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     Network Working Group                                        R. Papneja
     Internet Draft                                                  Isocore
     Intended status: Informational                              S. Vapiwala
     Expires: August 2008                                         J. Karthik
                                                               Cisco Systems
                                                                 S. Poretsky
                                                                  Reef Point
                                                                      S. Rao
                                                        Qwest Communications
                                                          Jean-Louis Le Roux
                                                              France Telecom
                                                           February 19, 2008


             Methodology for benchmarking MPLS Protection mechanisms
                    <draft-ietf-bmwg-protection-meth-03.txt>


     Status of this Memo

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        This Internet-Draft will expire on August 19, 2008.

     Copyright Notice

        Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).



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     Internet-Draft     Methodology for benchmarking MPLS      February 2008
                             Protection Mechanisms


     Abstract

     This draft describes the methodology for benchmarking MPLS Protection
     mechanisms for link and node protection as defined in [MPLS-FRR-EXT].
     The  benchmarking  and  terminology  [TERM-ID]  are  to  be  used  for
     benchmarking  MPLS  based  protection  mechanisms  [MPLS-FRR-EXT].  This
     document provides test methodologies and test-bed setup for measuring
     failover times while considering all dependencies that might impact
     faster recovery of real time services riding on MPLS based primary
     tunnel.  The terms used in the procedures included in this document are
     defined in [TERM-ID].





     Table of Contents


        1. Introduction...................................................3
        2. Existing definitions...........................................6
        3. Test Considerations............................................6
           3.1. Failover Events...........................................6
           3.2. Failure Detection [TERM-ID]...............................7
           3.3. Use of Data Traffic for MPLS Protection Benchmarking......8
           3.4. LSP and Route Scaling.....................................8
           3.5. Selection of IGP..........................................8
           3.6. Reversion [TERM-ID].......................................9
           3.7. Traffic generation........................................9
           3.8. Motivation for topologies.................................9
        4. Test Setup....................................................10
           4.1. Link Protection with 1 hop primary (from PLR) and 1 hop
           backup........................................................11
           TE tunnels....................................................11
           4.2. Link Protection with 1 hop primary (from PLR) and 2 hop
           backup TE tunnels.............................................11
           4.3. Link Protection with 2+ hop (from PLR) primary and 1 hop
           backup TE tunnels.............................................12
           4.4. Link Protection with 2+ hop (from PLR) primary and 2 hop
           backup TE tunnels.............................................12
           4.5. Node Protection with 2 hop primary (from PLR) and 1 hop
           backup TE tunnels.............................................13


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                             Protection Mechanisms
           4.6. Node Protection with 2 hop primary (from PLR) and 2 hop
           backup TE tunnels.............................................14
           4.7. Node Protection with 3+ hop primary (from PLR) and 1 hop
           backup TE tunnels.............................................15
           4.8. Node Protection with 3+ hop primary (from PLR) and 2 hop
           backup TE tunnels.............................................16
        5. Test Methodology..............................................16
           5.1. Headend as PLR with link failure.........................16
           5.2. Mid-Point as PLR with link failure.......................18
           5.3. Headend as PLR with Node failure.........................19
           5.4. Mid-Point as PLR with Node failure.......................20
           5.5. MPLS FRR Forwarding Performance Test Cases...............22
              5.5.1. PLR as Headend......................................22
              5.5.2. PLR as Mid-point....................................23
        6. Reporting Format..............................................24
        7. IANA Considerations...........................................25
        This document requires no IANA considerations....................25
        8. Security Considerations.......................................25
        9. Acknowledgements..............................................26
        10. References...................................................26
           10.1. Normative References....................................26
           10.2. Informative References..................................27
        11. Authors' Addresses...........................................27
        Intellectual Property Statement..................................29
        Appendix A: Fast Reroute Scalability Table.......................30



     1. Introduction


     This  draft  describes  the  methodology  for  benchmarking  MPLS  based
     protection mechanisms. The new terminology that it introduces is defined
     in [TERM-ID].

     MPLS based protection mechanisms provide faster recovery of real time
     services in case of an unplanned link or node failure in the network
     core, where MPLS is used as a signaling protocol to setup point-to-point
     traffic engineered tunnels. MPLS based protection mechanisms improve
     service availability by minimizing the duration of the most common
     failures.  There  are  generally  two  factors  impacting  service
     availability. One is the frequency and the other is the duration of the
     failure. Unexpected correlated failures are less common. Correlated
     failures mean co-occurrence of two or more failures simultaneously.


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     Internet-Draft     Methodology for benchmarking MPLS      February 2008
                             Protection Mechanisms
     These failures are often observed when two or more logical resources
     (for e.g. layer-2 links), relying on a common physical resource (for
     e.g. common transport) fail. Common transport may include TDM and WDM
     links providing multiplexing at layer-2 and layer-1. Within the context
     of MPLS protection mechanisms, Shared Risk Link Groups [MPLS-FRR-EXT]
     encompass correlations failures.

