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Versions: 00 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 RFC 2744

     Internet Draft                                          J. Wray
     Common Authentication Technology Working Group  Iris Associates
     <draft-ietf-cat-gssv2-cbind-09.txt>           February 10, 1999
     
               Generic Security Service API Version 2 : C-bindings
     
     1.   STATUS OF THIS MEMO
     
     This document is an Internet Draft.  Internet Drafts are working
     documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its Areas,
     and its Working Groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
     working documents as Internet Drafts.  Internet Drafts are draft
     documents valid for a maximum of six months. Internet Drafts may be
     updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time.  It
     is not appropriate to use Internet Drafts as reference material or to
     cite them other than as a "working draft" or "work in progress."
     Please check the I-D abstract listing contained in each Internet
     Draft directory to learn the current status of this or any other
     Internet Draft.
     
     Comments on this document should be sent to "cat-ietf@mit.edu", the
     IETF Common Authentication Technology WG discussion list.
     
     
     2.   ABSTRACT
     
     This draft document specifies C language bindings for Version 2 of
     the Generic Security Service Application Program Interface (GSS-API),
     which is described at a language-independent conceptual level in
     other drafts [GSSAPI]. It revises RFC-1509, making specific
     incremental changes in response to implementation experience and
     liaison requests.  It is intended, therefore, that this draft or a
     successor version thereof will become the basis for subsequent
     progression of the GSS-API specification on the standards track.
     
     The Generic Security Service Application Programming Interface
     provides security services to its callers, and is intended for
     implementation atop a variety of underlying cryptographic mechanisms.
     Typically, GSS-API callers will be application protocols into which
     security enhancements are integrated through invocation of services
     provided by the GSS-API. The GSS-API allows a caller application to
     authenticate a principal identity associated with a peer application,
     to delegate rights to a peer, and to apply security services such as
     confidentiality and integrity on a per-message basis.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     3.   INTRODUCTION
     
     The Generic Security Service Application Programming Interface
     [GSSAPI] provides security services to calling applications.  It
     allows a communicating application to authenticate the user
     associated with another application, to delegate rights to another
     application, and to apply security services such as confidentiality
     and integrity on a per-message basis.
     
     There are four stages to using the GSS-API:
     
     a) The application acquires a set of credentials with which
        it may prove its identity to other processes. The
        application's credentials vouch for its global identity,
        which may or may not be related to any local username
        under which it may be running.
     
     b) A pair of communicating applications establish a joint
        security context using their credentials.  The security
        context is a pair of GSS-API data structures that contain
        shared state information, which is required in order that
        per-message security services may be provided.  Examples
        of state that might be shared between applications
        as part of a security context are cryptographic keys, and
        message sequence numbers.  As part of the establishment of
        a security context, the context initiator is authenticated
        to the responder, and may require that the responder is
        authenticated in turn.  The initiator may optionally give
        the responder the right to initiate further security
        contexts, acting as an agent or delegate of the initiator.
        This transfer of rights is termed delegation, and is
        achieved by creating a set of credentials, similar to
        those used by the initiating application, but which may
        be used by the responder.
     
        To establish and maintain the shared information that makes
        up the security context, certain GSS-API calls will return a
        token data structure, which is an opaque data type that may
        contain cryptographically protected data.  The caller of
        such a GSS-API routine is responsible for transferring the
        token to the peer application, encapsulated if necessary in
        an application-application protocol.  On receipt of such
        a token, the peer application should pass it to a
        corresponding GSS-API routine which will decode the token
        and extract the information, updating the security context
        state information accordingly.
     
     c) Per-message services are invoked to apply either:
     
           integrity and data origin authentication, or
     
           confidentiality, integrity and data origin authentication
     
     
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        to application data, which are treated by GSS-API as arbitrary
        octet-strings.  An application transmitting a message that it
        wishes to protect will call the appropriate GSS-API routine
        (gss_get_mic or gss_wrap) to apply protection, specifying the
        appropriate security context, and send the resulting token to
        the receiving application.  The receiver will pass the
        received token (and, in the case of data protected by
        gss_get_mic, the accompanying message-data) to the
        corresponding decoding routine (gss_verify_mic or gss_unwrap)
        to remove the protection and validate the data.
     
     d) At the completion of a communications session (which may
        extend across several transport connections), each
        application calls a GSS-API routine to delete the security
        context.  Multiple contexts may also be used (either
        successively or simultaneously) within a single communications
        association, at the option of the applications.
     
     
     4.   GSS-API ROUTINES
     
     This section lists the routines that make up the GSS-API, and offers
     a brief description of the purpose of each routine. Detailed
     descriptions of each routine are listed in alphabetical order in
     section 7.
     
     
     
     Table 4-1  GSS-API Credential-management Routines
     
     Routine                Section              Function
     -------                -------              --------
     gss_acquire_cred           7.2  Assume a global identity; Obtain
                                     a GSS-API credential handle for
                                     pre-existing credentials.
     gss_add_cred               7.3  Construct credentials
                                     incrementally
     gss_inquire_cred           7.21 Obtain information about a
                                     credential
     gss_inquire_cred_by_mech   7.22 Obtain per-mechanism information
                                     about a credential.
     gss_release_cred           7.27 Discard a credential handle.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     Table 4-2  GSS-API Context-Level Routines
     
     Routine                 Section              Function
     -------                 -------              --------
     gss_init_sec_context       7.19 Initiate a security context with
                                     a peer application
     gss_accept_sec_context     7.1  Accept a security context
                                     initiated by a
                                     peer application
     gss_delete_sec_context     7.9  Discard a security context
     gss_process_context_token  7.25 Process a token on a security
                                     context from a peer application
     gss_context_time           7.7  Determine for how long a context
                                     will remain valid
     gss_inquire_context        7.20 Obtain information about a
                                     security context
     gss_wrap_size_limit        7.34 Determine token-size limit for
                                     gss_wrap on a context
     gss_export_sec_context     7.14 Transfer a security context to
                                     another process
     gss_import_sec_context     7.17 Import a transferred context
     
     
     
     Table 4-3  GSS-API Per-message Routines
     
     Routine                 Section              Function
     -------                 -------              --------
     gss_get_mic                7.15 Calculate a cryptographic message
                                     integrity code (MIC) for a
                                     message; integrity service
     gss_verify_mic             7.32 Check a MIC against a message;
                                     verify integrity of a received
                                     message
     gss_wrap                   7.33 Attach a MIC to a message, and
                                     optionally encrypt the message
                                     content;
                                     confidentiality service
     gss_unwrap                 7.31 Verify a message with attached
                                     MIC, and decrypt message content
                                     if necessary.
     
     
     
     Table 4-4  GSS-API Name manipulation Routines
     
     Routine                 Section              Function
     -------                 -------              --------
     gss_import_name            7.16 Convert a contiguous string name
                                     to internal-form
     gss_display_name           7.10 Convert internal-form name to
                                     text
     gss_compare_name           7.6  Compare two internal-form names
     
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     gss_release_name           7.28 Discard an internal-form name
     gss_inquire_names_for_mech 7.24 List the name-types supported by
                                     the specified mechanism
     gss_inquire_mechs_for_name 7.23 List mechanisms that support the
                                     specified name-type
     gss_canonicalize_name      7.5  Convert an internal name to an MN
     gss_export_name            7.13 Convert an MN to export form
     gss_duplicate_name         7.12 Create a copy of an internal name
     
     
     
     Table 4-5  GSS-API Miscellaneous Routines
     
     Routine                Section              Function
     -------                -------              --------
     gss_add_oid_set_member    7.4  Add an object identifier to
                                    a set
     gss_display_status        7.11 Convert a GSS-API status code
                                    to text
     gss_indicate_mechs        7.18 Determine available underlying
                                    authentication mechanisms
     gss_release_buffer        7.26 Discard a buffer
     gss_release_oid_set       7.29 Discard a set of object
                                    identifiers
     gss_create_empty_oid_set  7.8  Create a set containing no
                                    object identifiers
     gss_test_oid_set_member   7.30 Determines whether an object
                                    identifier is a member of a set.
     
