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Network Working Group                                        Tim Howes
INTERNET DRAFT                                              Mark Smith
draft-ietf-asid-mime-direct-07.txt       Netscape Communications Corp.
                                                          Frank Dawson
                                         Lotus Development Corporation
                                                        April 20, 1998


             A MIME Content-Type for Directory Information



1.  Status of this Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are  working  docu-
ments  of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its
working groups.  Note that other  groups  may  also  distribute  working
documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum  of  six  months
and  may  be  updated,  replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference material
or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

To learn the current status of  any  Internet-Draft,  please  check  the
"1id-abstracts.txt"  listing  contained  in  the Internet- Drafts Shadow
Directories   on   ftp.is.co.za   (Africa),   nic.nordu.net    (Europe),
munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim), ftp.ietf.org (US East Coast, or ftp.isi.edu
(US West Coast).

Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright (C) The Internet Society 1998. All Rights Reserved.

2.  Abstract

This document defines a MIME Content-Type for holding directory informa-
tion.  The definition is independent of any particular directory service
or protocol.  The text/directory Content-Type is defined for  holding  a
variety  of  directory information, for example, name, or email address,
or logo. The text/directory Content-Type can also be used  as  the  root
body  part in a multipart/related Content-Type for handling more compli-
cated situations, especially those in which non-textual information that
already  has a natural MIME representation, for example, a photograph or
sound, is to be represented.

The text/directory Content-Type defines a general framework  and  format
for  holding  directory  information  in  a simple "type:value" form. We



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refer to "type" in this context meaning a  property  or  attribute  with
which  the value is associated. Mechanisms are defined to specify alter-
nate languages, encodings and other meta-information. This document also
defines  the procedure by which particular formats, called profiles, for
carrying  application-specific  information  within   a   text/directory
Content-Type  can  be  defined  and registered, and the conventions such
formats must follow. It is expected that other documents  will  be  pro-
duced  that  define  such  formats for various applications (e.g., white
pages).

The key words "MUST", "MUST  NOT",  "REQUIRED",  "SHALL",  "SHALL  NOT",
"SHOULD",  "SHOULD  NOT",  "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY"  and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC-2119].

3.  Need for a MIME Directory Type

For purposes of this document, a directory is a special-purpose database
that  contains typed information. A directory usually supports both read
and search of the information it contains, and can support creation  and
modification  of the information as well.  Directory information is usu-
ally accessed far more often than it is  updated.   Directories  can  be
local  or  global  in scope. They can be distributed or centralized. The
information they contain can be replicated, with  weak  or  strong  con-
sistency requirements.

There are several situations in which users of Internet mail might  wish
to  exchange  directory  information:  the  email analogy of a "business
card" exchange; the conveyance of directory information to a user having
only  email  access  to the Internet; the provision of machine-parseable
address information when purchasing goods or services over the Internet;
etc.  As  MIME  [RFC-2045,RFC-2046] is used increasingly by other proto-
cols, most notably HTTP, it can also be useful for  these  protocols  to
carry  directory information in MIME format. Such a format, for example,
could be used to represent URC (uniform resource characteristics) infor-
mation  about  resources on the World Wide Web, or to provide a rudimen-
tary directory service over HTTP.

4.  Overview

The scheme defined here for representing directory information in a MIME
Content-Type  has  two  parts. First, the text/directory Content-Type is
defined for use in holding directory information within  a  single  body
part,  for  example name, title, or email address. In its simplest form,
the format uses a "type:value" approach, which should be  easily  parse-
able  by existing MIME implementations and understandable by users. More
complicated situations can be represented also.  This  document  defines
the  general  form  the information in the Content-Type should have, and
the procedure by  which  specific  types  and  values  (properties)  for



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particular  applications can be defined. The framework is general enough
to handle information from any number of end directory services, includ-
ing LDAP [RFC-1777, RFC-1778], WHOIS++ [RFC-1835], and X.500 [X500].

Directory entries can include far more than  just  textual  information.
Some such information (e.g., an image or sound) overlaps with predefined
MIME Content-Types. In these cases it can be desirable  to  include  the
information  in its well-known MIME format. This situation is handled by
using a multipart/related Content-Type as  defined  in  [RFC-2112].  The
root component of this type is a text/directory body part specifying any
in-line information, and for information  contained  in  other  Content-
Types, the Content-IDs (in URI form) of those parts.

In some applications, it can be useful to include a pointer (e.g, a URI)
to  some directory information rather than the information itself.  This
document defines a general mechanism for accomplishing this.

5.  The text/directory Content-Type

The text/directory Content-Type is used to hold basic directory informa-
tion  and  URIs referencing other information, including other MIME body
parts holding supplementary or non-textual directory  information,  such
as  an  image  or  sound. It is defined as follows, using the MIME media
type registration template from [RFC-2048].

To: ietf-types@uninett.no
Subject: Registration of MIME media type text/directory

5.1.  MIME media type name

MIME media type name: text

5.2.  MIME subtype name

MIME subtype name: directory

5.3.  Required parameters

Required parameters: charset

The "charset" parameter is as  defined  in  [RFC-2046]  for  other  body
parts.  It is used to identify the default character set used within the
body part.

5.4.  Optional parameters

Optional parameters: profile




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The "profile" parameter is used to convey the type(s) of entity(ies)  to
which  the directory information pertains and the likely set of informa-
tion associated with the entity(ies). It is intended only as a guide  to
applications  interpreting  the  information  contained  within the body
part. It SHOULD NOT be used to exclude or require particular  pieces  of
information  unless  a  profile  definition  specifically calls for this
behavior. Unless specifically forbidden by a particular profile  defini-
tion,    a   text/directory   content   type   can   contain   arbitrary
attribute/value pairs.

