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Internet-Draft                               Bhuvaneswaran Vengainathan
Network Working Group                                       Anton Basil
Intended Status: Informational                       Veryx Technologies
Expires: September 19, 2016                              Mark Tassinari
                                                        Hewlett-Packard
                                                         Vishwas Manral
                                                               Nano Sec
                                                            Sarah Banks
                                                         VSS Monitoring
                                                         March 21, 2016



          Terminology for Benchmarking SDN Controller Performance
             draft-ietf-bmwg-sdn-controller-benchmark-term-01


Abstract

   This document defines terminology for benchmarking an SDN
   controller's control plane performance. It extends the terminology
   already defined in RFC 7426 for the purpose of benchmarking SDN
   controllers. The terms provided in this document help to benchmark
   SDN controller's performance independent of the controller's
   supported protocols and/or network services. A mechanism for
   benchmarking the performance of SDN controllers is defined in the
   companion methodology document. These two documents provide a
   standard mechanism to measure and evaluate the performance of
   various controller implementations.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
   at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 19, 2016.



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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with
   respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this
   document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in
   Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without
   warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents


   1. Introduction...................................................3
   2. Term Definitions...............................................4
      2.1. SDN Terms.................................................4
         2.1.1. Flow.................................................4
         2.1.2. Northbound Interface.................................4
         2.1.3. Controller Forwarding Table..........................4
         2.1.4. Proactive Flow Provisioning Mode.....................5
         2.1.5. Reactive Flow Provisioning Mode......................5
         2.1.6. Path.................................................6
         2.1.7. Standalone Mode......................................6
         2.1.8. Cluster/Redundancy Mode..............................6
         2.1.9. Asynchronous Message.................................7
         2.1.10. Test Traffic Generator..............................7
      2.2. Test Configuration/Setup Terms............................8
         2.2.1. Number of Network Devices............................8
         2.2.2. Test Iterations......................................8
         2.2.3. Test Duration........................................8
         2.2.4. Number of Cluster nodes..............................9
      2.3. Benchmarking Terms........................................9
         2.3.1. Performance..........................................9
            2.3.1.1. Network Topology Discovery Time.................9
            2.3.1.2. Asynchronous Message Processing Time...........10
            2.3.1.3. Asynchronous Message Processing Rate...........10
            2.3.1.4. Reactive Path Provisioning Time................11
            2.3.1.5. Proactive Path Provisioning Time...............11
            2.3.1.6. Reactive Path Provisioning Rate................12
            2.3.1.7. Proactive Path Provisioning Rate...............12


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            2.3.1.8. Network Topology Change Detection Time.........12
         2.3.2. Scalability.........................................13
            2.3.2.1. Control Sessions Capacity......................13
            2.3.2.2. Network Discovery Size.........................13
            2.3.2.3. Forwarding Table Capacity......................14
         2.3.3. Security............................................14
            2.3.3.1. Exception Handling.............................14
            2.3.3.2. Denial of Service Handling.....................15
         2.3.4. Reliability.........................................15
            2.3.4.1. Controller Failover Time.......................15
            2.3.4.2. Network Re-Provisioning Time...................16
   3. Test Setup....................................................16
      3.1. Test setup - Controller working in Standalone Mode.......17
      3.2. Test setup - Controller working in Cluster Mode..........18
   4. Test Coverage.................................................19
   5. References....................................................20
      5.1. Normative References.....................................20
      5.2. Informative References...................................20
   6. IANA Considerations...........................................20
   7. Security Considerations.......................................20
   8. Acknowledgements..............................................21
   9. Authors' Addresses............................................21

1. Introduction

   Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a networking architecture in
   which network control is decoupled from the underlying forwarding
   function and is placed in a centralized location called the SDN
   controller. The SDN controller abstracts the underlying network and
   offers a global view of the overall network to applications and
   business logic. Thus, an SDN controller provides the flexibility to
   program, control, and manage network behaviour dynamically through
   standard interfaces. Since the network controls are logically
   centralized, the need to benchmark the SDN controller performance
   becomes significant. This document defines terms to benchmark
   various controller designs for performance, scalability, reliability
   and security, independent of northbound and southbound protocols.

   Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.






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2. Term Definitions

2.1. SDN Terms

   The terms defined in this section are extensions to the terms
   defined in RFC 7426 ''Software-Defined Networking (SDN): Layers and
   Architecture Terminology''. This RFC should be referred before
   attempting to make use of this document.

2.1.1. Flow

Definition:
   The definition of Flow is same as microflows defined in RFC 4689
   Section 3.1.5.

Discussion:
   A flow can be set of packets having same source address, destination
   address, source port and destination port, or any of these
   combinations.

Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None

2.1.2. Northbound Interface

Definition:
   The definition of northbound interface is same Service Interface
   defined in RFC 7426.

Discussion:
   The northbound interface allows SDN applications and orchestration
   systems to program and retrieve the network information through the
   SDN controller.

Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None

2.1.3. Controller Forwarding Table

Definition:



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   A controller forwarding table contains flow entries learned in one
   of two ways: first, entries could be learned from traffic received
   through the data plane, or, second, these entries could be
   statically provisioned on the controller, and distributed to devices
   via the southbound interface.

Discussion:
   The controller forwarding table has an aging mechanism which will be
   applied only for dynamically learnt entries.

Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None

2.1.4. Proactive Flow Provisioning Mode

Definition:
   Controller programming flows in Network Devices based on the flow
   entries provisioned through controller's northbound interface.

Discussion:
   Orchestration systems and SDN applications can define the network
   forwarding behaviour by programming the controller using proactive
   flow provisioning. The controller can then program the Network
   Devices with the pre-provisioned entries.

Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None

2.1.5. Reactive Flow Provisioning Mode

Definition:
   Controller programming flows in Network Devices based on the traffic
   received from Network Devices through controller's southbound
   interface

Discussion:
   The SDN controller dynamically decides the forwarding behaviour
   based on the incoming traffic from the Network Devices. The
   controller then programs the Network Devices using Reactive Flow
   Provisioning.



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Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None


2.1.6. Path

Definition:
   Refer to Section 5 in RFC 2330.

Discussion:
   None

Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None


2.1.7. Standalone Mode

Definition:
   Single controller handling all control plane functionalities without
   redundancy, or the ability to provide high availability and/or
   automatic failover.

Discussion:
   In standalone mode, one controller manages one or more network
   domains.

Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None


2.1.8. Cluster/Redundancy Mode

Definition:
   A group of 2 or more controllers handling all control plane
   functionalities.

Discussion:


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   In cluster mode, multiple controllers are teamed together for the
   purpose of load sharing and/or high availability. The controllers in
   the group may work in active/standby (master/slave) or active/active
   (equal) mode depending on the intended purpose.

Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None


2.1.9. Asynchronous Message

Definition:
   Any message from the Network Device that is generated for network
   events.

Discussion:
   Control messages like flow setup request and response message is
   classified as asynchronous message. The controller has to return a
   response message. Note that the Network Device will not be in
   blocking mode and continues to send/receive other control messages

Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None


2.1.10. Test Traffic Generator

Definition:
   Test Traffic Generator is an entity that generates/receives network
   traffic.

Discussion:
   Test Traffic Generator can be an entity that interfaces with Network
   Devices to send/receive real-time network traffic.

Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None



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2.2. Test Configuration/Setup Terms

2.2.1. Number of Network Devices

Definition:
   The number of Network Devices present in the defined test topology.

Discussion:
   The Network Devices defined in the test topology can be deployed
   using real hardware or emulated in hardware platforms.

Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None


2.2.2. Test Iterations

Definition:
   The number of times the test needs to be repeated.

Discussion:
   The test needs to be repeated for multiple iterations to obtain a
   reliable metric. It is recommended that this test SHOULD be
   performed for at least 10 iterations to increase the confidence in
   measured result.

Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None


2.2.3. Test Duration


   Definition:
   Defines the duration of test trails for each iteration.

   Discussion:
   Test duration forms the basis for stop criteria for benchmarking
   tests. Test not completed within this time interval is considered as
   incomplete.



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   Measurement Units:
   seconds

   See Also:
   None

2.2.4. Number of Cluster nodes

Definition:
   Defines the number of controllers present in the controller cluster.