     Not all correlated failures can be anticipated in advance of their
     occurrence. Failures due to natural disasters or planned failures are
     the most notable causes. Due to the frequent occurrences of such
     failures, it is necessary that implementations can handle these faults
     gracefully, and recover the services affected by failures very quickly.

     Some  routers  recover  faster  as  compared  to  the  others,  hence
     benchmarking this type of failures become very useful. Benchmarking of
     unexpected   correlated   failures   should   include   measurement   of
     restoration with and without the availability of IP fallback. This
     document provides detailed test cases focusing on benchmarking MPLS
     protection mechanisms. Benchmarking of unexpected correlated failures
     is currently out of scope of this document.

     A link or a node failure could occur either at the head-end or at the
     mid point node of a primary tunnel. The backup tunnel could offer either
     link or node protection following a failure along the path of the
     primary tunnel. The time lapsed in transitioning primary tunnel traffic
     to the backup tunnel is a key measurement that ensures the service level
     agreements. Failover time depends upon many factors such as the number
     of prefixes bound to a tunnel, services (such as IGP, BGP, Layer 3/
     Layer 2 VPNs) that are bound to the tunnel, number of primary tunnels
     affected by the failure event, number of primary tunnels protected by
     backup, the type of failure and the physical media on which the failover
     occurs. This document describes all different topologies and scenarios
     that should be considered to effectively benchmark MPLS protection
     mechanisms and failover times. Different failure scenarios and scaling
     considerations are also provided in this document. In addition the
     document provides a reporting format for the observed results.

     To benchmark the failover time, data plane traffic is used as defined in
     [IGP-METH]. Traffic loss is the key component in a black-box type test
     and is used to measure convergence.


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                             Protection Mechanisms


     All benchmarking test cases defined in this document apply to both
     facility backup and local protection enabled in detour mode. The test
     cases cover all possible failure scenarios and the associated procedures
     benchmark the ability of the DUT to perform recovery from failures
     within target failover time.

     Figure 1 represents the basic reference test bed and is applicable to
     all the test cases defined in this document. TG & TA represents Traffic
     Generator & Analyzer respectively. A tester is connected to the DUT and
     it sends and receives IP traffic along with the working Path, run
     protocol emulations simulating real world peering scenarios.


                   ---------------------------
                 |               ------------|---------------
                 |              |            |               |
                 |              |            |               |
             --------       --------      --------      --------     --------
         TG-|   R1   |-----|   R2   |----|   R3   |    |    R4  |   |  R5    |-TA
            |        |-----|        |----|        |----|        |---|        |
             --------       --------      --------      --------     --------
                   |            |              |           |
                   |            |              |           |
                   |          --------         |           |
                    ---------|   R6   |--------            |
                             |        |--------------------
                              --------


                          Fig.1: Fast Reroute Topology.


     The tester MUST record the number of lost, duplicate, and reordered
     packets. It should further record arrival and departure times so that
     Failover Time, Additive Latency, and Reversion Time can be measured.
     The tester may be a single device or a test system emulating all the
     different roles along a primary or backup path.





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     Internet-Draft     Methodology for benchmarking MPLS      February 2008
                             Protection Mechanisms
     2. Existing definitions

     For the sake of clarity and continuity this RFC adopts the template
     for definitions set out in Section 2 of RFC 1242.  Definitions are
     indexed and grouped together in sections for ease of reference.

     The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
     "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in
     this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

     The reader is assumed to be familiar with the commonly used MPLS
     terminology, some of which is defined in [MPLS-FRR-EXT].



     3. Test Considerations

        This section discusses the fundamentals of MPLS Protection testing:

            -The types of network events that causes failover
            -Indications for failover
            -the use of data traffic
            -Traffic generation
            -LSP Scaling
            -Reversion of LSP
            -IGP Selection


      3.1. Failover Events

        The failover to the backup tunnel is primarily triggered by either a
        link or node failures observed downstream of the Point of Local
        repair (PLR). Some of these failure events are listed below.

        Link failure events

            - Interface Shutdown on PLR side with POS Alarm
            - Interface Shutdown on remote side with POS Alarm
            - Interface Shutdown on PLR side with RSVP hello
            - Interface Shutdown on remote side with RSVP hello
            - Interface Shutdown on PLR side with BFD
            - Interface Shutdown on remote side with BFD


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                             Protection Mechanisms
            - Fiber Pull on the PLR side (Both TX & RX or just the Tx)
            - Fiber Pull on the remote side (Both TX & RX or just the Rx)
            - Online insertion and removal (OIR) on PLR side
            - OIR on remote side
            - Sub-interface failure (e.g. shutting down of a VLAN)
            - Parent interface shutdown (an interface bearing multiple sub-
          interfaces


        Node failure events

        A System reload is initiated either by a graceful shutdown or by a
        power failure. A system crash is referred to as a software failure or
        an assert.

            - Reload protected Node, when RSVP Hello is enabled
            - Crash  Protected Node, when RSVP Hello is enable
            - Reload Protected Node, when BFD is enable
            - Crash  Protected Node, when BFD is enable


      3.2. Failure Detection [TERM-ID]

        Local failures can be detected via SONET/SDH failure with directly
        connected LSR.  Failure indication may vary with the type of alarm -
        LOS, AIS, or RDI. Failures on Ethernet links such as Gigabit Ethernet
        rely upon Layer 3 signaling indication for failure.

