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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 RFC 6894

Network Working Group                                         R. Papneja
Internet-Draft                                       Huawei Technologies
Intended status: Informational                               S. Vapiwala
Expires: November 30, 2012                                    J. Karthik
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                            S. Poretsky
                                                    Allot Communications
                                                                  S. Rao
                                                    Qwest Communications
                                                             JL. Le Roux
                                                          France Telecom
                                                            May 29, 2012


      Methodology for Benchmarking MPLS-TE Fast Reroute Protection
                 draft-ietf-bmwg-protection-meth-10.txt

Abstract

   This document describes the methodology for benchmarking MPLS
   Protection mechanisms for link and node protection as defined in
   [RFC4090].  This document provides test methodologies and testbed
   setup for measuring failover times while considering all dependencies
   that might impact faster recovery of real-time applications bound to
   MPLS traffic engineered (MPLS-TE) tunnels.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on November 30, 2012.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.




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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Document Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  Existing Definitions and Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  General Reference Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   5.  Test Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.1.  Failover Events  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.2.  Failure Detection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.3.  Use of Data Traffic for MPLS Protection benchmarking . . .  9
     5.4.  LSP and Route Scaling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.5.  Selection of IGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.6.  Restoration and Reversion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.7.  Offered Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.8.  Tester Capabilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.9.  Failover Time Measurement Methods  . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   6.  Reference Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     6.1.  Link Protection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       6.1.1.  Link Protection - 1 hop primary (from PLR) and 1
               hop backup TE tunnels  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       6.1.2.  Link Protection - 1 hop primary (from PLR) and 2
               hop backup TE tunnels  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       6.1.3.  Link Protection - 2+ hops (from PLR) primary and 1
               hop backup TE tunnels  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       6.1.4.  Link Protection - 2+ hop (from PLR) primary and 2
               hop backup TE tunnels  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     6.2.  Node Protection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       6.2.1.  Node Protection - 2 hop primary (from PLR) and 1
               hop backup TE tunnels  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       6.2.2.  Node Protection - 2 hop primary (from PLR) and 2
               hop backup TE tunnels  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       6.2.3.  Node Protection - 3+ hop primary (from PLR) and 1
               hop backup TE tunnels  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       6.2.4.  Node Protection - 3+ hop primary (from PLR) and 2
               hop backup TE tunnels  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   7.  Test Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     7.1.  MPLS FRR Forwarding Performance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       7.1.1.  Headend PLR Forwarding Performance . . . . . . . . . . 21
       7.1.2.  Mid-Point PLR Forwarding Performance . . . . . . . . . 22
     7.2.  Headend PLR with Link Failure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     7.3.  Mid-Point PLR with Link Failure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     7.4.  Headend PLR with Node Failure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     7.5.  Mid-Point PLR with Node Failure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   8.  Reporting Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   10. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31



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     12.1. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
     12.2. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   Appendix A.  Fast Reroute Scalability Table  . . . . . . . . . . . 32
   Appendix B.  Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36














































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1.  Introduction

   This document describes the methodology for benchmarking MPLS based
   protection mechanisms.  This document uses much of the terminology
   defined in [RFC6414].

   MPLS based protection mechanisms provide fast recovery of real-time
   services from a planned or an unplanned link or node failures.  MPLS
   protection mechanisms are generally deployed in a network
   infrastructure where MPLS is used for provisioning of point-to- point
   traffic engineered tunnels (tunnel).  MPLS based protection
   mechanisms promise to reduce service disruption period by minimizing
   recovery time from most common failures.

   Network elements from different manufacturers behave differently to
   network failures, which impacts the network's ability and failure
   recovery performance.  It therefore becomes imperative for service
   providers to have a common benchmark to verify the performance
   behaviors of these network elements.

   There are two factors impacting service availability: frequency of
   failures and duration for which the failures persist.  Failures can
   be classified into two types: correlated and uncorrelated.
   Correlated or uncorrelated failures may be planned or unplanned.

   Planned failures are predictable.  Network implementations should be
   able to handle both planned and unplanned failures and recover
   gracefully within a time period acceptable to maintain service
   assurance.  Hence, failover recovery time is one of the most
   important benchmark that a service provider considers in choosing a
   the building blocks for their network infrastructure.

   A correlated failure is the simultaneous occurrence of two or more
   failures.  A typical example is failure of a logical resource (e.g.
   layer-2 links) due to a dependency on a common physical resource
   (e.g. common conduit) that fails.  Within the context of MPLS-TE
   protection mechanisms, failures that arise due to Shared Risk Link
   Groups (SRLG) [RFC4090] can be considered as correlated failures.

   MPLS Fast Re-Route (MPLS-FRR) allows for the possibility that the
   Label Switched Paths tunnels can be re-optimized following the
   Failover.  IP Traffic would be re-routed according to the preferred
   path according to the post-failure topology.  Hence, MPLS-FRR may
   include additional steps following the occurrence of the failure
   detection [RFC6414] and failover event [RFC6414].






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      (1)  Failover Event - Primary Path (Working Path) fails

      (2)  Failure Detection- Failover Event is detected

      (3)

           a.  Failover - Working Path switched to Backup path

           b.  Re-Optimization of Working Path (possible change from
               Backup Path)

      (4)  Restoration [RFC6414]

      (5)  Reversion [RFC6414]


2.  Document Scope

   This document provides detailed test cases along with different
   topologies and scenarios that should be considered to effectively
   benchmark MPLS-TE protection mechanisms and failover times.
   Different failover events and scaling considerations are also
   provided in this document.

   All benchmarking test-cases defined in this document apply to
   facility backup method [RFC4090].  The test cases cover all possible
   failure scenarios to benchmark the performance of the Device Under
   Test (DUT) to recover from failures.  Data plane traffic is used to
   benchmark failover times.

