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   Network Working Group
   INTERNET-DRAFT
   Expires in: June 2006
                                                   Scott Poretsky
                                                   Reef Point Systems

                                                   Brent Imhoff
                                                   Juniper Networks

                                                   January 2006

                        Terminology for Benchmarking
                      IGP Data Plane Route Convergence

                <draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-09.txt>

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Copyright Notice
   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

ABSTRACT
   This document describes the terminology for benchmarking IGP
   Route Convergence as described in Applicability document [1] and
   Methodology document [2].  The methodology and terminology are to
   be used for benchmarking Convergence Time and can be applied to
   any link-state IGP such as ISIS [3] and OSPF [4].  The data plane
   is measured to obtain the convergence benchmarking metrics
   described in [2].

Poretsky, Imhoff                                                [Page 1]


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                       IGP Data Plane Route Convergence

Table of Contents

     1. Introduction .................................................2
     2. Existing definitions .........................................3
     3. Term definitions..............................................3
        3.1 Convergence Event.........................................3
        3.2 Route Convergence.........................................4
        3.3 Network Convergence.......................................4
        3.4 Full Convergence..........................................5
        3.5 Convergence Packet Loss...................................5
        3.6 Convergence Event Instant.................................6
        3.7 Convergence Recovery Instant..............................6
        3.8 Rate-Derived Convergence Time.............................7
        3.9 Convergence Event Transition..............................7
        3.10 Convergence Recovery Transition..........................8
        3.11 Loss-Derived Convergence Time............................8
        3.12 Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time....................9
        3.13 Restoration Convergence Time.............................9
        3.14 Packet Sampling Interval.................................10
        3.15 Local Interface..........................................11
        3.16 Neighbor Interface.......................................11
        3.17 Remote Interface.........................................11
        3.18 Preferred Egress Interface...............................12
        3.19 Next-Best Egress Interface...............................12
        3.20 Stale Forwarding.........................................13
        3.21 Nested Convergence Events................................13
     4. IANA Considerations...........................................13
     5. Security Considerations.......................................14
     6. Normative References..........................................14
     7. Author's Address..............................................14

1. Introduction
   This draft describes the terminology for benchmarking IGP Route
   Convergence.  The motivation and applicability for this
   benchmarking is provided in [1].  The methodology to be used for
   this benchmarking is described in [2].  The methodology and
   terminology to be used for benchmarking Route Convergence can be
   applied to any link-state IGP such as ISIS [3] and OSPF [4].  The
   data plane is measured to obtain black-box (externally observable)
   convergence benchmarking metrics.  The purpose of this document is
   to introduce new terms required to complete execution of the IGP
   Route Convergence Methodology [2].  These terms apply to IPv4 and
   IPv6 traffic as well as IPv4 and IPv6 IGPs.

   An example of Route Convergence as observed and measured from the
   data plane is shown in Figure 1.  The graph in Figure 1 shows
   Throughput versus Time.  Time 0 on the X-axis is on the far
   right of the graph.  The components of the graph and metrics are
   defined in the Term Definitions section.



Poretsky, Imhoff                                                [Page 2]


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                       IGP Data Plane Route Convergence

                           Convergence    Convergence
                           Recovery         Event
                           Instant         Instant      Time = 0sec
           Maximum            ^              ^             ^
           Throughput--> ------\    Packet   /---------------
                                \    Loss   /<----Convergence
              Convergence------->\         /      Event Transition
        Recovery Transition       \       /
                                   \_____/<------Maximum Packet Loss

        X-axis = Time
        Y-axis = Throughput
                        Figure 1. Convergence Graph

2.  Existing definitions
   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119.
   RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the
   intent of standards track documents as clear as possible.  While this
   document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track
   document.  The term Throughput is defined in RFC 2544.

3. Term Definitions
   3.1 Convergence Event

        Definition:
        The occurrence of a planned or unplanned action in the network
        that results in a change in the egress interface of the Device
        Under Test (DUT) for
        routed packets.

        Discussion:
        Convergence Events include link loss, routing protocol session
        loss, router failure, configuration change, and better next-hop
        learned via a routing protocol.

        Measurement Units:
        N/A

        Issues:
        None

        See Also:
        Convergence Packet Loss
        Convergence Event Instant





Poretsky, Imhoff                                                [Page 3]


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   3.2 Route Convergence

        Definition:
        Recovery from a Convergence Event indicated by the DUT
        Throughput equal to the offered load.

