[Docs] [txt|pdf] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: (draft-rosenberg-midcom-turn) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 RFC 5766

Behave                                                      J. Rosenberg
Internet-Draft                                             Cisco Systems
Expires: August 5, 2006                                          R. Mahy
                                                             Plantronics
                                                              C. Huitema
                                                               Microsoft
                                                           February 2006


   Obtaining Relay Addresses from Simple Traversal of UDP Through NAT
                                 (STUN)
                       draft-ietf-behave-turn-01

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
   aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 5, 2006.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

Abstract

   This specification defines a usage of the Simple Traversal of UDP
   Through NAT (STUN) Protocol for asking the STUN server to relay
   packets towards a client.  This usage is useful for elements behind
   NATs whose mapping behavior is address and port dependent.  The



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                 [Page 1]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   extension purposefully restricts the ways in which the relayed
   address can be used.  In particular, it prevents users from running
   general purpose servers from ports obtained from the STUN server.

Table of Contents

   1.   Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.   Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.   Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.   Overview of Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1  Normal Allocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2  Doors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.3  Transports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.4  Tuple Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   5.   Applicability Statement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   6.   Client Discovery of Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.   Server Determination of Usage  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   8.   New Framing Mechanism for Stream-Oriented Transports . . . .  11
   9.   New Requests and Indications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     9.1  Allocate Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       9.1.1  Server Behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       9.1.2  Client Behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     9.2  Set Active Destination Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       9.2.1  Server Behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       9.2.2  Client Behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     9.3  Open Binding Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       9.3.1  Server Behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       9.3.2  Client Behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     9.4  Close Binding Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       9.4.1  Server Behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       9.4.2  Client Behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     9.5  Connection Status Indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     9.6  Send Indication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       9.6.1  Server Behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       9.6.2  Client Behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     9.7  Data Indication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
       9.7.1  Server Behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
       9.7.2  Client Behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   10.  New Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     10.1   LIFETIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     10.2   BANDWIDTH  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     10.3   REMOTE-ADDRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     10.4   DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     10.5   RELAY-ADDRESS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     10.6   REQUESTED-PORT-PROPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     10.7   REQUESTED-TRANSPORT  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     10.8   REQUESTED-IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     10.9   TIMER-VAL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                 [Page 2]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   11.  New Error Response Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   12.  Client Procedures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     12.1   Receiving and Sending Unencapsulated Data  . . . . . . .  34
     12.2   Datagram Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     12.3   Stream Transport Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
   13.  Server Procedures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     13.1   Receiving Data on Allocated Transport Addresses  . . . .  35
       13.1.1   TCP Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       13.1.2   UDP Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
     13.2   Receiving Data on Internal Local Transport Addresses . .  36
     13.3   Lifetime Expiration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   14.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   15.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   16.  IAB Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     16.1   Problem Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     16.2   Exit Strategy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
     16.3   Brittleness Introduced by TURN . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
     16.4   Requirements for a Long Term Solution  . . . . . . . . .  41
     16.5   Issues with Existing NAPT Boxes  . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
   17.  Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
   18.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
   19.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
     19.1   Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
     19.2   Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
        Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
        Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . .  49

























Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                 [Page 3]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


1.  Introduction

   The Simple Traversal of UDP Through NAT (STUN) [1] provides a suite
   of tools for facilitating the traversal of NAT.  Specifically, it
   defines the Binding Request, which is used by a client to determine
   its reflexive transport address towards the STUN server.  The
   reflexive transport address can be used by the client for receiving
   packets from peers, but only when the client is behind "good" NATs.
   In particular, if a client is behind a NAT whose mapping behavior
   [15] is address or address and port dependent (sometimes called "bad"
   NATs), the reflexive transport address will not be usable for
   communicating with a peer.

   The only way to obtain a transport address that can be used for
   corresponding with a peer through such a NAT is to make use of a
   relay.  The relay sits on the public side of the NAT, and allocates
   transport addresses to clients reaching it from behind the private
   side of the NAT.  These allocated addresses are from interfaces on
   the relay.  When the relay receives a packet on one of these
   allocated addresses, the relay forwards it towards the client.

   This specification defines a usage of STUN, called the relay usage,
   that allows a client to request an address on the STUN server itself,
   so that the STUN server acts as a relay.  To accomplish that, this
   usage defines a handful of new STUN requests and indications.  The
   Allocate request is the most fundamental component of this usage.  It
   is used to provide the client with a transport address that is
   relayed through the STUN server.  A transport address which relays
   through an intermediary is called a relayed transport address.

   Though a relayed address is highly likely to work when corresponding
   with a peer, it comes at high cost to the provider of the relay
   service.  As a consequence, relayed transport addresses should only
   be used as a last resort.  Protocols using relayed transport
   addresses should make use of mechanisms to dynamically determine
   whether such an address is actually needed.  One such mechanism,
   defined for multimedia session establishment protocols based on the
   offer/answer protocol [7] is Interactive Connectivity Establishment
   (ICE) [14].

   The mechanism defined here was previously a standalone protocol
   called Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN), and is now defined as a
   usage of STUN.

2.  Terminology

   In this document, the key words MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL,
   SHALL NOT, SHOULD, SHOULD NOT, RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL are to



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                 [Page 4]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [2] and indicate requirement
   levels for compliant TURN implementations.

3.  Definitions

   Relayed Transport Address: A transport address that terminates on a
      server, and is forwarded towards the client.  The STUN Allocate
      Request can be used to obtain a relayed transport address, for
      example.

   STUN relay client: A STUN client that implements this specification.
      It obtains a relayed transport address that it provides to a small
      number of peers (usually one).

   STUN relay server: A STUN server that implements this specification.
      It relays data between a STUN relay client and its peer.

   5-tuple: A combination of the source IP address and port, destination
      IP address and port, and transport protocol (UDP, TCP, or TLS over
      TCP).  It uniquely identifies a TCP connection, TLS channel, or
      bi-directional flow of UDP datagrams.


4.  Overview of Operation

   In a typical configuration, a STUN relay client is connected to a
   private network and through one or more NATs to the public Internet.
   On the public Internet is a STUN relay server.  The STUN Relay usage
   defines several new messages and a new framing mechanism that add the
   ability for a STUN server to act as a packet relay.  The text in this
   section explains the typical usage of this relay extension.

4.1  Normal Allocations

   The client sends an Allocate request to the server, which the server
   authenticates.  The server generates an Allocate response with the
   allocated address port and and target transport.

   A successful Allocate Request just reserves an address on the STUN
   relay server.  Except for allocations with "doors" (described later
   in this section), data does not flow through an allocated port until
   the STUN relay client asks the STUN relay server to open a binding,
   either by sending data to the far end with a Send Indication, or by
   explicitly issuing an OpenBinding Request.  This insures that a
   client can't use a STUN relay server to run a traditional server and
   partially protects the client from DoS attacks.

   Once a binding is open, the client can then receive data flowing back



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                 [Page 5]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   from its peer.  Initially this data is wrapped in a STUN Data
   Indication.  Since multiple bindings can be open simultaneously, the
   Data Indication contains the Remote Address attribute so the STUN
   relay client knows which peer sent the data.  The client can send
   data to any of its peers with the Send Indication.

   Once the client wants to primarily receive from one peer, it can send
   a SetDestination request.  All subsequent data received from the
   active peer is forwarded directly to the client and vice versa,
   except that it is wrapped or framed according to the protocol used
   between the STUN relay client and STUN relay server.

   When the STUN relay client to server protocol is a datagram protocol
   (UDP), any datagram received from the active peer that has the STUN
   magic cookie is wrapped in a Data Indication.  Likewise any datagram
   sent by the client that has the STUN magic cookie and is intended for
   the active peer is wrapped in a Send Indication.  This wrapping
   prevents the STUN relay server from inappropriately interpreting end-
   to-end data.

   Over stream-based transports (TCP and TLS over TLS), once there is an
   active destination set, the STUN relay client and server need to use
   some additional framing so that end-to-end data is distinguishable
   from STUN control messages.  This additional framing just has a type
   and a length field.  The value of the type field was chosen so it is
   always distinguishable from an unframed STUN request or response.

   The SetDestination Request does not close other bindings.  Data to
   and from other peers is still wrapped in Send and Data indications
   respectively.  If the client does not want to receive data from a
   peer, it can also explicitly squelch data from a specific peer by
   sending a CloseBinding request.  A CloseBinding request leaves the
   port allocated, so it can be reused.  A CloseBinding request which
   deletes the active destination, also unsets the active destination.

   Allocations can also request specific attributes such as the desired
   Lifetime of the allocation, and the maximum Bandwidth.  Clients can
   also request specific port assignment behavior.  For example, a
   specific port number, odd or even port numbers, pairs of sequential
   port numbers.  Allocations can also request the "door" property.

4.2  Doors

   Sometimes the client does not have a valid address for its peer to
   provide to a STUN relay server to open a binding.  This is often the
   case when the client and the peer want to establish a TCP connection,
   but both are behind a NAT or firewall and they cannot perform TCP
   simultaneous open.  (This is also the case for example if the peer is



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                 [Page 6]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   behind an address or address and port dependent NAT.)  To address
   this shortcoming, the client can ask the STUN relay server to
   Allocate an address with the "door" property, which accepts data only
   from the first node to send the allocated address a UDP datagram or a
   TCP SYN (depending on the allocated transport).  Once a node has sent
   to the allocated address, the STUN relay server opens the appropriate
   binding, and the door "closes".  Data can flow over the established
   bindings, but subsequent new datagrams or connections do not cause
   the server to create any more new bindings.  Clients are not allowed
   to request both a specific port number and the door property for a
   single allocation, so that clients cannot run a traditional server
   using a STUN relay.

   Like any other open binding, data from the peer (including an initial
   datagram which forms a new binding) is wrapped in a Data Indication
   until the client sends a SetDestination request.

4.3  Transports

   STUN relay clients can communicate with a STUN relay server using
   UDP, TCP, or TLS over TCP.  A STUN relay can even relay traffic
   between two different transports with certain restrictions.  A STUN
   relay can never relay from an unreliable transport (client to server)
   to a reliable transport to the peer.  Note that a STUN relay server
   never has a TLS relationship with a client's peer, since the STUN
   relay server does not interpret data above the TCP layer.  When
   relaying data sent from a stream-based protocol to a UDP peer, the
   STUN relay server emits datagrams which the same length as the length
   field in the STUN TCP framing or the length field in Send Indication.
   Likewise, when a UDP datagram is relayed from a peer over a stream-
   based transport, the length of the datagram is the length of the TCP
   framing or Data Indication.

