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         Benchmarking Methodology for Network Interconnect Devices

                  <draft-ietf-bmwg-methodology-00.txt>



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Abstract

This document discusses and defines a number of tests that may be used
to describe the performance characteristics of a network interconnecting
device.  In addition to defining the tests this document also describes
specific formats for reporting the results of the tests.  Appendix A
lists the tests and conditions that we believe should be included for
specific cases and gives additional information about testing practices.
Appendix B is a reference listing of maximum frame rates to be used with
specific frame sizes on various media and Appendix C gives some examples
of frame formats to be used in testing.

1.      Introduction
Vendors often engage in "specsmanship" in an attempt to give their
products a better position in the marketplace.  This often involves
"smoke & mirrors" to confuse the potential users of the products.  This
document and follow up memos attempt to define a specific set of tests
that vendors can use to measure and report the performance
characteristics of network devices.  The results of these tests will
provide the user comparable data from different vendors with which to
evaluate these devices.

A previous document, "Benchmarking Terminology for Network Interconnect
Devices" (RFC 1242), defined many of the terms that are used in this
document.  The terminology document should be consulted before
attempting to make use of this document.

2.      Real world
In producing this document the authors attempted to keep in mind the
requirement that apparatus to perform the described tests must actually
be built.  We do not know of "off the shelf" equipment available to
implement all of the tests but it is our opinion that such equipment can
be constructed.

3.      Tests to be run
There are a number of tests described in this document.  Not all of the
tests apply to all types of devices.  It is expected that a vendor will
perform all of the tests that apply to a specific type of product.  The
authors understand that it will take a considerable period of time to
perform all of the recommended tests under  all of the recommended
conditions.  We believe that the results are worth the effort.  Appendix
A lists the tests and conditions that we believe should be included for
specific cases.

4.      Evaluating the results
Performing all of the recommended tests will result in a great deal of
data.  Much of this data will not apply to the evaluation of the devices
under each circumstance.  For example, the rate at which a router
forwards IPX frames will be of little use in selecting a router for an
environment that does not (and will not) support that protocol.
Evaluating even that data which is relevant to a particular network
installation will require experience which may not be readily available.

5. Requirements
In this document, the words that are used to define the significance of
each particular requirement are capitalized. These words are:

        * "MUST"
        This word or the adjective "REQUIRED" means that the item is an
absolute requirement of the specification.

        * "SHOULD"
        This word or the adjective "RECOMMENDED" means that there may
exist valid reasons in particular circumstances to ignore this
item, but the full implications should be understood and the case
carefully weighed before choosing a different course.

        * "MAY"
        This word or the adjective "OPTIONAL" means that this item is
truly optional.  One vendor may choose to include the item because
a particular marketplace requires it or because it enhances the
product, for example; another vendor may omit the same item.

An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more of
the MUST requirements for the protocols it implements.  An
implementation that satisfies all the MUST and all the SHOULD
requirements for its protocols is said to be "unconditionally
compliant"; one that satisfies all the MUST requirements but not all the
SHOULD requirements for its protocols is said to be "conditionally
compliant".

6.      Device set up
Before starting to perform the tests, the device to be tested MUST be
configured following the instructions provided to the user.
Specifically, it is expected that all of the supported protocols will be
configured and enabled during this set up (See Appendix A).  It is
expected that all of the tests will be run without changing the
configuration or setup of the device in any way other than that required
to do the specific test.  For example, it is not acceptable to change
the size of frame handling buffers between tests of frame handling rates
or to disable all but one transport protocol when testing the throughput
of that protocol.  It is necessary to modify the configuration when
starting a test to determine the effect of filters on throughput, but
the only change MUST be to enable the specific filter. The device set up
SHOULD include the normally recommended routing update intervals and
keep alive frequency.  The specific version of the software and the
exact device configuration, including what device functions are
disabled, used during the tests SHOULD be included as part of the report
of the results.

7.      Frame formats
The formats of the test frames to use for TCP/IP over Ethernet are shown
in Appendix C: Test Frame Formats.  It is expected that these exact
frame formats will be used in the tests described in this document for
this protocol/media combination and that these frames will be used as a
template for testing other protocol/media combinations.  The specific
formats that are used to define the test frames for a particular test
series MUST be included in the report of the results.

8.      Frame sizes
All of the described tests SHOULD be performed at a number of frame
sizes.  Specifically, the sizes SHOULD include the maximum and minimum
legitimate sizes for the protocol under test on the media under test and
enough sizes in between to be able to get a full characterization of the
device performance.

Except where noted, it is expected that at least five frame sizes will
be tested for each test condition.

Theoretically the minimum size UDP Echo request frame would consist of
an IP header (minimum length 20 octets), a UDP header (8 octets) and
whatever MAC level header is required by the media in use.  The
theoretical maximum frame size is determined by the size of the length
field in the IP header.  In almost all cases the actual maximum and
minimum sizes are determined by the limitations of the media.

In theory it would be ideal to distribute the frame sizes in a way that
would evenly distribute the theoretical frame rates.  These
recommendations incorporate this theory but specify frame sizes which
are easy to understand and remember.  In addition, many of the same
frame sizes are specified on each of the media types to allow for easy
performance comparisons.