   Benchmarking of correlated failures is out of scope of this document.
   Faster failure detection using Bi-directional Forwarding Detection
   (BFD) is outside the scope of this document, but is mentioned in the
   discussion sections.

   The Performance benchmarking of control plane is outside the scope of
   this benchmarking.

   As described above, MPLS-FRR may include a Re-optimization of the
   Working Path.  Characterization of Re-optimization is beyond the
   scope of this memo.


3.  Existing Definitions and Requirements

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",



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   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
   [RFC2119].  RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make
   the intent of standards track documents as clear as possible.  While
   this document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards
   track document.

   The reader is assumed to be familiar with the commonly used MPLS
   terminology, some of which is defined in [RFC4090].

   This document uses much of the terminology defined in [RFC6414].
   This document also uses existing terminology defined in other BMWG
   Work [RFC1242], [RFC2285], [RFC4689].


4.  General Reference Topology

   Figure 1 illustrates the basic reference testbed and is applicable to
   all the test cases defined in this document.  Tester comprises a
   Traffic Generator (TG), Test Analyzer (TA) and Emulator.  The Tester
   is connected to the test network and based on test case, the DUT role
   could vary.  The Tester (TG) sends and receives (TA) IP traffic to
   the tunnel ingress and performs signaling protocol emulation to
   simulate real network scenarios in a lab environment.  The Tester may
   also support MPLS-TE signaling to act as the ingress/egress node.




          +---------------------------+
          |              +------------|---------------+
          |              |            |               |
          |              |            |               |
      +--------+     +--------+    +--------+    +--------+   +--------+
  TG--|   R1   |-----|   R2   |----|   R3   |    |    R4  |   |  R5    |
      |        |-----|        |----|        |----|        |---|        |
      +--------+     +--------+    +--------+    +--------+   +--------+
          |             |              |            |            |
          |             |              |            |            |
          |         +--------+         |            |           TA
          +---------|   R6   |---------+            |
                    |        |----------------------+
                    +--------+




                       Fig. 1  Fast Reroute Topology



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   The tester must be able to record the number of lost, duplicate, and
   reordered packets.  It should further record arrival and departure
   times so that Failover Time, Additive Latency, and Reversion Time can
   be measured.  The tester may be a single device or a test system
   emulating different roles along a primary or backup path.

   The label stack is dependent on the following 3 entities:

      (1)  Type of protection (Link Vs Node)

      (2)  # of remaining hops of the primary tunnel from the Point of
           Local Repair (PLR)[RFC6414]

      (3)  # of remaining hops of the backup tunnel from the PLR

   Due to this dependency, it is RECOMMENDED that the benchmarking of
   failover times be performed on all the topologies provided in section
   6.


5.  Test Considerations

   This section discusses the fundamentals of MPLS Protection testing:

      (1)  The types of network events that causes failover

      (2)  Indications for failover

      (3)  the use of data traffic

      (4)  Traffic generation

      (5)  LSP Scaling

      (6)  Reversion of LSP

      (7)  IGP Selection

5.1.  Failover Events

   The failover to the backup tunnel is primarily triggered by either
   link or node failures observed downstream of the PLR.  Some of these
   failure events [RFC6414] are listed below.

   Link Failure Events






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          - Interface Shutdown on PLR side with POS Alarm
          - Interface Shutdown on remote side with POS Alarm
          - Interface Shutdown on PLR side with RSVP hello enabled
          - Interface Shutdown on remote side with RSVP hello enabled
          - Interface Shutdown on PLR side with BFD
          - Interface Shutdown on remote side with BFD
          - Fiber Pull on the PLR side (Both TX & RX or just the TX)
          - Fiber Pull on the remote side (Both TX & RX or just the RX)
          - Online insertion and removal (OIR) on PLR side
          - OIR on remote side
          - Sub-interface failure on PLR side (e.g. shutting down of a VLAN)
          - Sub-interface failure on remote side
          - Parent interface shutdown on PLR side (an interface bearing multiple
            sub-interfaces)
          - Parent interface shutdown on remote side

   Node Failure Events

             - A System reload initiated either by a graceful shutdown
               or by a power failure.
             - A system crash due to a software failure or an assert.

5.2.  Failure Detection

   Link failure detection [RFC6414] time depends on the link type and
   failure detection techniques enabled.  For SONET/SDH, the alarm type
   (such as LOS, AIS, or RDI) can be used.  Other link types have layer-
   two alarms, but they may not provide a short enough failure detection
   time.  Ethernet based links do not have layer 2 failure indicators,
   and therefore relies on layer 3 signaling for failure detection.
   However for directly connected devices, remote fault indication in
   the Ethernet auto-negotiation scheme could be considered as a type of
   layer 2 link failure indicator.

   BFD and RSVP-hellos may be used as failure detection techniques.
   These methods can be used for the layer 3 failure indicators required
   by Ethernet based links, or for some other non- Ethernet based links
   to help improve failure detection time.  However, these fast failure
   detection mechanisms are out of scope of this document.

   The test procedures in this document can be used for MPLS-TE
   protection benchmarking due to either a local failure or remote
   failure.

5.3.  Use of Data Traffic for MPLS Protection benchmarking

   Currently end customers use packet loss as a key metric for Failover
   Time [RFC6414].  Failover Packet Loss [RFC6414] is an externally



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   observable event and has direct impact on application performance.
   MPLS-TE protection is expected to minimize the packet loss in the
   event of a failure.  For this reason it is important to develop a
   standard router benchmarking methodology for measuring MPLS
   protection that uses packet loss as a metric.  At a known rate of
   forwarding, packet loss can be measured and the failover time can be
   determined.  Measurement of control plane recovery and establishing
   backup paths is not enough to verify a timely failover.  Failover
   performance is best determined when packets are actually switched to
   the backup path.