The value of the "profile" parameter  is  defined  as  follows.  Profile
names  are  case insensitive (i.e., the profile name "vCard" is the same
as "VCARD" and "vcard" and "vcArD").

      profile = x-name / iana-token

      x-name = "x-" 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
          ; Names beginning with "x-" or "X-" are
          ; reserved for experimental use not intended for released
          ; products, or for use in bilateral agreements.

      iana-token = <a publicly-defined extension token, registered
                     with IANA, as specified in Section 9 of this
                     document>


5.5.  Encoding considerations

The default encoding is 8bit. Otherwise, as specified  by  the  Content-
Transfer-Encoding header field.

5.6.  Security considerations

Directory information can be public or it can be  protected  from  unau-
thorized  access by the directory service in which it resides.  Once the
information leaves its native service, there can be  no  guarantee  that
the  same  care  will be taken by all services handling the information.
Furthermore, this specification defines no access control  mechanism  by
which  information can be protected, or by which access control informa-
tion can  be  conveyed.  Note  that  the  integrity  and  privacy  of  a
text/directory  body  part  can  be  protected by enclosing it within an
appropriate MIME-based security mechanism.

5.7.  Interoperability considerations

In order to make sense of directory information, applications must share
a  common understanding of the types of information contained within the
Content-Type (the directory schema).  This  schema  information  is  not



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defined  in  this  document,  but  rather  in companion documents (e.g.,
[MIME-VCARD]) that follow the requirements specified in  this  document,
or in bilateral agreements between communicating parties.

5.8.  Published specification

The text/directory Content-Type contains  directory  information,  typi-
cally pertaining to a single directory entity or group of entities.  The
content consists of one or more lines in the format given below.

5.8.1.  Line delimiting and folding

Individual lines within the MIME text/directory Content  Type  body  are
delimited  by  the [RFC-822] line break, which is a CRLF sequence (ASCII
decimal 13, followed by ASCII decimal 10). Long logical  lines  of  text
can be split into a multiple-physical-line representation using the fol-
lowing folding technique.

A logical line MAY be continued  on  the  next  physical  line  anywhere
between  two  characters  by  inserting a CRLF immediately followed by a
single white space character (space, ASCII  decimal  32,  or  horizontal
tab,  ASCII  decimal  9).  At least one character must be present on the
folded line. Any sequence of CRLF followed immediately by a single white
space  character  is ignored (removed) when processing the content type.
For example the line:

DESCRIPTION:This is a long description that exists on a long line.

Can be represented as:

DESCRIPTION:This is a long description
  that exists on a long line.

It could also be represented as:

DESCRIPTION:This is a long descrip
 tion that exists o
 n a long line.

The process of moving from this folded multiple-line representation of a
type  definition  to its single line representation is called unfolding.
Unfolding is accomplished by regarding CRLF immediately  followed  by  a
white  space  character  (namely  HTAB  ASCII  decimal  9 or SPACE ASCII
decimal 32) as equivalent to no characters at all (i.e.,  the  CRLF  and
single white space character are removed).






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5.8.2.  ABNF content-type definition

The following ABNF uses the notation of RFC  2234,  which  also  defines
CRLF,  WSP, DQUOTE, VCHAR, ALPHA, and DIGIT.  After the unfolding of any
folded lines as described above, the syntax for a line of  this  content
type is as follows:

       contentline  = [group "."] name *(";" param) ":" value CRLF
          ; When parsing a content line, folded lines MUST first
          ; be unfolded according to the unfolding procedure
          ; described above.
          ; When generating a content line, lines longer than 75
          ; characters SHOULD be folded according to the folding
          ; procedure described above.

       group        = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")

       name         = x-name / iana-token

       iana-token   = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
          ; identifier registered with IANA

       x-name       = "x-" 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
          ; Names that begin with "x-" or "X-" are
          ; reserved for experimental use, not intended for released
          ; products, or for use in bilateral agreements.

       param        = param-name "=" param-value *("," param-value)

       param-name   = x-name / iana-token

       param-value  = ptext / quoted-string

       ptext  = *SAFE-CHAR

       value = *VALUE-CHAR
             / valuespec      ; valuespec defined in section 5.8.4

       quoted-string = DQUOTE *QSAFE-CHAR DQUOTE

       NON-ASCII    = %x80-FF
          ; use restricted by charset parameter
          ; on outer MIME object (UTF-8 preferred)

       QSAFE-CHAR   = WSP / %x21 / %x23-7E / NON-ASCII
          ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE

       SAFE-CHAR    = WSP / %x21 / %x23-2B / %x2D-39 / %x3C-7E / NON-ASCII



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          ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE, ";", ":", ","

       VALUE-CHAR   = WSP / VCHAR / NON-ASCII
          ; any textual character

A line that begins with a white space character is a continuation of the
previous line, as described above. The white space character and immedi-
ately preceeding CRLF should be discarded when reconstructing the origi-
nal line. Note that this line-folding convention differs from that found
in RFC 822, in that the sequence <CRLF><WSP> found anywhere in the  con-
tent indicates a continued line and should be removed.

Various type names and  the  format  of  the  corresponding  values  are
defined  as specified in Section 11.  Specifications MAY impose ordering
on the type constructs within a body part, though none  is  required  by
default.  The  various x-name constructs are used for bilaterally-agreed
upon type names, parameter names and parameter values,  or  for  use  in
experimental settings.

Type names and parameter names are case insensitive (e.g., the type name
"fn"  is the same as "FN" and "Fn"). Parameter values MAY be case sensi-
tive or case insensitive, depending on their definition.

The group construct is used to group related attributes  together.   The
group  name  is  a  syntactic  convention used to indicate that all type
names prefaced with the same group name SHOULD be grouped together  when
displayed  by an application. It has no other significance.  Implementa-
tions that do not understand or support grouping MAY  simply  strip  off
any text before a "." to the left of the type name and present the types
and values as normal.

Each attribute defined in the  text/directory  body  MAY  have  multiple
values,  if allowed in the definition of the profile in which the attri-
bute is used. The general rule for encoding  multi-valued  items  is  to
simply  create  a  new  content  line for each value (including the type
name).  However, it should be noted that some value types support encod-
ing  multiple  values  in a single content line by separating the values
with a comma ",".  This approach has been taken for several of the  con-
tent  types defined below (date, time, integer, float), for space-saving
reasons.