        Different MPLS protection mechanisms and different implementations
        use different failure detection techniques such as RSVP hellos, BFD
        etc. Ethernet technologies such as Gigabit Ethernet rely upon layer 3
        failure indication mechanisms since there is no Layer 2 failure
        indication mechanism. The failure detection time may not always be
        negligible and it could impact the overall failover time.

        The test procedures in this document can be used for a local failure
        or remote failure scenarios for comprehensive benchmarking and to
        evaluate failover performance independent of the failure detection
        techniques.






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                             Protection Mechanisms


    3.3. Use of Data Traffic for MPLS Protection Benchmarking

        Currently end customers use packet loss as a key metric for failover
        time. Packet loss is an externally observable event and has direct
        impact on customers' applications.  MPLS protection mechanism is
        expected to minimize the packet loss in the event of a failure. For
        this reason it is important to develop a standard router benchmarking
        methodology for measuring MPLS protection that uses packet loss as a
        metric.  At a known rate of forwarding, packet loss can be measured
        and the Failover time can be determined. Measurement of control plane
        signaling to establish backup paths is not enough to verify failover.
        Failover is best determined when packets are actually traversing the
        backup path.

        An additional benefit of using packet loss for calculation of
        Failover time is that it allows use of a black-box tests environment.
        Data traffic is offered at line-rate to the device under test (DUT),
        and an emulated network failure event is forced to occur, and packet
        loss is externally measured to calculate the convergence time. This
        setup is independent of the DUT architecture.

        In addition, this methodology considers the packets in error and
        duplicate packets that could have been generated during the failover
        process. In scenarios, where separate measurement of packets in error
        and duplicate packets is difficult to obtain, these packets should be
        attributed to lost packets.



      3.4. LSP and Route Scaling

        Failover time performance may vary with the number of established
        primary and backup tunnels (LSP) and installed routes. However the
        procedure outlined here should be used for any number of LSPs (L) and
        number of routes protected by PLR(R). Number of L and R must be
        recorded.



      3.5. Selection of IGP

        The underlying IGP could be ISIS-TE or OSPF-TE for the methodology
        proposed here.



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                             Protection Mechanisms


      3.6. Reversion [TERM-ID]

        Fast Reroute provides a method to return or restore a backup path to
        original primary LSP upon recovery from the failure. This is referred
        to as Reversion, which can be implemented as Global Reversion or
        Local Reversion. In all test cases listed here Reversion should not
        produce any packet loss, out of order or duplicate packets. Each of
        the test cases in this methodology document provides a check to
        confirm that there is no packet loss.



      3.7. Traffic generation

        It is suggested that there be one or more traffic streams as long as
        there is a steady and constant rate of flow for all the streams.  In
        order to monitor the DUT performance for recovery times a set of
        route prefixes should be advertised before traffic is sent. The
        traffic should be configured towards these routes.

        A typical example would be configuring the traffic generator to send
        the traffic to the first, middle and last of the advertised routes.
        (First, middle and last could be decided by the numerically smallest,
        median and the largest respectively of the advertised prefix).
        Generating traffic to all of the prefixes reachable by the protected
        tunnel (probably in a Round-Robin fashion, where the traffic is
        destined to all the prefixes but one prefix at a time in a cyclic
        manner) is not recommended. The reason why traffic generation is not
        recommended in a Round-Robin fashion to all the prefixes, one at a
        time is that if there are many prefixes reachable through the LSP the
        time interval between 2 packets destined to one prefix may be
        significantly high and may be comparable with the failover time being
        measured  which  does  not  aid  in  getting  an  accurate  failover
        measurement.





      3.8. Motivation for topologies






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     Internet-Draft     Methodology for benchmarking MPLS      February 2008
                             Protection Mechanisms
        Given that the label stack is dependent of the following 3 entities
        it is recommended that the benchmarking of failover time be performed
        on all the 8 topologies provided in section 4

            - Type of protection (Link Vs Node)

            - # of remaining hops of the primary tunnel from the PLR

            - # of remaining hops of the backup tunnel from the PLR



     4. Test Setup

        Topologies to be used for benchmarking the failover time:

        This section proposes a set of topologies that covers all the
        scenarios for local protection. All of these 8 topologies shown
        (figure 2- figure 9) can be mapped to the reference topology shown in
        figure 1. Topologies provided in sections 4.1 to 4.8 refer to test-
        bed required to benchmark failover time when DUT is configured as a
        PLR in either head-end or midpoint role. The labels stack provided
        with each topology is at the PLR.

        The label stacks shown below each figure in section 4.1 to 4.9
        considers enabling of Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP).