   Benefit of using packet loss for calculation of failover time is that
   it allows use of a black-box test environment.  Data traffic is
   offered at line-rate to the device under test (DUT) an emulated
   network failure event is forced to occur, and packet loss is
   externally measured to calculate the convergence time.  This setup is
   independent of the DUT architecture.

   The methodology considers lost, packet in error, out-of-order
   [RFC4689] and duplicate packets as impaired packets that contribute
   to the Failover Time.

5.4.  LSP and Route Scaling

   Failover time performance may vary with the number of established
   primary and backup tunnel label switched paths (LSP) and installed
   routes.  However, the procedure outlined here should be used for any
   number of LSPs (L) and number of routes protected by the headend as
   the PLR(R).  The amount of L and R must be recorded.  The recommended
   table is provided in appendix A.

5.5.  Selection of IGP

   The underlying IGP could be ISIS-TE or OSPF-TE for the methodology
   proposed here.  See [RFC6412] for IGP options to consider and report.
   At least one of the IGP is required to be enabled for the procedures
   discussed in the document.

5.6.  Restoration and Reversion

   Path restoration [RFC6414] provides a method to restore an alternate
   primary LSP upon failure and to switch traffic from the Backup Path
   to the restored Primary Path (Reversion).  In MPLS-FRR, Reversion can
   be implemented as Global Reversion or Local Reversion.  It is
   important to include Restoration and Reversion as a step in each test
   case to measure the amount of packet loss, out of order packets, or
   duplicate packets that occurs in this process.




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   Note: In addition to restoration and reversion, re-optimization can
   take place while the failure is still not recovered but it depends on
   the user configuration, and re-optimization timers.

5.7.  Offered Load

   It is recommended that there be three or more traffic streams
   configured with steady and constant rate of flow for all the streams.
   In order to monitor the DUT performance for recovery times, a set of
   route prefixes should be advertised before traffic is sent.  The
   traffic should be configured to target the advertised routes.

   For better accuracy, one may consider provisioning 16 flows, or more
   if possible.  IP Prefix-dependency behaviors are key and tests with
   route-specific flows spread across the routing table reveals such
   dependency.  Sending traffic to all of the prefixes reachable by the
   protected tunnel in a round-robin fashion is not recommended as the
   time interval between two subsequent packets destined to one prefix
   may be higher than the failover time being measured resulting in
   inaccurate failover measurements.

5.8.  Tester Capabilities

   It is RECOMMENDED that the Tester used to execute each test case have
   the following capabilities:



         1.Ability to establish MPLS-TE tunnels and push/pop labels.

         2.Ability to produce Failover Event [RFC6414].

         3.Ability to insert a timestamp in each data packet's IP
         payload.

         4.An internal time clock to control timestamping, time
         measurements, and time calculations.

         5.Ability to disable or tune specific Layer-2 and Layer-3
         protocol functions on any interface(s) such as disabling or
         enabling interface IP addresses, auto-negotiation on ethernet
         interfaces or scrambling on Packet over SONET interfaces.

         6.  In a case, if the tester is the headend, it should be able
         to react upon the receipt of path error from the PLR

   The Tester MAY be capable to make non-data plane convergence
   observations and use those observations for measurements.



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5.9.  Failover Time Measurement Methods

   Failover Time is calculated using one of the following three methods

   1.  Packet-Loss Based method (PLBM): (Number of packets dropped/
       packets per second * 1000) milliseconds.  This method could also
       be referred as Loss-Derived method.

   2.  Time-Based Loss Method (TBLM): This method relies on the ability
       of the Traffic generators to provide statistics which reveal the
       duration of failure in milliseconds based on when the packet loss
       occurred (interval between non-zero packet loss and zero loss).

   3.  Timestamp Based Method (TBM): This method of failover calculation
       is based on the timestamp that gets transmitted as payload in the
       packets originated by the generator.  The Traffic Analyzer
       records the timestamp of the last packet received before the
       failover event and the first packet after the failover and
       derives the time based on the difference between these 2
       timestamps.  Note: The payload could also contain sequence
       numbers for out-of-order packet calculation and duplicate
       packets.

   The timestamp based method would be able to detect Reversion
   impairments beyond loss, thus it is RECOMMENDED method as a Failover
   Time method.


6.  Reference Test Setup

   In addition to the general reference topology shown in figure 1, this
   section provides detailed insight into various proposed test setups
   that should be considered for comprehensively benchmarking the
   failover time in different roles along the primary tunnel

   This section proposes a set of topologies that covers all the
   scenarios for local protection.  All of these topologies can be
   mapped to the reference topology shown in Figure 1.  Topologies
   provided in this section refer to the testbed required to benchmark
   failover time when the DUT is configured as a PLR in either Headend
   or midpoint role.  Provided with each topology below is the label
   stack at the PLR.  Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP) MAY be used and must
   be reported when used.

   Figures 2 thru 9 use the following convention and are subset of
   figure 1:





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           a) HE is Headend
           b) TE is Tail-End
           c) MID is Mid point
           d) MP is Merge Point
           e) PLR is Point of Local Repair
           f) PRI is Primary Path
           g) BKP denotes Backup Path and Nodes
           h) UR is Upstream Router

6.1.  Link Protection

6.1.1.  Link Protection - 1 hop primary (from PLR) and 1 hop backup TE
        tunnels



               +-------+  +--------+    +--------+
               |  R1   |  |   R2   | PRI|   R3   |
               | UR/HE |--| HE/MID |----|  MP/TE |
               |       |  |  PLR   |----|        |
               +-------+  +--------+ BKP+--------+

                             Figure 2.