5.8.3.  Pre-defined Parameters

The following parameters and value types are defined for general use.

         predefined-param = encodingparm
                          / valuetypeparm
                          / languageparm



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                          / contextparm

         encodingparm = "encoding" "=" encodingtype

         encodingtype = "b"       ; from RFC 2047
                    / iana-token  ; registered as described in
                                  ; section 15 of this document

         valuetypeparm = "value" "=" valuetype

         valuetype = "uri"        ; genericurl from secion 5 of RFC 1738
                    / "text"
                    / "date"
                    / "time"
                    / "date-time" ; date time
                    / "integer"
                    / "boolean"
                    / "float"
                    / x-name
                    / iana-token  ; registered as described in
                                  ; section 15 of this document

         languageparm = "language" "=" Language-Tag
             ; Language-Tag is defined in section 2 of RFC 1766

         contextparm = "context" "=" context

         context = x-name
                 / iana-token

The "language" type parameter is  used  to  identify  data  in  multiple
languages.  There  is no concept of "default" language, except as speci-
fied by any "Content-Language" MIME header parameter  that  is  present.
The  value of the "language" type parameter is a language tag as defined
in Section 2 of [RFC-1766].

The "context" type parameter is used to identify a context (e.g., a pro-
tocol) used in interpreting the value. This is used, for example, in the
"source" type, defined below.

The "encoding" type parameter is used to specify an  alternate  encoding
for  a  value.  If  the value contains a CRLF, it must be encoded, since
CRLF is used to separate lines in the  content-type  itself.  Currently,
only the "b" encoding is supported.

The "b" encoding can also be useful for binary  values  that  are  mixed
with  other  text  information  in  the body part (e.g., a certificate).
Using a per-value "b" encoding in this case leaves the other information



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in  a  more readable form. The encoded base 64 value can be split across
multiple physical lines in the content type by using  the  line  folding
technique described above.

The Content-Transfer-Encoding header field is used to specify the encod-
ing  used for the body part as a whole. The "encoding" type parameter is
used to specify an encoding for a particular  value  (e.g.,  a  certifi-
cate).  In this case, the Content-Transfer-Encoding header might specify
"8bit", while the one certificate value might specify an encoding of "b"
via an "encoding=b" type parameter.

Each type has associated with it a  default  encoding,  taken  from  the
Content-Transfer-Encoding MIME header parameter.

The "value" parameter is optional, and is used  to  identify  the  value
type  (data  type) and format of the value.  The use of these predefined
formats is encouraged even if the value parameter is not explicity used.
By  defining  a  standard set of value types and their formats, existing
parsing and processing code can be leveraged.

Including the value type explicitly as part of each property provides an
extra  hint to keep parsing simple and support more generalized applica-
tions.  For example a search engine would not have to know the  particu-
lar value types for all of the items for which it is searching.  Because
the value type is explicit in the definition, the  search  engine  could
look  for  dates  in any item type and provide results that can still be
interpreted.

5.8.4.  Pre-defined Value Types

The format for values corresponding to the predefined valuetype specifi-
cations given above are defined.

         valuespec =  text-list
                    / genericurl       ; from section 5 of RFC 1738
                    / date-list
                    / time-list
                    / date-time-list
                    / boolean
                    / integer-list
                    / float-list
                    / iana-valuespec

         text-list = *TEXT-LIST-CHAR *("," *TEXT-LIST-CHAR)

         TEXT-LIST-CHAR = "\\" / "\," / "\n"
                        / <any VALUE-CHAR except , or \ or newline>
             ; Backslashes, newlines, and commas must be encoded.



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             ; \n or \N can be used to encode a newline.

         date-list = date *("," date)

         time-list = time *("," time)

         date-time-list = date "T" time *("," date "T" time)

         boolean = "TRUE" / "FALSE"

         integer-list = integer *("," integer)

         integer = [sign] 1*DIGIT

         float-list = float *("," float)

         float = [sign] 1*DIGIT ["." 1*DIGIT]

         sign = "+" / "-"

         date = date-fullyear ["-"] date-month ["-"] date-mday

         date-fullyear = 4 DIGIT

         date-month = 2 DIGIT     ;01-12

         date-mday = 2 DIGIT      ;01-28, 01-29, 01-30, 01-31
                                  ;based on month/year

         time = time-hour [":"] time-minute [":"] time-second [time-secfrac]
                 [time-zone]

         time-hour = 2 DIGIT      ;00-23

         time-minute = 2 DIGIT    ;00-59

         time-second = 2 DIGIT    ;00-60 (leap second)

         time-secfrac = "," 1*DIGIT

         time-zone = "Z" / time-numzone

         time-numzome = sign time-hour [":"] time-minute

         iana-valuespec = <a publicly-defined valuetype format, registered
                           with IANA, as defined in section 15 of this
                           document>




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Some specific notes on the value types and formats:

"text": The "text" value type should be used  to  identify  values  that
contain human-readable text. The character set and language in which the
text is represented is controlled by the charset content-header and  the
language type parameter and content-header.

     Examples for "text":
                this is a text value
                this is one value,this is another
                this is a single value\, with a comma encoded

A formatted text line break in a text value type MUST be represented  as
the  character sequence backslash (ASCII decimal 92) followed by a Latin
small letter n (ASCII decimal 110) or a Latin capital  letter  N  (ASCII
decimal 78), that is "\n" or "\N".

For example a multiple line DESCRIPTION value of:

Mythical Manager
Hyjinx Software Division
BabsCo, Inc.

could be represented as:

DESCRIPTION:Mythical Manager\nHyjinx Software Division\n
 BabsCo\, Inc.\n

demonstrating the \n literal formatted line break technique,  the  CRLF-
followed-by-space line folding technique, and the backslash escape tech-
nique.

"uri":  The "uri" value type should be used to identify values that  are
referenced  by  a  URI  (including a Content-ID URI), instead of encoded
in-line. These value references might be used if  the   value   is   too
large,  or otherwise undesirable to include directly. The format for the
URI is as defined in RFC 1738.