The inclusion of an unrealistically small frame size on some of the
media types (i.e. with little or no space for data) is to help
characterize the per-frame processing overhead of the network connection
device.

8.1     Frame sizes to be used on Ethernet
64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1280, 1518

These sizes include the maximum and minimum frame sizes permitted by the
Ethernet standard and a selection of sizes between these extremes with a
finer granularity for the smaller frame sizes and higher frame rates.

8.2     Frame sizes to be used on 4Mb and 16Mb token ring
54, 64, 128, 256, 1024, 1518, 2048, 4472

The frame size recommendations for token ring assume that there is no
RIF field in the frames of routed protocols.  A RIF field would be
present in any direct source route bridge performance test.  The minimum
size frame for UDP on token ring is 54 octets.  The maximum size of 4472
octets is recommended for 16Mb token ring instead of the theoretical
size of 17.9Kb because of the size limitations imposed by many token
ring interfaces.  The reminder of the sizes are selected to permit
direct comparisons with other types of media.  An IP (i.e. not UDP)
frame may be used in addition if a higher data rate is desired, in which
case the minimum frame size is 46 octets.

8.3     Frame sizes to be used on FDDI
54, 64, 128, 256, 1024, 1518, 2048, 4472

The minimum size frame for UDP on FDDI is 53 octets, the minimum size of
54 is recommended to allow direct comparison to token ring performance.
The maximum size of 4472 is recommended instead of the theoretical
maximum size of 4500 octets to permit the same type of comparison. An IP
(i.e. not UDP) frame may be used in addition if a higher data rate is
desired, in which case the minimum frame size is 45 octets.

9. Verifying received frames
The test equipment SHOULD discard any frames received during a test run
that are not actual forwarded test frames.  For example, keep-alive and
routing update frames SHOULD NOT be included in the count of received
frames.  In any case, the test equipment SHOULD verify the length of the
received frames and check that they match the expected length.

Preferably, the test equipment SHOULD include sequence numbers in the
transmitted frames and check for these numbers on the received frames.
If this is done, the reported results SHOULD include in addition to the
number of frames dropped, the number of frames that were received out of
order, the number of duplicate frames received and the number of gaps in
the received frame numbering sequence.  This functionality is required
for some of the described tests.

10. Modifiers
It might be useful to know the device performance under a number of
conditions; some of these conditions are noted below.   It is expected
that the reported results will include as many of these conditions as
the test equipment is able to generate.  The suite of tests SHOULD be
first run without any modifying conditions and then repeated under each
of the conditions separately.  To preserve the ability to compare the
results of these tests any frames that are required to generate the
modifying conditions (management queries for example) will be included
in the same data stream as the normal test frames in place of one of the
test frames and not be supplied to the device on a separate network
port.

10.1    Broadcast frames
In most router designs special processing is required when frames
addressed to the hardware broadcast address are received.  In bridges
(or in bridge mode on routers) these broadcast frames must be flooded to
a number of ports.  The stream of test frames SHOULD be augmented with
1% frames  addressed to the hardware broadcast address.  The specific
frames that should be used are included in the test frame format
document. The broadcast frames SHOULD be evenly distributed throughout
the data stream, for example, every 100th frame.

It is understood that a level of broadcast frames of 1% is much higher
than many networks experience but, as in drug toxicity evaluations, the
higher level is required to be able to gage the effect which would
otherwise often fall within the normal variability of the system
performance.  Due to design factors some test equipment will not be able
to generate a level of alternate frames this low.  In these cases it is
expected that the percentage would be as small as the equipment can
provide and that the actual level be described in the report of the test
results.

10.2    Management frames
Most data networks now make use of management protocols such as SNMP.
In many environments there can be a number of management stations
sending queries to the same device at the same time.

The stream of test frames SHOULD be augmented with one management query
as the first frame sent each second during the duration of the trial.
The result of the query must fit into one response frame. The response
frame SHOULD be verified by the test equipment. One example of the
specific query frame that should be used is shown in Appendix C.

10.3    Routing update frames
The processing of dynamic routing protocol updates could have a
significant impact on the ability of a router to forward data frames.
The stream of test frames SHOULD be augmented with one routing update
frame transmitted as the first frame transmitted during the trial.
Routing update frames SHOULD be sent at the rate specified in Appendix C
for the specific routing protocol being used in the test. Two routing
update frames are defined in Appendix C for the TCP/IP over Ethernet
example.  The routing frames are designed to change the routing to a
number of networks that are not involved in the forwarding of the test
data.  The first frame sets the routing table state to "A", the second
one changes the state to "B".  The frames MUST be alternated during the
trial.

The test SHOULD verify that the routing update was processed by the
device under test.


10.4    Filters
Filters are added to routers and bridges to selectively inhibit the
forwarding of frames that would normally be forwarded.  This is usually
done to implement security controls on the data that is accepted between
one area and another.  Different products have different capabilities to
implement filters.