          Traffic            Num of Labels   Num of labels
                             before failure  after failure
          IP TRAFFIC (P-P)         0             0
          Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)       1             1
          Layer3 VPN (PE-P)        2             2
          Layer2 VC (PE-PE)        1             1
          Layer2 VC (PE-P)         2             2
          Mid-point LSPs           0             0


   Note: Please note the following:

           a) For P-P case, R2 and R3 acts as P routers
           b) For PE-PE case,R2 acts as PE and R3 acts as a remote PE
           c) For PE-P case,R2 acts as a PE router, R3 acts as a P router
              and R5 acts as remote PE router (Please refer to figure 1
              for complete setup)
           d) For Mid-point case, R1, R2 and R3 act as shown in above figure
              HE, Midpoint/PLR and TE respectively








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6.1.2.  Link Protection - 1 hop primary (from PLR) and 2 hop backup TE
        tunnels



             +-------+    +--------+    +--------+
             |  R1   |    |  R2    |    |   R3   |
             | UR/HE |    | HE/MID |PRI |  MP/TE |
             |       |----|  PLR   |----|        |
             +-------+    +--------+    +--------+
                              |BKP               |
                              |    +--------+    |
                              |    |   R6   |    |
                              |----|  BKP   |----|
                                   |   MID  |
                                   +--------+

                                    Figure 3.


          Traffic            Num of Labels   Num of labels
                             before failure  after failure
          IP TRAFFIC (P-P)       0              1
          Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)     1              2
          Layer3 VPN (PE-P)      2              3
          Layer2 VC (PE-PE)      1              2
          Layer2 VC (PE-P)       2              3
          Mid-point LSPs         0              1


   Note: Please note the following:

           a) For P-P case, R2 and R3 acts as P routers
           b) For PE-PE case,R2 acts as PE and R3 acts as a remote PE
           c) For PE-P case,R2 acts as a PE router, R3 acts as a P router
              and R5 acts as remote PE router (Please refer to figure 1
              for complete setup)
           d) For Mid-point case, R1, R2 and R3 act as shown in above figure
              HE, Midpoint/PLR and TE respectively

6.1.3.  Link Protection - 2+ hops (from PLR) primary and 1 hop backup TE
        tunnels









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             +--------+    +--------+    +--------+      +--------+
             |  R1    |    | R2     |PRI |   R3   |PRI   |   R4   |
             |  UR/HE |----| HE/MID |----| MP/MID |------|   TE   |
             |        |    | PLR    |----|        |      |        |
             +--------+    +--------+ BKP+--------+      +--------+

                                   Figure 4.






          Traffic            Num of Labels   Num of labels
                             before failure  after failure
          IP TRAFFIC (P-P)       1                1
          Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)     2                2
          Layer3 VPN (PE-P)      3                3
          Layer2 VC (PE-PE)      2                2
          Layer2 VC (PE-P)       3                3
          Mid-point LSPs         1                1


   Note: Please note the following:

           a) For P-P case, R2, R3 and R4 acts as P routers
           b) For PE-PE case,R2 acts as PE and R4 acts as a remote PE
           c) For PE-P case,R2 acts as a PE router, R3 acts as a P router
              and R5 acts as remote PE router (Please refer to figure 1
              for complete setup)
           d) For Mid-point case, R1, R2, R3 and R4 act as shown in above
              figure HE, Midpoint/PLR and TE respectively

6.1.4.  Link Protection - 2+ hop (from PLR) primary and 2 hop backup TE
        tunnels
















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             +--------+    +--------+PRI +--------+  PRI +--------+
             |  R1    |    |  R2    |    |   R3   |      |   R4   |
             | UR/HE  |----| HE/MID |----|  MP/MID|------|   TE   |
             |        |    | PLR    |    |        |      |        |
             +--------+    +--------+    +--------+      +--------+
                           BKP|              |
                              |   +--------+ |
                              |   |   R6   | |
                              +---|  BKP   |-
                                  |  MID   |
                                  +--------+

                                   Figure 5.


          Traffic            Num of Labels   Num of labels
                             before failure  after failure
          IP TRAFFIC (P-P)       1              2
          Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)     2              3
          Layer3 VPN (PE-P)      3              4
          Layer2 VC (PE-PE)      2              3
          Layer2 VC (PE-P)       3              4
          Mid-point LSPs         1              2



   Note: Please note the following:

           a) For P-P case, R2, R3 and R4 acts as P routers
           b) For PE-PE case,R2 acts as PE and R4 acts as a remote PE
           c) For PE-P case,R2 acts as a PE router, R3 acts as a P router
              and R5 acts as remote PE router (Please refer to figure 1
              for complete setup)
           d) For Mid-point case, R1, R2, R3 and R4 act as shown in above
              figure HE, Midpoint/PLR and TE respectively

6.2.  Node Protection

6.2.1.  Node Protection - 2 hop primary (from PLR) and 1 hop backup TE
        tunnels











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             +--------+    +--------+    +--------+      +--------+
             |  R1    |    |  R2    |PRI |   R3   | PRI  |   R4   |
             | UR/HE  |----| HE/MID |----|  MID   |------|  MP/TE |
             |        |    |  PLR   |    |        |      |        |
             +--------+    +--------+    +--------+      +--------+
                             |BKP                          |
                              -----------------------------

                                Figure 6.

          Traffic            Num of Labels   Num of labels
                             before failure  after failure
          IP TRAFFIC (P-P)       1             0
          Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)     2             1
          Layer3 VPN (PE-P)      3             2
          Layer2 VC (PE-PE)      2             1
          Layer2 VC (PE-P)       3             2
          Mid-point LSPs         1             0



   Note: Please note the following:

           a) For P-P case, R2, R3 and R3 acts as P routers
           b) For PE-PE case,R2 acts as PE and R4 acts as a remote PE
           c) For PE-P case,R2 acts as a PE router, R4 acts as a P router
              and R5 acts as remote PE router (Please refer to figure 1
              for complete setup)
           d) For Mid-point case, R1, R2, R3 and R4 act as shown in above
              figure HE, Midpoint/PLR and TE respectively

6.2.2.  Node Protection - 2 hop primary (from PLR) and 2 hop backup TE
        tunnels



             +--------+    +--------+    +--------+    +--------+
             |  R1    |    |  R2    |    |   R3   |    |   R4   |
             | UR/HE  |    | HE/MID |PRI |  MID   |PRI |  MP/TE |
             |        |----|  PLR   |----|        |----|        |
             +--------+    +--------+    +--------+    +--------+
                             |                            |
                          BKP|         +--------+         |
                             |         |   R6   |         |
                              ---------|  BKP   |---------
                                       |  MID   |
                                       +--------+




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                                Figure 7.