     
     Individual GSS-API implementations may augment these routines by
     providing additional mechanism-specific routines if required
     functionality is not available from the generic forms. Applications
     are encouraged to use the generic routines wherever possible on
     portability grounds.
     
     
     5.   DATA TYPES AND CALLING CONVENTIONS
     
     The following conventions are used by the GSS-API C-language
     bindings:
     
     
     5.1. Integer types
     
     GSS-API uses the following integer data type:
     
        OM_uint32    32-bit unsigned integer
     
     Where guaranteed minimum bit-count is important, this portable data
     type is used by the GSS-API routine definitions.  Individual GSS-API
     implementations will include appropriate typedef definitions to map
     this type onto a built-in data type.  If the platform supports the
     X/Open xom.h header file, the OM_uint32 definition contained therein
     should be used; the GSS-API header file in Appendix A contains logic
     
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     that will detect the prior inclusion of xom.h, and will not attempt
     to re-declare OM_uint32.  If the X/Open header file is not available
     on the platform, the GSS-API implementation should use the smallest
     natural unsigned integer type that provides at least 32 bits of
     precision.
     
     
     5.2. String and similar data
     
     Many of the GSS-API routines take arguments and return values that
     describe contiguous octet-strings.  All such data is passed between
     the GSS-API and the caller using the gss_buffer_t data type.  This
     data type is a pointer to a buffer descriptor, which consists of a
     length field that contains the total number of bytes in the datum,
     and a value field which contains a pointer to the actual datum:
     
     typedef struct gss_buffer_desc_struct {
        size_t    length;
        void      *value;
     } gss_buffer_desc, *gss_buffer_t;
     
     Storage for data returned to the application by a GSS-API routine
     using the gss_buffer_t conventions is allocated by the GSS-API
     routine.  The application may free this storage by invoking the
     gss_release_buffer routine.  Allocation of the gss_buffer_desc object
     is always the responsibility of the application;  unused
     gss_buffer_desc objects may be initialized to the value
     GSS_C_EMPTY_BUFFER.
     
     
     5.2.1.    Opaque data types
     
     Certain multiple-word data items are considered opaque data types at
     the GSS-API, because their internal structure has no significance
     either to the GSS-API or to the caller.  Examples of such opaque data
     types are the input_token parameter to gss_init_sec_context (which is
     opaque to the caller), and the input_message parameter to gss_wrap
     (which is opaque to the GSS-API).  Opaque data is passed between the
     GSS-API and the application using the gss_buffer_t datatype.
     
     
     5.2.2.    Character strings
     
     Certain multiple-word data items may be regarded as simple ISO
     Latin-1 character strings.  Examples are the printable strings passed
     to gss_import_name via the input_name_buffer parameter. Some GSS-API
     routines also return character strings.  All such character strings
     are passed between the application and the GSS-API implementation
     using the gss_buffer_t datatype, which is a pointer to a
     gss_buffer_desc object.
     
     When a gss_buffer_desc object describes a printable string, the
     length field of the gss_buffer_desc should only count printable
     characters within the string.  In particular, a trailing NUL
     character should NOT be included in the length count, nor should
     
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     either the GSS-API implementation or the application assume the
     presence of an uncounted trailing NUL.
     
     
     5.3. Object Identifiers
     
     Certain GSS-API procedures take parameters of the type gss_OID, or
     Object identifier.  This is a type containing ISO-defined
     tree-structured values, and is used by the GSS-API caller to select
     an underlying security mechanism and to specify namespaces.  A value
     of type gss_OID has the following structure:
     
     typedef struct gss_OID_desc_struct {
        OM_uint32   length;
        void        *elements;
     } gss_OID_desc, *gss_OID;
     
     The elements field of this structure points to the first byte of an
     octet string containing the ASN.1 BER encoding of the value portion
     of the normal BER TLV encoding of the gss_OID.  The length field
     contains the number of bytes in this value.  For example, the gss_OID
     value corresponding to {iso(1) identified-organization(3)
     icd-ecma(12) member-company(2) dec(1011) cryptoAlgorithms(7)
     DASS(5)}, meaning the DASS X.509 authentication mechanism, has a
     length field of 7 and an elements field pointing to seven octets
     containing the following octal values: 53,14,2,207,163,7,5. GSS-API
     implementations should provide constant gss_OID values to allow
     applications to request any supported mechanism, although
     applications are encouraged on portability grounds to accept the
     default mechanism.  gss_OID values should also be provided to allow
     applications to specify particular name types (see section 5.10).
     Applications should treat gss_OID_desc values returned by GSS-API
     routines as read-only.  In particular, the application should not
     attempt to deallocate them with free().  The gss_OID_desc datatype is
     equivalent to the X/Open OM_object_identifier datatype[XOM].
     
     
     5.4. Object Identifier Sets
     
     Certain GSS-API procedures take parameters of the type gss_OID_set.
     This type
     represents one or more object identifiers (section 5.3).  A
     gss_OID_set object has the following structure:
     
     typedef struct gss_OID_set_desc_struct {
        size_t    count;
        gss_OID   elements;
     } gss_OID_set_desc, *gss_OID_set;
     
     The count field contains the number of OIDs within the set.  The
     elements field is a pointer to an array of gss_OID_desc objects, each
     of which describes a single OID.  gss_OID_set values are used to name
     the available mechanisms supported by the GSS-API, to request the use
     of specific mechanisms, and to indicate which mechanisms a given
     credential supports.
     
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     All OID sets returned to the application by GSS-API are dynamic
     objects (the gss_OID_set_desc, the "elements" array of the set, and
     the "elements" array of each member OID are all dynamically
     allocated), and this storage must be deallocated by the application
     using the gss_release_oid_set() routine.
     
     
     5.5. Credentials
     
     A credential handle is a caller-opaque atomic datum that identifies a
     GSS-API credential data structure.  It is represented by the
     caller-opaque type gss_cred_id_t, which should be implemented as a
     pointer or arithmetic type.  If a pointer implementation is chosen,
     care must be taken to ensure that two gss_cred_id_t values may be
     compared with the == operator.
     
     GSS-API credentials can contain mechanism-specific principal
     authentication data for multiple mechanisms.  A GSS-API credential is
     composed of a set of credential-elements, each of which is applicable
     to a single mechanism.  A credential may contain at most one
     credential-element for each supported mechanism. A credential-element
     identifies the data needed by a single mechanism to authenticate a
     single principal, and conceptually contains two credential-references
     that describe the actual mechanism-specific authentication data, one
     to be used by GSS-API for initiating contexts,  and one to be used
     for accepting contexts.  For mechanisms that do not distinguish
     between acceptor and initiator credentials, both references would
     point to the same underlying mechanism-specific authentication data.
     
     Credentials describe a set of mechanism-specific principals, and give
     their holder the ability to act as any of those principals. All
     principal identities asserted by a single GSS-API credential should
     belong to the same entity, although enforcement of this property is
     an implementation-specific matter.  The GSS-API does not make the
     actual credentials available to applications; instead a credential
     handle is used to identify a particular credential, held internally
     by GSS-API.  The combination of GSS-API credential handle and
     mechanism identifies the principal whose identity will be asserted by
     the credential when used with that mechanism.
     