The device SHOULD be first configured to add one filter condition and
the tests performed.  This filter SHOULD permit the forwarding of the
test data stream.  In routers this filter SHOULD be of the form:

        forward input_protocol_address to output_protocol_address

In bridges the filter SHOULD be of the form:

        forward destination_hardware_address

The device SHOULD be then reconfigured to implement a total of 25
filters.  The first 24 of these filters SHOULD be of the form:

        block input_protocol_address to output_protocol_address

The 24 input and output protocol addresses SHOULD not be any that are
represented in the test data stream.  The last filter SHOULD permit the
forwarding of the test data stream.  By "first" and "last" we mean to
ensure that in the second case, 25 conditions must be checked before the
data frames will match the conditions that permit the forwarding of the
frame.

The exact filters configuration command lines used SHOULD be included
with the report of the results.

10.4.1  Filter Addresses
Two sets of filter addresses are required, one for the single filter
case and one for the 25 filter case.

The single filter case should permit traffic from IP address 198.18.1.2
to IP address 198.19.65.2 and deny all other traffic.

The 25 filter case should follow the following sequence.

        allow aa.ba.1.1 to aa.ba.100.1
        allow aa.ba.2.2 to aa.ba.101.2
        allow aa.ba.3.3 to aa.ba.103.3
                 ...
        allow aa.ba.12.12 to aa.ba.112.12
        allow aa.bc.1.2 to aa.bc.65.1
        allow aa.ba.13.13 to aa.ba.113.13
        allow aa.ba.14.14 to aa.ba.114.14
                 ...
        allow aa.ba.24.24 to aa.ba.124.24
        deny all else

All previous filter conditions should be cleared from the router before
this sequence is entered.  The sequence is selected to test to see if
the router sorts the filter conditions or accepts them in the order that
they were entered.  Both of these procedures will result in a greater
reduction in performance than will some form of hash coding.

11.     Protocol addresses
It is easier to implement these tests using a single logical stream of
data, with one source protocol address and one destination protocol
address, and for some conditions like the filters described above, a
practical requirement.  Networks in the real world are not limited to
single streams of data. The test suite SHOULD be first run with a single
protocol (or hardware for bridge tests) source and destination address
pair.  The tests SHOULD then be repeated with using a random destination
address.  While testing routers the addresses SHOULD be random over a
range of 256 networks and random over the full MAC range for bridges.
The specific address ranges to use for IP are shown in Appendix C.

12.     Route Set Up
It is not expected that all of the routing information necessary to
forward the test stream, especially in the multiple address case, will
be manually set up.  At the start of each trial a routing update MUST be
sent to the device.  This routing update MUST include all of the network
addresses that will be required for the trial.  All of the addresses
SHOULD resolve to the same "next-hop" and it is expected that this will
be the address of the receiving side of the test equipment. This routing
update will have to be repeated at the interval required by the routing
protocol being used.  An example of the format and repetition interval
of the update frames is given in Appendix C.

13.     Bidirectional traffic
Normal network activity is not all in a single direction.  To test the
bidirectional performance of a device, the test series SHOULD be run
with the same data rate being offered from each direction. The sum of
the data rates should not exceed the theoretical limit for the media.

14.     Single stream path
The full suite of tests SHOULD be run along with whatever modifier
conditions that are relevant using a single input and output network
port on the device.  If the internal design of the device has multiple
distinct pathways, for example, multiple interface cards each with
multiple network ports, then all possible types of pathways SHOULD be
tested separately.

15.     Multi-port
Many current router and bridge products provide many network ports in
the same device. In performing these tests first half of the ports are
designated as "input ports" and half are designated as "output ports".
These ports SHOULD be evenly distributed across the device architecture.
For example if a device has two interface cards each of which has four
ports, two ports on each interface card are designated as input and two
are designated as output.

The specified tests are run using the same data rate being offered to
each of the input ports.  The addresses in the input data streams SHOULD
be set so that a frame will be directed to each of the output ports in
sequence.  The stream offered to input one SHOULD consist of a series of
frames (one destined to each of the output ports), as SHOULD the frame
stream offered to input two. The same configuration MAY be used to
perform a bidirectional multi-stream test.  In this case all of the
ports are considered both input and output ports and each data stream
MUST consist of frames addressed to all of the other ports.

16.     Multiple protocols
This document does not address the issue of testing the effects of a
mixed protocol environment other than to suggest that if such tests are
wanted then frames SHOULD be distributed between all of the test
protocols.  The distribution MAY approximate the conditions on the
network in which the device would be used.

17.     Multiple frame sizes
This document does not address the issue of testing the effects of a
mixed frame size environment other than to suggest that if such tests
are wanted then frames SHOULD be distributed between all of the listed
sizes for the protocol under test.  The distribution MAY approximate the
conditions on the network in which the device would be used.

18. Testing performance beyond a single device.
In the performance testing of a single device, the paradigm can be
described as applying some input to a device under test and monitoring
the output. The results of which can be used to form a basis of
characterization of that device under those test conditions.

This model is useful when the test input and output are homogenous
(e.g., 64-byte IP, 802.3 frames into the device under test; 64 IP, 802.3
frames out), or the method of test can distinguish between dissimilar
input/output. (E.g., 1518 byte, IP, 802.3 frames in; 576 byte,
fragmented IP, X.25 frames out.)