          Traffic            Num of Labels   Num of labels
                             before failure  after failure
          IP TRAFFIC (P-P)       1             1
          Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)     2             2
          Layer3 VPN (PE-P)      3             3
          Layer2 VC (PE-PE)      2             2
          Layer2 VC (PE-P)       3             3
          Mid-point LSPs         1             1



   Note: Please note the following:

           a) For P-P case, R2, R3 and R4 acts as P routers
           b) For PE-PE case,R2 acts as PE and R4 acts as a remote PE
           c) For PE-P case,R2 acts as a PE router, R4 acts as a
              P router and R5 acts as remote PE router (Please refer
              to figure 1 for complete setup)
           d) For Mid-point case, R1, R2, R3 and R4 act as shown in
              above figure HE, Midpoint/PLR and TE respectively

6.2.3.  Node Protection - 3+ hop primary (from PLR) and 1 hop backup TE
        tunnels





















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         +--------+  +--------+PRI+--------+PRI+--------+PRI+--------+
         |  R1    |  |  R2    |   |   R3   |   |   R4   |   |   R5   |
         | UR/HE  |--| HE/MID |---| MID    |---|  MP    |---|  TE    |
         |        |  |  PLR   |   |        |   |        |   |        |
         +--------+  +--------+   +--------+   +--------+   +--------+
                     BKP|                          |
                         --------------------------

                                 Figure 8.

          Traffic            Num of Labels   Num of labels
                             before failure  after failure
          IP TRAFFIC (P-P)       1             1
          Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)     2             2
          Layer3 VPN (PE-P)      3             3
          Layer2 VC (PE-PE)      2             2
          Layer2 VC (PE-P)       3             3
          Mid-point LSPs         1             1




   Note: Please note the following:

           a) For P-P case, R2, R3, R4 and R5 acts as P routers
           b) For PE-PE case,R2 acts as PE and R5 acts as a remote PE
           c) For PE-P case,R2 acts as a PE router, R4 acts as a P router
              and R5 acts as remote PE router (Please refer to figure 1
              for complete setup)
           d) For Mid-point case, R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5 act as shown in
              above figure HE, Midpoint/PLR and TE respectively

6.2.4.  Node Protection - 3+ hop primary (from PLR) and 2 hop backup TE
        tunnels

















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      +--------+   +--------+   +--------+   +--------+   +--------+
      |  R1    |   |  R2    |   |   R3   |   |   R4   |   |   R5   |
      | UR/HE  |   | HE/MID |PRI|  MID   |PRI|  MP    |PRI|  TE    |
      |        |-- |  PLR   |---|        |---|        |---|        |
      +--------+   +--------+   +--------+   +--------+   +--------+
                    BKP|                          |
                       |         +--------+       |
                       |         |  R6    |       |
                        ---------|  BKP   |-------
                                 |  MID   |
                                 +--------+

                                Figure 9.

          Traffic            Num of Labels   Num of labels
                             before failure  after failure
          IP TRAFFIC (P-P)       1             2
          Layer3 VPN (PE-PE)     2             3
          Layer3 VPN (PE-P)      3             4
          Layer2 VC (PE-PE)      2             3
          Layer2 VC (PE-P)       3             4
          Mid-point LSPs         1             2




   Note: Please note the following:

           a) For P-P case, R2, R3, R4 and R5 acts as P routers
           b) For PE-PE case,R2 acts as PE and R5 acts as a remote PE
           c) For PE-P case,R2 acts as a PE router, R4 acts as a P router
              and R5 acts as remote PE router (Please refer to figure 1
              for complete setup)
           d) For Mid-point case, R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5 act as shown in
              above figure HE, Midpoint/PLR and TE respectively


7.  Test Methodology

   The procedure described in this section can be applied to all the 8
   base test cases and the associated topologies.  The backup as well as
   the primary tunnels are configured to be alike in terms of bandwidth
   usage.  In order to benchmark failover with all possible label stack
   depth applicable as seen with current deployments, it is RECOMMENDED
   to perform all of the test cases provided in this section.  The
   forwarding performance test cases in section 7.1 MUST be performed
   prior to performing the failover test cases.




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   The considerations of Section 4 of [RFC2544] are applicable when
   evaluating the results obtained using these methodologies as well.

7.1.  MPLS FRR Forwarding Performance

   Benchmarking Failover Time [RFC6414] for MPLS protection first
   requires baseline measurement of the forwarding performance of the
   test topology including the DUT.  Forwarding performance is
   benchmarked by the Throughput as defined in [RFC5695] and measured in
   units packet per second (pps).  This section provides two test cases
   to benchmark forwarding performance.  These are with the DUT
   configured as a Headend PLR, Mid-Point PLR, and Egress PLR.

7.1.1.  Headend PLR Forwarding Performance

   Objective:

      To benchmark the maximum rate (pps) on the PLR (as headend) over
      primary LSP and backup LSP.

   Test Setup:



      A.  Select any one topology out of the 8 from section 6.

      B.  Select or enable IP, Layer 3 VPN or Layer 2 VPN services with
          DUT as Headend PLR.

      C.  The DUT will also have 2 interfaces connected to the traffic
          Generator/analyzer.  (If the node downstream of the PLR is not
          a simulated node, then the Ingress of the tunnel should have
          one link connected to the traffic generator and the node
          downstream to the PLR or the egress of the tunnel should have
          a link connected to the traffic analyzer).