        Figures 2-9 uses the following convention:

        a) HE is Head-End

        b) TE is Tail-End

        c) MID is Mid point

        d) MP is Merge Point

        e) PLR is Point of Local Repair

        f) PRI is Primary

        g) BKP denotes Backup Node






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                             Protection Mechanisms
      4.1. Link Protection with 1 hop primary (from PLR) and 1 hop backup

             TE tunnels

                -------    -------- PRI  --------
               |  R1   |  |   R2   |    |   R3   |
            TG-|  HE   |--|  MID   |----|    TE  |-TA
               |       |  |  PLR   |----|        |
                -------    -------- BKP  --------
               Figure 2: Represents the setup for section 4.1

            Traffic            No of Labels      No of labels after
                               before failure    failure
            IP TRAFFIC (P-P)             0             0
            Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)     1             1
            Layer3 VPN (PE-P)      2             2
            Layer2 VC (PE-PE)      1             1
            Layer2 VC (PE-P)       2             2
            Mid-point LSPs         0             0



      4.2. Link Protection with 1 hop primary (from PLR) and 2 hop backup TE
                     tunnels

                -------      --------      --------
               |  R1   |    |  R2    |    |   R3   |
            TG-|  HE   |    |  MID   |PRI |   TE   |-TA
               |       |----|  PLR   |----|        |
                -------      --------      --------
                                |BKP               |
                                |     --------     |
                                |    |   R6   |    |
                                |----|  BKP   |----|
                                     |   MID  |
                                      --------
              Figure 3: Representing setup for section 4.2


            Traffic            No of Labels      No of labels
                               before failure    after failure


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                             Protection Mechanisms
            IP TRAFFIC (P-P)       0              1
            Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)     1              2
            Layer3 VPN (PE-P)      2              3
            Layer2 VC (PE-PE)      1              2
            Layer2 VC (PE-P)       2              3
            Mid-point LSPs         0              1




      4.3. Link Protection with 2+ hop (from PLR) primary and 1 hop backup TE
                     tunnels



                --------      --------      --------        --------
               |  R1    |    | R2     |PRI |   R3   |PRI   |   R4   |
            TG-|  HE    |----| MID    |----| MID    |------|   TE   |-TA
               |        |    | PLR    |----|        |      |        |
                --------      -------- BKP  --------        --------
              Figure 4: Representing setup for section 4.3



            Traffic            No of Labels      No of labels
                               before failure    after failure

            IP TRAFFIC (P-P)       1                1
            Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)     2                2
            Layer3 VPN (PE-P)      3                3
            Layer2 VC (PE-PE)      2                2
            Layer2 VC (PE-P)       3                3
            Mid-point LSPs         1                1




      4.4. Link Protection with 2+ hop (from PLR) primary and 2 hop backup TE
                     tunnels

                --------      -------- PRI  --------  PRI   --------
               |  R1    |    |  R2    |    |   R3   |      |   R4   |


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                             Protection Mechanisms
            TG-|   HE   |----| MID    |----|  MID   |------|   TE   |-TA
               |        |    | PLR    |    |        |      |        |
                --------      --------      --------        --------
                             BKP|              |
                                |    --------  |
                                |   |   R6   | |
                                 ---|  BKP   |-
                                    |  MID   |
                                     --------
              Figure 5: Representing the setup for section 4.4


            Traffic            No of Labels      No of labels
                               before failure    after failure

            IP TRAFFIC (P-P)       1              2
            Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)     2              3
            Layer3 VPN (PE-P)      3              4
            Layer2 VC (PE-PE)      2              3
            Layer2 VC (PE-P)       3              4
            Mid-point LSPs         1              2


      4.5. Node Protection with 2 hop primary (from PLR) and 1 hop backup TE
                     tunnels



                --------      --------      --------        --------
               |  R1    |    |  R2    |PRI |   R3   | PRI  |   R4   |
            TG-|   HE   |----|  MID   |----|  MID   |------|  TE    |-TA
               |        |    |  PLR   |    |        |      |        |
                --------      --------      --------        --------
                               |BKP                          |
                                -----------------------------
              Figure 6: Representing the setup for section 4.5


            Traffic            No of Labels      No of labels
                               before failure    after failure



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            IP TRAFFIC (P-P)       1             0
            Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)     2             1
            Layer3 VPN (PE-P)      3             2
            Layer2 VC (PE-PE)      2             1
            Layer2 VC (PE-P)       3             2
            Mid-point LSPs         1             0



      4.6. Node Protection with 2 hop primary (from PLR) and 2 hop backup TE
                     tunnels



                --------      --------      --------      --------
               |  R1    |    |  R2    |    |   R3   |    |   R4   |
            TG-|  HE    |    |  MID   |PRI |  MID   |PRI |  TE    |-TA
               |        |----|  PLR   |----|        |----|        |
                --------      --------      --------      --------
                               |                            |
                            BKP|          --------          |
                               |         |   R6   |         |
                                ---------|  BKP   |---------
                                         |  MID   |
                                          --------
              Figure 7: Representing setup for section 4.6



            Traffic            No of Labels      No of labels
                               before failure    after failure

            IP TRAFFIC (P-P)       1             1
            Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)     2             2
            Layer3 VPN (PE-P)      3             3
            Layer2 VC (PE-PE)      2             2
            Layer2 VC (PE-P)       3             3
            Mid-point LSPs         1             1