By extending the single device test model, reasonable benchmarks
regarding multiple devices or heterogeneous environments may be
collected. In this extension, the single device under test is replaced
by a system of interconnected network devices. This test methodology
would support the benchmarking of a variety of
device/media/service/protocol combinations. For example, a configuration
for a LAN-to-WAN-to-LAN test might be:

(1) 802.3-> device 1 -> X.25 @ 64kbps -> device 2 -> 802.3

Or a mixed LAN configuration might be:

(2) 802.3 -> device 1 -> FDDI -> device 2 -> FDDI -> device 3 -> 802.3

In both examples 1 and 2, end-to-end benchmarks of each system could be
empirically ascertained. Other behavior may be characterized through the
use of intermediate devices. In example 2, the configuration may be used
to give an indication of the FDDI to FDDI capability exhibited by device
2.

Because multiple devices are treated as a single system, there are
limitations to this methodology. For instance, this methodology may
yield an aggregate benchmark for a tested system. That benchmark alone,
however, may not necessarily reflect asymmetries in behavior between the
devices, latencies introduce by other apparatus (e.g., CSUs/DSUs,
switches), etc.

Further, care must be used when comparing benchmarks of different
systems by ensuring that the devices' features/configuration of the
tested systems have the appropriate common denominators to allow
comparison.

The maximum frame rate that should be used when testing WAN connections
SHOULD be greater than the listed theoretical maximum rate for the frame
size on that speed connection.  The higher rate for WAN tests is to
compensate for the fact that some vendors employ various forms of header
compression. See Appendix A.

19.     Maximum frame rate
The maximum frame rate that should be used when testing LAN connections
SHOULD be the listed theoretical maximum rate for the frame size on the
media.  A list of maximum frame rates for LAN connections is included in
Appendix B.

20.     Bursty traffic
It is convenient to measure the device performance under steady state
load but this is an unrealistic way to gage the functioning of a device
since actual network traffic normally consists of bursts of frames.
Some of the tests described below SHOULD be performed with both steady
state traffic and with traffic consisting of repeated bursts of frames.
The frames within a burst are transmitted with the minimum legitimate
inter-frame gap.

The objective of the test is to determine the minimum interval between
bursts which the device under test can process with no frame loss.
During each test the number of frames in each burst is held constant and
the inter-burst interval varied.  Tests SHOULD be run with burst sizes
of 16, 64, 256 and 1024 frames.

21.     Frames per token
Although it is possible to configure some token ring and FDDI interfaces
to transmit more than one frame each time that the token is received,
most of the network devices currently available transmit only one frame
per token.  These tests SHOULD first be performed while transmitting
only one frame per token.

Some current high-performance workstation servers do transmit more than
one frame per token on FDDI to maximize throughput.  Since this may be a
common feature in future workstations and servers, interconnect devices
with FDDI interfaces SHOULD be tested with 1, 4, 8, and 16 frames per
token.  The reported frame rate SHOULD be the average rate of frame
transmission over the total trial period.

22.     Trial description
A particular test consists of multiple trials.  Each trial returns one
piece of information, for example the loss rate at a particular input
frame rate.  Each trial consists of a number of phases:

        a) If the test device is a router, send the routing update to the
"input" port and pause two seconds to be sure that the routing has
settled.

        b)  Send the "learning frames" to the "output" port and wait 2
seconds to be sure that the learning has settled.  Bridge learning
frames are frames with source addresses that are the same as the
destination addresses used by the test frames.  Learning frames
for other protocols are used to prime the address resolution
tables in the device.  The formats of the learning frame that
should be used are shown in the Test Frame Formats document.

        c) Run the test trial.

        d) Wait for two sec for any residual frames to be received.

        e) Wait for at least five seconds for the device to restabilize.

23.     Trial duration
The aim of these tests is to determine the rate continuously supportable
by the device.  The actual duration of the test trials must be a
compromise between this aim and the duration of the benchmarking test
suite.  The duration of the test portion of each trial SHOULD be at
least 60 seconds.  The tests that involve some form of "binary search",
for example the throughput test, to determine the exact result MAY use a
shorter trial duration to minimize the length of the search procedure,
but it is expected that the final determination will be made with full
length trials.

24      Address resolution
The test device SHOULD be able to respond to address resolution requests
sent by the device under test wherever the protocol requires such a
process.

25      Benchmarking tests:
Note: The notation "type of data stream" refers to the above
modifications to a frame stream with a constant inter-frame gap, for
example, the addition of traffic filters to the configuration of the
device under test.

25.1    Throughput
Objective:
To determine the device throughput as defined in RFC 1242.

Procedure:
Send a specific number of frames at a specific rate through the device
and then count the frames that are transmitted by the device. If the
count of offered frames is equal to the count of received frames, the
rate of the offered stream is raised and the test rerun.  If fewer
frames are received than were transmitted, the rate of the offered
stream is reduced and the test is rerun.

The throughput is the fastest rate at which the count of test frames
transmitted is equal to the number of test frames sent.

Reporting format:
The results of the throughput test SHOULD be reported in the form of a
graph.  If it is, the x coordinate SHOULD be the frame size, the y
coordinate SHOULD be the frame rate.  There SHOULD be at least two lines
on the graph.  There SHOULD be one line showing the theoretical frame
rate for the media at the various frame sizes.  The second line SHOULD
be the plot of the test results. Additional lines MAY be used on the
graph to report the results for each type of data stream tested.  Text
accompanying the graph SHOULD indicate the protocol, data stream format,
and type of media used in the tests.