   Procedure:



      1.   Establish the primary LSP on R2 required by the topology
           selected.

      2.   Establish the backup LSP on R2 required by the selected
           topology.

      3.   Verify primary and backup LSPs are up and that primary is
           protected.



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      4.   Verify Fast Reroute protection is enabled and ready.

      5.   Setup traffic streams as described in section 5.7.

      6.   Send the required MPLS traffic over the primary LSP to
           achieve the throughput supported by the DUT (section 6, RFC
           2544).

      7.   Record the Throughput over the primary LSP.

      8.   Trigger a link failure as described in section 5.1.

      9.   Verify that the offered load gets mapped to the backup tunnel
           and measure the Additive Backup Delay (RFC 6414).

      10.  30 seconds after Failover, stop the offered load and measure
           the Throughput, Packet Loss, Out-of-Order Packets, and
           Duplicate Packets over the Backup LSP.

      11.  Adjust the offered load and repeat steps 6 through 10 until
           the Throughput values for the primary and backup LSPs are
           equal.

      12.  Record the final Throughput, which corresponds to the offered
           load that will be used for the Headend PLR failover test
           cases.

7.1.2.  Mid-Point PLR Forwarding Performance

   Objective:

      To benchmark the maximum rate (pps) on the PLR (as mid-point) over
      primary LSP and backup LSP.

   Test Setup:



      A.  Select any one topology out of the 8 from section 6.

      B.  The DUT will also have 2 interfaces connected to the traffic
          generator.

   Procedure:







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      1.   Establish the primary LSP on R1 required by the topology
           selected.

      2.   Establish the backup LSP on R2 required by the selected
           topology.

      3.   Verify primary and backup LSPs are up and that primary is
           protected.

      4.   Verify Fast Reroute protection is enabled and ready.

      5.   Setup traffic streams as described in section 5.7.

      6.   Send MPLS traffic over the primary LSP at the Throughput
           supported by the DUT (section 6, RFC 2544).

      7.   Record the Throughput over the primary LSP.

      8.   Trigger a link failure as described in section 5.1.

      9.   Verify that the offered load gets mapped to the backup tunnel
           and measure the Additive Backup Delay (RFC 6414).

      10.  30 seconds after Failover, stop the offered load and measure
           the Throughput, Packet Loss, Out-of-Order Packets, and
           Duplicate Packets over the Backup LSP.

      11.  Adjust the offered load and repeat steps 6 through 10 until
           the Throughput values for the primary and backup LSPs are
           equal.

      12.  Record the final Throughput which corresponds to the offered
           load that will be used for the Mid-Point PLR failover test
           cases.

7.2.  Headend PLR with Link Failure

   Objective:

      To benchmark the MPLS failover time due to link failure events
      described in section 5.1 experienced by the DUT which is the
      Headend PLR.

   Test Setup:







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      A.  Select any one topology out of the 8 from section 6.

      B.  Select or enable IP, Layer 3 VPN or Layer 2 VPN services with
          DUT as Headend PLR.

      C.  The DUT will also have 2 interfaces connected to the traffic
          Generator/analyzer.  (If the node downstream of the PLR is not
          a simulated node, then the Ingress of the tunnel should have
          one link connected to the traffic generator and the node
          downstream to the PLR or the egress of the tunnel should have
          a link connected to the traffic analyzer).

   Test Configuration:



      1.  Configure the number of primaries on R2 and the backups on R2
          as required by the topology selected.

      2.  Configure the test setup to support Reversion.

      3.  Advertise prefixes (as per FRR Scalability Table described in
          Appendix A) by the tail end.

   Procedure:

      Test Case "7.1.1.  Headend PLR Forwarding Performance" MUST be
      completed first to obtain the Throughput to use as the offered
      load.



      1.   Establish the primary LSP on R2 required by the topology
           selected.

      2.   Establish the backup LSP on R2 required by the selected
           topology.

      3.   Verify primary and backup LSPs are up and that primary is
           protected.

      4.   Verify Fast Reroute protection is enabled and ready.

      5.   Setup traffic streams for the offered load as described in
           section 5.7.

      6.   Provide the offered load from the tester at the Throughput
           [RFC1242] level obtained from test case 7.1.1.



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      7.   Verify traffic is switched over Primary LSP without packet
           loss.

      8.   Trigger a link failure as described in section 5.1.

      9.   Verify that the offered load gets mapped to the backup tunnel
           and measure the Additive Backup Delay.

      10.  30 seconds after Failover [RFC6414], stop the offered load
           and measure the total Failover Packet Loss [RFC6414].

      11.  Calculate the Failover Time [RFC6414] benchmark using the
           selected Failover Time Calculation Method (TBLM, PLBM, or
           TBM) [RFC6414].

      12.  Restart the offered load and restore the primary LSP to
           verify Reversion [RFC6414] occurs and measure the Reversion
           Packet Loss [RFC6414].

      13.  Calculate the Reversion Time [RFC6414] benchmark using the
           selected Failover Time Calculation Method (TBLM, PLBM, or
           TBM) [RFC6414].

      14.  Verify Headend signals new LSP and protection should be in
           place again.

   IT is RECOMMENDED that this procedure be repeated for each of the
   link failure triggers defined in section 5.1.

7.3.  Mid-Point PLR with Link Failure

   Objective:

      To benchmark the MPLS failover time due to link failure events
      described in section 5.1 experienced by the DUT which is the Mid-
      Point PLR.

   Test Setup:



      A.  Select any one topology out of the 8 from section 6.

      B.  The DUT will also have 2 interfaces connected to the traffic
          generator.

   Test Configuration:




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      1.  Configure the number of primaries on R1 and the backups on R2
          as required by the topology selected.