Discussion:
   This parameter is relevant when testing the controller performance
   in clustering/teaming mode. The number of nodes in the cluster MUST
   be greater than 1.

Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None


2.3. Benchmarking Terms

   This section defines metrics for benchmarking the SDN controller.
   The procedure to perform the defined metrics is defined in the
   accompanying methodology document.

2.3.1. Performance

2.3.1.1. Network Topology Discovery Time

Definition:
   To measure the time taken to discover the network topology - nodes
   and links by a controller.

Discussion:
   Network topology discovery is key for the SDN controller to
   provision and manage the network. So it is important to measure how
   quickly the controller discovers the topology to learn the current
   network state. This benchmark is obtained by presenting a network
   topology (Tree, Mesh or Linear) with the given number of nodes to
   the controller and wait for the discovery process to complete .It is
   expected that the controller supports network discovery mechanism
   and uses protocol messages for its discovery process.



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Measurement Units:
   milliseconds

See Also:
   None


2.3.1.2. Asynchronous Message Processing Time

Definition:
   To measure the time taken by the controller to process an
   asynchronous message.

Discussion:
   For SDN to support dynamic network provisioning, it is important to
   measure how quickly the controller responds to an event triggered
   from the network. The event could be any notification messages
   generated by an Network Device upon arrival of a new flow, link down
   etc. This benchmark is obtained by sending asynchronous messages
   from every connected Network Devices one at a time for the defined
   test duration. This test assumes that the controller will respond to
   the received asynchronous message.

Measurement Units:
   milliseconds

See Also:
   None


2.3.1.3. Asynchronous Message Processing Rate

Definition:
   To measure the maximum number of asynchronous messages that a
   controller can process within the test duration.

Discussion:
   As SDN assures flexible network and agile provisioning, it is
   important to measure how many network events that the controller can
   handle at a time. This benchmark is obtained by sending asynchronous
   messages from every connected Network Devices at full connection
   capacity for the given test duration. This test assumes that the
   controller will respond to all the received asynchronous messages.

Measurement Units:
   Messages processed per second.



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See Also:
   None

2.3.1.4. Reactive Path Provisioning Time

Definition:
   The time taken by the controller to setup a path reactively between
   source and destination node, expressed in milliseconds.

Discussion:
   As SDN supports agile provisioning, it is important to measure how
   fast that the controller provisions an end-to-end flow in the
   dataplane. The benchmark is obtained by sending traffic from a
   source endpoint to the destination endpoint, finding the time
   difference between the first and the last flow provisioning message
   exchanged between the controller and the Network Devices for the
   traffic path.

Measurement Units:
   milliseconds.

See Also:
   None

2.3.1.5. Proactive Path Provisioning Time

Definition:
   The time taken by the controller to setup a path proactively between
   source and destination node, expressed in milliseconds.

Discussion:
   For SDN to support pre-provisioning of traffic path from
   application, it is important to measure how fast that the controller
   provisions an end-to-end flow in the dataplane. The benchmark is
   obtained by provisioning a flow on controller's northbound interface
   for the traffic to reach from a source to a destination endpoint,
   finding the time difference between the first and the last flow
   provisioning message exchanged between the controller and the
   Network Devices for the traffic path.

Measurement Units:
   milliseconds.

See Also:
   None




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2.3.1.6. Reactive Path Provisioning Rate

Definition:
   Measure the maximum number of independent paths a controller can
   concurrently establish between source and destination nodes
   reactively within the test duration, expressed in paths per second.

Discussion:
   For SDN to support agile traffic forwarding, it is important to
   measure how many end-to-end flows that the controller could setup in
   the dataplane. This benchmark is obtained by sending traffic each
   with unique source and destination pairs from the source Network
   Device and determine the number of frames received at the
   destination Network Device.

Measurement Units:
   Paths provisioned per second.

See Also:
   None

2.3.1.7. Proactive Path Provisioning Rate

Definition:
   Measure the maximum number of independent paths a controller can
   concurrently establish between source and destination nodes
   proactively within the test duration, expressed in paths per second.