     The gss_init_sec_context and gss_accept_sec_context routines allow
     the value GSS_C_NO_CREDENTIAL to be specified as their credential
     handle parameter.  This special credential-handle indicates a desire
     by the application to act as a default principal.  While individual
     GSS-API implementations are free to determine such default behavior
     as appropriate to the mechanism, the following default behavior by
     these routines is recommended for portability:
     
     gss_init_sec_context
     
        1) If there is only a single principal capable of initiating
           security contexts for the chosen mechanism that the
           application is authorized to act on behalf of, then that
           principal shall be used, otherwise
     
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        2) If the platform maintains a concept of a default
           network-identity for the chosen mechanism, and if the
           application is authorized to act on behalf of that
           identity for the purpose of initiating security contexts,
           then the principal corresponding to that identity shall
           be used, otherwise
     
        3) If the platform maintains a concept of a default local
           identity, and provides a means to map local identities
           into network-identities for the chosen mechanism, and
           if the application is authorized to act on behalf of
           the network-identity image of the default local
           identity for the purpose of initiating security contexts
           using the chosen mechanism, then the principal
           corresponding to that identity shall be used, otherwise
     
        4) A user-configurable default identity should be used.
     
     gss_accept_sec_context
     
        1) If there is only a single authorized principal identity
           capable of accepting security contexts for the chosen
           mechanism, then that principal shall be used, otherwise
     
        2) If the mechanism can determine the identity of the
           target principal by examining the context-establishment
           token, and if the accepting application is authorized to
           act as that principal for the purpose of accepting security
           contexts using the chosen mechanism, then that principal
           identity shall be used, otherwise
     
        3) If the mechanism supports context acceptance by any
           principal, and if mutual authentication was not requested,
           any principal that the application is authorized to accept
           security contexts under using the chosen mechanism may be
           used, otherwise
     
         4)A user-configurable default identity shall be used.
     
     The purpose of the above rules is to allow security contexts to be
     established by both initiator and acceptor using the default behavior
     wherever possible.  Applications requesting default behavior are
     likely to be more portable across mechanisms and platforms than ones
     that use gss_acquire_cred to request a specific identity.
     
     
     5.6. Contexts
     
     The gss_ctx_id_t data type contains a caller-opaque atomic value that
     identifies one end of a GSS-API security context.  It should be
     implemented as a pointer or arithmetic type.  If a pointer type is
     chosen, care should be taken to ensure that two gss_ctx_id_t values
     may be compared with the == operator.
     
     
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     The security context holds state information about each end of a peer
     communication, including cryptographic state information.
     
     
     5.7. Authentication tokens
     
     A token is a caller-opaque type that GSS-API uses to maintain
     synchronization between the context data structures at each end of a
     GSS-API security context.  The token is a cryptographically protected
     octet-string, generated by the underlying mechanism at one end of a
     GSS-API security context for use by the peer mechanism at the other
     end.  Encapsulation (if required) and transfer of the token are the
     responsibility of the peer applications.  A token is passed between
     the GSS-API and the application using the gss_buffer_t conventions.
     
     
     5.8. Interprocess tokens
     
     Certain GSS-API routines are intended to transfer data between
     processes in multi-process programs.  These routines use a
     caller-opaque octet-string, generated by the GSS-API in one process
     for use by the GSS-API in another process.  The calling application
     is responsible for transferring such tokens between processes in an
     OS-specific manner.  Note that, while GSS-API implementors are
     encouraged to avoid placing sensitive information within interprocess
     tokens, or to cryptographically protect them, many implementations
     will be unable to avoid placing key material or other sensitive data
     within them.  It is the application's responsibility to ensure that
     interprocess tokens are protected in transit, and transferred only to
     processes that are trustworthy. An interprocess token is passed
     between the GSS-API and the application using the gss_buffer_t
     conventions.
     
     
     5.9. Status values
     
     Every GSS-API routine returns two distinct values to report status
     information to the caller: GSS status codes and Mechanism status
     codes.
     
     
     5.9.1.    GSS status codes
     
     
     GSS-API routines return GSS status codes as their OM_uint32 function
     value.  These codes indicate errors that are independent of the
     underlying mechanism(s) used to provide the security service.  The
     errors that can be indicated via a GSS status code are either generic
     API routine errors (errors that are defined in the GSS-API
     specification) or calling errors (errors that are specific to these
     language bindings).
     
     A GSS status code can indicate a single fatal generic API error from
     the routine and a single calling error.  In addition, supplementary
     
     
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     status information may be indicated via the setting of bits in the
     supplementary info field of a GSS status code.
     
     These errors are encoded into the 32-bit GSS status code as follows:
     
           MSB                                                        LSB
           |------------------------------------------------------------|
           |  Calling Error | Routine Error  |    Supplementary Info    |
           |------------------------------------------------------------|
        Bit 31            24 23            16 15                       0
     
     Hence if a GSS-API routine returns a GSS status code whose upper 16
     bits contain a non-zero value, the call failed.  If the calling error
     field is non-zero, the invoking application's call of the routine was
     erroneous.  Calling errors are defined in table 5-1.  If the routine
     error field is non-zero, the routine failed for one of the
     routine-specific reasons listed below in table 5-2.  Whether or not
     the upper 16 bits indicate a failure or a success, the routine may
     indicate additional information by setting bits in the supplementary
     info field of the status code. The meaning of individual bits is
     listed below in table 5-3.
     
     
     Table 5-1  Calling Errors
     
     Name                   Value in field           Meaning
     ----                   --------------           -------
     GSS_S_CALL_INACCESSIBLE_READ  1       A required input parameter
                                           could not be read
     GSS_S_CALL_INACCESSIBLE_WRITE 2       A required output parameter
                                            could not be written.
     GSS_S_CALL_BAD_STRUCTURE      3       A parameter was malformed
     
     
     
     Table 5-2  Routine Errors
     
     Name                   Value in field           Meaning
     ----                   --------------           -------
     GSS_S_BAD_MECH                1       An unsupported mechanism
                                           was requested
     GSS_S_BAD_NAME                2       An invalid name was
                                           supplied
     GSS_S_BAD_NAMETYPE            3       A supplied name was of an
                                           unsupported type
     GSS_S_BAD_BINDINGS            4       Incorrect channel bindings
                                           were supplied
     GSS_S_BAD_STATUS              5       An invalid status code was
                                           supplied
     GSS_S_BAD_MIC GSS_S_BAD_SIG   6       A token had an invalid MIC
     GSS_S_NO_CRED                 7       No credentials were
                                           supplied, or the
                                           credentials were
                                           unavailable or
                                           inaccessible.
     
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     GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT              8       No context has been
                                           established
     GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_TOKEN         9       A token was invalid
     GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_CREDENTIAL   10       A credential was invalid
     GSS_S_CREDENTIALS_EXPIRED    11       The referenced credentials
                                           have expired
     GSS_S_CONTEXT_EXPIRED        12       The context has expired
     GSS_S_FAILURE                13       Miscellaneous failure (see
                                           text)
     GSS_S_BAD_QOP                14       The quality-of-protection
                                           requested could not be
                                           provided
     GSS_S_UNAUTHORIZED           15       The operation is forbidden
                                           by local security policy
     GSS_S_UNAVAILABLE            16       The operation or option is
                                           unavailable
     GSS_S_DUPLICATE_ELEMENT      17       The requested credential
                                           element already exists
     GSS_S_NAME_NOT_MN            18       The provided name was not a
                                           mechanism name
     
     
     
     Table 5-3  Supplementary Status Bits
     
     Name                   Bit Number           Meaning
     ----                   ----------           -------
     GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED   0 (LSB)   Returned only by
                                       gss_init_sec_context or
                                       gss_accept_sec_context. The
                                       routine must be called again
                                       to complete its function.
                                       See routine documentation for
                                       detailed description
     GSS_S_DUPLICATE_TOKEN   1         The token was a duplicate of
                                       an earlier token
     GSS_S_OLD_TOKEN         2         The token's validity period
                                       has expired
     GSS_S_UNSEQ_TOKEN       3         A later token has already been
                                       processed
     GSS_S_GAP_TOKEN         4         An expected per-message token
                                       was not received
     
     
     The routine documentation also uses the name GSS_S_COMPLETE, which is
     a zero value, to indicate an absence of any API errors or
     supplementary information bits.
     