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      4.7. Node Protection with 3+ hop primary (from PLR) and 1 hop backup TE
                     tunnels



            --------    -------- PRI -------- PRI -------- PRI --------
           |  R1    |  |  R2    |   |   R3   |   |   R4   |   |   R5   |
        TG-|   HE   |--|  MID   |---| MID    |---|  MP    |---|  TE    |-TA
           |        |  |  PLR   |   |        |   |        |   |        |
            --------    --------     --------     --------     --------
                       BKP|                          |
                           --------------------------
        Figure 8: Representing setup for section 4.7

            Traffic            No of Labels      No of labels
                               before failure    after failure

            IP TRAFFIC (P-P)       1             1
            Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)     2             2
            Layer3 VPN (PE-P)      3             3
            Layer2 VC (PE-PE)      2             2
            Layer2 VC (PE-P)       3             3
            Mid-point LSPs         1             1






















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      4.8.  Node Protection with 3+ hop primary (from PLR) and 2 hop backup
                     TE tunnels

            --------     --------     --------     --------     --------
           |  R1    |   |  R2    |   |   R3   |   |   R4   |   |   R5   |
        TG-|  HE    |   |   MID  |PRI|  MID   |PRI|  MP    |PRI|  TE    |-TA
           |        |-- |  PLR   |---|        |---|        |---|        |
            --------     --------     --------     --------     --------
                          BKP|                          |
                             |          --------        |
                             |         |  R6    |       |
                              ---------|  BKP   |-------
                                       |  MID   |
                                        --------
        Figure 9: Representing setup for section 4.8

            Traffic            No of Labels      No of labels
                               before failure    after failure

            IP TRAFFIC (P-P)       1             2
            Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)     2             3
            Layer3 VPN (PE-P)      3             4
            Layer2 VC (PE-PE)      2             3
            Layer2 VC (PE-P)       3             4
            Mid-point LSPs         1             2


     5. Test Methodology

        The procedure described in this section can be applied to all the 8
        base test cases and the associated topologies. The backup as well as
        the primary tunnel are configured to be alike in terms of bandwidth
        usage. In order to benchmark failover with all possible label stack
        depth applicable as seen with current deployments, it is suggested
        that the methodology includes all the scenarios listed here

          5.1. Headend as PLR with link failure

          Objective




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          To benchmark the MPLS failover time due to Link failure events
          described in section 3.1 experienced by the DUT which is the point
          of local repair (PLR).

           Test Setup

             - select any one topology out of 8 from section 4
             - select overlay technology for FRR test e.g. IGP,VPN,or VC
             - The DUT will also have 2 interfaces connected to the traffic
               Generator/analyzer. (If the node downstream of the PLR is not
               A simulated node, then the Ingress of the tunnel should have
               one link connected to the traffic generator and the node
               downstream to the PLR or the egress of the tunnel should have
               a link connected to the traffic analyzer).


           Test Configuration

            1.  Configure the number of primaries on R2 and the backups on
                 R2 as required by the topology selected.
            2.   Advertise prefixes (as per FRR Scalability table describe in
                 Appendix A) by the tail end.


           Procedure

             1. Establish the primary lsp on R2 required by the topology
                 selected
             2. Establish the backup lsp on R2 required by the selected
                 topology
             3. Verify primary and backup lsps are up and that primary is
                 protected
             4. Verify Fast Reroute protection is enabled and ready
             5. Setup traffic streams as described in section 3.7
             6. Send IP traffic at maximum Forwarding Rate to DUT.
             7. Verify traffic switched over Primary LSP.
             8. Trigger any choice of Link failure as describe in section
                 3.1
             9. Verify that primary tunnel and prefixes gets mapped to
                 backup tunnels
             10. Stop traffic stream and measure the traffic loss.


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             11. Failover time is calculated as defined in section 6,
                 Reporting format.
             12. Start traffic stream again to verify reversion when
                 protected interface comes up. Traffic loss should be 0 due
                 to make before break or reversion.
             13. Enable protected interface that was down (Node in the case
                 of NNHOP)
             14. Verify head-end signals new LSP and protection should be in
                 place again



          5.2. Mid-Point as PLR with link failure

          Objective

          To benchmark the MPLS failover time due to Link failure events
          described in section 3.1 experienced by the device under test which
          is the point of local repair (PLR).

          Test Setup

             - select any one topology out of 8 from section 4
             - select overlay technology for FRR test as Mid-Point lsps
             - The DUT will also have 2 interfaces connected to the traffic
               generator.


          Test Configuration

            1.  Configure the number of primaries on R1 and the backups on
                 R2 as required by the topology selected
            2.   Advertise prefixes (as per FRR Scalability table describe in
                 Appendix A) by the tail end.