             +----------------------+--------------------+
             | client to STUN relay | STUN relay to peer |
             +----------------------+--------------------+
             | UDP                  | UDP                |
             | TCP                  | TCP                |
             | TCP                  | UDP                |
             | TLS                  | TCP                |
             | TLS                  | UDP                |
             +----------------------+--------------------+

   For STUN relay clients, using TLS over TCP provides two benefits.
   When using TLS, the client can be assured that the address of the
   client's peers are not visible to an attacker except by traffic
   analysis downstream of the STUN relay server.  Second, the client may
   be able communicate with STUN relay servers using TLS that it would



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                 [Page 7]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   not be able to communicate with using TCP or UDP due to the
   configuration of a firewall between the STUN relay client and its
   server.  TLS between the client and STUN relay server in this case
   just facilitates traversal.

   When the STUN relay to peer leg is TCP, the STUN relay client needs
   to be aware of the status of these TCP connections.  The STUN relay
   extension defines application states for a TCP connection as follows:
   LISTEN, ESTABLISHED, CLOSED.  Consequently, the STUN relay server
   sends a ConnectionState Indication for a binding whenever the relay
   connection status changes for one of the client's bindings except
   when the status changes due to a STUN relay client request (ex: an
   explicit binding close or deallocation).

4.4  Tuple Terminology

   To relay data to and from the correct location, the STUN relay server
   maintains a binding between an internal address (called a 5-tuple)
   and one or more external 5-tuples, as shown in Figure 1.  The
   internal 5-tuple identifies the path between the STUN relay client
   and the STUN relay server.  It consists of the protocol (UDP, TCP, or
   TLS over TCP), the internal local IP address and port number and the
   source IP address and port number of the STUN client, as seen by the
   relay server.  For example, for UDP, the internal 5-tuple is the
   combination of the IP address and port from which the STUN client
   sent its Allocate Request, with the IP address and port to which that
   Allocate Request was sent.

   The external local transport address is the IP address and port
   allocated to the STUN relay client (the allocated transport address).
   The external 5-tuple is the combination of the external local
   transport address and the IP address and port of an external client
   that the STUN client is communicating with through the STUN server.
   Initially, there aren't any external 5-tuples, since the STUN client
   hasn't communicated with any other hosts yet.  As packets are
   received on or sent from the allocated transport address, external
   5-tuples are created.

      While the terminology used in this document refers to 5-tuples,
      the STUN relay server can store whatever identifier it likes that
      yields identical results.  Specifically, many implementations may
      use a file-descriptor in place of a 5-tuple to represent a TCP
      connection.








Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                 [Page 8]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


                                                             +---------+
                                                             |         |
                                                             | External|
                                                           / | Client  |
                                                         //  |         |
                                                        /    |         |
                                                      //     +---------+
                                                     /
                                                   //
                   +-+                            /
                   | |                           /
                   | |                         //
    +---------+    | |          +---------+   /              +---------+
    |         |    |N|          |         | //               |         |
    | STUN    |    | |          |         |/                 | External|
    | Client  |----|A|----------|   STUN  |------------------| Client  |
    |         |    | |^        ^|  Server |^                ^|         |
    |         |    |T||        ||         ||                ||         |
    +---------+    | ||        |+---------+|                |+---------+
       ^           | ||        |           |                |
       |           | ||        |           |                |
       |           +-+|        |           |                |
       |              |        |           |                |
       |
                    Internal     Internal    External         External
     Client         Remote       Local       Local            Remote
     Performing     Transport    Transport   Transport        Transport
     Allocations    Address      Address     Address          Address

                       |          |            |                |
                       +-----+----+            +--------+-------+
                             |                          |
                             |                          |

                          Internal                  External
                          5-Tuple                   5-tuple

                                 Figure 1


5.  Applicability Statement

   STUN requires all usages to define the applicability of the usage
   [1].  This section contains that information for the relay usage.

   The relayed transport address obtained from the Allocate request has
   specific properties which limit its applicability.  The transport
   address will only be useful for applications that require a client to



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                 [Page 9]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   place a transport address into a protocol message, with the
   expectation that the client will be able to receive packets from a
   small number of hosts (typically one).  Data from the peer is only
   relayed to the client after the client sends packets towards the
   peer, or for the first peer to send to an open door.  Furthermore, a
   client can only request an allocation of a door once, since
   requesting a specific port number and a door simultaneously is
   invalid.  Because of these limitations, relayed transport addresses
   obtained from an Allocate request are only useful when combined with
   rendezvous protocols of some sort, which allow the client to discover
   the addresses of the hosts it will be corresponding with.  Examples
   of such protocols include the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) [6].

   This limitation is purposeful.  Relayed transport addresses obtained
   from the Allocate request can not be used to run general purpose
   servers, such as a web or email server.  This means that the relay
   usage can be safely permitted to pass through NATs and firewalls
   without fear of compromising the purpose of having them there in the
   first place.  Indeed, a relayed transport address obtained from TURN
   has many of the properties of a transport address obtained from a NAT
   whose filtering policies are address dependent, but whose mapping
   properties are endpoint independent [15], and thus "good" NATs.
   Indeed, to some degree, the relay turns a bad NAT into a good NAT by,
   quite ironically, adding another NAT function - the relay itself.

6.  Client Discovery of Server

   STUN requires all usages to define the mechanism by which a client
   discovers the server [1].  This section contains that information for
   the relay usage.

   The relay usage differs from the other usages defined in [1] in that
   it demands substantial resources from the STUN server.  In addition,
   it seems likely that administrators might want to block connections
   from clients to the STUN server for relaying separated from
   connections for the purposes of binding discovery.  As a consequence,
   the relay usage is defined to run on a separate port from other
   usages.  The client discovers the address and port of the STUN server
   for the relay usage using the same DNS procedures defined in [1], but
   using an SRV service name of "stun-relay" instead of just "stun".

   For example, to find STUN relay servers in the example.com domain,
   the STUN relay client performs a lookup for '_stun-
   relay._udp.example.com', '_stun-relay._tcp.example.com', and '_stun-
   relay-tls._tcp.example.com' if the STUN client wants to communicate
   with the STUN relay server using UDP, TCP, or TLS over TCP,
   respectively.  The client assumes that all permissable transport
   protocols are supported from the STUN relay server to the peer for



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 10]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   the client to server protocol selected.

7.  Server Determination of Usage

   STUN requires all usages to define the mechanism by which the server
   determines the usage [1].  This section contains that information for
   the relay usage.

   The relay usage is defined by a specific set of requests and
   indications.  As a consequence, the server knows that this usage in
   being used because those request and indications were used.

8.  New Framing Mechanism for Stream-Oriented Transports

   Over stream-based transports, the STUN relay client and server need
   to use some additional framing so that end-to-end data is
   distinguishable from STUN control messages, and so that the relay
   server can perform conversion from streams to datagrams and vice
   versa.  This additional framing has a one octet type, one reserved
   octet, and a 2 octet length field.  The first octet of this framing
   is 0x02 to indicate STUN messages or 0x03 to indicate end-to-end data
   to or from the active destination.  Note that the first octet is
   always distinguishable from an unframed STUN request or response
   (which is always 0x00 or 0x01).  The second octet is reserved and
   MUST be set to zero.  The length field counts the number of octets
   immediately after the length field itself.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |  Reserved = 0 |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   This framing is only used after an active destination is set.  Use of
   this framing mechanism is discussed in Section 12 and Section 13.

9.  New Requests and Indications

   This usage defines four new requests (along with their success and
   error responses) and three indications.  It also defines processing
   rules for the STUN server and client on receipt of non-STUN messages.
   See Section 12 and Section 13

   The new messages are:







Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 11]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   0x0003  :  Allocate Request
   0x0103  :  Allocate Response
   0x0113  :  Allocate Error Response
   0x0004  :  Send Indication
   0x0115  :  Data Indication
   0x0006  :  Set Active Destination Request
   0x0106  :  Set Active Destination Response
   0x0116  :  Set Active Destination Error Response
   0x0117  :  Connect Status Indication
   0x0008  :  Open Binding Request
   0x0108  :  Open Binding Response
   0x0118  :  Open Binding Error Response
   0x0009  :  Close Binding Request
   0x0109  :  Close Binding Response
   0x0119  :  Close Binding Error Response

   In addition to STUN Requests and Responses, STUN relay clients and
   servers send and receive non-STUN packets on the same ports used for
   STUN messages.  How these entities distinguish STUN and non-STUN
   traffic is discussed in Section 12 and Section 13.

9.1  Allocate Request

9.1.1  Server Behavior

   The server first processes the request according to the general
   request processing rules in [1].  This includes performing
   authentication and checking for mandatory unknown attributes.  Due to
   the fact that the STUN server is allocating resources for processing
   the request, Allocate requests MUST be authenticated, and
   furthermore, MUST be authenticated using either a shared secret known
   between the client and server, or a short term password derived from
   it.

      Note that Allocate requests, like all other STUN requests, can be
      sent to the STUN server over UDP, TCP, or TCP/TLS.

   The behavior of the server when receiving an Allocate Request depends
   on whether the request is an initial one, or a subsequent one.  An
   initial request is one whose source and destination transport address
   do not match the internal remote and local transport addresses of an
   existing internal 5-tuple.  A subsequent request is one whose source
   and destination transport address matches the internal remote and
   local transport address of an existing internal 5-tuple.

9.1.1.1  Initial Requests

   [[TODO: First add short summary of what are we trying to do here]]



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 12]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   The server attempts to allocate transport addresses.  It first looks
   for the BANDWIDTH attribute for the request.  If present, the server
   determines whether or not it has sufficient capacity to handle a
   binding that will generate the requested bandwidth.

   If it does, the server attempts to allocate a transport address for
   the client.  The Allocate request can contain several additional
   attributes that allow the client to request specific characteristics
   of the transport address.  First, the server checks for the
   REQUESTED-TRANSPORT attribute.  This indicates the transport protocol
   requested by the client.  This specification defines values for UDP
   and TCP.  The server MUST allocate a port using the requested
   transport protocol.  If the REQUESTED-TRANSPORT attribute contains a
   value of the transport protocol unknown to the server, or known to
   the server but not supported by the server in the context of this
   request, the server MUST reject the request and include a 442
   (Unsupported Transport Protocol) in the response, or else redirect
   the request.  [[OPEN ISSUE: Should we include a list of supported
   ones?  Is this really an issue?  If its just ever TCP and UDP its not
   needed.  Can always add it later, as the hooks are here.  Proposal:
   Do not incldue a list of supported transports.]].  If the request did
   not contain a REQUESTED-TRANSPORT attribute, the server MUST use the
   same transport protocol as the request arrived on.