      2.  Configure the test setup to support Reversion.

      3.  Advertise prefixes (as per FRR Scalability Table described in
          Appendix A) by the tail end.

   Procedure:

      Test Case "7.1.2.  Mid-Point PLR Forwarding Performance" MUST be
      completed first to obtain the Throughput to use as the offered
      load.



      1.  Establish the primary LSP on R1 required by the topology
          selected.

      2.  Establish the backup LSP on R2 required by the selected
          topology.

      3.  Perform steps 3 through 14 from section 7.2 Headend PLR with
          Link Failure.

   IT is RECOMMENDED that this procedure be repeated for each of the
   link failure triggers defined in section 5.1.

7.4.  Headend PLR with Node Failure

   Objective:

      To benchmark the MPLS failover time due to Node failure events
      described in section 5.1 experienced by the DUT which is the
      Headend PLR.

   Test Setup:



      A.  Select any one topology out of the 8 from section 6.

      B.  Select or enable IP, Layer 3 VPN or Layer 2 VPN services with
          DUT as Headend PLR.





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      C.  The DUT will also have 2 interfaces connected to the traffic
          generator/analyzer.

   Test Configuration:



      1.  Configure the number of primaries on R2 and the backups on R2
          as required by the topology selected.

      2.  Configure the test setup to support Reversion.

      3.  Advertise prefixes (as per FRR Scalability Table described in
          Appendix A) by the tail end.

   Procedure:

      Test Case "7.1.1.  Headend PLR Forwarding Performance" MUST be
      completed first to obtain the Throughput to use as the offered
      load.



      1.  Establish the primary LSP on R2 required by the topology
          selected.

      2.  Establish the backup LSP on R2 required by the selected
          topology.

      3.  Verify primary and backup LSPs are up and that primary is
          protected.

      4.  Verify Fast Reroute protection is enabled and ready.

      5.  Setup traffic streams for the offered load as described in
          section 5.7.

      6.  Provide the offered load from the tester at the Throughput
          [RFC1242] level obtained from test case 7.1.1.

      7.  Verify traffic is switched over Primary LSP without packet
          loss.

      8.  Trigger a node failure as described in section 5.1.

      9.  Perform steps 9 through 14 in 7.2 Headend PLR with Link
          Failure.




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   IT is RECOMMENDED that this procedure be repeated for each of the
   node failure triggers defined in section 5.1.

7.5.  Mid-Point PLR with Node Failure

   Objective:

      To benchmark the MPLS failover time due to Node failure events
      described in section 5.1 experienced by the DUT which is the Mid-
      Point PLR.

   Test Setup:



      A.  Select any one topology from section 6.1 to 6.2.

      B.  The DUT will also have 2 interfaces connected to the traffic
          generator.

   Test Configuration:



      1.  Configure the number of primaries on R1 and the backups on R2
          as required by the topology selected.

      2.  Configure the test setup to support Reversion.

      3.  Advertise prefixes (as per FRR Scalability Table described in
          Appendix A) by the tail end.

   Procedure:

      Test Case "7.1.1.  Mid-Point PLR Forwarding Performance" MUST be
      completed first to obtain the Throughput to use as the offered
      load.



      1.  Establish the primary LSP on R1 required by the topology
          selected.

      2.  Establish the backup LSP on R2 required by the selected
          topology.

      3.  Verify primary and backup LSPs are up and that primary is
          protected.



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      4.  Verify Fast Reroute protection is enabled and ready.

      5.  Setup traffic streams for the offered load as described in
          section 5.7.

      6.  Provide the offered load from the tester at the Throughput
          [RFC1242] level obtained from test case 7.1.1.

      7.  Verify traffic is switched over Primary LSP without packet
          loss.

      8.  Trigger a node failure as described in section 5.1.

      9.  Perform steps 9 through 14 in 7.2 Headend PLR with Link
          Failure.

   IT is RECOMMENDED that this procedure be repeated for each of the
   node failure triggers defined in section 5.1.


8.  Reporting Format

   For each test, it is RECOMMENDED that the results be reported in the
   following format.



             Parameter                          Units

             IGP used for the test              ISIS-TE/ OSPF-TE

             Interface types                    Gige,POS,ATM,VLAN etc.

             Packet Sizes offered to the DUT    Bytes (at layer 3)

             Offered Load (Throughput)          packets per second

             IGP routes advertised              Number of IGP routes

             Penultimate Hop Popping            Used/Not Used

             RSVP hello timers                  Milliseconds

             Number of Protected tunnels        Number of tunnels

             Number of VPN routes installed     Number of VPN routes
             on the Headend




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             Number of VC tunnels               Number of VC tunnels

             Number of mid-point tunnels        Number of tunnels

             Number of Prefixes protected by    Number of LSPs
             Primary

             Topology being used                Section number, and
                                                figure reference

             Failover Event                     Event type

               Re-optimization                        Yes/No

        Benchmarks (to be recorded for each test case):

        Failover-
            Failover Time                        seconds
            Failover Packet Loss                 packets
            Additive Backup Delay                seconds
            Out-of-Order Packets                 packets
            Duplicate Packets                    packets
            Failover Time Calculation Method     Method Used

        Reversion-
            Reversion Time                       seconds
            Reversion Packet Loss                packets
            Additive Backup Delay                seconds
            Out-of-Order Packets                 packets
            Duplicate Packets                    packets
            Failover Time Calculation Method     Method Used



9.  Security Considerations

   Benchmarking activities as described in this memo are limited to
   technology characterization using controlled stimuli in a laboratory
   environment, with dedicated address space and the constraints
   specified in the sections above.

   The benchmarking network topology will be an independent test setup
   and MUST NOT be connected to devices that may forward the test
   traffic into a production network, or misroute traffic to the test
   management network.

   Further, benchmarking is performed on a "black-box" basis, relying
   solely on measurements observable external to the DUT/SUT.



