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Versions: (draft-boutier-babel-source-specific) 00 01

Network Working Group                                         M. Boutier
Internet-Draft                                             J. Chroboczek
Updates: 6126bis (if approved)         IRIF, University of Paris-Diderot
Intended status: Standards Track                         August 21, 2017
Expires: February 22, 2018


                    Source-Specific Routing in Babel
                  draft-ietf-babel-source-specific-01

Abstract

   Source-specific routing is an extension to traditional next-hop
   routing where packets are forwarded according to both their
   destination and their source address.  This document describes the
   source-specific routing extension to the Standard Track's Babel
   routing protocol defined in [BABEL].  It is incompatible with the
   Experimental Track's Babel [RFC6126].

   Source-specific routing is also known as Source Address Dependent
   Routing, SAD Routing, SADR, Destination/Source Routing or Source/
   Destination Routing.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 22, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of



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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  TODOs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Introduction and background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   3.  Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  The Source Table  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.2.  The Route Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.3.  The Table of Pending Seqno Requests . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Data Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  Protocol Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     5.1.  Source-specific messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     5.2.  Route Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     5.3.  Wildcard retractions (update) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     5.4.  Wildcard requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   6.  Compatibility with the base protocol  . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     6.1.  Loop-avoidance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     6.2.  Starvation and Blackholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   7.  Protocol Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     7.1.  Source Prefix sub-TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     7.2.  Source-specific Update  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     7.3.  Source-specific (Route) Request . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     7.4.  Source-Specific Seqno Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   9.  Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10

1.  TODOs

   o  Source Prefix sub-TLV type: TBD

   o  check references (Section) for BABEL in 6126bis

2.  Introduction and background

   The Babel routing protocol as defined is [BABEL] is a distance vector
   routing protocol for next-hop routing.  In next-hop routing, each
   node maintains a forwarding table which maps prefixes to next-hops.
   The forwarding decision is a per-packet operation which depends on



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   the destination address of the packets and on the entries of the
   forwarding table.  When a packet is about to be routed, its
   destination address is compared to the prefixes of the routing table:
   the entry with the most specific prefix containing the destination
   address of the packet is choosen, and the packet is forwarded to the
   associated next-hop.  Next-hop routing is a simple, well understood
   paradigm that works satisfactorily in a large number of cases.

   Source-specific routing is a modest extension of next-hop routing
   where the forwarding decision additionnaly depends on the source
   address of the packets.  The forwarding tables are extended to map
   pairs of prefixes (destination, source) to a next-hop.  When multiple
   entries are candidate to route a packet, the one with the most
   specific destination prefix is choosen, and in case of equality the
   one with the most specific source.  In source-specific routing, two
   packets with the same destination but different sources may be
   forwarded among different paths.

   The main application of source-specific routing is, at the time of
   this writing, multihoming with Provider Agregatable (PA) addresses.
   In such configuration, each Internet Service Provider (ISP) provides
   to the network a PA prefix and a default route for this prefix while
   performing ingress filtering ([BCP84]).  Each host has one address
   per ISP, and sends packets with one of these addresses as source
   address.  Source-specific routing ensures that packets are routed
   towards the provider of their source address, such that they are not
   filtered out.  More details and more use cases can be found in
   [SS-ROUTING],[IETF-SSR].

   This document describes the source-specific routing extension for the
   Babel routing protocol [BABEL].  This involves changes to data
   structures and protocol messages.  The data structures receive an
   additionnal source prefix which is part of the index, similarly to
   (and with) the destination prefix.  The Update, Route Request and
   Seqno Request are the three messages which carry a (destination)
   prefix: they are extended with a source prefix.

3.  Data Structures

   Some of the data structures of a Babel node contains a destination
   prefix or are partly indexed by a destination prefix.  This extension
   adds a source prefix to these structures and indexes.

3.1.  The Source Table

   Every Babel node maintains a source table, as described in [BABEL],
   Section 3.2.5.  A source-specific Babel node extends this table with




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   the following field.  With this extension, the source table is
   indexed by triples of the form (prefix, source prefix, router-id).

   o  the source prefix specifying the source address of packets to
      which this entry applies.