     Examples for "uri":
                http://www.foobar.com/my/picture.jpg
                ldap://ldap.foobar.com/cn=babs%20jensen

"date", "time", and "date-time":  Each of these value types is based  on
a  subset  of  the  definitions in ISO 8601 standard. Profiles MAY place
further restrictions on "date" and "time" values.  Multiple  "date"  and
"time"  values  can  be  specified  using  the comma-separated notation,
unless restricted by a profile.




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    Examples for "date":
                1985-04-12
                1996-08-05,1996-11-11
                19850412

    Examples for "time":
                10:22:00
                102200
                10:22:00.33
                10:22:00.33Z
                10:22:33,11:22:00
                10:22:00-08:00

    Examples for "date-time":
                1996-10-22T14:00:00Z
                1996-08-11T12:34:56Z
                19960811T123456Z
                1996-10-22T14:00:00Z,1996-08-11T12:34:56Z

"boolean":  The "boolean" value type is used to express  boolen  values.
These values are case insensitive.

    Examples: TRUE
              false
              True

"integer":  The "integer" value type is used to express signed  integers
in  decimal format. If sign is not specified, the value is assumed posi-
tive "+". Multiple "integer" values can be specified  using  the  comma-
separated notation, unless restricted by a profile.

    Examples: 1234567890
              -1234556790
              +1234556790,432109876

"float":  The "float" value type is used to express  real  numbers.   If
sign  is  not  specified,  the  value  is assumed positive "+". Multiple
"float" values can be  specified  using  the  comma-separated  notation,
unless restricted by a profile.

    Examples: 20.30
              1000000.0000001
              1.333,3.14


5.9.  Applications which use this media type

Applications which use this media type: Various



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5.10.  Additional information

Additional information: None

5.11.  Person & email address to contact for further information

   Tim Howes
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   howes@netscape.com
   +1 415 937 3419

5.12.  Intended usage

Intended usage: COMMON

5.13.  Author/Change controller

   Tim Howes
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   howes@netscape.com
   +1 415 937 3419

   Mark Smith
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   mcs@netscape.com
   +1 415 937 3477

   Frank Dawson
   Lotus Development Corporation
   6544 Battleford Drive
   Raleigh, NC 27613-3502
   USA
   frank_dawson@lotus.com
   +1-919-676-9515

6.  Predefined Types

The following types are generally useful regardless of the profile being
carried  and  are  defined  below  using  the  text/directory  MIME type



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registration template defined in Section 11.1 of  this  document.  These
types MAY be included in any profile, unless explicitly forbidden in the
profile definition.

6.1.  SOURCE Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type SOURCE

   Type name: SOURCE

   Type purpose: To identify the source of  directory  information  con-
   tained in the content type.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type valuetype: uri

   Type special notes:  The SOURCE type is used to provide the means  by
   which applications knowledgable in the given directory service proto-
   col can obtain additional or more  up-to-date  information  from  the
   directory  service. It contains a URI as defined in [RFC-1738] and/or
   other information referencing the directory  entity  or  entities  to
   which  the information pertains. When directory information is avail-
   able from more than one source, the sending entity can pick  what  it
   considers  to  be  the  best  source, or multiple SOURCE types can be
   included. The interpretation of the  value  for  a  SOURCE  type  can
   depend on the setting of the CONTEXT type parameter. The value of the
   CONTEXT type parameter MUST be compatible with the value of  the  uri
   prefix.

   Type example:
           SOURCE;CONTEXT=LDAP:ldap://ldap.host/cn=Babs%20Jensen,
            %20o=Babsco,%20c=US

6.2.  NAME Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type NAME

   Type name: NAME

   Type purpose: To identify  the  displayable  name  of  the  directory
   entity to which information in the content type pertains.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type valuetype: text



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   Type special notes:  The NAME type is used to convey the display name
   of the entity to which the directory information pertains.

   Type example:
           NAME:Babs Jensen's Contact Information

6.3.  PROFILE Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type PROFILE

   Type name: PROFILE

   Type purpose: To identify the  type  of  directory  entity  to  which
   information in the content type pertains.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type valuetype: A profile name, registered as described in Section  9
   of  this  document or bilaterally agreed upon as described in Section
   5.

   Type special notes:  The PROFILE type is used to convey the  type  of
   the entity to which the directory information in the rest of the body
   part pertains. It should be the same as the "profile" header  parame-
   ter, if present.

   Type example:
           PROFILE:vCard

6.4.  BEGIN Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type BEGIN

   Type name: BEGIN

   Type purpose: To denote the beginning of a syntactic entity within  a
   text/directory content-type.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type valuetype:  text,  containing  a  profile  name,  registered  as
   described in Section 9 of this document or bilaterally-agreed upon as
   described in Section 5.

   Type special notes:  The BEGIN type is used in conjunction  with  the
   END  type to delimit a profile containing a related set of properties



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   within an text/directory content-type. This  construct  can  be  used
   instead  of  or  in addition to wrapping separate sets of information
   inside additional MIME headers. It is provided for applications  that
   wish  to define content that can contain multiple entities within the
   same text/directory content-type or to define  content  that  can  be
   identifiable outside of a MIME environment.

   Type example:
           BEGIN:VCARD

6.5.  END Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type END

   Type name: END

   Type purpose: To denote the  end  of  a  syntactic  entity  within  a
   text/directory content-type.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type valuetype:  text,  containing  a  profile  name,  registered  as
   described in Section 9 of this document or bilaterally-agreed upon as
   described in Section 5.

   Type special notes:  The END type is used  in  conjunction  with  the
   BEGIN  type  to delimit a profile containing a related set of proper-
   ties within an text/directory content-type.  This  construct  can  be
   used  instead of or in addition to wrapping separate sets of informa-
   tion inside additional MIME headers. It is provided for  applications
   that wish to define content that can contain multiple entities within
   the same text/directory content-type or to define content that can be
   identifiable outside of a MIME environment.