     All GSS_S_xxx symbols equate to complete OM_uint32 status codes,
     rather than to bitfield values.  For example, the actual value of the
     symbol GSS_S_BAD_NAMETYPE (value 3 in the routine error field) is
     3<<16.
     The macros GSS_CALLING_ERROR(), GSS_ROUTINE_ERROR() and
     GSS_SUPPLEMENTARY_INFO() are provided, each of which takes a GSS
     status code and removes all but the relevant field.  For example, the
     
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     value obtained by applying GSS_ROUTINE_ERROR to a status code removes
     the calling errors and supplementary info fields, leaving only the
     routine errors field.  The values delivered by these macros may be
     directly compared with a GSS_S_xxx symbol of the appropriate type.
     The macro GSS_ERROR() is also provided, which when applied to a GSS
     status code returns a non-zero value if the status code indicated a
     calling or routine error, and a zero value otherwise.  All macros
     defined by GSS-API evaluate their argument(s) exactly once.
     
     A GSS-API implementation may choose to signal calling errors in a
     platform-specific manner instead of, or in addition to the routine
     value;  routine errors and supplementary info should be returned via
     major status values only.
     
     The GSS major status code GSS_S_FAILURE is used to indicate that the
     underlying mechanism detected an error for which no specific GSS
     status code is defined.  The mechanism-specific status code will
     provide more details about the error.
     
     
     5.9.2.    Mechanism-specific status codes
     
     GSS-API routines return a minor_status parameter, which is used to
     indicate specialized errors from the underlying security mechanism.
     This parameter may contain a single mechanism-specific error,
     indicated by a OM_uint32 value.
     
     The minor_status parameter will always be set by a GSS-API routine,
     even if it returns a calling error or one of the generic API errors
     indicated above as fatal, although most other output parameters may
     remain unset in such cases.  However, output parameters that are
     expected to return pointers to storage allocated by a routine must
     always be set by the routine, even in the event of an error, although
     in such cases the GSS-API routine may elect to set the returned
     parameter value to NULL to indicate that no storage was actually
     allocated.  Any length field associated with such pointers (as in a
     gss_buffer_desc structure) should also be set to zero in such cases.
     
     
     
     5.10.Names
     
     A name is used to identify a person or entity.  GSS-API authenticates
     the relationship between a name and the entity claiming the name.
     
     Since different authentication mechanisms may employ different
     namespaces for identifying their principals, GSSAPI's naming support
     is necessarily complex in multi-mechanism environments (or even in
     some single-mechanism environments where the underlying mechanism
     supports multiple namespaces).
     
     Two distinct representations are defined for names:
     
     An internal form.  This is the GSS-API "native" format for names,
         represented by the implementation-specific gss_name_t type.
     
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         It is opaque to GSS-API callers.  A single gss_name_t object
         may contain multiple names from different namespaces, but
         all names should refer to the same entity.  An example of
         such an internal name would be the name returned from a
         call to the gss_inquire_cred routine, when applied to a
         credential containing credential elements for multiple
         authentication mechanisms employing different namespaces.
         This gss_name_t object will contain a distinct name for the
         entity for each authentication mechanism.
     
         For GSS-API implementations supporting multiple namespaces,
         objects of type gss_name_t must contain sufficient
         information to determine the namespace to which each
         primitive name belongs.
     
     Mechanism-specific contiguous octet-string forms.  A format
         capable of containing a single name (from a single
         namespace). Contiguous string names are always accompanied
         by an object identifier specifying the namespace to which
         the name belongs, and their format is dependent on the
         authentication mechanism that employs the name.  Many, but
         not all, contiguous string names will be printable, and may
         therefore be used by GSS-API applications for communication
         with their users.
     
     Routines (gss_import_name and gss_display_name) are provided to
     convert names between contiguous string representations and the
     internal gss_name_t type.  gss_import_name may support multiple
     syntaxes for each supported namespace, allowing users the freedom to
     choose a preferred name representation. gss_display_name should use
     an implementation-chosen printable syntax for each supported
     name-type.
     
     If an application calls gss_display_name(), passing the internal name
      resulting from a call to gss_import_name(), there is no guarantee
     the the resulting contiguous string name will be the same as the
     original imported string name.  Nor do name-space identifiers
     necessarily survive unchanged after a journey through the internal
     name-form.  An example of this might be a mechanism that
     authenticates X.500 names, but provides an algorithmic mapping of
     Internet DNS names into X.500.  That mechanism's implementation of
     gss_import_name() might, when presented with a DNS name, generate an
     internal name that contained both the original DNS name and the
     equivalent X.500 name. Alternatively, it might only store the X.500
     name.  In the latter case, gss_display_name() would most likely
     generate a printable X.500 name, rather than the original DNS name.
     
     The process of authentication delivers to the context acceptor an
     internal name.  Since this name has been authenticated by a single
     mechanism, it contains only a single name (even if the internal name
     presented by the context initiator to gss_init_sec_context had
     multiple components).  Such names are termed internal mechanism
     names, or "MN"s and the names emitted by gss_accept_sec_context() are
     always of this type.  Since some applications may require MNs without
     wanting to incur the overhead of an authentication operation, a
     
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     second function, gss_canonicalize_name(), is provided to convert a
     general internal name into an MN.
     
     Comparison of internal-form names may be accomplished via the
     gss_compare_name() routine, which returns true if the two names being
     compared refer to the same entity.  This removes the need for the
     application program to understand the syntaxes of the various
     printable names that a given GSS-API implementation may support.
     Since GSS-API assumes that all primitive names contained within a
     given internal name refer to the same entity, gss_compare_name() can
     return true if the two names have at least one primitive name in
     common.  If the implementation embodies knowledge of equivalence
     relationships between names taken from different namespaces, this
     knowledge may also allow successful comparison of internal names
     containing no overlapping primitive elements.
     
     When used in large access control lists, the overhead of invoking
     gss_import_name() and gss_compare_name() on each name from the ACL
     may be prohibitive.  As an alternative way of supporting this case,
     GSS-API defines a special form of the contiguous string name which
     may be compared directly (e.g. with memcmp()).  Contigous names
     suitable for comparison are generated by the gss_export_name()
     routine, which requires an MN as input.  Exported names may be
     re-imported by the gss_import_name() routine, and the resulting
     internal name will also be an MN.  The gss_OID constant
     GSS_C_NT_EXPORT_NAME indentifies the "export name" type, and the
     value of this constant is given in Appendix A.  Structurally, an
     exported name object consists of a header containing an OID
     identifying the mechanism that authenticated the name, and a trailer
     containing the name itself, where the syntax of the trailer is
     defined by the individual mechanism specification.   The precise
     format of an export name is defined in the language-independent
     GSS-API specification [GSSAPI].
     
     Note that the results obtained by using gss_compare_name() will in
     general be different from those obtained by invoking
     gss_canonicalize_name() and gss_export_name(), and then comparing the
     exported names.  The first series of operation determines whether two
     (unauthenticated) names identify the same principal; the second
     whether a particular mechanism would authenticate them as the same
     principal.  These two operations will in general give the same
     results only for MNs.
     