        Discussion:
        Route Convergence is the action of all components of the router
        being updated with the most recent route change(s) including the
        Routing Information Base (RIB) and Forwaridng Information Base
        (FIB), along with software and hardware tables.  Route
        Convergence can be observed externally by the rerouting of data
        Traffic to a new egress interface.

        Measurement Units:
        N/A

        Issues:
        None

        See Also:
        Network Convergence
        Full Convergence
        Convergence Event


   3.3 Network Convergence

        Definition:
        The completion of updating of all routing tables, including the
        FIB, in all routers throughout the network.

        Discussion:
        Network Convergence is bounded by the sum of Route Convergence
        for all routers in the network.  Network Convergence can be
        determined by recovery of the Throughput to equal the
        offered load, with no Stale Forwarding, and no blenders[5][6].

        Measurement Units:
        N/A

        Issues:
        None

        See Also:
        Route Convergence
        Stale Forwarding




Poretsky, Imhoff                                                [Page 4]


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   3.4 Full Convergence
        Definition:
        Route Convergence for an entire FIB.

        Discussion:
        When benchmarking convergence, it is useful to measure
        the time to converge an entire FIB.  For example,
        a Convergence Event can be produced for an OSPF table of
        5000 routes so that the time to converge routes 1 through
        5000 is measured.  Full Convergence is externally observable
        from the data plane when the Throughput of the data
        plane traffic on the Next-Best Egress Interface equals the
        offered load.

        Measurement Units:
        N/A

        Issues: None

        See Also:
        Network Convergence
        Route Convergence
        Convergence Event

   3.5 Convergence Packet Loss

        Definition:
        The amount of packet loss produced by a Convergence Event
        until Route Convergence occurs.

        Discussion:
        Packet loss can be observed as a reduction of forwarded traffic
        from the maximum Throughput.  Convergence Packet Loss
        includes packets that were lost and packets that were delayed
        due to buffering.  The maximum Convergence Packet Loss observed
        in a Packet Sampling Interval may or may not reach 100% during
        Route Convergence (see Figure 1).

        Measurement Units:
        number of packets

        Issues: None

        See Also:
        Route Convergence
        Convergence Event
        Rate-Derived Convergence Time
        Loss-Derived Convergence Time
        Packet Sampling Interval

Poretsky, Imhoff                                                [Page 5]


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   3.6 Convergence Event Instant

        Definition:
        The time instant that a Convergence Event becomes observable in
        the data plane.

        Discussion:
        Convergence Event Instant is observable from the data
        plane as the precise time that the device under test begins
        to exhibit packet loss.

        Measurement Units:
        hh:mm:ss:nnn, where 'nnn' is milliseconds

        Issues:
        None

        See Also:
        Convergence Event
        Convergence Packet Loss
        Convergence Recovery Instant

   3.7 Convergence Recovery Instant

        Definition:
        The time instant that Full Convergence is measured
        and then maintained for an interval of duration equal to
        the Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time

        Discussion:
        Convergence Recovery Instant is measurable from the data
        plane as the precise time that the device under test
        achieves Full Convergence.

        Measurement Units:
        hh:mm:ss:uuu

        Issues:
        None

        See Also:
        Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time
        Convergence Packet Loss
        Convergence Event Instant








Poretsky, Imhoff                                                [Page 6]


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   3.8 Rate-Derived Convergence Time
        Definition:
        The amount of time for Convergence Packet Loss to persist upon
        occurrence of a Convergence Event until occurrence of Route
        Convergence.

        Rate-Derived Convergence Time can be measured as the time
        difference from the Convergence Event Instant to the
        Convergence Recovery Instant, as shown with Equation 1.

        (eq 1)        Rate-Derived Convergence Time =
              Convergence Recovery Instant - Convergence Event Instant.

        Discussion:
        Rate-Derived Convergence Time should be measured at the maximum
        Throughput.  Failure to achieve Full Convergence results in
        a Rate-Derived Convergence Time benchmark of infinity.

        Measurement Units:
        seconds/milliseconds

        Issues:
        None

        See Also:
        Convergence Packet Loss
        Convergence Recovery Instant
        Convergence Event Instant
        Full Convergence

   3.9 Convergence Event Transition
        Definition:
        The characteristic of a router in which Throughput
        gradually reduces to zero after a Convergence Event.

        Discussion:
        The Convergence Event Transition is best observed for
        Full Convergence.  The Convergence Event Transition may
        not be linear.