Discussion:
   For SDN to support pre-provisioning of traffic path for a larger
   network from the application, it is important to measure how many
   end-to-end flows that the controller could setup in the dataplane.
   This benchmark is obtained by sending traffic each with unique
   source and destination pairs from the source Network Device. Program
   the flows on controller's northbound interface for traffic to reach
   from each of the unique source and destination pairs and determine
   the number of frames received at the destination Network Device.

Measurement Units:
   Paths provisioned per second.

See Also:
   None

2.3.1.8. Network Topology Change Detection Time

Definition:


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   The amount of time required for the controller to detect any changes
   in the network topology.

Discussion:
   In order to for the controller to support fast network failure
   recovery, it is critical to measure how fast the controller is able
   to detect any network-state change events. This benchmark is
   obtained by triggering a topology change event and measuring the
   time controller takes to detect and initiate a topology re-discovery
   process.

Measurement Units:
   milliseconds

See Also:
   None

2.3.2. Scalability

2.3.2.1. Control Sessions Capacity

Definition:
   To measure the maximum number of control sessions the controller
   can maintain.

Discussion:
   Measuring the controller's control sessions capacity is important to
   determine the controller's system and bandwidth resource
   requirements. This benchmark is obtained by establishing control
   session with the controller from each of the Network Device until it
   fails. The number of sessions that were successfully established
   will provide the Control Sessions Capacity.

Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None

2.3.2.2. Network Discovery Size

Definition:
   To measure the network size (number of nodes, links and hosts) that
   a controller can discover.

Discussion:



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   For optimal network planning, it is key to measure the maximum
   network size that the controller can discover. This benchmark is
   obtained by presenting an initial set of Network Devices for
   discovery to the controller. Based on the initial discovery, the
   number of Network Devices is increased or decreased to determine the
   maximum nodes that the controller can discover.

Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None

2.3.2.3. Forwarding Table Capacity

Definition:
   The maximum number of flow entries that a controller can manage in
   its Forwarding table.

Discussion:
   It is significant to measure the capacity of controller's Forwarding
   Table to determine the number of flows that controller could forward
   without flooding/dropping. This benchmark is obtained by
   continuously presenting the controller with new flow entries through
   reactive or proactive flow provisioning mode until the forwarding
   table becomes full. The maximum number of nodes that the controller
   can hold in its Forwarding Table will provide Forwarding Table
   Capacity.

Measurement Units:
   Maximum number of flow entries managed.

See Also:
   None


2.3.3. Security

2.3.3.1. Exception Handling

Definition:
   To determine the effect of handling error packets and notifications
   on performance tests.

Discussion:
   This benchmark test is to be performed after obtaining the baseline
   performance of the performance tests defined in Section 2.3.1. This


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   benchmark determines the deviation from the baseline performance due
   to the handling of error or failure messages from the connected
   Network Devices.

Measurement Units:
   N/A

See Also:
   None


2.3.3.2. Denial of Service Handling


Definition:
   To determine the effect of handling denial of service (DoS) attacks
   on performance and scalability tests.

Discussion:
   This benchmark test is to be performed after obtaining the baseline
   performance of the performance and scalability tests defined in
   section 2.3.1 and section 2.3.1.. This benchmark determines the
   deviation from the baseline performance due to the handling of
   denial of service attacks on controller.

Measurement Units:
   Deviation of baseline metrics while handling Denial of Service
   Attacks.

See Also:
   None

2.3.4. Reliability

2.3.4.1. Controller Failover Time

Definition:
   The time taken to switch from an active controller to the backup
   controller, when the controllers work in redundancy mode and the
   active controller fails.

Discussion:
   This benchmark determine the impact of provisioning new flows when
   controllers are teamed and the active controller fails.

Measurement Units:
   milliseconds.


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See Also:
   None

2.3.4.2. Network Re-Provisioning Time

Definition:
   The time taken to re-route the traffic by the Controller, when there
   is a failure in existing traffic paths.

Discussion:
   This benchmark determines the controller's re-provisioning ability
   upon network failures. This benchmark test assumes the following:
              i. Network topology supports redundant path between
                  source and destination endpoints.
             ii. Controller does not pre-provision the redundant path.