   Type example:
           END: VCARD

7.  Use of the multipart/related Content-Type

The multipart/related Content-Type can be used to hold directory  infor-
mation  comprised  of  both  text  and non-text information or directory
information that already has a natural MIME  representation.   The  root
body part within the multipart/related body part is specified as defined
in [RFC-2112] by a "start" parameter, or it is the first  body  part  in
the  absence  of  such  a  parameter.  The  root  body  part must have a
Content-Type of "text/directory".  This part  holds  inline  information
and  makes reference to subsequent body parts holding additional text or



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non-text directory information via their Content-ID URIs as explained in
Section 5.

The body parts referred to do not have to be in  any  particular  order,
except as noted above for the root body part.

8.  Examples

The following examples are for illustrative purposes only  and  are  not
part of the definition.

8.1.  Example 1

The first example illustrates simple use of the text/directory  Content-
Type.  Note  that no "profile" parameter is given, so an application may
not know what kind of directory entity the information applies to.  Note
also  the  use of both hypothetical official and bilaterally agreed upon
types.

   From: Whomever@wherever.com
   To: Someone@somewhere.com
   Subject: whatever
   MIME-Version: 1.0
   Message-ID: <id1@host.net>
   Content-Type: text/directory
   Content-ID: <id2@host.com>

   cn:Babs Jensen
   cn:Barbara J Jensen
   sn:Jensen
   email:babs@umich.edu
   phone:+1 313 747-4454
   x-id:1234567890

8.2.  Example 2

The next example illustrates the use of  the  Quoted-Printable  transfer
encoding defined in [RFC 2045] to include non-ASCII character in some of
the information returned,  and  the  use  of  the  optional  "name"  and
"source" types. It also illustrates the use of an "encoding" type param-
eter to encode a certificate value in  "b".  A  "vCard"  profile  [MIME-
VCARD] is used for the example.

   Content-Type: text/directory;
           charset="iso-8859-1";
           profile="vCard"
   Content-ID: <id3@host.com>
   Content-Transfer-Encoding: Quoted-Printable



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   begin:VCARD
   source:ldap://cn=3Dbjorn%20Jensen, o=3Duniversity%20of%20Michigan, c=3DUS
   name:Bjorn Jensen
   fn:Bj=F8rn Jensen
   n:Jensen;Bj=F8rn
   email;type=3Dinternet:bjorn@umich.edu
   tel;type=3Dwork,voice,msg:+1 313 747-4454
   key;type=3Dx509;encoding=3DB:dGhpcyBjb3VsZCBiZSAKbXkgY2VydGlmaWNhdGUK
   end:VCARD

8.3.  Example 3

The next example illustrates the use of  multi-valued  type  parameters,
the  "language"  type  parameter, the "value" type parameter, folding of
long lines, the \n encoding for formatted lines, attribute grouping, and
the inline "b" encoding.  A "vCard" profile [MIME-VCARD] is used for the
example.

   Content-Type: text/directory; profile="vcard"; charset=iso-8859-1
   Content-ID: <id3@host.com>
   Content-Transfer-Encoding: Quoted-Printable

   begin:vcard
   source:ldap://cn=3DMeister%20Berger,o=3DUniversitaet%20Goerlitz,c=3DDE
   name:Meister Berger
   fn:Meister Berger
   n:Berger;Meister
   bday;value=3Ddate:1963-09-21
   o:Universit=E6t G=F6rlitz
   title:Mayor
   title;language=3Dde;value=3Dtext:Burgermeister
   note:The Mayor of the great city of
     Goerlitz in the great country of Germany.
   email;internet:mb@goerlitz.de
   home.tel;type=3Dfax,voice,msg:+49 3581 123456
   home.label:Hufenshlagel 1234\n
    02828 Goerlitz\n
    Deutschland
   key;type=3DX509;encoding=3Db:MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQ
    AwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bmljYXRpb25zI
    ENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0ZW1zMRwwGgYDVQQD
    ExNyb290Y2EubmV0c2NhcGUuY29tMB4XDTk3MDYwNjE5NDc1OVoXDTk3MTIwMzE5NDc
    1OVowgYkxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlVTMSYwJAYDVQQKEx1OZXRzY2FwZSBDb21tdW5pY2F0aW
    9ucyBDb3JwLjEYMBYGA1UEAxMPVGltb3RoeSBBIEhvd2VzMSEwHwYJKoZIhvcNAQkBF
    hJob3dlc0BuZXRzY2FwZS5jb20xFTATBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEBEwVob3dlczBcMA0GCSqG
    SIb3DQEBAQUAA0sAMEgCQQC0JZf6wkg8pLMXHHCUvMfL5H6zjSk4vTTXZpYyrdN2dXc
    oX49LKiOmgeJSzoiFKHtLOIboyludF90CgqcxtwKnAgMBAAGjNjA0MBEGCWCGSAGG+E
    IBAQQEAwIAoDAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBT84FToB/GV3jr3mcau+hUMbsQukjANBgkqhkiG9



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    w0BAQQFAAOBgQBexv7o7mi3PLXadkmNP9LcIPmx93HGp0Kgyx1jIVMyNgsemeAwBM+M
    SlhMfcpbTrONwNjZYW8vJDSoi//yrZlVt9bJbs7MNYZVsyF1unsqaln4/vy6Uawfg8V
    UMk1U7jt8LYpo4YULU7UZHPYVUaSgVttImOHZIKi4hlPXBOhcUQ=3D=3D
   end:vcard

8.4.  Example 4

The final example illustrates the use of the multipart/related  Content-
Type  to  include  non-textual  directory data via the "uri" encoding to
refer to other body parts  within  the  same  message,  or  to  external
values.   Note  that  no "profile" parameter is given, so an application
may not know what kind of directory entity the information  applies  to.
Note  also  the use of both hypothetical official and bilaterally agreed
upon types.