        Measurement Units:
        seconds/milliseconds

        Issues:
        None

        See Also:
        Convergence Event
        Rate-Derived Convergence Time
        Convergence Packet Loss
        Convergence Recovery Transition

Poretsky, Imhoff                                                [Page 7]


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   3.10 Convergence Recovery Transition

        Definition:
        The characteristic of a router in which Throughput
        gradually increases to equal the offered load.

        Discussion:
        The Convergence Recovery Transition is best observed for
        Full Convergence.  The Convergence Event Transition may
        not be linear.

        Measurement Units:
        seconds/milliseconds

        Issues:
        None

        See Also:
        Full Convergence
        Rate-Derived Convergence Time
        Convergence Packet Loss
        Convergence Event Transition

   3.11 Loss-Derived Convergence Time

        Definition:
        The amount of time it takes for Route Convergence to
        to be achieved as calculated from the Convergence Packet
        Loss.  Loss-Derived Convergence Time can be calculated
        from Convergence Packet Loss that occurs due to a
        Convergence Event and Route Convergence.as shown with
        Equation 2.

        (eq 2) Loss-Derived Convergence Time =
                Convergence Packets Loss / Offered Load
                NOTE: Units for this measurement are
                packets / packets/second = seconds

        Discussion:
        Loss-Derived Convergence Time gives a better than
        actual result when converging many routes simultaneously.
        Rate-Derived Convergence Time takes the Convergence Recovery
        Transition into account, but Loss-Derived Convergence Time
        ignores the Route Convergence Recovery Transition because
        it is obtained from the measured Convergence Packet Loss.
        Ideally, the Convergence Event Transition and Convergence
       Recovery Transition are instantaneous so that the
        Rate-Derived Convergence Time = Loss-Derived Convergence Time.
        However, router implementations are less than ideal.
        For these reasons the preferred reporting benchmark for IGP
        Route Convergence is the Rate-Derived Convergence Time.

Poretsky, Imhoff                                                [Page 8]


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        Guidelines for reporting Loss-Derived Convergence Time are
        provided in [2].

        Measurement Units:
        seconds/milliseconds

        Issues:
        None


        See Also:
        Route Convergence
        Convergence Packet Loss
        Rate-Derived Convergence Time
        Convergence Event Transition
        Convergence Recovery Transition

   3.12 Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time

        Definition:
        The amount of time for which Full Convergence is maintained
        without additional packet loss.

        Discussion:
        The purpose of the Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time is to
        produce Convergence benchmarks protected against fluctuation
        in Throughput after Full Convergence is observed.  The
        Sustained  Forwarding Convergence Time to be used is calculated
        as shown in Equation 3.

        (eq 3)
        Sustained Forwarding Convergence Time = 5 packets/Offered Load
            units are packets/pps = sec

        for which at least one packet per route in the FIB for all
        routes in the FIB MUST be offered to the DUT per second.

        Measurement Units:
        seconds or milliseconds

        Issues: None

        See Also:
        Full Convergence
        Convergence Recovery Instant

   3.13 Restoration Convergence Time
        Definition:
        The amount of time for the router under test to restore
        traffic to the original outbound port after recovery from
        a Convergence Event.

Poretsky, Imhoff                                                [Page 9]


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        Discussion:
        Restoration Convergence Time is the amount of time for routes
        to converge to the original outbound port.  This is achieved
        by recovering from the Convergence Event, such as restoring
        the failed link.  Restoration Convergence Time is measured
        using the Rate-Derived Convergence Time calculation technique,
        as provided in Equation 1.  It is possible to have the
        Restoration Convergence Time differ from the Rate-Derived
        Convergence Time.

        Measurement Units:
        seconds or milliseconds

        Issues:
        None

        See Also:
        Convergence Event
        Rate-Derived Convergence Time


   3.14 Packet Sampling Interval
        Definition:
        The interval at which the tester (test equipment) polls to make
        measurements for arriving packet flows.

        Discussion:
        Metrics measured at the Packet Sampling Interval may include
        Throughput and Convergence Packet Loss.

        Measurement Units:
        seconds or milliseconds

        Issues:
        Packet Sampling Interval can influence the Convergence Graph.
        This is particularly true when implementations achieve Full
        Convergence in less than 1 second.  The Convergence Event
        Transition and Convergence Recovery Transition can become
        exaggerated when the Packet Sampling Interval is too long.
        This will produce a larger than actual Rate-Derived
        Convergence Time.  The recommended value for configuration
        of the Packet Sampling Interval is provided in [2].