We assume that if a single value is desired for advertising purposes the
vendor will select the rate for the minimum frame size for the media. If
this is done then the figure MUST be expressed in frames per second.
The rate MAY also be expressed in bits (or bytes) per second if the
vendor so desires.  The statement of performance MUST include a/ the
measured maximum frame rate, b/ the size of the frame used, c/ the
theoretical limit of the media for that frame size, and d/ the type of
protocol used in the test.  Even if a single value is used as part of
the advertising copy, the full table of results SHOULD be included in
the product data sheet.


25.2    Latency
Objective:
To determine the latency as defined in RFC 1242.

Procedure:
First determine the throughput for device at each of the listed frame
sizes.

Send a stream of frames at a particular frame size through the device at
the determined throughput rate to a specific destination.  The stream
SHOULD be at least 120 seconds in duration.  An identifying tag SHOULD
be included in one frame after 60 seconds with the type of tag being
implementation dependent.  The time at which this frame is fully
transmitted is recorded, i.e. the last bit has been transmitted
(timestamp A).  The receiver logic in the test equipment MUST be able to
recognize the tag information in the frame stream and record the time at
which the entire tagged frame was received (timestamp B).

The latency is timestamp B minus timestamp A minus the transit time for
a frame of the tested size on the tested media.  This calculation may
result in a negative value for those devices that begin to transmit the
output frame before the entire input frame has been received.

The test MUST be repeated at least 20 times with the reported value
being the average of the recorded values.

This test SHOULD be performed with the test frame addressed to the same
destination as the rest of the data stream and also with each of the
test frames addressed to a new destination network.

Reporting format:
The latency results SHOULD be reported in the format of a table with a
row for each of the tested frame sizes.  There SHOULD be columns for the
frame size, the rate at which the latency test was run for that frame
size, for the media types tested, and for the resultant latency values
for each type of data stream tested.


25.3    Frame loss rate
Objective:
To determine the frame loss rate, as defined in RFC 1242, of a device
throughout the entire range of input data rates and frame sizes.

Procedure:
Send a specific number of frames at a specific rate through the device
to be tested and count the frames that are transmitted by the device.
The frame loss rate at each point is calculated using the following
equation:

        ( ( input_count - output_count ) * 100 ) / input_count

The first trial SHOULD be run for the frame rate that corresponds to
100% of the maximum rate for the frame size on the input media.  Repeat
the procedure for the rate that corresponds to 90% of the maximum rate
used and then for 80% of this rate.  This sequence SHOULD be continued
(at reducing 10% intervals) until there are two successive trials in
which no frames are lost. The maximum granularity of the trials MUST be
10% of the maximum rate, a finer granularity is encouraged.

Reporting format:
The results of the frame loss rate test SHOULD be plotted as a graph.
If this is done then the X axis MUST be the input frame rate as a
percent of the theoretical rate for the media at the specific frame
size. The Y axis MUST be the percent loss at the particular input rate.
The left end of the X axis and the bottom of the Y axis MUST be 0
percent; the right end of the X axis and the top of the Y axis MUST be
100 percent.  Multiple lines on the graph MAY used to report the frame
loss rate for different frame sizes, protocols, and types of data
streams.

Note: See section 18 for the maximum frame rates that SHOULD be used.


25.4    Back-to-back frames
Objective:
To characterize the ability of a device to process back-to-back frames
as defined in RFC 1242.

Procedure:
Send a burst of frames with minimum inter-frame gaps to the device and
count the number of frames forwarded by the device.  If the count of
transmitted frames is equal to the number of frames forwarded the length
of the burst is increased and the test is rerun.  If the number of
forwarded frames is less than the number transmitted, the length of the
burst is reduced and the test is rerun.

The back-to-back value is the number of frames in the longest burst that
the device will handle without the loss of any frames.

The trial length MUST be at least 2 seconds and SHOULD be repeated at
least 50 times with the average of the recorded values being reported.

Reporting format:
The back-to-back results SHOULD be reported in the format of a table
with a row for each of the tested frame sizes.  There SHOULD be columns
for the frame size and for the resultant average frame count for each
type of data stream tested.  The standard deviation for each measurement
MAY also be reported.


25.5    System recovery
Objective:
To characterize the speed at which a device recovers from an overload
condition.

Procedure:
First determine the throughput for a device at each of the listed frame
sizes.

Send a stream of frames at a rate 110% of the recorded throughput rate
or the maximum rate for the media, whichever is lower, for at least 60
seconds.  At Timestamp A reduce the frame rate to 50% of the above rate
and record the time of the last frame lost (Timestamp B). The system
recovery time is determined by subtracting Timestamp A from Timestamp B.
The test SHOULD be repeated a number of times and the average of the
recorded values being reported.

Reporting format:
The system recovery results SHOULD be reported in the format of a table
with a row for each of the tested frame sizes.  There SHOULD be columns
for the frame size, the frame rate used as the throughput rate for each
type of data stream tested, and for the measured recovery time for each
type of data stream tested.