   If a source table entry has a zero length source prefix, then the
   entry is a non-source-specific entry, and is treated just like a
   source table entry defined by the original Babel protocol.

   With this extension, the route entry contains a source which itself
   contains a source prefix.  These are two very different concepts, and
   should not be confused.

3.2.  The Route Table

   Every Babel node maintains a route table, as described in [BABEL],
   Section 3.2.6.  With this extension, the route table is indexed by
   triples of the form (prefix, source prefix, neighbour) obtained from
   the associated source table entry.

   If a route table entry has a zero length source prefix, then the
   entry is a non-source-specific entry, and is treated just like a
   route table entry defined by the original Babel protocol.

3.3.  The Table of Pending Seqno Requests

   Every Babel node maintains a table of pending seqno requests, as
   described in [BABEL], Section 3.2.7.  A source-specific Babel node
   extends this table with the following entry.  With this extension,
   the table of pending seqno requests is indexed by triples of the form
   (prefix, source prefix, router-id).

   o  the source prefix being requested.

4.  Data Forwarding

   In next-hop routing, if two routing table entries overlap, then one
   is necessarily more specific than the other; the "longest prefix
   rule" specifies that the most specific applicable routing table entry
   is chosen.

   With source-specific routing, there might no longer be a most
   specific applicable entry: two routing table entries might match a
   given packet without one necessarily being more specific than the
   other.  Consider for example the following routing table:





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             destination                source    next-hop
       2001:DB8:0:1::/64                  ::/0           A
                    ::/0     2001:DB8:0:2::/64           B

   This specifies that all packets with destination in 2001:DB8:0:1::/64
   are to be routed through A, while all packets with source in
   2001:DB8:0:2::/64 are to be routed through B.  A packet with source
   2001:DB8:0:2::42 and destination 2001:DB8:0:1::57 matches both rules,
   although neither is more specific than the other.  A choice is
   necessary, and unless the choice being made is the same on all
   routers in a routing domain, persistent routing loops may occur.
   More informations are available in [SS-ROUTING] Section IV.C.

   A Babel implementation MUST choose routing table entries by using the
   so-called destination-first ordering, where a routing table entry R1
   is preferred to a routing table entry R2 when either R1's destination
   prefix is more specific than R2's, or the destination prefixes are
   equal and R1's source prefix is more specific than R2's.  (In more
   formal terms, routing table entries are compared using the
   lexicographic product of the destination prefix ordering by the
   source prefix ordering.)

   In practice, this means that a source-specific Babel implementation
   must take care that any lower layer that performs packet forwarding
   obey this semantics.  In particular:

   o  If the lower layers implement the destination-first ordering, then
      the Babel implementation MAY use them directly;

   o  If the lower layers can hold source-specific routes, but not with
      the right semantics, then the Babel implementation MUST
      disambiguate the routing table by using a suitable disambiguation
      algorithm (see [SS-ROUTING] Section V.B for such an algorithm);

   o  If the lower layers cannot hold source-specific routes, then a
      Babel implementation MUST silently ignore (drop) any source-
      specific routes.

5.  Protocol Operation

   This extension does not fundamentally change the operation of the
   Babel protocol.  We only describe the fundamental differences between
   the original protocol and this extension in this section.  The other
   mechanisms described in [BABEL] (Section 3) are extended to pairs of
   (destination, source) prefixes instead of just (destination)
   prefixes.





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5.1.  Source-specific messages

   Three messages carry a destination prefix: Updates, Route Requests
   and Seqno Requests.  These messages are extended to carry, in
   addition, a source prefix if (and only if) the corresponding route is
   source-specific.  More formally, an Update, a Route Request and a
   Seqno Request MUST carry a source prefix if they concern a source-
   specific route (non-zero length source prefix) and MUST NOT carry a
   source prefix otherwise (zero length source prefix).  A message which
   carries a source prefix is said to be source-specific.