   Content-Type: multipart/related;
           boundary=woof;
           type="text/directory";
           start="<id5@host.com>"
   Content-ID: <id4@host.com>

   --woof
   Content-Type: text/directory; charset="iso-8859-1"
   Content-ID: <id5@host.com>
   Content-Transfer-Encoding: Quoted-Printable

   source:ldap://cn=3DBjorn%20Jensen,o=3DUniversity%20of%20Michigan,c=3DUS
   cn:Bj=F8rn Jensen
   sn:Jensen
   email:bjorn@umich.edu
   image;value=3Duri:cid:id6@host.com
   image;value=3Duri;format=3Djpeg:ftp://some.host/some/path.jpg
   sound;value=3Duri:cid:id7@host.com
   phone:+1 313 747-4454

   --woof
   Content-Type: image/jpeg
   Content-ID: <id6@host.com>

   <...image data...>

   --woof
   Content-Type: message/external-body;
           name="myvoice.au";
           site="myhost.com";
           access-type=ANON-FTP;
           directory="pub/myname";
           mode="image"



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   Content-Type: audio/basic
   Content-ID: <id7@host.com>

   --woof--

9.  Registration of new profiles

This section defines procedures by which  new  profiles  are  registered
with  the  IANA  and made available to the Internet community. Note that
non-IANA profiles can be used by bilateral agreement, provided the asso-
ciated profile names follow the "X-" convention defined above.

The procedures defined here are designed to  allow  public  comment  and
review  of  new  profiles,  while  posing only a small impediment to the
definition of new profiles.

Registration of a new profile is accomplished by the following steps.

9.1.  Define the profile

A profile is defined by completing the following template.

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME profile XXX

   Profile name:

   Profile purpose:

   Profile types:

   Profile special notes (optional):

   Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

The explanation of what goes in each field in the template follows.

Profile name: The  name  of  the  profile  as  it  will  appear  in  the
text/directory  MIME  Content-Type  "profile"  header  parameter, or the
predefined "profile" type name.

Profile purpose: The purpose of the profile (e.g., to represent informa-
tion  about  people,  printers, documents, etc.). Give a short but clear
description.

Profile types: The list of types associated with the profile.  This list
of  types is to be expected but not required in the profile, unless oth-
erwise noted in the profile definition.  Other types  not  mentioned  in



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the  profile  definition  MAY  also be present.  Note that any new types
referenced by the profile MUST be defined  separately  as  described  in
Section 10.

Profile special notes: Any special notes about the profile, how it is to
be used, etc. This section of the template can also be used to define an
ordering on the types that appear in the Content-Type, if such an order-
ing is required.

9.2.  Post the profile definition

The profile description must be posted to  the  new  profile  discussion
list, ietf-mime-direct@imc.org

9.3.  Allow a comment period

Discussion on the new profile must be allowed to take place on the  list
for  a  minimum  of  two weeks. Consensus must be reached on the profile
before proceeding to step 4.

9.4.  Submit the profile for approval

Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer  is  con-
vinced  consensus  has  been  reached  on  the profile, the registration
application should be submitted to the Profile  Reviewer  for  approval.
The  Profile Reviewer is appointed by the Application Area Directors and
can either accept or reject the profile registration. An accepted regis-
tration  is  passed on by the Profile Reviewer to the IANA for inclusion
in the official IANA profile registry. The registration may be  rejected
for  any  of  the  following reasons. 1) Insufficient comment period; 2)
Consensus not reached; 3) Technical deficiencies raised on the  list  or
elsewhere  have  not  been addressed. The Profile Reviewer's decision to
reject a profile can be appealed by the proposer to  the  IESG,  or  the
objections  raised  can  be  addressed  by  the proposer and the profile
resubmitted.

10.  Profile Change Control

Existing profiles can be changed using the same process  by  which  they
were registered.

     Define the change

     Post the change

     Allow a comment period

     Submit the changed profile for approval



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Note that the original author or any other interested party can  propose
a  change  to  an existing profile, but that such changes should only be
proposed when there are serious omissions or  errors  in  the  published
specification.  The Profile Reviewer can object to a change if it is not
backwards compatible, but is not required to do so.

Profile definitions can never be deleted from  the  IANA  registry,  but
profiles  which  are  no  longer  believed  to be useful can be declared
OBSOLETE by a change to their "intended use" field.

11.  Registration of new types

This section defines procedures by which new types are  registered  with
the  IANA.  Note that non-IANA types can be used by bilateral agreement,
provided the associated types names follow the "X-"  convention  defined
above.

The procedures defined here are designed to  allow  public  comment  and
review of new types, while posing only a small impediment to the defini-
tion of new types.

Registration of a new type is accomplished by the following steps.

11.1.  Define the type

A type is defined by completing the following template.

      To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
      Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type XXX

      Type name:

      Type purpose:

      Type encoding:

      Type valuetype:

      Type special notes (optional):

      Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

The meaning of each field in the template is as follows.

Type name: The name of the type, as it will appear in  the  body  of  an
text/directory  MIME  Content-Type "type: value" line to the left of the
colon ":".




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Type purpose: The purpose of the type (e.g., to represent a name, postal
address, IP address, etc.). Give a short but clear description.

Type encoding: The default encoding a value of the type must have in the
body of a text/directory MIME Content-Type.

Type valuetype: The format a value of the type must have in the body  of
a text/directory MIME Content-Type. This description must be precise and
must not violate the general encoding rules defined in section 5 of this
document.

Type special notes: Any special notes about the type, how it  is  to  be
used, etc.

11.2.  Post the type definition

The type description must be posted to the  new  type  discussion  list,
ietf-mime-direct@imc.org

11.3.  Allow a comment period

Discussion on the new type must be allowed to take place on the list for
a  minimum  of  two  weeks. Consensus must be reached on the type before
proceeding to step 4.

11.4.  Submit the type for approval

Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer  is  con-
vinced consensus has been reached on the type, the registration applica-
tion should be submitted to the Profile Reviewer for approval.  The Pro-
file  Reviewer  is  appointed  by the Application Area Directors and can
either accept or reject the type registration. An accepted  registration
is  passed  on  by the Profile Reviewer to the IANA for inclusion in the
official IANA profile registry. The registration can be rejected for any
of  the  following reasons. 1) Insufficient comment period; 2) Consensus
not reached; 3) Technical deficiencies raised on the list  or  elsewhere
have  not  been  addressed.  The Profile Reviewer's decision to reject a
type can be appealed by the proposer to  the  IESG,  or  the  objections
raised can be addressed by the proposer and the type resubmitted.