25.6    Reset
Objective:
To characterize the speed at which a device recovers from a device or
software reset.

Procedure:
First determine the throughput for the device for the minimum frame size
on the media used in the testing.

Send a continuous stream of frames at the determined throughput rate for
the minimum sized frames. Cause a reset in the device. Monitor the
output until frames begin to be forwarded and record the time that the
last frame (Timestamp A) of the initial stream and the first frame of
the new stream (Timestamp B) are received.

A power interruption reset test is performed as above except that the
power to the device should be interrupted for 10 seconds in place of
causing a reset.

This test SHOULD only be run using frames addressed to networks directly
connected to the device under test so that there is no requirement to
delay until a routing update is received.

The reset value is obtained by subtracting Timestamp A from Timestamp B.

Hardware and software resets, as well as a power interruption SHOULD be
tested.

Reporting format:
The reset value SHOULD be reported in a simple set of statements, one
for each reset type.


26.     Security Considerations
Security issues are not addressed in this document.


27.     Editor's Address

Scott Bradner
Holyoke Center                                  Phone +1 617 495-3864
Harvard University                              Fax +1 617 495-0914
Cambridge, MA 02138                             Email: sob@harvard.edu


Jim McQuaid
Wandel & Goltermann Technologies, Inc   Phone +1 919 941-4730
P. O. Box 13585                                 Fax: +1 919 941-5751
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709                Email: mcquaid@wg.com



Appendix A: Testing Considerations

A.1     Scope Of This Appendix
This appendix discusses certain issues in the benchmarking methodology
where experience or judgement may play a role in the tests selected to
be run or in the approach to constructing the test with a particular
device.  As such, this appendix MUST not be read as an amendment to the
methodology described in the body of this document but as a guide to
testing practice.


1.      Typical testing practice has been to enable all protocols to be
tested and conduct all testing with no further configuration of
protocols, even though a given set of trials may exercise only one
protocol at a time. This minimizes the opportunities to "tune" a
device under test for a single protocol.

2.      The least common denominator of the available filter functions
should be used to ensure that there is a basis for comparison
between vendors. Because of product differences, those conducting
and evaluating tests must make a judgement about this issue.

3.      Architectural considerations may need to be considered.  For
example, first perform the tests with the stream going between
ports on the same interface card and the repeat the tests with the
stream going into a port on one interface card and out of a port
on a second interface card. There will almost always be a best
case and worst case configuration for a given device under test
architecture.

4.      Testing done using traffic streams consisting of mixed protocols
has not shown much difference between testing with individual
protocols.  That is, if protocol A testing and protocol B testing
give two different performance results, mixed protocol testing
appears to give a result which is the average of the two.

5.      Wide Area Network (WAN) performance may be tested by setting up
two identical devices connected by the appropriate short-haul
versions of the WAN modems.  Performance is then measured between
a LAN interface on one device to a LAN interface on the other
device.

        The maximum frame rate to be used for LAN-WAN-LAN configurations
is a judgement that can be based on known characteristics of the
overall system including compression effects, fragmentation, and
gross link speeds. Practice suggests that the rate should be at
least 110% of the slowest link speed.  Substantive issues of
testing compression itself are beyond the scope of this document.


Appendix B: Maximum frame rates reference

(Provided by Roger Beeman)

Ethernet Size   Ethernet        16Mb Token Ring FDDI
        (bytes) (pps)   (pps)   (pps)

        64      14880   24691   152439
        128     8445    13793   85616
        256     4528    7326    45620
        512     2349    3780    23585
        768     1586    2547    15903
        1024    1197    1921    11996
        1280    961     1542    9630
        1518    812     1302    8138

Ethernet size
        Preamble        64 bits
        Frame   8 x N bits
        Gap     96 bits

16Mb Token Ring size
   SD               8 bits
   AC               8 bits
   FC               8 bits
   DA              48 bits
   SA              48 bits
   RI              48 bits ( 06 30 00 12 00 30 )
   SNAP
     DSAP           8 bits
     SSAP           8 bits
     Control        8 bits
     Vendor        24 bits
     Type          16 bits
   Data 8 x ( N - 18) bits
   FCS             32 bits
   ED               8 bits
   FS               8 bits

No accounting for token or idles between packets (theoretical minimums
hard to pin down)

FDDI size
   Preamble        64 bits
   SD               8 bits
   FC               8 bits
   DA              48 bits
   SA              48 bits
   SNAP
     DSAP           8 bits
     SSAP           8 bits
     Control        8 bits
     Vendor        24 bits
     Type          16 bits
   Data 8 x ( N - 18) bits
   FCS             32 bits
   ED               4 bits
   FS              12 bits

No accounting for token or idles between packets (theoretical minimums
hard to pin down)



Appendix C: Test Frame Formats

This appendix defines the frame formats that may be used with these
tests.  It also includes protocol specific parameters for TCP/IP over
Ethernet to be used with the tests as an example.


C.1.    Introduction
The general logic used in the selection of the parameters and the design
of the frame formats is explained for each case within the TCP/IP
section.  The same logic has been used in the other sections.  Comments
are used in these sections only if there is a protocol specific feature
to be explained.  Parameters and frame formats for additional protocols
can be defined by the reader by using the same logic.