5.2.  Route Acquisition

   When a non-source-specific Babel node receives a source-specific
   update, it silently ignores it.  When a source-specific Babel node
   receives a non-source-specific update, it MUST treat this update as a
   zero length source-specific update.

   When a source-specific Babel node receives a source-specific update
   (prefix, source prefix, router-id, seqno, metric) from a neighbour
   neigh, it behaves as described in [BABEL] (Section 3.5.4) though
   indexing entries by (prefix, source prefix, neigh).

5.3.  Wildcard retractions (update)

   The original protocol defines a wildcard update with AE equals to 0
   as being a wildcard retraction.  A node receiving a wildcard
   retraction on an interface must consider that the sending node
   retracts all the routes it advertised on this interface.

   Wildcard retractions are used when a node is about to leave the
   network.  Thus, this extension does not define source-specific
   wildcard retraction, but extends wildcard retraction to apply also to
   source-specific routes.  More formally, a wildcard update MUST NOT
   carry a source prefix, and a source-specific Babel node receiving a
   (legacy) wildcard update MUST retracts all routes it learns from this
   node (including source-specific ones).

5.4.  Wildcard requests

   The original Babel protocol states that when a node receives a
   wildcard route request, it SHOULD send a full routing table dump.
   This extension does not change this statement: a source-specific node
   SHOULD send a full routing table dump when receiving a wildcard
   request.






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   Source-specific wildcard requests does not exist: a wildcard request
   MUST NOT carry a source prefix, and a source prefix associated with a
   wildcard update SHOULD be ignored.

   One of the motivation behalf this design choice is that wildcard
   requests are defined with AE equals to 0.  They naturally apply to AE
   1, AE 2 and AE 3 defined in [BABEL], but also to any other AE which
   may be defined in the future.  New AEs, new TLVs or new sub-TLVs are
   extension mechanisms.  Thus, the semantics of a wildcard request is
   clearly to also asks for routes coming from extensions.

6.  Compatibility with the base protocol

   The protocol extension defined in this document is, to a great
   extent, interoperable with the base protocol defined in [BABEL] (and
   all its known extensions).  More precisely, if non-source-specific
   routers and source-specific routers are mixed in a single routing
   domain, Babel's loop-avoidance properties are preserved, and, in
   particular, no persistent routing loops will occur.

   However, this extension is not compatible with the Experimental
   Track's Babel Routing Protocol [RFC6126].  It requires the mandatory
   sub-TLV introduced in [BABEL].  Consequently, this extension MUST NOT
   be used with routers implementing RFC 6126, otherwise persistent
   routing loops may occur.

6.1.  Loop-avoidance

   The extension defined in this protocol uses a new Mandatory sub-TLV
   to carry the source prefix information.  As discussed in Section 4.4
   of [BABEL], this encoding ensures that non-source-specific routers
   will silently ignore the whole TLV, which is necessary to avoid
   persistent routing loops in hybrid networks.

   Consider two nodes A and B, with A source-specific announcing a route
   to (D, S).  Suppose that B (non source-specific) merely ignores the
   source prefix information when it receives the update rather than
   ignoring the whole TLV, and reannounces the route as D.  This
   reannouncement reaches A, which treats it as (D, ::/0).  Packets
   destined to D but not sourced in S will be forwarded by A to B, and
   by B to A, causing a persistent routing loop:

       (D,S)                 (D)
        <--                 <--
     ------ A ----------------- B
              -->
             (D,::/0)




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6.2.  Starvation and Blackholes

   In general, discarding source-specific routes by non-source-specific
   routers will cause route starvation.  Intuitively, unless there are
   enough non-source-specific routes in the network, non-source-specific
   routers will suffer starvation, and discard packets for destinations
   that are only announced by source-specific routers.

   A simple yet sufficient condition for avoiding starvation is to build
   a connected source-specific backbone that includes all of the edge
   routers, and announce a (non-source-specific) default route towards
   the backbone.

7.  Protocol Encoding

   This extension defines a new sub-TLV used to carry a source prefix by
   the three following existing messages: Update, Route Request and
   Seqno Request.