   As a consequence of the REQUESTED-TRANSPORT attribute, it is possible
   for a client to connect to the server over TCP or TLS over TCP and
   request a UDP transport address.  In this case, the server will relay
   data between the transports.

   Next, the server checks for the REQUESTED-IP attribute.  If present,
   it indicates a specific interface from which the client would like
   its transport address allocated.  If this interface is not a valid
   one for allocations on the server, the server MUST reject the request
   and include a 443 (Invalid IP Address) error code in the response, or
   else redirect the request to a server that is known to support this
   IP address.  If the IP address is one that is valid for allocations
   (presumably, the server is configured to know the set of IP addresses
   from which it performs allocations), the server MUST provide an
   allocation from that IP address.  If the attribute is not present,
   the selection of an IP address is at the discretion of the server.

   Finally, the server checks for the REQUESTED-PORT-PROPS attribute.
   If present, it indicates specific port properties desired by the
   client.  This attribute is split into two portions: one portion for
   port behavior and the other for requested port alignment (whether the
   allocated port is odd, even, reserved as a pair, or at the discretion
   of the server).




Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 13]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   If the port behavior requested is for a Specific Port, the server
   MUST attempt to allocate that specific port for the client.  If the
   port is allocated to a different internal 5-tuple associated with the
   same STUN long-term credentials, the client is requesting a move.
   The server SHOULD replace the old internal 5-tuple with the new one
   over which this Allocate request arrived.  The server MUST reject the
   move request if any of the attributes other than LIFETIME have
   changed (BANDWIDTH, REQUESTED_TRANSPORT, etc.).

   If the specific port is not available (in use or reserved), the
   server MUST reject the request with a 444 (Invalid Port) response or
   redirect to an alternate server.  For example, the STUN server could
   reject a request for a Specific Port because the port is temporarily
   reserved as part of an adjacent pair of ports, or because the
   requested port is a well-known port (1-1023).

   If the port behavior requested is for a Door, the server opens the
   allocated port for receiving so that the first incoming datagram (for
   UDP allocations) or connection request (for TCP allocations) creates
   a new binding and then "closes" so that datagrams or connection
   request from other addresses are silently dropped.  Requests for a
   port with door behavior can still include port alignment requests
   which MUST still be honored.  Requests for a port with the door
   property MUST NOT be allocated from the well-known port range
   (1-1023).

   If the client requests even port alignment, the server MUST attempt
   to allocate an even port for the client.  If an even port cannot be
   obtained, the server MUST reject the request with a 444 (Invalid
   Port) response or redirect to an alternate server.  If the client
   request odd port alignment, the server MUST attempt to allocate an
   odd port for the client.  If an odd port cannot be obtained, the
   server MUST reject the request with a 444 (Invalid Port) response or
   redirect to an alternate server.  Finally, the Even port with hold of
   the next higher port is similar to Even port.  It is a request for an
   even port, and MUST be rejected by the server if an even port cannot
   be provided, or redirected to an alternate server.  However, it is
   also a hint from the client that the client will request the next
   higher port with a separate Allocate request.  As such, it is a
   request for the server to allocate an even port whose next higher
   port is also available, and furthermore, a request for the server to
   not allocate that one higher port to any other request except for one
   that asks for that port explicitly.  The server can honor this
   request for adjacency at its discretion.  The only constraint is that
   the allocated port has to be even.






Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 14]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


      Port alignment requests exist for compatibility with
      implementations of RTP which pre-date RFC 3550.  These
      implementations use the port numbering conventions in (now
      obsolete) RFC 1889.

   If any of the requested or desired constraints cannot be met, whether
   it be bandwidth, transport protocol, IP address or port, instead of
   rejecting the request, the server can alternately redirect the client
   to a different server that may be able to fulfill the request.  This
   is accomplished using the 300 error response and ALTERNATE-SERVER
   attribute.

   The server SHOULD only allocate ports in the range 1024-65535.  This
   is one of several ways to prohibit relayed transport addresses from
   being used to attempt to run standard services.  These guidelines are
   meant to be consistent with [15], since the relay is effectively a
   NAT.

   Once the port is allocated, the server associates it with the
   internal 5-tuple and fills in that 5-tuple.  The internal remote
   transport address of the internal 5-tuple is set to the source
   transport address of the Allocate Request.  The internal local
   transport address of the internal 5-tuple is set to the destination
   transport address of the Allocate Request.  For TCP, this amounts to
   associating the TCP connection from the TURN client with the
   allocated transport address.

   If the Allocate request was authenticated using a shared secret
   between the client and server, this credential MUST be associated
   with the allocation.  If the request was authenticated using a short
   term password derived from a shared secret, that shared secret MUST
   be associated with the allocation.  This is used in subsequent
   Allocate requests to ensure that only the same client can refresh or
   modify the characteristics of the allocation it was given.

   The allocation created by the Allocate request is also associated
   with a transport address, called the active destination.  This
   transport address is used for forwarding data through the TURN
   server, and is described in more detail later.  It is initially set
   to null when the allocation is created.  In addition, the allocation
   created by the server is associated with a set of permissions.  Each
   permission is a specific IP address identifying an external client.
   Initially, this list is null.  Send Indications, Connect requests and
   Set Active Destination requests add values to this list.

   If the LIFETIME attribute was present in the request, and the value
   is larger than the maximum duration the server is willing to use for
   the lifetime of the allocation, the server MAY lower it to that



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 15]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   maximum.  However, the server MUST NOT increase the duration
   requested in the LIFETIME attribute.  If there was no LIFETIME
   attribute, the server may choose a default duration at its
   discretion.  In either case, the resulting duration is added to the
   current time, and a timer, called the allocation expiration timer, is
   set to fire at or after that time.  Section 13.3 discusses behavior
   when the timer fires.  Note that the LIFETIME attribute in the
   request can be zero.  This typically happens for subsequent
   Allocations, and provides a mechanism to delete the allocation.  It
   will force the immediate deleting of the allocation.

   Once the port has been obtained from the operating system and the
   activity timer started for the port binding, the server generates an
   Allocate Response using the general procedures defined in [1].  The
   transport address allocated to the client MUST be included in the
   RELAY-ADDRESS attribute in the response.  In addition, this response
   MUST contain the XOR-MAPPED-ADDRESS attribute.  This allows the
   client to determine its reflexive transport address in addition to a
   relayed transport address, from the same Allocate request.

   The server MUST add a LIFETIME attribute to the Allocate Response.
   This attribute contains the duration, in seconds, of the allocation
   expiration timer associated with this allocation.

   The server MUST add a BANDWIDTH attribute to the Allocate Response.
   This MUST be equal to the attribute from the request, if one was
   present.  Otherwise, it indicates a per-binding cap that the server
   is placing on the bandwidth usage on each binding.  Such caps are
   needed to prevent against denial-of-service attacks (See Section 14.

   The server MUST add, as the final attribute of the request, a
   MESSAGE-INTEGRITY attribute.  The key used in the HMAC MUST be the
   same as that used to validate the request.

   If the allocated port was for TCP, the server MUST be prepared to
   receive a TCP connection request on that port.

9.1.1.2  Subsequent Requests

   A subsequent Allocate request is one received whose source and
   destination IP address and ports match the internal 5-tuple of an
   existing allocation.  The request is processed using the general
   server procedures in [1] and is processed identically to
   Section 9.1.1.1, with a few important exceptions.

   First, the request MUST be authenticated using the same shared secret
   as the one associated with the allocation, or be authenticated using
   a short term password derived from that shared secret.  If the



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 16]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   request was authenticated but not with such a matching credential,
   the server MUST generate an Allocate Error Response with a 441
   response code.

   Secondly, if the allocated transport address given out previously to
   the client still matches the constraints in the request (in terms of
   request ports, IP addresses and transport protocols), the same
   allocation granted previously MUST be returned.  However, if one of
   the constraints is not met any longer, because the client changed
   some aspect of the request, the server MUST free the previous
   allocation and allocate a new request to the client.  Note that a
   subsequent Allocate request cannot request an allocation with door
   properties if the allocation is associated with any external
   5-tuples.

   Finally, a subsequent Allocate request will set a new allocation
   expiration timer for the allocation, effectively canceling the
   previous lifetime expiration timer.

9.1.2  Client Behavior

   Client behavior for Allocate requests depends on whether the request
   is an initial one, for the purposes of obtaining a new relayed
   transport address, or a subsequent one, used for refreshing an
   existing allocation.

9.1.2.1  Initial Requests

   When a client wishes to obtain a transport address, it sends an
   Allocate Request to the server.  This request is constructed and sent
   using the general procedures defined in [1].  The server will
   challenge the request for credentials.  The client MAY either provide
   its credentials to the server directly, or it MAY obtain a short-term
   set of credentials using the Shared Secret request and then use those
   as the credentials in the Allocate request.

   The client SHOULD include a BANDWIDTH attribute, which indicates the
   maximum bandwidth that will be used with this binding.  If the
   maximum is unknown, the attribute is not included in the request.

   The client MAY request a particular lifetime for the allocation by
   including it in the LIFETIME attribute in the request.

   The client MAY include a REQUESTED-PORT-PROPS, REQUESTED-TRANSPORT,
   or REQUESTED-IP attribute in the request to obtain specific types of
   transport addresses.  Whether these are needed depends on the
   application using the relay usage.  As an example, the Real Time
   Transport Protocol (RTP) [5] requires that RTP and RTCP ports be an



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 17]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   adajacent pair, even and odd respectively, for compatibility with a
   previous version of that specification.  The REQUESTED-PORT attribute
   allows the client to ask the relay for those properties.  The client
   MUST NOT request TCP transport in an Allocate request sent to the
   STUN relay server over UDP.

   The client MAY ask for a port with the door property.  Since the door
   only creates a binding for the first datagram or connection request
   it receives, a client needs to use this feature judiciously.  For
   example, a client is most likely to use this feature if wants to
   establish a TCP connection to its peer, where both the client and the
   peer are behind a NAT or firewall that only allows outgoing TCP
   connections.  While the client may be able to communicate with its
   peer using TCP simultaneous open, simultaneous open requires rather
   sophisticated behavior on the client, the peer, and both NATs or
   firewalls to work.

   Processing of the response follows the general procedures of [1].  A
   successful response will include both a RELAY-ADDRESS and an XOR-
   MAPPED-ADDRESS attribute, providing both a relayed transport address
   and a reflexive transport address, respectively, to the client.  The
   server will expire the allocation after LIFETIME seconds have passed
   if not refreshed by another Allocate request.  The server will allow
   the user to send and receive no more than the amount of data
   indicated in the BANDWIDTH attribute.