        See Also:
        Convergence Packet Loss
        Convergence Event Transition
        Convergence Recovery Transition





Poretsky, Imhoff                                               [Page 10]


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   3.15 Local Interface
        Definition:
        An interface on the DUT.

        Discussion:
        None

        Measurement Units:
        N/A


        Issues:
        None

        See Also:
        Neighbor Interface
         Remote Interface

   3.16 Neighbor Interface

        Definition:
        The interface on the neighbor router or tester that is
        directly linked to the DUT's Local Interface.

        Discussion:
        None

        Measurement Units:
        N/A

        Issues:
        None

        See Also:
        Local Interface
        Remote Interface

   3.17  Remote Interface

        Definition:
        An interface on a neighboring router that is not directly
        connected to any interface on the DUT.

        Discussion:
        None

        Measurement Units:
        N/A

        Issues:
        None

Poretsky, Imhoff                                               [Page 11]


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        See Also:
        Local Interface
        Neighbor Interface


   3.18 Preferred Egress Interface

        Definition:
        The outbound interface from the DUT for traffic routed to the
        preferred next-hop.



        Discussion:
        The Preferred Egress Interface is the egress interface prior
        to a Convergence Event.

        Measurement Units:
        N/A

        Issues:
        None

        See Also:
        Next-Best Egress Interface

   3.19 Next-Best Egress Interface

        Definition:
        The outbound interface from the DUT for traffic routed to the
        second-best next-hop.  It is the same media type and link speed
        as the Preferred Egress Interface

        Discussion:
        The Next-Best Egress Interface becomes the egress interface
        after a Convergence Event.

        Measurement Units:
        N/A

        Issues:
        None

        See Also:
        Preferred Egress Interface






Poretsky, Imhoff                                               [Page 12]


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  3.20 Stale Forwarding

        Definition:
        Forwarding of traffic to route entries that no longer exist
        or to route entries with next-hops that are no longer preferred.

        Discussion:
        Stale Forwarding can be caused by a Convergence Event and is
        also known as a "black-hole" since it may produce packet loss.
        Stale Forwarding exists until Network Convergence is achieved.

        Measurement Units:
        N/A

        Issues:
        None

        See Also:
        Network Convergence


   3.21 Nested Convergence Events

        Definition:
        The occurence of Convergence Event while the route table
        is converging from a prior Convergence Event.

        Discussion:
        The Convergence Events for a Nested Convergence Events
        MUST occur with different neighbors.  A common
        observation from a Nested Convergence Event will be
        the withdrawal of routes from one neighbor while the
        routes of another neighbor are being installed.

        Measurement Units:
        N/A

        Issues:
        None

        See Also:
        Convergence Event

4. IANA Considerations

   This document requires no IANA considerations.






Poretsky, Imhoff                                               [Page 13]


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5. Security Considerations

        Documents of this type do not directly affect the security of
        Internet or corporate networks as long as benchmarking
        is not performed on devices or systems connected to production
        networks.

6. References
6.1 Normative References

   [1]   Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Applicability for IGP Data Plane
         Route Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-app-09,
         work in progress, January 2006.

   [2]   Poretsky, S., "Benchmarking Methodology for IGP Data Plane
         Route Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-09,
         work in progress, January 2006.

   [3]   Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual
         Environments", RFC 1195, December 1990.

   [4]   Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, IETF, April 1998.

6.2 Informative References

   [5]   S. Casner, C. Alaettinoglu, and C. Kuan, "A Fine-Grained View
         of High Performance Networking", NANOG 22, June 2001.

   [6]   L. Ciavattone, A. Morton, and G. Ramachandran, "Standardized
         Active Measurements on a Tier 1 IP Backbone", IEEE
         Communications Magazine, pp90-97, May 2003.

7. Author's Address

      Scott Poretsky
      Reef Point Systems
      8 New England Executive Park
      Burlington, MA 01803
      USA

      Phone: + 1 508 439 9008
      EMail: sporetsky@reefpoint.com

Poretsky, Imhoff                                               [Page 14]


INTERNET-DRAFT             Benchmarking Terminology for     January 2006
                         IGP Data Plane Route Convergence

      Brent Imhoff
      Juniper Networks
      1194 North Mathilda Ave
      Sunnyvale, CA 94089
      USA

      Phone: + 1 314 378 2571
      EMail: bimhoff@planetspork.com

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Poretsky, Imhoff                                              [Page 15]


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