12.  Type Change Control

Existing types can be changed using the same process by which they  were
registered.

     Define the change

     Post the change



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     Allow a comment period

     Submit the type for approval

Note that the original author or any other interested party can  propose
a  change to an existing type, but that such changes should only be pro-
posed when there are  serious  omissions  or  errors  in  the  published
specification.  The Profile Reviewer can object to a change if it is not
backwards compatible, but is not required to do so.

Type definitions can never be deleted from the IANA registry, but  types
which  are  nolonger believed to be useful can be declared OBSOLETE by a
change to their "intended use" field.

13.  Registration of new parameters

This section defines procedures by which new parameters  are  registered
with  the  IANA  and made available to the Internet community. Note that
non-IANA parameters can be used by  bilateral  agreement,  provided  the
associated parameters names follow the "X-" convention defined above.

The procedures defined here are designed to  allow  public  comment  and
review  of  new  parameters, while posing only a small impediment to the
definition of new parameters.

Registration of a new parameter is accomplished by the following steps.

13.1.  Define the parameter

A parameter is defined by completing the following template.

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type parameter XXX

   Parameter name:

   Parameter purpose:

   Parameter values:

   Parameter special notes (optional):

   Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

The explanation of what goes in each field in the template follows.

Parameter name: The name of the parameter  as  it  will  appear  in  the
text/directory MIME Content-Type.



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Parameter purpose: The purpose of the parameter (e.g., to represent  the
format  of  an  image,  type  of a phone number, etc.). Give a short but
clear description. If defining a general  paramemter  like  "format"  or
"type"  keep  in  mind  that other applications might wish to extend its
use.

Parameter values: The list or description of values associated with  the
parameter.

Parameter special notes: Any special notes about the parameter,  how  it
is to be used, etc.

13.2.  Post the parameter definition

The parameter description must be posted to the new parameter discussion
list, ietf-mime-direct@imc.org

13.3.  Allow a comment period

Discussion on the new parameter must be allowed to  take  place  on  the
list for a minimum of two weeks. Consensus must be reached on the param-
eter before proceeding to step 4.

13.4.  Submit the parameter for approval

Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer  is  con-
vinced  consensus  has  been  reached on the parameter, the registration
application should be submitted to the Profile  Reviewer  for  approval.
The  Profile Reviewer is appointed by the Application Area Directors and
can either accept or reject  the  parameter  registration.  An  accepted
registration is passed on by the Profile Reviewer to the IANA for inclu-
sion in the official IANA parameter registry. The  registration  can  be
rejected  for  any  of  the  following  reasons. 1) Insufficient comment
period; 2) Consensus not reached; 3) Technical  deficiencies  raised  on
the  list  or  elsewhere have not been addressed. The Profile Reviewer's
decision to reject a profile can be appealed  by  the  proposer  to  the
IESG,  or the objections raised can be addressed by the proposer and the
parameter registration resubmitted.

14.  Parameter Change Control

Existing parameters can be changed using the same process by which  they
were registered.

     Define the change

     Post the change




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     Allow a comment period

     Submit the parameter for approval

Note that the original author or any other interested party can  propose
a  change to an existing parameter, but that such changes should only be
proposed when there are serious omissions or  errors  in  the  published
specification.  The Profile Reviewer can object to a change if it is not
backwards compatible, but is not required to do so.

Parameter definitions can never be deleted from the IANA  registry,  but
parameters  which  are  nolonger  believed  to be useful can be declared
OBSOLETE by a change to their "intended use" field.

15.  Registration of new value types

This section defines procedures by which new value types are  registered
with  the  IANA  and made available to the Internet community. Note that
non-IANA value types can be used by  bilateral agreement,  provided  the
associated value types names follow the "X-" convention defined above.

The procedures defined here are designed to  allow  public  comment  and
review  of  new value types, while posing only a small impediment to the
definition of new value types.

Registration of a new value  types  is  accomplished  by  the  following
steps.


15.1.  Define the value type

A value type is defined by completing the following template.

      To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
      Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME value type XXX

      value type name:

      value type purpose:

      value type format:

      value type special notes (optional):

      Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

The explanation of what goes in each field in the template follows.




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value type name: The name of the value type as  it  will  appear  in the
text/directory MIME Content-Type.

value type purpose: The purpose of the value  type.  Give  a  short  but
clear description.

value type format: The definition of the format for the  value,  usually
using ABNF grammar.

value type special notes: Any special notes about the value  type,   how
it is to be used, etc.


15.2.  Post the value type definition

The value type description must be posted to the new value type  discus-
sion list, ietf-mime-direct@imc.org


15.3.  Allow a comment period

Discussion on the new value type must be allowed to  take  place  on the
list  for  a  minimum  of  two  weeks.  Consensus must be reached before
proceeding to step 4.


15.4.  Submit the value type for approval

Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer  is  con-
vinced   consensus   has  been  reached on the value type, the registra-
tion application should  be  submitted  to  the  Profile   Reviewer  for
approval.   The   Profile  Reviewer is appointed by the Application Area
Directors and can either accept or reject  the  value type registration.
An  accepted registration should be passed on by the Profile Reviewer to
the IANA for inclusion in the official IANA  value  type  registry.  The
registration  can  be   rejected   for  any of the following reasons. 1)
Insufficient comment period; 2)  Consensus  not  reached;  3)  Technical
deficiencies    raised   on  the   list   or  elsewhere  have  not  been
addressed. The Profile Reviewer's decision to reject a  profile  can  be
appealed  by  the  proposer  to  the IESG,  or the objections raised can
be addressed by the proposer and the value type  registration  resubmit-
ted.