   If the response is an error response and contains a 442, 443 or 444
   error code, the client knows that its requested properties could not
   be met.  The client MAY retry with different properties, with the
   same properties (in a hope that something has changed on the server),
   or give up, depending on the needs of the application.  However, if
   the client retries, it SHOULD wait 500ms, and if the request fails
   again, wait 1 second, then 2 seconds, and so on, exponentially
   backing off.

9.1.2.2  Subsequent Requests

   Before 3/4 of the lifetime of the allocation has passed (the lifetime
   of the allocation is conveyed in the LIFETIME attribute of the
   Allocate Response), the client SHOULD refresh the allocation with
   another Allocate Request if it wishes to keep the allocation.

   To perform a refresh, the client generates an Allocate Request as
   described in Section 9.1.2.1.  If the initial request was
   authenticated with a shared secret P that the client holds with the
   server, or using a short term password derived from P through a
   Shared Secret request, the client MUST use shared secret P, or a
   short-term password derived from it, in the subsequent request.



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 18]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   In a successful response, the RELAY-ADDRESS contains the same
   transport address as previously obtained, indicating that the binding
   has been refreshed.  The LIFETIME attribute indicates the amount of
   additional time the binding will live without being refreshed.  Note
   that an error response does not imply that the binding has been
   expired, just that the refresh has failed.

   If a client no longer needs a binding, it SHOULD tear it down.  If
   the client wishes to explicitly remove the allocation because it no
   longer needs it, it generates a subsequent Allocate request, but sets
   the LIFETIME attribute to zero.  This will cause the server to remove
   the allocation.  For TCP, the client can also remove the binding by
   closing connection with the STUN relay server.

9.2  Set Active Destination Request

9.2.1  Server Behavior

   The Set Active Destination Request is used by a client to set an
   existing external binding that will be used as the forwarding
   destination of all data that is not encapsulated in STUN Send
   Indications.  In addition, all data received from that external
   client will be forwarded to the STUN client without encapsulation in
   a Data Indication.

   Once the server has identified a request as a Set Active Destination
   request, the server verifies that it has arrived with a source and
   destination transport address that matches the internal remote and
   local transport address of an internal 5-tuple associated with an
   existing allocation.  If there is no matching allocation, the server
   MUST generate a 437 (No Binding) Send Error Response.

   The request MUST be authenticated using the same shared secret as the
   one associated with the allocation, or be authenticated using a short
   term password derived from that shared secret.  If the request was
   authenticated but not with such a matching credential, the server
   MUST generate an error response with a 441 response code.

   [[OPEN ISSUE: Can we eliminate the whole race condition, by requiring
   the client to close the binding and wait 5 seconds (with no server
   verification of this requirement) before issuing a new Set Active
   Destination request?  Proposed text follows:]]  If an active
   destination is already set, the Set Active Destination request is
   rejected with a 439 Active Destination Already Set error response.

   If the Set Active Destination request contains a REMOTE-ADDRESS
   attribute, the IP address contained within it is added to the
   permissions for this allocation, if it was not already present.



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 19]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   [[OPEN ISSUE: When do you ever want to set active for a destination
   you have never sent to?]]

   Unfortunately, there is a race condition associated with the active
   destination concept.  Consider the case where the active destination
   is set, and the server is relaying packets towards the client.  The
   client knows the IP address and port where the packets came from -
   the current value of the active destination.  The client issues a Set
   Active Destination Request to change the active destination, and
   receives a response.  A moment later, a data packet is received, not
   encapsulated in a STUN Data Indication.  What is the source if this
   packet?  Is it the active destination that existed prior to the Set
   Active Destination request, or the one after?  If the transport
   between the client and the STUN server is not reliable, there is no
   way to know.

   To deal with this problem, a small state machine is used to force a
   "cooldown" period during which the server will not relay packets
   towards the client without encapsulating them.  This cooldown period
   gives enough time for the client to be certain that any old data
   packets have left the network.  Once the cooldown period ends, the
   server can begin relaying packets without encapsulation.  There is an
   instance of this state machine for each allocation.




























Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 20]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


                +-----+
                |     | Req Recvd, DA absent
                |     |
                |     |
                |     |
                |     V
             +-----------+
             |           |                    timer fires
             |           |                    -----------
             |  None     |                    active=null
             |   Set     |<--------------------------------+
             |           |                                 |
             |           |                                 |
             +-----------+                                 |
                   |                                       |   Req Recvd
                   |                                       |   ---------
                   | Req Recvd, DA present                 |   439
                   | ----------------------                |  +----+
                   | active = DA                           |  |    |
                   |                                       |  |    |
                   |                                       |  |    |
                   V         Req Recvd,                    |  |    V
             +-----------+   DA!=active,absent           +-----------+
             |           |   -----------------           |           |
             |           |   Set timer                   |           |
             |  Set      |------------------------------>|  Trans-   |
             |           |                               |  itioning |
             |           |<------------------------------|           |
             |           |                 timer fires   |           |
             +-----------+                 -----------   +-----------+
                |     ^                    active=DA
                |     |
                |     |
                |     |
                +-----+
                 Req Recvd, DA=active


                                 Figure 4

   When the allocation is originally created, the active destination is
   null, and the server sets the state to "None Set".  In this state,
   the server will relay all received packets in encapsulated form
   towards the client.  If the server receives a Set Active Destination
   request, but the request contained no REMOTE-ADDRESS attribute, the
   state machine stays in the same state.  The request is responded to
   with a Set Active Destination Response.  If, however, the Set Active
   Destination request contained a REMOTE-ADDRESS, the server sets the



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 21]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   active destination to the transport address from the REMOTE-ADDRESS
   attribute, and enters the "Set" state.  The request is responded to
   with a Set Active Destination Response.  In this state, the server
   will relay packets from that transport address towards the client in
   unencapsulated form.

   If the server receives another Set Active Destination request while
   in this state, and the REMOTE-ADDRESS is present, but has a value
   equal to the current active destination, the request causes no
   change.  The request is responded to with a Set Active Destination
   Response.  If, however, the request contained a REMOTE-ADDRESS which
   did not match the existing active destination, or omitted the active
   destination, the server enters the "transitioning" state.  The
   request is responded to with a Set Active Destination Response.  In
   this state, the server will forward all packets to the client in
   encapsulated form.  In addition, when this state is entered, the
   client sets a timer to fire in Ta seconds.  If the connection between
   the client and server is unreliable, this timer SHOULD be
   configurable.  It is RECOMMENDED that it be set to three seconds.  If
   the connection between the client and server is reliable, the timer
   SHOULD be set to 0 seconds, causing it to fire immediately.  This
   makes the transitioning state transient for reliable transports.  The
   value of the timer used by the server, regardless of the transport
   protocol, MUST be included in a TIMER-VAL attribute in the Set Active
   Destination response.

   If, while in the "transitioning" state, the server receives a Set
   Active Destination Request, it generates a Set Active Destination
   Error Response that includes a 439 (Transitioning) response code.
   Once the timer fires, the server transitions to the "Set" state if
   the Set Active Destination request that caused the server to enter
   "transitioning" had contained the REMOTE-ADDRESS.  In this case, the
   active destination is set to this transport address.  If the Set
   Active Destination request had not contained a REMOTE-ADDRESS
   attribute, the server enters the "Not Set" state and sets the active
   destination to null.

9.2.2  Client Behavior

   The Set Active Destination address allows the client to create an
   optimized relay function between it and the server.  When the server
   receives packets from a particular preferred external client, the
   server will forward those packets towards the client without
   encapsulating them in a Data Indication.  Similarly, the client can
   send non-STUN packets to the server without encapsulation, and these
   are forwarded to the external client.  Sending and receiving data in
   unencapsulated form is critical for efficiency purposes.  One of the
   primary use cases for the STUN relay usage is in support of Voice



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 22]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   over IP (VoIP), which uses very small UDP packets to begin with.  The
   extra overhead of an additional layer of encapsulation is considered
   unacceptable.

   The Set Active Destination request is used by the client to provide
   the identity of this preferred external client.  The request also has
   the side effect of adding a permission for the target of the REMOTE-
   ADDRESS.  [[OPEN ISSUE: is this necessary?]]

   The Set Active Destination address MAY contain a REMOTE-ADDRESS
   attribute.  This attribute, when present, provides the address of the
   preferred external client to the server.  When absent, it clears the
   value of the preferred external client.

   [[OPEN ISSUE: Proposed wording to eliminate the Set Active
   Destination transitioning state machine follows.]]  The client MUST
   NOT send a Set Active Destination request with a REMOTE-ADDRESS
   attribute over an unreliable link (ex: UDP) if an active destination
   is already set for that allocation.  If the client wishes to set a
   new active destination, it MUST wait until 5 seconds after a
   successful response is received to a Set Destination Request removing
   the active destination.  Failure to wait could cause the client to
   receive and attribute late data forwarded by the STUN relay server to
   the wrong peer.

   In order for the client to know where incoming non-STUN packets were
   sent from, and to be sure where non-STUN packets sent to the server
   will go to, it is necessary to coordinate the value of the active
   destination between the client and the server.  As discussed above,
   there is a race condition involved in this coordination which
   requires a state machine to execute on both the client and the
   server.



















Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 23]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


                +-----+
                |     |  OK Recvd, DA absent
                |     |
                |     |
                |     |
                |     V
             +-----------+
    439 Recvd|           |                    timer fires
      +------|           |                    -----------
      |      |  None     |                    active=null
      |      |   Set     |<--------------------------------+
      +----->|           |                                 |
             |           |                                 |
             +-----------+                                 |
                   |                                       |
                   |                                       |
                   |  OK Recvd, DA present                 |
                   | ----------------------                |
                   |  active = DA                          |
                   |                                       |
                   |                                       |
                   V          OK Recvd,                    |
             +-----------+    DA!=active,absent          +-----------+
             |           |    -----------------          |           |
             |           |    Set timer                  |           |
             |  Set      |------------------------------>|  Trans-   |
             |           |                               |  itioning |
             |           |<------------------------------|           |
             |           |                 timer fires   |           |
             +-----------+                 -----------   +-----------+
                |     ^                    active=DA
                |     |
                |     |
                |     |
                +-----+
                 439 Recvd,
                  OK Recvd, DA=active


                                 Figure 5

   The state machine is shown in Figure 5.  The client starts in the
   "None Set" state.  When the client is in either the "None Set" or
   "Set" state, it can send Set Active Destination requests.  The
   transitions in the state machines are governed by responses to those
   requests.  Only success and 439 responses cause changes in state.  A
   437 response implies that the allocation has been removed, and thus
   the state machine destroyed.  A client MUST NOT send a new Set Active



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 24]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   Destination request prior to the receipt of a response to the
   previous.  The state machine will further limit the transmission of
   subsequent Set Active Destination requests.