     The gss_name_t datatype should be implemented as a pointer type. To
     allow the compiler to aid the application programmer by performing
     type-checking, the use of (void *) is discouraged.  A pointer to an
     implementation-defined type is the preferred choice.
     
     Storage is allocated by routines that return gss_name_t values. A
     procedure, gss_release_name, is provided to free storage associated
     with an internal-form name.
     
     
     
     5.11.Channel Bindings
     
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     GSS-API supports the use of user-specified tags to identify a given
     context to the peer application.  These tags are intended to be used
     to identify the particular communications channel that carries the
     context.  Channel bindings are communicated to the GSS-API using the
     following structure:
     
     typedef struct gss_channel_bindings_struct {
        OM_uint32       initiator_addrtype;
        gss_buffer_desc initiator_address;
        OM_uint32       acceptor_addrtype;
        gss_buffer_desc acceptor_address;
        gss_buffer_desc application_data;
     } *gss_channel_bindings_t;
     
     The initiator_addrtype and acceptor_addrtype fields denote the type
     of addresses contained in the initiator_address and acceptor_address
     buffers.  The address type should be one of the following:
     
       GSS_C_AF_UNSPEC     Unspecified address type
       GSS_C_AF_LOCAL      Host-local address type
       GSS_C_AF_INET       Internet address type (e.g. IP)
       GSS_C_AF_IMPLINK    ARPAnet IMP address type
       GSS_C_AF_PUP        pup protocols (eg BSP) address type
       GSS_C_AF_CHAOS      MIT CHAOS protocol address type
       GSS_C_AF_NS         XEROX NS address type
       GSS_C_AF_NBS        nbs address type
       GSS_C_AF_ECMA       ECMA address type
       GSS_C_AF_DATAKIT    datakit protocols address type
       GSS_C_AF_CCITT      CCITT protocols
       GSS_C_AF_SNA        IBM SNA address type
       GSS_C_AF_DECnet     DECnet address type
       GSS_C_AF_DLI        Direct data link interface address type
       GSS_C_AF_LAT        LAT address type
       GSS_C_AF_HYLINK     NSC Hyperchannel address type
       GSS_C_AF_APPLETALK  AppleTalk address type
       GSS_C_AF_BSC        BISYNC 2780/3780 address type
       GSS_C_AF_DSS        Distributed system services address type
       GSS_C_AF_OSI        OSI TP4 address type
       GSS_C_AF_X25        X.25
       GSS_C_AF_NULLADDR   No address specified
     
     Note that these symbols name address families rather than specific
     addressing formats.  For address families that contain several
     alternative address forms, the initiator_address and acceptor_address
     fields must contain sufficient information to determine which address
     form is used.  When not otherwise specified, addresses should be
     specified in network byte-order (that is, native byte-ordering for
     the address family).
     
     Conceptually, the GSS-API concatenates the initiator_addrtype,
     initiator_address, acceptor_addrtype, acceptor_address and
     application_data to form an octet string.  The mechanism calculates a
     MIC over this octet string, and binds the MIC to the context
     establishment token emitted by gss_init_sec_context. The same
     
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     bindings are presented by the context acceptor to
     gss_accept_sec_context, and a MIC is calculated in the same way. The
     calculated MIC is compared with that found in the token, and if the
     MICs differ, gss_accept_sec_context will return a GSS_S_BAD_BINDINGS
     error, and the context will not be established.  Some mechanisms may
     include the actual channel binding data in the token (rather than
     just a MIC); applications should therefore not use confidential data
     as channel-binding components.
     
     Individual mechanisms may impose additional constraints on addresses
     and address types that may appear in channel bindings.  For example,
     a mechanism may verify that the initiator_address field of the
     channel bindings presented to gss_init_sec_context contains the
     correct network address of the host system.  Portable applications
     should therefore ensure that they either provide correct information
     for the address fields, or omit addressing information, specifying
     GSS_C_AF_NULLADDR as the address-types.
     
     
     5.12.Optional parameters
     Various parameters are described as optional.  This means that they
     follow a convention whereby a default value may be requested.  The
     following conventions are used for omitted parameters.  These
     conventions apply only to those parameters that are explicitly
     documented as optional.
     
     
     5.12.1.   gss_buffer_t types
     
     Specify GSS_C_NO_BUFFER as a value.  For an input parameter this
     signifies that default behavior is requested, while for an output
     parameter it indicates that the information that would be returned
     via the parameter is not required by the application.
     
     
     5.12.2.   Integer types (input)
     
     Individual parameter documentation lists values to be used to
     indicate default actions.
     
     
     5.12.3.   Integer types (output)
     
     Specify NULL as the value for the pointer.
     
     
     5.12.4.   Pointer types
     
     Specify NULL as the value.
     
     
     5.12.5.   Object IDs
     
     Specify GSS_C_NO_OID as the value.
     
     
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     5.12.6.   Object ID Sets
     
     Specify GSS_C_NO_OID_SET as the value.
     
     
     5.12.7.   Channel Bindings
     
     Specify GSS_C_NO_CHANNEL_BINDINGS to indicate that channel bindings
     are not to be used.
     
     
     
     6.   ADDITIONAL CONTROLS
     
     This section discusses the optional services that a context initiator
     may request of the GSS-API at context establishment. Each of these
     services is requested by setting a flag in the req_flags input
     parameter to gss_init_sec_context.
     
     The optional services currently defined are:
     
     Delegation - The (usually temporary) transfer of rights from
         initiator to acceptor, enabling the acceptor to authenticate
         itself as an agent of the initiator.
     
     Mutual Authentication - In addition to the initiator
         authenticating its identity to the context acceptor, the
         context acceptor should also authenticate itself to the
         initiator.
     
     Replay detection - In addition to providing message integrity
         services, gss_get_mic and gss_wrap should include message
         numbering information to enable gss_verify_mic and gss_unwrap
         to detect if a message has been duplicated.
     
     Out-of-sequence detection - In addition to providing message
         integrity services, gss_get_mic and gss_wrap should include
         message sequencing information to enable gss_verify_mic and
         gss_unwrap to detect if a message has been received out of
         sequence.
     
     Anonymous authentication - The establishment of the security
         context should not reveal the initiator's identity to the
         context acceptor.
     
     Any currently undefined bits within such flag arguments should be
     ignored by GSS-API implementations when presented by an application,
     and should be set to zero when returned to the application by the
     GSS-API implementation.
     
     Some mechanisms may not support all optional services, and some
     mechanisms may only support some services in conjunction with others.
     Both gss_init_sec_context and gss_accept_sec_context inform the
     applications which services will be available from the context when
     
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     the establishment phase is complete, via the ret_flags output
     parameter.  In general, if the security mechanism is capable of
     providing a requested service, it should do so, even if additional
     services must be enabled in order to provide the requested service.
     If the mechanism is incapable of providing a requested service, it
     should proceed without the service, leaving the application to abort
     the context establishment process if it considers the requested
     service to be mandatory.
     
     Some mechanisms may specify that support for some services is
     optional, and that implementors of the mechanism need not provide it.
     This is most commonly true of the confidentiality service, often
     because of legal restrictions on the use of data-encryption, but may
     apply to any of the services.  Such mechanisms are required to send
     at least one token from acceptor to initiator during context
     establishment when the initiator indicates a desire to use such a
     service, so that the initiating GSS-API can correctly indicate
     whether the service is supported by the acceptor's GSS-API.
     
     
     6.1. Delegation
     
     The GSS-API allows delegation to be controlled by the initiating
     application via a boolean parameter to gss_init_sec_context(), the
     routine that establishes a security context.  Some mechanisms do not
     support delegation, and for such mechanisms attempts by an
     application to enable delegation are ignored.
     