7.1.  Source Prefix sub-TLV

   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Type = TBD[128]|    Length     |  Source Plen  | Source Prefix...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

   Fields:

   Type      Set to TBD[128] to indicate a Source Prefix sub-TLV.

   Length    The length of the body, exclusive of the Type and Length
             fields.

   Source Plen  The length of the advertised source prefix.  This MUST
             NOT be 0.

   Source Prefix  The source prefix being advertised.  This field's size
             is (Source Plen)/8 rounded upwards.

   The source prefix encoding (AE) is the same as the Prefix's.  It is
   defined by the AE field of the corresponding TLV.

   Note that this sub-TLV is a Mandatory sub-TLV.  The whole TLV MUST be
   ignored if that sub-TLV is not recognized.  Otherwise, routing loops
   may occur (see Section 6.1).





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7.2.  Source-specific Update

   The source-specific Update is an Update TLV with a Source Prefix sub-
   TLV.  It advertises or retracts source-specific routes in the same
   manner than routes with non-source-specific Updates (see [BABEL]).  A
   wildcard retraction (Update with AE equals to 0) MUST NOT carry a
   Source Prefix sub-TLV.

   Contrary to the destination prefix, this extension does not compress
   the source prefix attached to Updates.  However, as defined in
   [BABEL] (Section 4.5), the compression is allowed for the destination
   prefix of source-specific routes.  Legacy implementation will
   correctly update their parser state while ignoring the whole TLV
   afterwards.

7.3.  Source-specific (Route) Request

   A source-specific Route Request is a Route Request TLV with a Source
   Prefix sub-TLV.  It prompts the receiver to send an update for a
   given pair of destination and source prefixes.  A wildcard request
   (Route Request with AE equals to 0) MUST NOT carry a Source Prefix
   sub-TLV.

7.4.  Source-Specific Seqno Request

   A source-specific Seqno Request is a Seqno Request TLV with a Source
   Prefix sub-TLV.  It is just like a Seqno Request for a source-
   specific route.  It uses the same mechanisms described in [BABEL].

8.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is requested to allocate TBD, a Babel sub-TLV type from the
   range reserved for mandatory sub-TLVs [value 128 suggested], and to
   add the following entry to the "Babel mandatory sub-TLV Types"
   registry:

              +----------+---------------+-----------------+
              | Type     | Name          | Reference       |
              +----------+---------------+-----------------+
              | TBD[128] | Source Prefix | (this document) |
              +----------+---------------+-----------------+

9.  Security considerations

   The extension defined in this document adds a new sub-TLV to three
   TLVs already present in the original Babel protocol.  It does not by
   itself change the security properties of the protocol.




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10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [BABEL]    Chroboczek, J., "The Babel Routing Protocol", Internet
              Draft draft-ietf-babel-rfc6126bis-02, May 2017.

   [BCP84]    Baker, F. and P. Savola, "Ingress Filtering for Multihomed
              Networks", BCP 84, RFC 3704, March 2004.

   [IETF-SSR]
              Lamparter, D. and A. Smirnov, "Destination/Source
              Routing", Internet Draft draft-ietf-rtgwg-dst-src-routing,
              May 2017.

   [RFC6126]  Chroboczek, J., "The Babel Routing Protocol
              (Experimental)", RFC 6126, February 2011.

10.2.  Informative References

   [SS-ROUTING]
              Boutier, M. and J. Chroboczek, "Source-Specific Routing",
              August 2014.

              In Proc.  IFIP Networking 2015.  A slightly earlier
              version is available online from http://arxiv.org/
              pdf/1403.0445.

Authors' Addresses

   Matthieu Boutier
   IRIF, University of Paris-Diderot
   Case 7014
   75205 Paris Cedex 13
   France

   Email: boutier@irif.fr


   Juliusz Chroboczek
   IRIF, University of Paris-Diderot
   Case 7014
   75205 Paris Cedex 13
   France

   Email: jch@irif.fr





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