16.  Security Considerations

Internet mail is subject to many well known security attacks,  including
monitoring,  replay,  and forgery. Care should be taken by any directory
service in allowing information  to  leave  the  scope  of  the  service



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itself, where any access controls can no longer be guaranteed.  Applica-
tions should also take care  to  display  directory  data  in  a  "safe"
environment (e.g., PostScript-valued types).

17.  Acknowledgements

The registration procedures defined here were  shamelessly  lifted  from
the MIME registration RFC.

The many valuable comments contributed by members of the IETF ASID work-
ing  group  are gratefully acknowledged, as are the contributions of the
Versit Consortium. Chris Newman was especially helpful in navigating the
intricacies of ABNF lore.

18.  References

[RFC-1777] Yeong, W.,  Howes,  T.,  Kille,  S.,  "Lightweight  Directory
           Access Protocol", Request for Comment (RFC) 1777, March 1995.

[RFC-1778] Howes, T., Kille, S., Yeong, W., Robbins, C.J.,  "The  String
           Representation  of  Standard Attribute Syntaxes", Request for
           Comment (RFC) 1778, March 1995.

[RFC-822]  Crocker, D., "Standard for the Format of ARPA  Internet  Text
           Messages", STD 11, RFC 822, August 1982.

[RFC-2045] Borenstein, N., Freed, N., "Multipurpose Internet Mail Exten-
           sions  (MIME)  Part  One: Format of Internet Message Bodies",
           RFC 2045, November 1996.

[RFC-2046] Moore, K., "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part
           Two:  Media Types", RFC 2046, November 1996.

[RFC-2048] Freed, N., Klensin, J., Postel,  J.,  "Multipurpose  Internet
           Mail  Extensions  (MIME) Part Four: Registration Procedures",
           RFC 2048, November 1996

[RFC-1766] Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the Identification  of  Languages",
           RFC 1766, March 1995.

[RFC-2112] Levinson, E., "The MIME Multipart/Related Content-type,"  RFC
           2112, March 1997.

[X500]     "Information Processing Systems - Open  Systems  Interconnec-
           tion  -  The Directory: Overview of Concepts, Models and Ser-
           vices", ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC21,  International  Standard  9594-1,
           1988.




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[RFC-1835] Deutsch, P., Schoultz, R., Faltstrom, P., Weider, C., "Archi-
           tecture of the WHOIS++ service", August 1995.

[RFC-1738] Berners-Lee,  T.,  Masinter,  L.,  McCahill,   M.,   "Uniform
           Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, December 1994.

[MIME-VCARD]F. Dawson, T. Howes, "VCard  MIME  Directory  Profile",  RFC
           XXXX, March 1998.

[VCARD]    Internet Mail Consortium, "vCard -  The  Electronic  Business
           Card", Version 2.1, http://www.imc.com/pdi/vcard-21.txt, Sep-
           tember, 1996.

[RFC-2119] "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate  Requirement  Levels",
           RFC 2119, March 1997.

[RFC-2234] Crocker, D., Overell, P., "Augmented BNF for Syntax  Specifi-
           cations: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.

19.  Authors' Addresses

   Tim Howes
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   howes@netscape.com
   +1.415.937.3419

   Mark Smith
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   mcs@netscape.com
   +1.415.937.3477

   Frank Dawson
   Lotus Development Corporation
   6544 Battleford Drive
   Raleigh, NC 27613
   USA
   frank_dawson@lotus.com
   +1-919-676-9515







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20.  Table of Contents

1.  Status of this Memo..............................................1
2.  Abstract.........................................................1
3.  Need for a MIME Directory Type...................................2
4.  Overview.........................................................2
5.  The text/directory Content-Type..................................3
5.1.  MIME media type name...........................................3
5.2.  MIME subtype name..............................................3
5.3.  Required parameters............................................3
5.4.  Optional parameters............................................3
5.5.  Encoding considerations........................................4
5.6.  Security considerations........................................4
5.7.  Interoperability considerations................................4
5.8.  Published specification........................................5
5.8.1.  Line delimiting and folding..................................5
5.8.2.  ABNF content-type definition.................................6
5.8.3.  Pre-defined Parameters.......................................7
5.8.4.  Pre-defined Value Types......................................9
5.9.  Applications which use this media type.........................12
5.10.  Additional information........................................13
5.11.  Person & email address to contact for further information.....13
5.12.  Intended usage................................................13
5.13.  Author/Change controller......................................13
6.  Predefined Types.................................................13
6.1.  SOURCE Type Definition.........................................14
6.2.  NAME Type Definition...........................................14
6.3.  PROFILE Type Definition........................................15
6.4.  BEGIN Type Definition..........................................15
6.5.  END Type Definition............................................16
7.  Use of the multipart/related Content-Type........................16
8.  Examples.........................................................17
8.1.  Example 1......................................................17
8.2.  Example 2......................................................17
8.3.  Example 3......................................................18
8.4.  Example 4......................................................19
9.  Registration of new profiles.....................................20
9.1.  Define the profile.............................................20
9.2.  Post the profile definition....................................21
9.3.  Allow a comment period.........................................21
9.4.  Submit the profile for approval................................21
10.  Profile Change Control..........................................21
11.  Registration of new types.......................................22
11.1.  Define the type...............................................22
11.2.  Post the type definition......................................23
11.3.  Allow a comment period........................................23
11.4.  Submit the type for approval..................................23
12.  Type Change Control.............................................23



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13.  Registration of new parameters..................................24
13.1.  Define the parameter..........................................24
13.2.  Post the parameter definition.................................25
13.3.  Allow a comment period........................................25
13.4.  Submit the parameter for approval.............................25
14.  Parameter Change Control........................................25
15.  Registration of new value types.................................26
15.1.  Define the value type.........................................26
15.2.  Post the value type definition................................27
15.3.  Allow a comment period........................................27
15.4.  Submit the value type for approval............................27
16.  Security Considerations.........................................27
17.  Acknowledgements................................................28
18.  References......................................................28
19.  Authors' Addresses..............................................29
20.  Table of Contents...............................................30


























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