   If, while in the "None Set" state, the client sent a Set Active
   Destination request without a REMOTE-ADDRESS, and got a successful
   response, there is no change in state.  If a successful response was
   received, but there was a REMOTE-ADDRESS in the request, the state
   machine transitions to the "Set" state, and the client sets the
   active destination to the value of the REMOTE-ADDRESS attribute that
   was in the request.

   If, while in the "Set" state, the client sends a Set Active
   Destination request and received a 439 response, it means that there
   was a temporal misalignment in the states between client and server.
   The client thought that the active destination was updated on the
   server, but the server was still in its transitioning state.  When
   this error is received, the client remains in the "Set" state.  The
   client SHOULD retry its Set Active Destination request, but no sooner
   than 500ms after receipt of the 439 response.  In addition, if, while
   in the "Set" state, the client sends a Set Active Destination request
   whose REMOTE-ADDRESS attribute equals the current active destination,
   and that request generates a success response, the client remains in
   the "Set" state.

   However, if, while in the "Set" state, the client sends a Set Active
   Destination request whose REMOTE-ADDRESS was either absent or not
   equal to the current active destination, and receives a success
   response, the client enters the "Transitioning" state.  While in this
   state, the client MUST NOT send a new Set Active Destination request.
   The value of the active destination remains unchanged.  In addition,
   the client sets a timer.  This timer MUST have a value equal to the
   value of the TIMER-VAL attribute from the Set Active Destination
   response.  This is necessary for coordinating the state machines
   between client and server.

   Once the timer fires, if the REMOTE-ADDRESS was not absent from the
   Set Active Destination request which caused the client to start the
   timer, the client moves back to the "Set" state, and then updates the
   value of the active destination to the value of REMOTE-ADDRESS.  If
   REMOTE-ADDRESS was absent, the client sets the active destination to
   null and enders the "None Set" state.

9.3  Open Binding Request

   The Open Binding Request is used to create a binding between an
   internal 5-tuple and an external 5-tuple, without actually sending
   any data to the peer.  It is included for completeness, but could be



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 25]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   used to open bindings for multiple TCP peers that are capable of TCP
   simultaneous open.  [[OPEN ISSUE: do we want to include an explicit
   Open Binding request or not?]]

9.3.1  Server Behavior

   When the server receives an Open Binding request, it verifies that
   the requester authenticated and used the same credentials as used in
   the corresponding Allocate request.  The server looks for a binding
   with an external 5-tuple that matches the value of the REMOTE-ADDRESS
   attribute.  As long as the binding does not already exist, the server
   creates the binding as if it received a Send Indication to the peer.
   If the binding already exists, the server rejects the request with a
   444 (Invalid Port) error.

9.3.2  Client Behavior

   The client MAY send an Open Binding request to the STUN relay server
   to open a binding without sending data with an explicit Send
   Indication.  To do so, it places the IP address and port number of
   the target peer in a REMOTE-ADDRESS attribute and sends the request.

9.4  Close Binding Request

   The Close Binding Request is designed to squelch possibly undesirable
   traffic relayed to the client.  For example, the client may receive
   multiple streams of early media or may be the victim of a limited DoS
   attack, or the wrong peer may have accidentally sent a packet to a
   door allocated by the client.  [[OPEN ISSUE: do we want to include an
   explicit Close Binding request or not?]]

9.4.1  Server Behavior

   When the server receives a Close Binding request, it verifies that
   the requester authenticated and used the same credentials as used in
   the corresponding Allocate request.  The server looks for a binding
   with an external 5-tuple that matches the value of the REMOTE-ADDRESS
   attribute.  If the binding exists, the server immediately removes the
   binding.  If the external transport is TCP, the server closes the TCP
   connection.  If the active destination was set to the deleted
   binding, the client to server link reverts to the state where no
   active destination is set.  A Close Binding request does NOT
   deallocate the port assigned using the Allocate request.

   If the binding does not exist, the server rejects the request with a
   444 (Invalid Port) error.





Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 26]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


9.4.2  Client Behavior

   If the client wants to explicitly remove a binding to a peer, without
   performing a deallocation, it MAY send a Close Binding Request.  To
   do so, it places the IP address and port number of the binding it
   wants to remove in a REMOTE-ADDRESS attribute and sends the request.

9.5  Connection Status Indication

   TODO: Expand this text.

   When the STUN relay to peer leg is TCP, the STUN relay client needs
   to be aware of the status of these TCP connections.  The STUN relay
   extension defines application states for a TCP connection as follows:
   LISTEN, ESTABLISHED, CLOSED.  Consequently, the STUN relay server
   sends a ConnectionState Indication for a binding whenever the relay
   connection status changes for one of the client's bindings except
   when the status changes due to a STUN relay client request (ex: an
   explicit binding close or deallocation).

      A STUN relay can only relay to a peer over TCP if the client
      communicates with the server over TCP or TLS over TCP.  Because of
      this, the server can be assured that Connection Status Indications
      are received reliably.


9.6  Send Indication

9.6.1  Server Behavior

   A Send Indication is sent by a client after it has completed its
   Allocate transaction, in order to create permissions in the server
   and send data to an external client.

   Once the server has identified a message as a Send Indication, the
   server verifies that it has arrived with a source and destination
   transport address that matches the internal remote and local
   transport address of an internal 5-tuple associated with  an existing
   allocation.  If there is no matching allocation, the indication is
   discarded.  If there was no REMOTE-ADDRESS, the indication is
   discarded.  If there was no DATA attribute, the indication is
   discarded.

      Note that Send Indications are not authenticated and do not
      contain a MESSAGE-INTEGRITY attribute.  Just like non-relayed data
      sent over UDP or TCP, the authenticity and integrity of this data
      can only be assured using security mechanisms at higher layers.




Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 27]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   The server takes the contents of the DATA attribute present in the
   indication.  If the allocation was a UDP allocation, the server
   creates a UDP packet whose payload equals that content.  The server
   sets the source IP address of the packet equal to the allocated
   transport address.  The destination transport address is set to the
   contents of the REMOTE-ADDRESS attribute.  The server then sends the
   UDP packet.  Note that any retransmissions of this packet which might
   be needed are not handled by the server.  It is the clients
   responsibility to generate another Send indication if needed.  If the
   STUN relay client hasn't previously sent to this destination IP
   address and port, an external 5-tuple is instantiated in the server.
   Its local and remote transport addresses, respectively, are set to
   the source and destination transport addresses of the UDP packet.

   The server then adds the IP address of the REMOTE-ADDRESS attribute
   to the permission list for this allocation.

   In the case of a TCP allocation, the server checks if it has an
   existing TCP connection open from the allocated transport address to
   the address in the REMOTE-ADDRESS attribute.  If so, the server
   extracts the content of the DATA attribute and sends it on the
   matching TCP connection.  If the server doesn't have an existing TCP
   connection to the destination, it adds the REMOTE-ADDRESS to the
   permission list and discards the data.  The peer must first open a
   TCP connection to the STUN relay server before it can receive data
   sent by the client.

9.6.2  Client Behavior

   Before receiving any UDP or TCP data, a client has to send first.
   Prior to the establishment of an active destination, or while the
   client is in the transitioning state, transmission of data towards a
   peer through the relay is done using the Send Indication.  Indeed, if
   the client is in the transitioning state, and it wishes to send data
   through the relay, it MUST use a Send indication.

   For TCP allocated transport addresses, the client needs to wait for
   the peer to open a connection to the STUN relay server before it can
   send data.  Data sent with a Send request prior to the opening of a
   TCP connection is discarded silently by the server.

   The Send Indication MUST contain a REMOTE-ADDRESS attribute, which
   contains the IP address and port that the data is being sent to.  The
   DATA attribute MAY be present, and contains the data that is to be
   sent towards REMOTE-ADDRESS.  If absent, the server will send an
   empty UDP packet in the case of UDP.  In the case of TCP, the server
   will do nothing.




Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 28]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   Since Send is an Indication, it generates no response.  The client
   must rely on application layer mechanisms to determine if the data
   was received by the peer.

9.7  Data Indication

      Note that Data Indications are not authenticated and do not
      contain a MESSAGE-INTEGRITY attribute.  Just like non-relayed data
      sent over UDP or TCP, the authenticity and integrity of this data
      can only be assured using security mechanisms at higher layers.


9.7.1  Server Behavior

   A server MUST send data packets towards the client using a Data
   Indication under the conditions described in Section 13.1.  Data
   Indications MUST contain a DATA attribute containing the data to
   send, and MUST contain a REMOTE-ADDRESS attribute indicating where
   the data came from.

9.7.2  Client Behavior

   Once a client has obtained an allocation and created permissions for
   a particular external client, the server can begin to relay packets
   from that external client towards the client.  If the external client
   is not the active destination, this data is relayed towards the
   client in encapsulated form using the Data Indication.

   The Data Indication contains two attributes - DATA and REMOTE-
   ADDRESS.  The REMOTE-ADDRESS attribute indicates the source transport
   address that the request came from, and it will equal the external
   remote transport address of the external client.  When processing
   this data, a client MUST treat the data as if it came from this
   address, rather than the stun server itself.  The DATA attribute
   contains the data from the UDP packet or TCP segment that was
   received.  Note that the TURN server will not retransmit this
   indication over UDP.

10.  New Attributes

   The STUN relay usage defines the following new attributes:










Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 29]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   0x000D: LIFETIME
   0x0010: BANDWIDTH
   0x0012: REMOTE-ADDRESS
   0x0013: DATA
   0x0016: RELAY-ADDRESS
   0x0018: REQUESTED-PORT
   0x0019: REQUESTED-TRANSPORT
   0x0022: REQUESTED-IP
   0x0021: TIMER-VAL


10.1  LIFETIME

   The lifetime attribute represents the duration for which the server
   will maintain an allocation in the absence of data traffic either
   from or to the client.  It is a 32 bit value representing the number
   of seconds remaining until expiration.


   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Lifetime                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


10.2  BANDWIDTH

   The bandwidth attribute represents the peak bandwidth, measured in
   kbits per second, that the client expects to use on the binding.  The
   value represents the sum in the receive and send directions.
   [[Editors note: Need to define leaky bucket parameters for this.]]


   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Bandwidth                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


10.3  REMOTE-ADDRESS

   The REMOTE-ADDRESS specifies the address and port of the peer as seen
   from the STUN relay server.  It is encoded in the same way as MAPPED-
   ADDRESS.

10.4  DATA

   The DATA attribute is present in Send Indications and Data
   Indications.  It contains raw payload data that is to be sent (in the
   case of a Send Request) or was received (in the case of a Data



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 30]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   Indication).