Measurement Units:
   milliseconds.

See Also:
   None


3. Test Setup

   This section provides common reference topologies that are later
   referred to in individual tests defined in the companion methodology
   document.




















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3.1. Test setup - Controller working in Standalone Mode

          +-----------------------------------------------------------+
          |               Application Plane Test Emulator             |
          |                                                           |
          |        +-----------------+      +-------------+           |
          |        |   Application   |      |   Service   |           |
          |        +-----------------+      +-------------+           |
          |                                                           |
          +-----------------------------+(I2)-------------------------+
                                        |
                                        |
                                        | (Northbound interface)
                       +-------------------------------+
                       |       +----------------+      |
                       |       | SDN Controller |      |
                       |       +----------------+      |
                       |                               |
                       |    Device Under Test (DUT)    |
                       +-------------------------------+
                                        | (Southbound interface)
                                        |
                                        |
          +-----------------------------+(I1)-------------------------+
          |                                                           |
          |          +-----------+              +-----------+         |
          |          |  Network  |l1        ln-1|  Network  |         |
          |          |  Device 1 |---- .... ----|  Device n |         |
          |          +-----------+              +-----------+         |
          |               |l0                        |ln              |
          |               |                          |                |
          |               |                          |                |
          |       +---------------+          +---------------+        |
          |       | Test Traffic  |          | Test Traffic  |        |
          |       |  Generator    |          |  Generator    |        |
          |       |    (TP1)      |          |    (TP2)      |        |
          |       +---------------+          +---------------+        |
          |                                                           |
          |              Forwarding Plane Test Emulator               |
          +-----------------------------------------------------------+

                                     Figure 1







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3.2. Test setup - Controller working in Cluster Mode

          +-----------------------------------------------------------+
          |               Application Plane Test Emulator             |
          |                                                           |
          |        +-----------------+      +-------------+           |
          |        |   Application   |      |   Service   |           |
          |        +-----------------+      +-------------+           |
          |                                                           |
          +-----------------------------+(I2)-------------------------+
                                        |
                                        |
                                        | (Northbound interface)
           +---------------------------------------------------------+
           |                                                         |
           |  ------------------             ------------------      |
           | | SDN Controller 1 | <--E/W--> | SDN Controller n |     |
           |  ------------------             ------------------      |
           |                                                         |
           |                    Device Under Test (DUT)              |
           +---------------------------------------------------------+
                                        | (Southbound interface)
                                        |
                                        |
          +-----------------------------+(I1)-------------------------+
          |                                                           |
          |          +-----------+              +-----------+         |
          |          |  Network  |l1        ln-1|  Network  |         |
          |          |  Device 1 |---- .... ----|  Device n |         |
          |          +-----------+              +-----------+         |
          |               |l0                        |ln              |
          |               |                          |                |
          |               |                          |                |
          |       +---------------+          +---------------+        |
          |       | Test Traffic  |          | Test Traffic  |        |
          |       |  Generator    |          |  Generator    |        |
          |       |    (TP1)      |          |    (TP2)      |        |
          |       +---------------+          +---------------+        |
          |                                                           |
          |              Forwarding Plane Test Emulator               |
          +-----------------------------------------------------------+

