] uses an RPC model that
   does allow positive or negative responses from the target system, but
   this is still not adequate for negotiation.

   There are various existing protocols that have elementary negotiation
   abilities, such as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6
   (DHCPv6) [RFC3315], Neighbor Discovery (ND) [RFC4861], Port Control
   Protocol (PCP) [RFC6887], Remote Authentication Dial In User Service
   (RADIUS) [RFC2865], Diameter [RFC6733], etc.  Most of them are
   configuration or management protocols.  However, they either provide
   only a simple request/response model in a master/slave context or
   very limited negotiation abilities.

   There are some signaling protocols with an element of negotiation.
   For example Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) [RFC2205] was
   designed for negotiating quality of service parameters along the path
   of a unicast or multicast flow.  RSVP is a very specialised protocol
   aimed at end-to-end flows.  A more generic design is General Internet
   Signalling Transport (GIST) [RFC5971], but it is complex, tries to
   solve many problems, and is also aimed at per-flow signaling across
   many hops rather than at device-to-device signaling.  However, we
   cannot completely exclude extended RSVP or GIST as a synchronization
   and negotiation protocol.  They do not appear to be directly useable
   for peer discovery.

   RESTCONF [RFC8040] is a protocol intended to convey NETCONF
   information expressed in the YANG language via HTTP, including the
   ability to transit HTML intermediaries.  While this is a powerful
   approach in the context of centralised configuration of a complex
   network, it is not well adapted to efficient interactive negotiation
   between peer devices, especially simple ones that might not include
   YANG processing already.

   The Distributed Node Consensus Protocol (DNCP) [RFC7787] is defined
   as a generic form of state synchronization protocol, with a proposed
   usage profile being the Home Networking Control Protocol (HNCP)
   [RFC7788] for configuring Homenet routers.  A specific application of
   DNCP for autonomic networking was proposed in
   [I-D.stenberg-anima-adncp].

   DNCP "is designed to provide a way for each participating node to
   publish a set of TLV (Type-Length-Value) tuples, and to provide a
   shared and common view about the data published... DNCP is most
   suitable for data that changes only infrequently... If constant rapid
   state changes are needed, the preferable choice is to use an
   additional point-to-point channel..."



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   Specific features of DNCP include:

   o  Every participating node has a unique node identifier.

   o  DNCP messages are encoded as a sequence of TLV objects, sent over
      unicast UDP or TCP, with or without (D)TLS security.

   o  Multicast is used only for discovery of DNCP neighbors when lower
      security is acceptable.

   o  Synchronization of state is maintained by a flooding process using
      the Trickle algorithm.  There is no bilateral synchronization or
      negotiation capability.

   o  The HNCP profile of DNCP is designed to operate between directly
      connected neighbors on a shared link using UDP and link-local IPv6
      addresses.

   DNCP does not meet the needs of a general negotiation protocol,
   because it is designed specifically for flooding synchronization.
   Also, in its HNCP profile it is limited to link-local messages and to
   IPv6.  However, at the minimum it is a very interesting test case for
   this style of interaction between devices without needing a central
   authority, and it is a proven method of network-wide state
   synchronization by flooding.

   The Server Cache Synchronization Protocol (SCSP) [RFC2334] also
   describes a method for cache synchronization and cache replication
   among a group of nodes.

   A proposal was made some years ago for an IP based Generic Control
   Protocol (IGCP) [I-D.chaparadza-intarea-igcp].  This was aimed at
   information exchange and negotiation but not directly at peer
   discovery.  However, it has many points in common with the present
   work.

   None of the above solutions appears to completely meet the needs of
   generic discovery, state synchronization and negotiation in a single
   solution.  Many of the protocols assume that they are working in a
   traditional top-down or north-south scenario, rather than a fluid
   peer-to-peer scenario.  Most of them are specialized in one way or
   another.  As a result, we have not identified a combination of
   existing protocols that meets the requirements in Appendix E.  Also,
   we have not identified a path by which one of the existing protocols
   could be extended to meet the requirements.






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Authors' Addresses

   Carsten Bormann
   Universitaet Bremen TZI
   Postfach 330440
   D-28359 Bremen
   Germany

   Email: cabo@tzi.org


   Brian Carpenter (editor)
   Department of Computer Science
   University of Auckland
   PB 92019
   Auckland  1142
   New Zealand

   Email: brian.e.carpenter@gmail.com


   Bing Liu (editor)
   Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
   Q14, Huawei Campus
   No.156 Beiqing Road
   Hai-Dian District, Beijing  100095
   P.R. China

   Email: leo.liubing@huawei.com






















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