10.5  RELAY-ADDRESS

   The RELAY-ADDRESS is present in Allocate responses.  It specifies the
   address and port that the server allocated to the client.  It is
   encoded in the same way as MAPPED-ADDRESS.

10.6  REQUESTED-PORT-PROPS

   This attribute allows the client to request certain properties for
   the port that is allocated by the server.  The attribute can be used
   with any transport protocol that has the notion of a 16 bit port
   space (including TCP and UDP).  The attribute is 32 bits long.  Its
   format is:


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Reserved = 0                | B | A |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The lower two bits (labeled A in the diagram) are for requested port
   alignment.

   00 no specific port alignment
   01 odd port number
   10 even port number
   11 even port number; reserve next higher port

   The next higher two bits (labeled B in the diagram) are for requested
   port allocation behavior.


   00 no special behavior requested
   01 specific port requested
   10 door requested
   11 reserved - invalid

   All other bits in this attribute are reserved and MUST be set to
   zero.

   Even Port is a request to the server to allocate a port with even
   parity.  The port filter is not used with this property.  Odd Port is
   a request to the server to allocate a port with odd parity.  The port
   filter is not used with this property.  Even port, with a hold on the
   next higher port, is a request to the server to allocate an even



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 31]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   port.  Furthermore, the client indicates that it will want the next
   higher port as well.  As such, the client requests that the server,
   if it can, not allocate the next higher port to anyone unless that
   port is explicitly requested, which the client will itself do.  The
   port filter is not used with this property.  Finally, the Specific
   Port property is a request for a specific port.  The port that is
   requested is contained in the Port filter.

   Extensions to the relay usage can define additional port properties.
   [[TODO: Add IANA registry]]

10.7  REQUESTED-TRANSPORT

   This attribute is used by the client to request a specific transport
   protocol for the allocated transport address.  It is a 32 bit
   unsigned integer.  Its values are:


   0x0000 0000: UDP
   0x0000 0001: TCP

   If an Allocate request is sent over TCP and requests a UDP
   allocation, or an Allocate request is sent over TLS over TCP and
   requests a UDP or TCP allocation, the server will relay data between
   the two transports.

   Extensions to the relay usage can define additional transport
   protocols.  [[TODO: Add IANA registry]]

10.8  REQUESTED-IP

   The REQUESTED-IP attribute is used by the client to request that a
   specific IP address be allocated to it.  This attribute is needed
   since it is anticipated that STUN relays will be multi-homed so as to
   be able to allocate more than 64k transport addresses.  As a
   consequence, a client needing a second transport address on the same
   interface as a previous one can make that request.

   The format of this attribute is identical to MAPPED-ADDRESS.
   However, the port component of the attribute is ignored by the
   server.  If a client wishes to request a specific IP address and
   port, it uses both the REQUESTED-IP and REQUESTED-PORT attributes.

10.9  TIMER-VAL

   The TIMER-VAL attribute is used only in conjunction with the Set
   Active Destination response.  It conveys from the server, to the
   client, the value of the timer used in the server state machine.



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 32]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   Coordinated values are needed for proper operation of the mechanism.

   The attribute is a 32 bit unsigned integer representing the number if
   milliseconds used by the server for its timer.

11.  New Error Response Codes

   The STUN relay usage defines the following new Error response codes:

      437 (No Binding): A request was received by the server that
      requires an allocation to be in place.  However, there is none yet
      in place.

      439 (Transitioning): A Set Active Destination request was received
      by the server.  However, a previous request was sent within the
      last few seconds, and the server is still transitioning to that
      active destination.  Please repeat the request later.

      441 (Wrong Username): A TURN request was received for an allocated
      binding, but it did not use the same username and password that
      were used in the allocation.  The client must supply the proper
      credentials, and if it cannot, it should teardown its binding,
      allocate a new one time password, and try again.

      442 (Unsupported Transport Protocol): The Allocate request asked
      for a transport protocol to be allocated that is not supported by
      the server.

      443 (Invalid IP Address): The Allocate request asked for a
      transport address to be allocated from a specific IP address that
      is not valid on the server.

      444 (Invalid Port): The Allocate request asked for a port to be
      allocated that is not available on the server.

      445 (Operation for TCP Only): The client tried to send a request
      to perform a TCP-only operation on an allocation, and allocation
      is UDP.

      446 (Connection Failure): The attempt by the server to open the
      connection failed.

      447 (Connection Timeout): The attempt by the server to open the
      connection could not be completed, and is still in progress.







Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 33]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


12.  Client Procedures

12.1  Receiving and Sending Unencapsulated Data

   Once the active destination has been set, a client will receive both
   STUN and non-STUN data on the socket on which the Allocate Request
   was sent.  The encapsulation behavior depends on the protocol used
   between the STUN client and the STUN relay server.

12.2  Datagram Protocols

   If the allocation was over UDP, datagrams which contain the STUN
   magic cookie are treated as STUN requests.  All other data is non-
   STUN data, which MUST be processed as if it had a source IP address
   and port equal to the value of the active destination.

   If the client wants to send data to the peer which contains the magic
   cookie in the same location as a STUN request, it MUST send that data
   encapsulated in a Send Indication, even if the active destination is
   set.

   In addition, once the active destination has been set, if the client
   is in the "Set" state, it MAY send data to the active destination by
   sending data on that same socket.  Unencapsulated data MUST NOT be
   sent while in the "Not Set" or "Transitioning" states.  However, it
   is RECOMMENDED that the client not send unencapsulated data for
   approximately 500 milliseconds after the client enters the "Set"
   state.  This eliminates any synchronization problems resulting from
   network delays.  Of course, even if the active destination is set,
   the client can send data to that destination at any time by using the
   Send Indication.

12.3  Stream Transport Protocols

   If the allocation was over TCP or TLS over TCP, once the active
   destination is set, the client will receive data framed as described
   in Section 8.  The client MUST treat data encapsulated as data with
   this framing as if it originated from the active destination.

   The client SHOULD send data encapsulated using this framing scheme or
   it MAY place the data inside Send Indications.

13.  Server Procedures

   Besides the processing of the request and indications described
   above, this specification defines rules for processing of data
   packets received by the STUN server.  There are two cases - receipt
   of any packets on an allocated address, and receipt of non-STUN data



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 34]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   on its internal local transport address.

13.1  Receiving Data on Allocated Transport Addresses

13.1.1  TCP Processing

   If a server receives a TCP connection request on an allocated TCP
   transport address, it checks the permissions associated with that
   allocation.  If the source IP address of the TCP SYN packet match one
   of the permissions, the TCP connection is accepted.  Otherwise, it is
   rejected.  No information is passed to the client about the
   acceptance of the connection; rather, data passed to the client with
   a source transport address it has not seen before serves this
   purpose.  [[TODO fix]]

   If a server receives data on a TCP connection that terminates on the
   allocated TCP transport address, the server checks the value of the
   active destination.  If it equals the source IP address and port of
   the data packet (in other words, if the active destination identifies
   the other side of the TCP connection), the server checks the state
   machine of the allocation.  If the state is "Set", the data is taken
   from the TCP connection and sent towards the client in unencapsulated
   form.  Otherwise, the data is sent towards the client in a Data
   Indication, also known as encapsulated form.  In this form, the
   server MUST add a REMOTE-ADDRESS which corresponds to the external
   remote transport address of the TCP connection, and MUST add a DATA
   attribute containing the data received on the TCP connection.

   Sending of the data towards the client, whether in encapsulated or
   unencapsulated form, depends on the linkage with the client.  If the
   linkage with the client is over UDP, the data is placed in a UDP
   datagram and sent over the linkage.  Note that the server will not
   retransmit this data to ensure reliability.  If the linkage with the
   client is over TCP, the data is placed into the TCP connection
   corresponding to the linkage.  If the TCP connection generates an
   error (because, for example, the incoming TCP packet rate exceeds the
   throughput of the TCP connection to the client), the data is
   discarded silently by the server.

   Note that, because data is forwarded blindly across TCP bindings, TLS
   will successfully operate over a TURN allocated TCP port if the
   linkage to the client is also TCP.

13.1.2  UDP Processing

   If a server receives a UDP packet on an allocated UDP transport
   address, it checks the permissions associated with that allocation.
   If the source IP address of the UDP packet matches one of the



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 35]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   permissions, the UDP packet is accepted.  Otherwise, it is discarded.

   Assuming the packet is accepted, it must be forwarded to the client.
   It will be forwarded in either encapsulated or unencapsulated form.
   To determine which, the server checks the value of the active
   destination.  If it equals the source IP address and port of the UDP
   packet, the server checks the state machine of the allocation.  If
   the state is "Set", the data is taken from the UDP payload and sent
   towards the client in unencapsulated form.  Otherwise, the data is
   sent towards the client in a Data Indication, also known as
   encapsulated form.  In this form, the server MUST add a REMOTE-
   ADDRESS which corresponds to the external remote transport address of
   the UDP packet, and MUST add a DATA attribute containing the data
   payload of the UDP packet.

   Sending of the data towards the client, whether in encapsulated or
   unencapsulated form, depends on the linkage with the client.  If the
   linkage with the client is over UDP, the data is placed in a UDP
   datagram and sent over the linkage.  Note that the server will not
   retransmit this data to ensure reliability.  If the linkage with the
   client is over TCP, the data is placed into the TCP connection
   corresponding to the linkage.  If the TCP connection generates an
   error (because, for example, the incoming UDP packet rate exceeds the
   throughput of the TCP connection), the data is discarded silently by
   the server.

13.2  Receiving Data on Internal Local Transport Addresses

   If a server receives a UDP packet from the client on its internal
   local transport address, and it is coming from an internal remote
   transport address associated with an existing allocation, it
   represents UDP data that the client wishes to forward.  If the active
   destination is not set, the server MUST discard the packet.  If the
   active destination is set, and the allocated transport protocol is
   TCP, the server selects the TCP connection from the allocated
   transport address to the active destination.  The data is then sent
   over that connection.  If the transmission fails due to a TCP error,
   the data is discarded silently by the server.  If the active
   destination is set, and the allocated transport protocol is UDP, the
   server places the data from the client in a UDP payload, and sets the
   destination address and port to the active destination.  The UDP
   packet is then sent with a source IP address and port equal to the
   allocated transport address.  Note that the server will not
   retransmit the UDP datagram.