           Procedure

             1. Establish the primary lsp on R1 required by the topology
                 selected




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             2. Establish the backup lsp on R2 required by the selected
                 topology
             3. Verify primary and backup lsps are up and that primary is
                 protected
             4. Verify Fast Reroute protection
             5. Setup traffic streams as described in section 3.7
             6. Send IP traffic at maximum Forwarding Rate to DUT.
             7. Verify traffic switched over Primary LSP.
             8. Trigger any choice of Link failure as describe in section
                 3.1
             9. Verify that primary tunnel and prefixes gets mapped to
                 backup tunnels
             10. Stop traffic stream and measure the traffic loss.
             11. Failover time is calculated as per defined in section 6,
                 Reporting format.
             12. Start traffic stream again to verify reversion when
                 protected interface comes up. Traffic loss should be 0 due
                 to make before break or reversion
             13. Enable protected interface that was down (Node in the case
                 of NNHOP)
             14. Verify head-end signals new LSP and protection should be in
                 place again


          5.3. Headend as PLR with Node failure

           Objective

          To benchmark the MPLS failover time due to Node failure events
          described in section 3.1 experienced by the device under test which
          is the point of local repair (PLR).

           Test Setup

             - select any one topology from section 4.5 to 4.8
             - select overlay technology for FRR test e.g. IGP,VPN,or VC
             - The DUT will also have 2 interfaces connected to the traffic
               generator.

           Test Configuration




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            1.  Configure the number of primaries on R2 and the backups on
                 R2 as required by the topology selected
            2.   Advertise prefixes (as per FRR Scalability table describe in
                 Appendix A) by the tail end.

           Procedure

             1. Establish the primary lsp on R2 required by the topology
                 selected
             2. Establish the backup lsp on R2 required by the selected
                 topology
             3. Verify primary and backup lsps are up and that primary is
                 protected
             4. Verify Fast Reroute protection
             5. Setup traffic streams as described in section 3.7
             6. Send IP traffic at maximum Forwarding Rate to DUT.
             7. Verify traffic switched over Primary LSP.
             8. Trigger any choice of Node failure as describe in section
                 3.1
             9. Verify that primary tunnel and prefixes gets mapped to
                 backup tunnels
             10. Stop traffic stream and measure the traffic loss.
             11. Failover time is calculated as per defined in section 6,
                 Reporting format.
             12. Start traffic stream again to verify reversion when
                 protected interface comes up. Traffic loss should be 0 due
                 to make before break or reversion
             13. Boot protected Node that was down.
             14. Verify head-end signals new LSP and protection should be in
                 place again



          5.4. Mid-Point as PLR with Node failure



          Objective





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          To benchmark the MPLS failover time due to Node failure events
          described in section 3.1 experienced by the device under test which
          is the point of local repair (PLR).

           Test Setup

             - select any one topology from section 4.5 to 4.8
             - select overlay technology for FRR test as Mid-Point lsps
             - The DUT will also have 2 interfaces connected to the traffic
               generator.

           Test Configuration

            1.  Configure the number of primaries on R1 and the backups on
                 R2 as required by the topology selected
            2.   Advertise prefixes (as per FRR Scalability table describe in
                 Appendix A) by the tail end.

           Procedure

             1. Establish the primary lsp on R1 required by the topology
                 selected
             2. Establish the backup lsp on R2 required by the selected
                 topology
             3. Verify primary and backup lsps are up and that primary is
                 protected
             4. Verify Fast Reroute protection
             5. Setup traffic streams as described in section 3.7
             6. Send IP traffic at maximum Forwarding Rate to DUT.
             7. Verify traffic switched over Primary LSP.
             8. Trigger any choice of Node failure as describe in section
                 3.1
             9. Verify that primary tunnel and prefixes gets mapped to
                 backup tunnels
             10. Stop traffic stream and measure the traffic loss.
             11. Failover time is calculated as per defined in section 6,
                 Reporting format.
             12. Start traffic stream again to verify reversion when
                 protected interface comes up. Traffic loss should be 0 due
                 to make before break or reversion
             13. Boot protected Node that was down


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             14. Verify head-end signals new LSP and protection should be in
                 place again


          5.5. MPLS FRR Forwarding Performance Test Cases

          For the following MPLS FRR Forwarding Performance Benchmarking
          cases, Test the maximum PPS rate allowed by given hardware

          5.5.1. PLR as Headend


               Objective

                To benchmark the maximum rate (pps) on the PLR (as headend)
             over primary FRR LSP and backup lsp.

                Test Setup

             - select any one topology out of 8 from section 4
             - select overlay technology for FRR test e.g. IGP,VPN,or VC
             - The DUT will also have 2 interfaces connected to the traffic
               Generator/analyzer. (If the node downstream of the PLR is not
               A simulated node, then the Ingress of the tunnel should have
               one link connected to the traffic generator and the node
               downstream to the PLR or the egress of the tunnel should have
               a link connected to the traffic analyzer).