     The acceptor of a security context for which the initiator enabled
     delegation will receive (via the delegated_cred_handle parameter of
     gss_accept_sec_context) a credential handle that contains the
     delegated identity, and this credential handle may be used to
     initiate subsequent GSS-API security contexts as an agent or delegate
     of the initiator.  If the original initiator's identity is "A" and
     the delegate's identity is "B", then, depending on the underlying
     mechanism, the identity embodied by the delegated credential may be
     either "A" or "B acting for A".
     
     For many mechanisms that support delegation, a simple boolean does
     not provide enough control.  Examples of additional aspects of
     delegation control that a mechanism might provide to an application
     are duration of delegation, network addresses from which delegation
     is valid, and constraints on the tasks that may be performed by a
     delegate.  Such controls are presently outside the scope of the
     GSS-API.  GSS-API implementations supporting mechanisms offering
     additional controls should provide extension routines that allow
     these controls to be exercised (perhaps by modifying the initiator's
     GSS-API credential prior to its use in establishing a context).
     However, the simple delegation control provided by GSS-API should
     always be able to over-ride other mechanism-specific delegation
     controls - If the application instructs gss_init_sec_context() that
     delegation is not desired, then the implementation must not permit
     delegation to occur. This is an exception to the general rule that a
     mechanism may enable services even if they are not requested -
     
     
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     delegation may only be provided at the explicit request of the
     application.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     6.2. Mutual authentication
     
     Usually, a context acceptor will require that a context initiator
     authenticate itself so that the acceptor may make an access-control
     decision prior to performing a service for the initiator.  In some
     cases, the initiator may also request that the acceptor authenticate
     itself.  GSS-API allows the initiating application to request this
     mutual authentication service by setting a flag when calling
     gss_init_sec_context.
     
     The initiating application is informed as to whether or not the
     context acceptor has authenticated itself.  Note that some mechanisms
     may not support mutual authentication, and other mechanisms may
     always perform mutual authentication, whether or not the initiating
     application requests it.  In particular, mutual authentication my be
     required by some mechanisms in order to support replay or
     out-of-sequence message detection, and for such mechanisms a request
     for either of these services will automatically enable mutual
     authentication.
     
     
     6.3. Replay and out-of-sequence detection
     
     The GSS-API may provide detection of mis-ordered message once a
     security context has been established.  Protection may be applied to
     messages by either application, by calling either gss_get_mic or
     gss_wrap, and verified by the peer application by calling
     gss_verify_mic or gss_unwrap.
     
     gss_get_mic calculates a cryptographic MIC over an application
     message, and returns that MIC in a token.  The application should
     pass both the token and the message to the peer application, which
     presents them to gss_verify_mic.
     
     gss_wrap calculates a cryptographic MIC of an application message,
     and places both the MIC and the message inside a single token.  The
     Application should pass the token to the peer application, which
     presents it to gss_unwrap to extract the message and verify the MIC.
     
     Either pair of routines may be capable of detecting out-of-sequence
     message delivery, or duplication of messages. Details of such
     mis-ordered messages are indicated through supplementary status bits
     in the major status code returned by gss_verify_mic or gss_unwrap.
     The relevant supplementary bits are:
     
     GSS_S_DUPLICATE_TOKEN - The token is a duplicate of one that has
                      already been received and processed.  Only
                      contexts that claim to provide replay detection
                      may set this bit.
     GSS_S_OLD_TOKEN - The token is too old to determine whether or
                      not it is a duplicate.  Contexts supporting
                      out-of-sequence detection but not replay
                      detection should always set this bit if
                      GSS_S_UNSEQ_TOKEN is set; contexts that support
                      replay detection should only set this bit if the
     
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                      token is so old that it cannot be checked for
                      duplication.
     GSS_S_UNSEQ_TOKEN - A later token has already been processed.
     GSS_S_GAP_TOKEN - An earlier token has not yet been received.
     
     A mechanism need not maintain a list of all tokens that have been
     processed in order to support these status codes.  A typical
     mechanism might retain information about only the most recent "N"
     tokens processed, allowing it to distinguish duplicates and missing
     tokens within the most recent "N" messages; the receipt of a token
     older than the most recent "N" would result in a GSS_S_OLD_TOKEN
     status.
     
     
     6.4. Anonymous Authentication
     
     In certain situations, an application may wish to initiate the
     authentication process to authenticate a peer, without revealing its
     own identity.  As an example, consider an application providing
     access to a database containing medical information, and offering
     unrestricted access to the service.  A client of such a service might
     wish to authenticate the service (in order to establish trust in any
     information retrieved from it), but might not wish the service to be
     able to obtain the client's identity (perhaps due to privacy concerns
     about the specific inquiries, or perhaps simply to avoid being placed
     on mailing-lists).
     
     In normal use of the GSS-API, the initiator's identity is made
     available to the acceptor as a result of the context establishment
     process.  However, context initiators may request that their identity
     not be revealed to the context acceptor. Many mechanisms do not
     support anonymous authentication, and for such mechanisms the request
     will not be honored.  An authentication token will be still be
     generated, but the application is always informed if a requested
     service is unavailable, and has the option to abort context
     establishment if anonymity is valued above the other security
     services that would require a context to be established.
     
     In addition to informing the application that a context is
     established anonymously (via the ret_flags outputs from
     gss_init_sec_context and gss_accept_sec_context), the optional
     src_name output from gss_accept_sec_context and gss_inquire_context
     will, for such contexts, return a reserved internal-form name,
     defined by the implementation.
     
     When presented to gss_display_name, this reserved internal-form name
     will result in a printable name that is syntactically distinguishable
     from any valid principal name supported by the implementation,
     associated with a name-type object identifier with the value
     GSS_C_NT_ANONYMOUS, whose value us given in Appendix A.  The
     printable form of an anonymous name should be chosen such that it
     implies anonymity, since this name may appear in, for example, audit
     logs.  For example, the string "<anonymous>" might be a good choice,
     if no valid printable names supported by the implementation can begin
     with "<" and end with ">".
     
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     6.5. Confidentiality
     
     If a context supports the confidentiality service, gss_wrap may be
     used to encrypt application messages.  Messages are selectively
     encrypted, under the control of the conf_req_flag input parameter to
     gss_wrap.
     
     
     6.6. Inter-process context transfer
     
     GSS-API V2 provides routines (gss_export_sec_context and
     gss_import_sec_context) which allow a security context to be
     transferred between processes on a single machine.  The most common
     use for such a feature is a client-server design where the server is
     implemented as a single process that accepts incoming security
     contexts, which then launches child processes to deal with the data
     on these contexts.  In such a design, the child processes must have
     access to the security context data structure created within the
     parent by its call to gss_accept_sec_context so that they can use
     per-message protection services and delete the security context when
     the communication session ends.
     
     Since the security context data structure is expected to contain
     sequencing information, it is impractical in general to share a
     context between processes.  Thus GSS-API provides a call
     (gss_export_sec_context) that the process which currently owns the
     context can call to declare that it has no intention to use the
     context subsequently, and to create an inter-process token containing
     information needed by the adopting process to successfully import the
     context.  After successful completion of gss_export_sec_context, the
     original security context is made inaccessible to the calling process
     by GSS-API, and any context handles referring to this context are no
     longer valid.  The originating process transfers the inter-process
     token to the adopting process, which passes it to
     gss_import_sec_context, and a fresh gss_ctx_id_t is created such that
     it is functionally identical to the original context.
     
     The inter-process token may contain sensitive data from the original
     security context (including cryptographic keys). Applications using
     inter-process tokens to transfer security contexts must take
     appropriate steps to protect these tokens in transit.
     