   If a server receives data on a TCP connection to a client, the server
   retrieves the allocation bound to that connection.  If the active
   destination for the allocation is not set, the server MUST discard



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 36]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   the data.  If the active destination is set, and the allocated
   transport protocol is TCP, the server selects the TCP connection from
   the allocated transport address to the active destination.  The data
   is then sent over that connection.  If the transmission fails due to
   a TCP error, the data is discarded silently by the server.  If the
   active destination is set, and the allocated transport protocol is
   UDP, the server places the data from the client in a UDP payload, and
   sets the destination address and port to the active destination.  The
   UDP packet is then sent with a source IP address and port equal to
   the allocated transport address.  Note that the server will not
   retransmit the UDP datagram.

   If a TCP connection from a client is closed, the associated
   allocation is destroyed.  This involves terminating any TCP
   connections from the allocated transport address to external clients
   (applicable only when the allocated transport address was TCP), and
   then freeing the the allocated transport address (and all associated
   state maintained by the server) for use by other clients.

   Note that the state of the allocation, whether it is "Set", "Not
   Set", or "Transitioning", has no bearing on the rules for forwarding
   of packets received from clients.  Only the value of the active
   destination is relevant.

13.3  Lifetime Expiration

   When the allocation expiration timer for a binding fires, the server
   MUST destroy the allocation.  This involves terminating any TCP
   connections from the allocated transport address to external clients
   (applicable only when the allocated transport address was TCP), and
   then freeing  the allocated transport address (and all associated
   state maintained by the server) for use by other clients.

   [[OPEN ISSUE: This is a change from the previous version, which
   allowed data traffic to keep allocations alive.  This change was made
   based on implementation considerations, as it allows an easier
   separation of packet processing and signaling.  Is this OK?]]

14.  Security Considerations

   TODO: Need to spend more time on this.

   STUN servers implementing this relay usage allocate bandwidth and
   port resources to clients, in constrast to the usages defined in [1].
   Therefore, a STUN server providing the relay usage requires
   authentication and authorization of STUN requests.  This
   authentication is provided by mechanisms defined in the STUN
   specification itself.  In particular, digest authentication and the



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 37]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   usage of short-term passwords, obtained through a digest exchange
   over TLS, are available.  The usage of short-tem passwords ensures
   that the Allocate Requests, which often do not run over TLS, are not
   susceptible to offline dictionary attacks that can be used to guess
   the long lived shared secret between the client and the server.

   Because STUN servers implementing the relay usage allocate resources,
   they can be susceptible to denial-of-service attacks.  All Allocate
   Requests are authenticated, so that an unknown attacker cannot launch
   an attack.  An authenticated attacker can generate multiple Allocate
   Requests, however.  To prevent a single malicious user from
   allocating all of the resources on the server, it is RECOMMENDED that
   a server implement a modest per user cap on the amount of bandwidth
   that can be allocated.  Such a mechanism does not prevent a large
   number of malicious users from each requesting a small number of
   allocations.  Attacks as these are possible using botnets, and are
   difficult to detect and prevent.  Implementors of the STUN relay
   usage should keep up with best practices around detection of
   anomalous botnet attacks.

   A client will use the transport address learned from the RELAY-
   ADDRESS attribute of the Allocate Response to tell other users how to
   reach them.  Therefore, a client needs to be certain that this
   address is valid, and will actually route to them.  Such validation
   occurs through the message integrity checks provided in the Allocate
   response.  They can guarantee the authenticity and integrity of the
   allocated addresss.  Note that the STUN relay usage is not
   susceptible to the attacks described in Section 12.2.3, 12.2.4,
   12.2.5 or 12.2.6 of RFC 3489 [[TODO: Update references once 3489bis
   is more stable]].  These attacks are based on the fact that a STUN
   server mirrors the source IP address, which cannot be authenticated.
   STUN does not use the source address of the Allocate Request in
   providing the RELAY-ADDRESS, and therefore, those attacks do not
   apply.

   The relay usage cannot be used by clients for subverting firewall
   policies.  The relay usage has fairly limited applicability,
   requiring a user to send a packet to a peer before being able to
   receive a packet from that peer.  This applies to both TCP and UDP.
   Thus, it does not provide a general technique for externalizing TCP
   and UDP sockets.  Rather, it has similar security properties to the
   placement of an address-restricted NAT in the network, allowing
   messaging in from a peer only if the internal client has sent a
   packet out towards the IP address of that peer.  This limitation
   means that the relay usage cannot be used to run web servers, email
   servers, SIP servers, or other network servers that service a large
   number of clients.  Rather, it facilitates rendezvous of NATted
   clients that use some other protocol, such as SIP, to communicate IP



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 38]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   addresses and ports for communications.

   Confidentiality of the transport addresses learned through Allocate
   requests does not appear to be that important, and therefore, this
   capability is not provided.

   Relay servers are useful even for users not behind a NAT.  They can
   provide a way for truly anonymous communications.  A user can cause a
   call to have its media routed through a STUN server, so that the
   user's IP addresses are never revealed.

   TCP transport addresses allocated by Allocate requests will properly
   work with TLS and SSL.  However, any relay addresses learned through
   an Allcoate will not operate properly with IPSec Authentication
   Header (AH) [11] in transport mode.  IPSec ESP [12] and any tunnel-
   mode ESP or AH should still operate.

15.  IANA Considerations

   TODO.

16.  IAB Considerations

   The IAB has studied the problem of ``Unilateral Self Address
   Fixing'', which is the general process by which a client attempts to
   determine its address in another realm on the other side of a NAT
   through a collaborative protocol reflection mechanism RFC 3424 [13].
   TURN is an example of a protocol that performs this type of function.
   The IAB has mandated that any protocols developed for this purpose
   document a specific set of considerations.  This section meets those
   requirements.

16.1  Problem Definition

   >From RFC 3424 [13], any UNSAF proposal must provide:

      Precise definition of a specific, limited-scope problem that is to
      be solved with the UNSAF proposal.  A short term fix should not be
      generalized to solve other problems; this is why  "short term
      fixes usually aren't".

   The specific problem being solved by TURN is for a client, which may
   be located behind a NAT of any type, to obtain an IP address and port
   on the public Internet, useful for applications that require a client
   to place a transport address into a protocol message, with the
   expectation that the client will be able to receive packets from a
   single host that will send to this address.  Both UDP and TCP are
   addressed.  It is also possible to send packets so that the recipient



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 39]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   sees a source address equal to the allocated address.  TURN, by
   design, does not allow a client to run a server (such as a web or
   SMTP server) using a TURN address.  TURN is useful even when NAT is
   not present, to provide anonymity services.

16.2  Exit Strategy

   From [13], any UNSAF proposal must provide:

      Description of an exit strategy/transition plan.  The better short
      term fixes are the ones that will naturally see less and less use
      as the appropriate technology is deployed.

   It is expected that TURN will be useful indefinitely, to provide
   anonymity services.  When used to facilitate NAT traversal, TURN does
   not iself provide an exit strategy.  That is provided by the
   Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE) [14] mechanism.  ICE
   allows two cooperating clients to interactively determine the best
   addresses to use when communicating.  ICE uses TURN-allocated
   addresses as a last resort, only when no other means of connectivity
   exists.  As a result, as NATs phase out, and as IPv6 is deployed, ICE
   will increasingly use other addresses (host local addresses).
   Therefore, clients will allocate TURN addresses, but not use them,
   and therefore, de-allocate them.  Servers will see a decrease in
   usage.  Once a provider sees that its TURN servers are not being used
   at all (that is, no media flows through them), they can simply remove
   them.  ICE will operate without TURN-allocated addresses.

16.3  Brittleness Introduced by TURN

   From [13], any UNSAF proposal must provide:

      Discussion of specific issues that may render systems more
      "brittle".  For example, approaches that involve using data at
      multiple network layers create more dependencies, increase
      debugging challenges, and make it harder to transition.

   TURN introduces brittleness in a few ways.  First, it adds another
   server element to any system, which adds another point of failure.
   TURN requires clients to demultiplex TURN packets and data based on
   hunting for a MAGIC-COOKIE in the TURN messages.  It is possible
   (with extremely small probabilities) that this cookie could appear
   within a data stream, resulting in mis-classification.  That might
   introduce errors into the data stream (they would appear as lost
   packets), and also result in loss of a binding.  TURN relies on any
   NAT bindings existing for the duration of the bindings held by the
   TURN server.  Neither the client nor the TURN server have a way of
   reliably determining this lifetime (STUN can provide a means, but it



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 40]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   is heuristic in nature and not reliable).  Therefore, if there is no
   activity on an address learned from TURN for some period, the address
   might become useless spontaneously.

   TURN will result in potentially significant increases in packet
   latencies, and also increases in packet loss probabilities.  That is
   because it introduces an intermediary on the path of a packet from
   point A to B, whose location is determined by application-layer
   processing, not underlying routing topologies.  Therefore, a packet
   sent from one user on a LAN to another on the same LAN may do a trip
   around the world before arriving.  When combined with ICE, some of
   the most problematic cases are avoided (such as this example) by
   avoiding the usage of TURN addresses.  However, when used, this
   problem will exist.

   Note that TURN does not suffer from many of the points of brittleness
   introduced by STUN.  TURN will work with all existing NAT types known
   at the time of writing, and for the forseeable future.  TURN does not
   introduce any topological constraints.  TURN does not rely on any
   heuristics for NAT type classification.

16.4  Requirements for a Long Term Solution

   >From [13]}, any UNSAF proposal must provide:

      Identify requirements for longer term, sound technical solutions
      -- contribute to the process of finding the right longer term
      solution.

   Our experience with TURN continues to validate our belief in the
   requirements outlined in Section 14.4 of STUN.

16.5  Issues with Existing NAPT Boxes

   >From [13], any UNSAF proposal must provide:

      Discussion of the impact of the noted practical issues with
      existing, deployed NA[P]Ts and experience reports.

   A number of NAT boxes are now being deployed into the market which
   try and provide "generic" ALG functionality.  These generic ALGs hunt
   for IP addresses,  either in text or binary form within a packet, and
   rewrite them if they match a binding.  This usage avoids that problem
   by using the XOR-MAPPED-ADDRESS attribute instead of the MAPPED-
   ADDRESS






Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 41]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


17.  Example

   In this example, a client is behind a NAT.  The client has a private
   address of 10.0.1.1.  The STUN server is on the public side of the
   NAT, and is listening for STUN relay requests on 192.0.2.3:8776.  The
   public side of the NAT has an IP address of 192.0.2.1.  The client is
   attempting to send a SIP INVITE to a peer, and wishes to allocate an
   IP address and port for inclusion in the SDP of the INVITE.
   Normally, TURN would be used in conjunction with ICE when applied to
   SIP.  For simplicities sake, TURN is showed without ICE.

   The client communicates with a SIP user agent on the public network.
   This user agent uses a 192.0.2.17:12734 for receipt of its RTP
   packets.