                                     Figure 2






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4. Test Coverage

   + -----------------------------------------------------------------+
   |            |       Speed       |  Scalability  |  Reliability    |
   + -----------+-------------------+---------------+-----------------+
   |            | 1. Network Topolo-|1. Network     |                 |
   |            |    -gy Discovery  |   Discovery   |                 |
   |            |                   |   Size        |                 |
   |            | 2. Reactive Path  |               |                 |
   |            |    Provisioning   |               |                 |
   |            |    Time           |               |                 |
   |            |                   |               |                 |
   |            | 3. Proactive Path |               |                 |
   |            |    Provisioning   |               |                 |
   |  Setup     |    Time           |               |                 |
   |            |                   |               |                 |
   |            | 4. Reactive Path  |               |                 |
   |            |    Provisioning   |               |                 |
   |            |    Rate           |               |                 |
   |            |                   |               |                 |
   |            | 5. Proactive Path |               |                 |
   |            |    Provisioning   |               |                 |
   |            |    Rate           |               |                 |
   |            |                   |               |                 |
   +------------+-------------------+---------------+-----------------+
   |            | 1. Asynchronous   |1. Control     |1. Network       |
   |            |    Message Proces-|   Sessions    |   Topology      |
   |            |    -sing Rate     |   Capacity    |   Change        |
   |            |                   |               |   Detection Time|
   |            | 2. Asynchronous   |2. Forwarding  |                 |
   |            |    Message Proces-|   Table       |2. Exception     |
   |            |    -sing Time     |   Capacity    |   Handling      |
   | Operational|                   |               |                 |
   |            |                   |               |3. Denial of     |
   |            |                   |               |   Service       |
   |            |                   |               |   Handling      |
   |            |                   |               |                 |
   |            |                   |               |4. Network  Re-  |
   |            |                   |               |   Provisioning  |
   |            |                   |               |   Time          |
   |            |                   |               |                 |
   +------------+-------------------+---------------+-----------------+
   |            |                   |               |                 |
   | Tear Down  |                   |               |1. Controller    |
   |            |                   |               |   Failover Time |
   +------------+-------------------+---------------+-----------------+



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5. References

5.1. Normative References

   [RFC7426]  E. Haleplidis, K. Pentikousis, S. Denazis, J. Hadi Salim,
              D. Meyer, O. Koufopavlou "Software-Defined Networking
              (SDN): Layers and Architecture Terminology", RFC 7426,
              January 2015.

   [RFC4689]  S. Poretsky, J. Perser, S. Erramilli, S. Khurana
              "Terminology for Benchmarking Network-layer Traffic
              Control Mechanisms", RFC 4689, October 2006.

   [RFC2330]  V. Paxson, G. Almes, J. Mahdavi, M. Mathis,
              "Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330,
              May 1998.

   [OpenFlow Switch Specification]  ONF,"OpenFlow Switch Specification"
              Version 1.4.0 (Wire Protocol 0x05), October 14, 2013.

   [I-D.sdn-controller-benchmark-meth]  Bhuvaneswaran.V, Anton Basil,
              Mark.T, Vishwas Manral, Sarah Banks "Benchmarking
              Methodology for SDN Controller Performance",
              draft-ietf-bmwg-sdn-controller-benchmark-meth-01
              (Work in progress), March 21, 2016

5.2. Informative References


   [OpenContrail]  Ankur Singla, Bruno Rijsman, "OpenContrail
                    Architecture Documentation",
   http://opencontrail.org/opencontrail-architecture-documentation

   [OpenDaylight]  OpenDaylight Controller:Architectural Framework,
   https://wiki.opendaylight.org/view/OpenDaylight_Controller


6. IANA Considerations

   This document does not have any IANA requests.

7. Security Considerations

   Security issues are not discussed in this memo.





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8. Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge Al Morton (AT&T) for the
   significant contributions to the earlier versions of this document.
   The authors would like to thank the following individuals for
   providing their valuable comments to the earlier versions of this
   document: Sandeep Gangadharan (HP), M. Georgescu (NAIST), Andrew
   McGregor (Google), Scott Bradner (Harvard University), Jay Karthik
   (Cisco), Ramakrishnan (Dell), Khasanov Boris (Huawei).

9. Authors' Addresses

   Bhuvaneswaran Vengainathan
   Veryx Technologies Inc.
   1 International Plaza, Suite 550
   Philadelphia
   PA 19113

   Email: bhuvaneswaran.vengainathan@veryxtech.com

   Anton Basil
   Veryx Technologies Inc.
   1 International Plaza, Suite 550
   Philadelphia
   PA 19113

   Email: anton.basil@veryxtech.com

   Mark Tassinari
   Hewlett-Packard,
   8000 Foothills Blvd,
   Roseville, CA 95747

   Email: mark.tassinari@hpe.com

   Vishwas Manral
   Nano Sec,
   CA

   Email: vishwas.manral@gmail.com

   Sarah Banks
   VSS Monitoring

   Email: sbanks@encrypted.net




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