     Implementations are not required to support the inter-process
     transfer of security contexts.  The ability to transfer a security
     context is indicated when the context is created, by
     gss_init_sec_context or gss_accept_sec_context setting the
     GSS_C_TRANS_FLAG bit in their ret_flags parameter.
     
     
     6.7. The use of incomplete contexts
     
     Some mechanisms may allow the per-message services to be used before
     the context establishment process is complete.  For example, a
     
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     mechanism may include sufficient information in its initial
     context-level token for the context acceptor to immediately decode
     messages protected with gss_wrap or gss_get_mic.  For such a
     mechanism, the initiating application need not wait until subsequent
     context-level tokens have been sent and received before invoking the
     per-message protection services.
     
     The ability of a context to provide per-message services in advance
     of complete context establishment is indicated by the setting of the
     GSS_C_PROT_READY_FLAG bit in the ret_flags parameter from
     gss_init_sec_context and gss_accept_sec_context. Applications wishing
     to use per-message protection services on partially-established
     contexts should check this flag before attempting to invoke gss_wrap
     or gss_get_mic.
     
     
     
     
     7.   GSS-API routine descriptions
     
     In addition to the explicit major status codes documented here, the
     code GSS_S_FAILURE may be returned by any routine, indicating an
     implementation-specific or mechanism-specific error condition,
     further details of which are reported via the minor_status parameter.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.1. gss_accept_sec_context
     
     OM_uint32 gss_accept_sec_context (
       OM_uint32           *minor_status,
       gss_ctx_id_t        *context_handle,
       const gss_cred_id_t acceptor_cred_handle,
       const gss_buffer_t  input_token_buffer,
       const gss_channel_bindings_t  input_chan_bindings,
       const gss_name_t    *src_name,
       gss_OID             *mech_type,
       gss_buffer_t        output_token,
       OM_uint32           *ret_flags,
       OM_uint32           *time_rec,
       gss_cred_id_t       *delegated_cred_handle)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Allows a remotely initiated security context between the application
     and a remote peer to be established.  The routine may return a
     output_token which should be transferred to the peer application,
     where the peer application will present it to gss_init_sec_context.
     If no token need be sent, gss_accept_sec_context will indicate this
     by setting the length field of the output_token argument to zero.  To
     complete the context establishment, one or more reply tokens may be
     required from the peer application; if so, gss_accept_sec_context
     will return a status flag of GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED, in which case it
     should be called again when the reply token is received from the peer
     application, passing the token to gss_accept_sec_context via the
     input_token parameters.
     
     Portable applications should be constructed to use the token length
     and return status to determine whether a token needs to be sent or
     waited for.  Thus a typical portable caller should always invoke
     gss_accept_sec_context within a loop:
     
     gss_ctx_id_t context_hdl = GSS_C_NO_CONTEXT;
     
     do {
       receive_token_from_peer(input_token);
       maj_stat = gss_accept_sec_context(&min_stat,
                                         &context_hdl,
                                         cred_hdl,
                                         input_token,
                                         input_bindings,
                                         &client_name,
                                         &mech_type,
                                         output_token,
                                         &ret_flags,
                                         &time_rec,
                                         &deleg_cred);
       if (GSS_ERROR(maj_stat)) {
         report_error(maj_stat, min_stat);
       };
       if (output_token->length != 0) {
         send_token_to_peer(output_token);
     
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         gss_release_buffer(&min_stat, output_token);
       };
       if (GSS_ERROR(maj_stat)) {
         if (context_hdl != GSS_C_NO_CONTEXT)
           gss_delete_sec_context(&min_stat,
                                  &context_hdl,
                                  GSS_C_NO_BUFFER);
         break;
       };
     } while (maj_stat & GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED);
     
     Whenever the routine returns a major status that includes the value
     GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED, the context is not fully established and the
     following restrictions apply to the output parameters:
     
     The value returned via the time_rec parameter is undefined
     Unless the accompanying ret_flags parameter contains the bit
     GSS_C_PROT_READY_FLAG, indicating that per-message services may be
     applied in advance of a successful completion status, the value
     returned via the mech_type parameter may be undefined until the
     routine returns a major status value of GSS_S_COMPLETE.
     
     The values of the GSS_C_DELEG_FLAG,
     GSS_C_MUTUAL_FLAG,GSS_C_REPLAY_FLAG, GSS_C_SEQUENCE_FLAG,
     GSS_C_CONF_FLAG,GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG and GSS_C_ANON_FLAG bits returned
     via the ret_flags parameter should contain the values that the
     implementation expects would be valid if context establishment were
     to succeed.
     
     The values of the GSS_C_PROT_READY_FLAG and GSS_C_TRANS_FLAG bits
     within ret_flags should indicate the actual state at the time
     gss_accept_sec_context returns, whether or not the context is fully
     established.
     
     Although this requires that GSS-API implementations set the
     GSS_C_PROT_READY_FLAG in the final ret_flags returned to a caller
     (i.e. when accompanied by a GSS_S_COMPLETE status code), applications
     should not rely on this behavior as the flag was not defined in
     Version 1 of the GSS-API. Instead, applications should be prepared to
     use per-message services after a successful context establishment,
     according to the GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG and GSS_C_CONF_FLAG values.
     
     All other bits within the ret_flags argument should be set to zero.
     While the routine returns GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED, the values returned
     via the ret_flags argument indicate the services that the
     implementation expects to be available from the established context.
     
     If the initial call of gss_accept_sec_context() fails, the
     implementation should not create a context object, and should leave
     the value of the context_handle parameter set to GSS_C_NO_CONTEXT to
     indicate this.  In the event of a failure on a subsequent call, the
     implementation is permitted to delete the "half-built" security
     context (in which case it should set the context_handle parameter to
     GSS_C_NO_CONTEXT), but the preferred behavior is to leave the
     
     
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     security context (and the context_handle parameter) untouched for the
     application to delete (using gss_delete_sec_context).
     
     During context establishment, the informational status bits
     GSS_S_OLD_TOKEN and GSS_S_DUPLICATE_TOKEN indicate fatal errors, and
     GSS-API mechanisms should always return them in association with a
     routine error of GSS_S_FAILURE.  This requirement for pairing did not
     exist in version 1 of the GSS-API specification, so applications that
     wish to run over version 1 implementations must special-case these
     codes.
     
     Parameters:
     
        context_handle    gss_ctx_id_t, read/modify
                          context handle for new context.  Supply
                          GSS_C_NO_CONTEXT for first call; use value
                          returned in subsequent calls.  Once
                          gss_accept_sec_context() has returned a
                          value via this parameter, resources have
                          been assigned to the corresponding context,
                          and must be freed by the application after
                          use with a call to gss_delete_sec_context().
     
     
     acceptor_cred_handle  gss_cred_id_t, read
                          Credential handle claimed by context
                          acceptor. Specify GSS_C_NO_CREDENTIAL to
                          accept the context as a default principal.
                          If GSS_C_NO_CREDENTIAL is specified, but
                          no default acceptor principal is defined,
                          GSS_S_NO_CRED will be returned.
     
     input_token_buffer   buffer, opaque, read
                          token obtained from remote application.
     
     input_chan_bindings  channel bindings, read, optional
                          Application-specified bindings.  Allows
                          application to securely bind channel
                          identification information to the security
                          context.  If channel bindings are not
                          used, specify GSS_C_NO_CHANNEL_BINDINGS.
     
     src_name             gss_name_t, modify, optional
                          Authenticated name of context initiator.
                          After use, this name should be deallocated
                          by passing it to gss_release_name().  If
                          not required, specify NULL.
     
     mech_type            Object ID, modify, optional
                          Security mechanism used.  The returned
                          OID value will be a pointer into static
                          storage, and should be treated as read-only
                          by the caller (in particular, it does not
                          need to be freed).  If not required, specify
                          NULL.
     