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   Special capabilities SHOULD NOT exist in the DUT/SUT specifically for
   benchmarking purposes.  Any implications for network security arising
   from the DUT/SUT SHOULD be identical in the lab and in production
   networks.


10.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not require any new allocations by IANA.


11.  Acknowledgements

   We would like to thank Jean Philip Vasseur for his invaluable input
   to the document, Curtis Villamizar for his contribution in suggesting
   text on definition and need for benchmarking Correlated failures and
   Bhavani Parise for his textual input and review.  Additionally we
   would like to thank Al Morton, Arun Gandhi, Amrit Hanspal, Karu
   Ratnam, Raveesh Janardan, Andrey Kiselev, and Mohan Nanduri for their
   formal reviews of this document.


12.  References

12.1.  Informative References

   [RFC2285]  Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN
              Switching Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998.

   [RFC4689]  Poretsky, S., Perser, J., Erramilli, S., and S. Khurana,
              "Terminology for Benchmarking Network-layer Traffic
              Control Mechanisms", RFC 4689, October 2006.

12.2.  Normative References

   [RFC1242]  Bradner, S., "Benchmarking terminology for network
              interconnection devices", RFC 1242, July 1991.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2544]  Bradner, S. and J. McQuaid, "Benchmarking Methodology for
              Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 2544, March 1999.

   [RFC4090]  Pan, P., Swallow, G., and A. Atlas, "Fast Reroute
              Extensions to RSVP-TE for LSP Tunnels", RFC 4090,
              May 2005.




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   [RFC5695]  Akhter, A., Asati, R., and C. Pignataro, "MPLS Forwarding
              Benchmarking Methodology for IP Flows", RFC 5695,
              November 2009.

   [RFC6412]  Poretsky, S., Imhoff, B., and K. Michielsen, "Terminology
              for Benchmarking Link-State IGP Data-Plane Route
              Convergence", RFC 6412, November 2011.

   [RFC6414]  Poretsky, S., Papneja, R., Karthik, J., and S. Vapiwala,
              "Benchmarking Terminology for Protection Performance",
              RFC 6414, November 2011.


Appendix A.  Fast Reroute Scalability Table

   This section provides the recommended numbers for evaluating the
   scalability of fast reroute implementations.  It also recommends the
   typical numbers for IGP/VPNv4 Prefixes, LSP Tunnels and VC entries.
   Based on the features supported by the device under test (DUT),
   appropriate scaling limits can be used for the test bed.

   A1.  FRR IGP Table





























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           No. of Headend TE Tunnels       IGP Prefixes
           (L)                             (R)

           1                               100

           1                               500

           1                               1000

           1                               2000

           1                               5000

           2 (Load Balance)                100

           2 (Load Balance)                500

           2 (Load Balance)                1000

           2 (Load Balance)                2000

           2 (Load Balance)                5000

           100                             100

           500                             500

           1000                            1000

           2000                            2000


   A2.  FRR VPN Table


















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           No. of Headend TE Tunnels       VPNv4 Prefixes
           (L)                             (R)

           1                               100

           1                               500

           1                               1000

           1                               2000

           1                               5000

           1                               10000

           1                               20000

           1                               Max

           2 (Load Balance)                100

           2 (Load Balance)                500

           2 (Load Balance)                1000

           2 (Load Balance)                2000

           2 (Load Balance)                5000

           2 (Load Balance)                10000

           2 (Load Balance)                20000

           2 (Load Balance)                Max



   A3.  FRR Mid-Point LSP Table

   No of Mid-point TE LSPs could be configured at recommended levels -
   100, 500, 1000, 2000, or max supported number.

   A2.  FRR VC Table








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           No. of Headend TE Tunnels       VC entries
           (L)                             (R)

           1                               100
           1                               500
           1                               1000
           1                               2000
           1                               Max
           100                             100
           500                             500
           1000                            1000
           2000                            2000



Appendix B.  Abbreviations



      AIS      - Alarm Indication Signal
      BFD      - Bidirectional Fault Detection
      BGP      - Border Gateway protocol
      CE       - Customer Edge
      DUT      - Device Under Test
      FRR      - Fast Reroute
      IGP      - Interior Gateway Protocol
      IP       - Internet Protocol
      LOS      - Loss of Signal
      LSP      - Label Switched Path
      MP       - Merge Point
      MPLS     - Multi Protocol Label Switching
      N-Nhop   - Next - Next Hop
      Nhop     - Next Hop
      OIR      - Online Insertion and Removal
      P        - Provider
      PE       - Provider Edge
      PHP      - Penultimate Hop Popping
      PLR      - Point of Local Repair
      RSVP     - Resource reSerVation Protocol
      SRLG     - Shared Risk Link Group
      TA       - Traffic Analyzer
      TE       - Traffic Engineering
      TG       - Traffic Generator
      VC       - Virtual Circuit
      VPN      - Virtual Private Network






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Authors' Addresses

   Rajiv Papneja
   Huawei Technologies
   2330 Central Expressway
   Santa Clara, CA  95050
   USA

   Email: rajiv.papneja@huawei.com


   Samir Vapiwala
   Cisco Systems
   300 Beaver Brook Road
   Boxborough, MA  01719
   USA

   Email: svapiwal@cisco.com


   Jay Karthik
   Cisco Systems
   300 Beaver Brook Road
   Boxborough, MA  01719
   USA

   Email: jkarthik@cisco.com


   Scott Poretsky
   Allot Communications
   USA

   Email: sporetsky@allot.com


   Shankar Rao
   Qwest Communications
   950 17th Street
   Suite 1900
   Denver, CO  80210
   USA

   Email: shankar.rao@du.edu







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   JL. Le Roux
   France Telecom
   2 av Pierre Marzin
   22300 Lannion
   France

   Email: jeanlouis.leroux@orange.com












































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