C.2.    TCP/IP Information
The following section deals with the TCP/IP protocol suite.

C.2.1   Frame Type.
An application level datagram echo request is used for the test data
frame in the protocols that support such a function.  A datagram
protocol is used to minimize the chance that a router might expect a
specific session initialization sequence, as might be the case for a
reliable stream protocol.  A specific defined protocol is used because
some routers verify the protocol field and refuse to forward unknown
protocols.

For TCP/IP a UDP Echo Request is used.


C.2.2   Protocol Addresses
Two sets of addresses must be defined: first the addresses assigned to
the router ports, and second the address that are to be used in the
frames themselves and in the routing updates.

The following specific network addresses are have been assigned to the
BMWG by the NIC for this purpose.  This assignment was made to minimize
the chance of conflict in case a testing device were to be accidentally
connected to part of the Internet.


C.2.2.1 Router port protocol addresses
Half of the ports on a multi-port router are referred to as "input"
ports and the other half as "output" ports even though some of the tests
use all ports both as input and output.  A contiguous series of IP Class
C network addresses from 198.18.1.0 to 198.18.64.0 have been assigned
for use on the "input" ports.  A second series from 198.19.1.0 to
198.19.64.0 have been assigned for use on the "output" ports. In all
cases the router port is node 1 on the appropriate network.  For
example, a two port device would have an IP address of 198.18.1.1 on one
port and 198.19.1.1 on the other port.

Some of the tests described in the methodology memo make use of an SNMP
management connection to the device under test.  The management access
address for the device is assumed to be the first of the "input" ports
(198.18.1.1).

C.2.2.2 Frame addresses
Some of the described tests assume adjacent network routing (the reboot
time test for example).  The IP address used in the test frame is that
of node 2 on the appropriate Class C network. (198.19.1.2 for example)

If the test involves non-adjacent network routing the phantom routers
are located at node 10 of each of the appropriate Class C networks.  A
series of Class C network addresses from 198.18.65.0 to 198.18.254.0 has
been assigned for use as the networks accessible through the phantom
routers on the "input" side of device under test.  The series of Class C
networks from 198.19.65.0 to 198.19.254.0 have been assigned to be used
as the networks visible through the phantom routers on the "output" side
of the device under test.

C.2.3   Routing Update Frequency
The update interval for each routing protocol is may have to be
determined by the specifications of the individual protocol.  For IP
RIP, Cisco IGRP and for OSPF a routing update frame or frames should
precede each stream of test frames by 5 seconds.  This frequency is
sufficient for trial durations of up to 60 seconds.  Routing updates
must be mixed with the stream of test frames if longer trial periods are
selected.  The frequency of updates should be taken from the following
table.

        IP-RIP  30 sec
        IGRP            90 sec
        OSPF            90 sec

C.2.4   Frame Formats - detailed discussion

C.2.4.1 Learning Frame
In most protocols a procedure is used to determine the mapping between
the protocol node address and the MAC address.  The Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP) is used to perform this function in TCP/IP.  No such
procedure is required in XNS or IPX because the MAC address is used as
the protocol node address.

In the ideal case the tester would be able to respond to ARP requests
from the device under test.  In cases where this is not possible an ARP
request should be sent to the router's "output" port.  This request
should be seen as coming from the immediate destination of the test
frame stream. (i.e. the phantom router or the end node if adjacent
network routing is being used.)  It is assumed that the router will
cache the MAC address of the requesting device.  The ARP request should
be sent 5 seconds before the test frame stream starts in each trial.
Trial lengths of longer than 50 seconds may require that the router be
configured for an extended ARP timeout.

C.2.4.2 Routing Update Frame
If the test does not involve adjacent net routing the tester must supply
proper routing information using a routing update.  A single routing
update is used before each trial on each "destination" port (see section
C.24).  This update includes the network addresses that are reachable
through a phantom router on the network attached to the port.  For a
full mesh test, one destination network address is present in the
routing update for each of the "input" ports.  The test stream on each
"input" port consists of a repeating sequence of frames, one to each of
the "output" ports.



C.2.4.3 Management Query Frame
The management overhead test uses SNMP to query a set of variables that
should be present in all devices that support SNMP.  The variables are
read by an NMS at the appropriate intervals.  The list of variables to
retrieve follow:

        sysUpTime
        ifInOctets
        ifOutOctets
        ifInUcastPkts
        ifOutUcastPkts

C.2.4.4 Test Frames
The test frame is an UDP Echo Request with enough data to fill out the
required frame size.  The data should not be all bits off or all bits on
since these patters can cause a "bit stuffing" process to be used to
maintain clock synchronization on WAN links.  This process will result
in a longer frame than was intended.

C.2.4.5 Frame Formats - TCP/IP on Ethernet
Each of the frames below are described for the 1st pair of device ports,
i.e. "input" port #1 and "output" port #1.  Addresses must be changed if
the frame is to be used for other ports.