                Procedure

                  1. Establish the primary lsp on R2 required by the
                      topology selected
                  2. Establish the backup lsp on R2 required by the
                      selected topology
                  3. Verify primary and backup lsps are up and that primary
                      is protected
                  4. Verify Fast Reroute protection is enabled and ready
                  5. Setup traffic streams as described in section 3.7
                  6. Send IP traffic at maximum forwarding rate (pps) that
                      the device under test supports over the primary LSP
                  7. Record maximum PPS rate forwarded over primary LSP



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                  8. Stop traffic stream
                  9. Trigger any choice of Link failure as describe in
                      section 3.1
                  10. Verify that primary tunnel and prefixes gets mapped to
                      backup tunnels
                  11. Send IP traffic at maximum forwarding rate (pps) that
                      the device under test supports over the primary LSP
                  12. Record maximum PPS rate forwarded over backup LSP



          5.5.2. PLR as Mid-point

             To benchmark the maximum rate (pps) on the PLR (as mid-point)
             over primary FRR LSP and backup lsp.


                Test Setup

             - select any one topology out of 8 from section 4
             - select overlay technology for FRR test as Mid-Point lsps
             - The DUT will also have 2 interfaces connected to the traffic
               generator.



                Procedure

                  1. Establish the primary lsp on R1 required by the
                      topology selected
                  2. Establish the backup lsp on R2 required by the
                      selected topology
                  3. Verify primary and backup lsps are up and that primary
                      is protected
                  4. Verify Fast Reroute protection is enabled and ready
                  5. Setup traffic streams as described in section 3.7
                  6. Send IP traffic at maximum forwarding rate (pps) that
                      the device under test supports over the primary LSP
                  7. Record maximum PPS rate forwarded over primary LSP
                  8. Stop traffic stream



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                  9. Trigger any choice of Link failure as describe in
                      section 3.1
                  10. Verify that primary tunnel and prefixes gets mapped to
                      backup tunnels
                  11. Send IP traffic at maximum forwarding rate (pps) that
                      the device under test supports over the backup LSP
                  12. Record maximum PPS rate forwarded over backup LSP



     6. Reporting Format

        For each test, it is recommended that the results be reported in the
        following format.

             Parameter                               Units

             IGP used for the test                   ISIS-TE/ OSPF-TE
             Interface types                         Gige,POS,ATM,VLAN etc.
             Packet Sizes offered to the DUT         Bytes
             Forwarding rate                         number of packets
             IGP routes advertised                   number of IGP routes
             RSVP hello timers configured (if any)   milliseconds
             Number of FRR tunnels configured        number of tunnels
             Number of VPN routes in head-end        number of VPN routes
             Number of VC tunnels                    number of VC tunnels
             Number of BGP routes                    number of BGP routes
             Number of mid-point tunnels             number of tunnels
             Number of Prefixes protected by Primary number of prefixes
             Number of LSPs being protected          number of LSPs
             Topology being used                     Section number
             Failure Event                           Event type


             Benchmarks

             Minimum failover time                    milliseconds
             Mean failover time                       milliseconds
             Maximum failover time                    milliseconds
             Minimum reversion time                   milliseconds



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             Mean reversion time                      milliseconds
             Maximum reversion time                   milliseconds


        Failover time suggested above is calculated using one of the
        following 3 methods


           1. Packet-Based Loss method (PBLM): (Number of packets
             dropped/packets per second * 1000) milliseconds. This method
             could also be referred as Rate Derived method.

           2. Time-Based Loss Method (TBLM): This method relies on the
             ability of the Traffic generators to provide statistics which
             reveal the duration of failure in milliseconds based on when the
             packet loss occurred (interval between non-zero packet loss and
             zero loss).

           3. Timestamp Based Method (TBM): This method of failover
             calculation is based on the timestamp that gets transmitted as
             payload in the packets originated by the generator. The Traffic
             Analyzer records the timestamp of the last packet received
             before the failover event and the first packet after the
             failover and derives the time based on the difference between
             these 2 timestamps. Note: The payload could also contain
             sequence numbers for out-of-order packet calculation and
             duplicate packets.

        Note: If the primary is configured to be dynamic, and if the primary
        is to reroute, make before break should occur from the backup that is
        in use to a new alternate primary. If there is any packet loss seen,
        it should be added to failover time.



     7. IANA Considerations

           This document requires no IANA considerations.



     8. Security Considerations

        Benchmarking activities as described in this memo are limited to
        technology characterization using controlled stimuli in a laboratory


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        environment, with dedicated address space and the constraints
        specified in the sections above.

        The benchmarking network topology will be an independent test setup
        and MUST NOT be connected to devices that may forward the test
        traffic into a production network, or misroute traffic to the test
        management network.

        Further, benchmarking is performed on a "black-box" basis, relying
        solely on measurements observable external to the DUT/SUT.

        Special capabilities SHOULD NOT exist in the DUT/SUT specifically
        for benchmarking purposes. Any implications for network security
        arising from the DUT/SUT SHOULD be identical in the lab and in
        production networks.



        The isolated nature of the benchmarking environments and the fact
        that no special features or capabilities, other than those used in
        operational networks, are enabled on the DUT/SUT requires no
        security considerations specific to the benchmarking process.



     9. Acknowledgements

        We would like to thank Jean Philip Vasseur for his invaluable input
        to the document and Curtis Villamizar his contribution in suggesting
        text on definition and need for benchmarking Correlated failures.