        Client                NAT             STUN Server           Peer
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |(1) Allocate       |                   |                   |
           |S=10.0.1.1:4334    |                   |                   |
           |D=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |                   |
           |------------------>|                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |(2) Allocate       |                   |
           |                   |S=192.0.2.1:63346  |                   |
           |                   |D=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |
           |                   |------------------>|                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |(3) Error          |                   |
           |                   |S=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |
           |                   |D=192.0.2.1:63346  |                   |
           |                   |<------------------|                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |(4) Error          |                   |                   |
           |S=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |                   |
           |D=10.0.1.1:4334    |                   |                   |
           |<------------------|                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |(5) Allocate       |                   |                   |
           |S=10.0.1.1:4334    |                   |                   |
           |D=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |                   |
           |------------------>|                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |(6) Allocate       |                   |
           |                   |S=192.0.2.1:63346  |                   |
           |                   |D=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |
           |                   |------------------>|                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 42]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


           |                   |(7) Response       |                   |
           |                   |RA=192.0.2.3:32766 |                   |
           |                   |MA=192.0.2.1:63346 |                   |
           |                   |S=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |
           |                   |D=192.0.2.1:63346  |                   |
           |                   |<------------------|                   |
           |(8) Response       |                   |                   |
           |RA=192.0.2.3:32766 |                   |                   |
           |MA=192.0.2.1:63346 |                   |                   |
           |S=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |                   |
           |D=10.0.1.1:4334    |                   |                   |
           |<------------------|                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |(9) INVITE         |                   |                   |
           |SDP=192.0.2.3:32766|                   |                   |
           |---------------------------------------------------------->|
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |(10) 200 OK        |                   |                   |
           |SDP=192.0.2.17:12734                   |                   |
           |<----------------------------------------------------------|
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |(11) ACK           |                   |                   |
           |---------------------------------------------------------->|
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |(12) Send          |                   |                   |
           |DATA=RTP           |                   |                   |
           |DA=192.0.2.17:12734|                   |                   |
           |S=10.0.1.1:4334    |                   |                   |
           |D=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |                   |
           |------------------>|                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |(13) Send          |                   |
           |                   |DATA=RTP           |                   |
           |                   |DA=192.0.2.17:12734|                   |
           |                   |S=192.0.2.1:63346  |                   |
           |                   |D=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |
           |                   |------------------>|                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |(14) RTP           |
           |                   |                   |S=192.0.2.3:32766  |
           |                   |                   |D=192.0.2.17:12734 |
           |                   |                   |------------------>|
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |Permission         |



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 43]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


           |                   |                   |Created            |
           |                   |                   |192.0.2.17         |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |(15) RTP           |
           |                   |                   |S=192.0.2.17:12734 |
           |                   |                   |D=192.0.2.3:32766  |
           |                   |                   |<------------------|
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |(16) DataInd       |                   |
           |                   |DATA=RTP           |                   |
           |                   |RA=192.0.2.17:12734|                   |
           |                   |S=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |
           |                   |D=192.0.2.1:63346  |                   |
           |                   |<------------------|                   |
           |(17) DataInd       |                   |                   |
           |DATA=RTP           |                   |                   |
           |RA=192.0.2.17:12734|                   |                   |
           |S=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |                   |
           |D=10.0.1.1:4334    |                   |                   |
           |<------------------|                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |(18) SetAct        |                   |                   |
           |DA=192.0.2.17:12734|                   |                   |
           |S=10.0.1.1:4334    |                   |                   |
           |D=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |                   |
           |------------------>|                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |(19) SetAct        |                   |
           |                   |DA=192.0.2.17:12734|                   |
           |                   |S=192.0.2.1:63346  |                   |
           |                   |D=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |
           |                   |------------------>|                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |(20) Response      |                   |
           |                   |S=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |
           |                   |D=192.0.2.1:63346  |                   |
           |                   |<------------------|                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |(21) Response      |                   |                   |
           |S=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |                   |
           |D=10.0.1.1:4334    |                   |                   |
           |<------------------|                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |           after 3s|
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |(22) RTP           |



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 44]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


           |                   |                   |S=192.0.2.17:12734 |
           |                   |                   |D=192.0.2.3:32766  |
           |                   |                   |<------------------|
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |(23) RTP           |                   |
           |                   |S=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |
           |                   |D=192.0.2.1:63346  |                   |
           |                   |<------------------|                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |(24) RTP           |                   |                   |
           |S=192.0.2.3:8776   |                   |                   |
           |D=10.0.1.1:4334    |                   |                   |
           |<------------------|                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |
           |                   |                   |                   |

                                 Figure 13

   The call flow is shown in Figure 13.  The client allocates a port
   from the local operating system on its private interface, obtaining
   4334.  It then attempts to secure a port for RTP traffic.  RTCP
   processing is not shown.  The client sends an Allocate request (1)
   with a source address (denoted by S) of 10.0.1.1:4334 and a
   destination (denoted by D) of 192.0.2.3:8776.  This passes through
   the NAT (2), which creates a mapping from the 192.0.2.1:63346 to the
   source IP address and port of the request, 10.0.1.1:4334.  This
   request is received at the STUN server, which challenges it (3),
   requesting credentials.  This response is passed to the client (4).
   The client retries the request, this time with credentials (5).  This
   arrives at the server (6).  The request is now authenticated.  The
   server provides a UDP allocation, 192.0.2.3:32766, and places it into
   the RELAY-ADDRESS (denoted by RA) in the response (7).  It also
   reflects the source IP address and port of the request into the
   MAPPED-ADDRESS (denoted by MA) in the response.  This passes through
   the NAT to the client (8).  The client now proceeds to perform a
   basic SIP call setup.  In message 9, it includes the relay address
   into the SDP of its INVITE.  The called party responds with a 200 OK,
   and includes its IP address - 192.0.2.17:12734.  The exchange
   completes with an ACK (11).

   Next, user A sends an RTP packet.  Since the active destination has
   not been set, the client decides to use the Send indication.  It does
   so, including the RTP packet as the contents of the DATA attribute.
   The REMOTE-ADDRESS attribute (denoted by DA) is set to 192.0.2.17:
   12734, learned from the 200 OK.  This is sent through the NAT
   (message 12) and arrives at the STUN server (message 13).  The server
   extracts the data contents, and sends the packet towards REMOTE-
   ADDRESS (message 14).  Note how the source address and port in this



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 45]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


   packet is 192.0.2.3:32766, the allocated transport address given to
   the client.  The act of sending the packet with Send causes the STUN
   server to install a permission for 192.0.2.17.

   Indeed, the called party now sends an RTP packet toward the client
   (message 15).  This arrives at the STUN server.  Since a permission
   has been set for the IP address in the source of this packet, it is
   accepted.  As no active destination is set, the STUN server
   encapsulates the contents of the packet in a Data Indication (message
   16), and sends it towards the client.  The REMOTE-ADDRESS attribute
   (denoted by RA) indicates the source of the packet - 192.0.2.17:
   12734.  This is forwarded through the NAT to the client (message 17).

   The client decides to optimize the path for packets to and from
   192.0.2.17:12734.  So, it issues a Set Active Destination request
   (message 18) with a REMOTE-ADDRESS of 192.0.2.17:12734.  This passes
   through the NAT and arrives at the STUN server (message 19).  This
   generates a successful response (message 20) which is passed to the
   client (message 21).  At this point, the server and client are in the
   transitioning state.  A little over 3 seconds later (by default), the
   state machines transition back to "Set".  Until this point, packets
   from the called party would have been relayed back to the client in
   Data Indications.  Now, the next RTP packet shows up at the STUN
   server (message 22).  Since the source IP address and port match the
   active destination, the RTP packet is relayed towards the client
   without encapsulation (message 23 and 24).

18.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Marc Petit-Huguenin for his comments
   and suggestions.

19.  References

19.1  Normative References

   [1]  Rosenberg, J., "Simple Traversal of UDP Through Network Address
        Translators (NAT) (STUN)", draft-ietf-behave-rfc3489bis-03 (work
        in progress), March 2006.

   [2]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [3]  Gulbrandsen, A., Vixie, P., and L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for
        specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)", RFC 2782,
        February 2000.

   [4]  Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Lawrence, S.,



Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 46]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


        Leach, P., Luotonen, A., and L. Stewart, "HTTP Authentication:
        Basic and Digest Access Authentication", RFC 2617, June 1999.

19.2  Informative References

   [5]   Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V. Jacobson,
         "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", STD 64,
         RFC 3550, July 2003.

   [6]   Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A.,
         Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP:
         Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.

   [7]   Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model with
         Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264, June 2002.

   [8]   Handley, M. and V. Jacobson, "SDP: Session Description
         Protocol", RFC 2327, April 1998.

   [9]   Schulzrinne, H., Rao, A., and R. Lanphier, "Real Time Streaming
         Protocol (RTSP)", RFC 2326, April 1998.

   [10]  Senie, D., "Network Address Translator (NAT)-Friendly
         Application Design Guidelines", RFC 3235, January 2002.

   [11]  Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "IP Authentication Header", RFC 2402,
         November 1998.

   [12]  Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "IP Encapsulating Security Payload
         (ESP)", RFC 2406, November 1998.

   [13]  Daigle, L. and IAB, "IAB Considerations for UNilateral Self-
         Address Fixing (UNSAF) Across Network Address Translation",
         RFC 3424, November 2002.

   [14]  Rosenberg, J., "Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE): A
         Methodology for Network  Address Translator (NAT) Traversal for
         Offer/Answer Protocols", draft-ietf-mmusic-ice-08 (work in
         progress), March 2006.

   [15]  Audet, F. and C. Jennings, "NAT Behavioral Requirements for
         Unicast UDP", draft-ietf-behave-nat-udp-07 (work in progress),
         June 2006.








Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 47]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


Authors' Addresses

   Jonathan Rosenberg
   Cisco Systems
   600 Lanidex Plaza
   Parsippany, NJ  07054
   US

   Phone: +1 973 952-5000
   Email: jdrosen@cisco.com
   URI:   http://www.jdrosen.net


   Rohan Mahy
   Plantronics

   Email: rohan@ekabal.com


   Christian Huitema
   Microsoft
   One Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA  98052-6399
   US

   Email: huitema@microsoft.com

























Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 48]


Internet-Draft                    TURN                     February 2006


Intellectual Property Statement

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
   made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
   on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
   found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
   assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
   attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
   such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
   specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
   http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at
   ietf-ipr@ietf.org.


Disclaimer of Validity

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
   INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).  This document is subject
   to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and
   except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.


Acknowledgment

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.




Rosenberg, et al.        Expires August 5, 2006                [Page 49]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.129c, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/