C.2.6.1 Learning Frame

        ARP Request on Ethernet

        -- DATAGRAM HEADER
        offset  data (hex)              description
        00      FF FF FF FF FF FF       dest MAC address
                                                send to broadcast address
        06      xx xx xx xx xx xx       set to source MAC address
        12      08 06                   ARP type
        14      00 01                   hardware type
                                                Ethernet = 1
        16      08 00                   protocol type
                                                IP = 800
        18      06                      hardware address length
                                                48 bits on Ethernet
        19      04                      protocol address length
                                                4 octets for IP
        20      00 01                   opcode
                                                request = 1
        22      xx xx xx xx xx xx       source MAC address
        28      xx xx xx xx             source IP address
        32      FF FF FF FF FF FF       requesting DUT's MAC address
        38      xx xx xx xx             DUT's IP address




C.2.6.2 Routing Update Frame

        -- DATAGRAM HEADER
        offset  date                    description
        00      FF FF FF FF FF FF       dest MAC address is broadcast
        06      xx xx xx xx xx xx       source hardware address
        12      08 00                   type

        -- IP HEADER
        14      45                      IP version - 4,
                                                header length
                                                (4 byte units) - 5
        15      00                      service field
        16      00 EE                   total length
        18      00 00                   ID
        20      40 00                   flags (3 bits)
                                                4 (do not fragment),fragment offset-0
        22      0A                      TTL
        23      11                      protocol - 17 (UDP)
        24      C4 8D                   header checksum
        26      xx xx xx xx             source IP address
        30      xx xx xx                destination IP address
        33      FF                      host part = FF for broadcast

        -- UDP HEADER
        34      02 08                   source port
                                                208 = RIP
        36      02 08                   destination port
                                                208 = RIP
        38      00 DA                   UDP message length
        40      00 00                   UDP checksum

        -- RIP packet
        42      02                      command = response
        43      01                      version = 1
        44      00 00                   0

        -- net 1
        46      00 02                   family = IP
        48      00 00                   0
        50      xx xx xx                net 1 IP address
        53      00                      net not node
        54      00 00 00 00             0
        58      00 00 00 00             0
        62      00 00 00 07             metric 7

        -- net 2
        66      00 02                   family = IP
        68      00 00                   0
        70      xx xx xx                net 2 IP address
        73      00                      net not node
        74      00 00 00 00             0
        78      00 00 00 00             0
        82      00 00 00 07             metric 7

        -- net 3
        86      00 02                   family = IP
        88      00 00                   0
        90      xx xx xx                net 3 IP address
        93      00                      net not node
        94      00 00 00 00             0
        98      00 00 00 00             0
        102     00 00 00 07             metric 7

        -- net 4
        106     00 02                   family = IP
        108     00 00                   0
        110     xx xx xx                net 4 IP address
        113     00                      net not node
        114     00 00 00 00             0
        118     00 00 00 00             0
        122     00 00 00 07             metric 7

        -- net 5
        126     00 02                   family = IP
        128     00 00                   0
        130     00                      net 5 IP address
        133     00                      net not node
        134     00 00 00 00             0
        138     00 00 00 00             0
        142     00 00 00 07             metric 7

        -- net 6
        146     00 02                   family = IP
        148     00 00                   0
        150     xx xx xx                net 6 IP address
        153     00                      net not node
        154     00 00 00 00             0
        158     00 00 00 00             0
        162     00 00 00 07             metric 7


C.2.4.6 Management Query Frame

To be defined.

C.2.6.4 Test Frames

     UDP echo request on Ethernet

        -- DATAGRAM HEADER
        offset  data                    description
        00      xx xx xx xx xx xx       set to dest MAC address
        06      xx xx xx xx xx xx       set to source MAC address
        12      08 00                   type

        -- IP HEADER
        14      45                      IP version - 4
                                                header length 5 4 byte units
        15      00                      TOS
        16      00 2E                   total length*
        18      00 00                   ID
        20      00 00                   flags (3 bits) - 0
                                                fragment offset-0
        22      0A                      TTL
        23      11                      protocol - 17 (UDP)
        24      C4 8D                   header checksum*
        26      xx xx xx xx             set to source IP address**
        30      xx xx xx xx             set to destination IP address**

        -- UDP HEADER
        34      C0 20                   source port
        36      00 07                   destination port
                                                07 = Echo
        38      00 1A                   UDP message length*
        40      00 00                   UDP checksum

        -- UDP DATA
        42      00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07    some data***
        50      08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F

* - change for different length frames

** - change for different logical streams

*** - fill remainder of frame with incrementing octets, repeated if
required by frame length

Values to be used in Total Length and UDP message length fields:

frame size      total length    UDP message length
64              00 2E                   00 1A
128             00 6E                   00 5A
256             00 EE                   00 9A
512             01 EE                   01 9A
768             02 EE                   02 9A
1024            03 EE                   03 9A
1280            04 EE                   04 9A
1518            05 DC                   05 C8

Internet Draft  Benchmarking Methodology for Network Interconnect Devices       November 1994

S. Bradner, J. McQuaid          [Page 1]


Benchmarking Methodology Working Group  Scott Bradner
Internet Draft - November 1994          Harvard University
                Jim McQuaid
                Wandel & Goltermann Technologies, Inc

S. Bradner, J. McQuaid          [Page 1]


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