        Additionally we would like to thank Arun Gandhi, Amrit Hanspal, Karu
        Ratnam and for their input to the document.



     10. References

      10.1. Normative References

        [MPLS-FRR-EXT]   Pan, P., Atlas, A., Swallow, G., "Fast Reroute
                         Extensions to RSVP-TE for LSP Tunnels", RFC 4090.





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      10.2. Informative References


        [RFC-WORDS]      Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to
                         Indicate Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.

        [TERM-ID]        Poretsky S., Papneja R., Karthik J., Vapiwala S.,
                         "Benchmarking Terminology  for Protection
                         Performance", draft-ietf-bmwg-protection-term-
                         02.txt, work in progress.

        [MPLS-FRR-EXT]   Pan P., Swollow G., Atlas A., "Fast Reroute
                         Extensions to RSVP-TE for LSP Tunnels", RFC 4090.


         [IGP-METH]      S. Poretsky, B. Imhoff, "Benchmarking Methodology
                         for IGP Data Plane Route Convergence, "draft-ietf-
                         bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-12.txt", work in
                         progress.



     11.  Authors' Addresses


        Rajiv Papneja
        Isocore
        12359 Sunrise Valley Drive, STE 100
        Reston, VA 20190
        USA
        Phone: +1 703 860 9273
        Email: rpapneja@isocore.com

        Samir Vapiwala
        Cisco System
        300 Beaver Brook Road
        Boxborough, MA 01719
        USA
        Phone: +1 978 936 1484
        Email: svapiwal@cisco.com



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        Jay Karthik
        Cisco Systems,
        300 Beaver Brook Road
        Boxborough, MA 01719
        USA
        Phone: + 1 978 936 0533
        Email: jkarthik@cisco.com

        Scott Poretsky
        Reef Point Systems
        8 New England Executive Park
        Burlington, MA 01803
        USA
        Phone: + 1 781 395 5090
        EMail: sporetsky@reefpoint.com

        Shankar Rao
        Qwest Communications,
        950 17th Street
        Suite 1900
        Denver, CO 80210
        USA
        Phone: + 1 303 437 6643
        Email: shankar.rao@qwest.com

        Jean-Louis Le Roux
        France Telecom
        2 av Pierre Marzin
        22300 Lannion
        France
        Phone: 00 33 2 96 05 30 20
        Email: jeanlouis.leroux@orange-ft.com









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Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE IETF TRUST AND
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   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


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   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
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   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
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   http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
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Acknowledgment

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is provided by the IETF
   Administrative Support Activity (IASA).




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        Appendix A: Fast Reroute Scalability Table

        This section provides the recommended numbers for evaluating the
        scalability of fast reroute implementations. It also recommends the
        typical numbers for IGP/VPNv4 Prefixes, LSP Tunnels and VC entries.
        Based on the features supported by the device under test, appropriate
        scaling limits can be used for the test bed.


        A 1. FRR IGP Table

        No of Headend     IGP Prefixes
        TE LSPs
        1                  100
        1                  500
        1                 1000
        1                 2000
        1                 5000
        2(Load Balance)    100
        2(Load Balance)    500
        2(Load Balance)   1000
        2(Load Balance)   2000
        2(Load Balance)   5000
        100                100
        500                500
        1000              1000
        2000              2000


        A 2. FRR VPN Table

        No of Headend     VPNv4 Prefixes
        TE LSPs



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        1                  100
        1                  500
        1                 1000
        1                 2000
        1                 5000
        1                10000
        1                20000
        1                  Max
        2(Load Balance)    100
        2(Load Balance)    500
        2(Load Balance)   1000
        2(Load Balance)   2000
        2(Load Balance)   5000
        2(Load Balance)  10000
        2(Load Balance)  20000
        2(Load Balance)    Max


        A 3. FRR Mid-Point LSP Table

        No of Mid-point TE LSPs could be configured at the following
     recommended levels
        100
        500
        1000
        2000
        Max supported number


        A 4.   FRR VC Table

        No of Headend     VC entries
        TE LSPs

        1                 100
        1                 500
        1                1000
        1                2000
        1                 Max


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        100               100
        500               500
        1000             1000
        2000             2000

        Appendix B: Abbreviations

        BFD      - Bidirectional Fault Detection
        BGP      - Border Gateway protocol
        CE       - Customer Edge
        DUT      - Device Under Test
        FRR      - Fast Reroute
        IGP      - Interior Gateway Protocol
        IP       - Internet Protocol
        LSP      - Label Switched Path
        MP       - Merge Point
        MPLS     - Multi Protocol Label Switching
        N-Nhop   - Next - Next Hop
        Nhop     - Next Hop
        OIR      - Online Insertion and Removal
        P        - Provider
        PE       - Provider Edge
        PHP      - Penultimate Hop Popping
        PLR      - Point of Local Repair
        RSVP     - Resource reSerVation Protocol
        SRLG     - Shared Risk Link Group
        TA       - Traffic Analyzer
        TE       - Traffic Engineering
        TG       - Traffic Generator
        VC       - Virtual Circuit
        VPN      - Virtual Private Network













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