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     output_token         buffer, opaque, modify
                          Token to be passed to peer application.  If
                          the length field of the returned token
                          buffer is 0, then no token need be passed
                          to the peer application.  If a non-zero
                          length field is returned, the associated
                          storage must be freed after use by the
                          application with a call to
                          gss_release_buffer().
     
     ret_flags            bit-mask, modify, optional
                          Contains various independent flags, each of
                          which indicates that the context supports a
                          specific service option.  If not needed,
                          specify NULL.  Symbolic names are
                          provided for each flag, and the symbolic
                          names corresponding to the required flags
                          should be logically-ANDed with the ret_flags
                          value to test whether a given option is
                          supported by the context.  The flags are:
                          GSS_C_DELEG_FLAG
                          True - Delegated credentials are available
                                 via the delegated_cred_handle
                                 parameter
                          False - No credentials were delegated
                          GSS_C_MUTUAL_FLAG
                          True - Remote peer asked for mutual
                                 authentication
                          False - Remote peer did not ask for mutual
                                  authentication
                          GSS_C_REPLAY_FLAG
                          True - replay of protected messages
                                 will be detected
                          False - replayed messages will not be
                                  detected
                          GSS_C_SEQUENCE_FLAG
                          True - out-of-sequence protected
                                 messages will be detected
                          False - out-of-sequence messages will not
                                  be detected
                          GSS_C_CONF_FLAG
                          True - Confidentiality service may be
                                 invoked by calling the gss_wrap
                                 routine
                          False - No confidentiality service (via
                                  gss_wrap) available. gss_wrap will
                                  provide message encapsulation,
                                  data-origin authentication and
                                  integrity services only.
                          GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG
                          True - Integrity service may be invoked by
                                 calling either gss_get_mic or
                                 gss_wrap routines.
                          False - Per-message integrity service
     
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                                  unavailable.
                          GSS_C_ANON_FLAG
                          True - The initiator does not wish to
                                 be authenticated; the src_name
                                 parameter (if requested) contains
                                 an anonymous internal name.
                          False - The initiator has been
                                  authenticated normally.
                          GSS_C_PROT_READY_FLAG
                          True - Protection services (as specified
                                 by the states of the GSS_C_CONF_FLAG
                                 and GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG) are available
                                 if the accompanying major status
                                 return value is either GSS_S_COMPLETE
                                 or GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED.
                          False - Protection services (as specified
                                  by the states of the GSS_C_CONF_FLAG
                                  and GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG) are available
                                  only if the accompanying major status
                                  return value is GSS_S_COMPLETE.
                          GSS_C_TRANS_FLAG
                          True - The resultant security context may
                                 be transferred to other processes via
                                 a call to gss_export_sec_context().
                          False - The security context is not
                                  transferrable.
                          All other bits should be set to zero.
     
     time_rec             Integer, modify, optional
                          number of seconds for which the context
                          will remain valid. Specify NULL if
                          not required.
     
     delegated_cred_handle
                          gss_cred_id_t, modify, optional
                          credential handle for credentials received
                          from context initiator.  Only valid if
                          deleg_flag in ret_flags is true, in which
                          case an explicit credential handle
                          (i.e. not GSS_C_NO_CREDENTIAL) will be
                          returned; if deleg_flag is false,
                          gss_accept_context() will set this parameter
                          to GSS_C_NO_CREDENTIAL.  If a credential
                          handle is returned, the associated resources
                          must be released by the application after use
                          with a call to gss_release_cred().  Specify
                          NULL if not required.
     
     minor_status         Integer, modify
                          Mechanism specific status code.
     
     
     Function value:  GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
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     GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED Indicates that a token from the peer
                           application is required to complete the
                           context, and that gss_accept_sec_context
                           must be called again with that token.
     
     GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_TOKEN Indicates that consistency checks performed
                           on the input_token failed.
     
     GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_CREDENTIAL Indicates that consistency checks
                                performed on the credential failed.
     
     GSS_S_NO_CRED     The supplied credentials were not valid for
                       context acceptance, or the credential handle
                       did not reference any credentials.
     
     GSS_S_CREDENTIALS_EXPIRED The referenced credentials have expired.
     
     GSS_S_BAD_BINDINGS  The input_token contains different channel
                         bindings to those specified via the
                         input_chan_bindings parameter.
     
     GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT  Indicates that the supplied context handle did
                       not refer to a valid context.
     
     GSS_S_BAD_SIG     The input_token contains an invalid MIC.
     
     GSS_S_OLD_TOKEN   The input_token was too old.  This is a fatal
                       error during context establishment.
     
     GSS_S_DUPLICATE_TOKEN The input_token is valid, but is a duplicate
                           of a token already processed.  This is a
                           fatal error during context establishment.
     
     GSS_S_BAD_MECH    The received token specified a mechanism that is
                       not supported by the implementation or the
                       provided credential.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.2. gss_acquire_cred
     
     
     OM_uint32 gss_acquire_cred (
       OM_uint32         *minor_status,
       const gss_name_t  desired_name,
       OM_uint32         time_req,
       const gss_OID_set desired_mechs,
       gss_cred_usage_t  cred_usage,
       gss_cred_id_t     *output_cred_handle,
       gss_OID_set       *actual_mechs,
       OM_uint32         *time_rec)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Allows an application to acquire a handle for a pre-existing
     credential by name.  GSS-API implementations must impose a local
     access-control policy on callers of this routine to prevent
     unauthorized callers from acquiring credentials to which they are not
     entitled.  This routine is not intended to provide a "login to the
     network" function, as such a function would involve the creation of
     new credentials rather than merely acquiring a handle to existing
     credentials.  Such functions, if required, should be defined in
     implementation-specific extensions to the API.
     
     If desired_name is GSS_C_NO_NAME, the call is interpreted as a
     request for a credential handle that will invoke default behavior
     when passed to gss_init_sec_context() (if cred_usage is
     GSS_C_INITIATE or GSS_C_BOTH) or gss_accept_sec_context() (if
     cred_usage is GSS_C_ACCEPT or GSS_C_BOTH).
     
     Mechanisms should honor the desired_mechs parameter, and return a
     credential that is suitable to use only with the requested
     mechanisms.  An exception to this is the case where one underlying
     credential element can be shared by multiple mechanisms; in this case
     it is permissible for an implementation to indicate all mechanisms
     with which the credential element may be used.  If desired_mechs is
     an empty set, behavior is undefined.
     
     This routine is expected to be used primarily by context acceptors,
     since implementations are likely to provide mechanism-specific ways
     of obtaining GSS-API initiator credentials from the system login
     process.  Some implementations may therefore not support the
     acquisition of GSS_C_INITIATE or GSS_C_BOTH credentials via
     gss_acquire_cred for any name other than GSS_C_NO_NAME, or a name
     produced by applying either gss_inquire_cred to a valid credential,
     or gss_inquire_context to an active context.
     
     If credential acquisition is time-consuming for a mechanism, the
     mechanism may choose to delay the actual acquisition until the
     credential is required (e.g. by gss_init_sec_context or
     gss_accept_sec_context).  Such mechanism-specific implementation
     decisions should be invisible to the calling application; thus a call
     of gss_inquire_cred immediately following the call of
     
     
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     gss_acquire_cred must return valid credential data, and may therefore
     incur the overhead of a deferred credential acquisition.
     
     Parameters:
     
     desired_name      gss_name_t, read
                       Name of principal whose credential
                       should be acquired
     
     time_req          Integer, read, optional
                       number of seconds that credentials
                       should remain valid. Specify GSS_C_INDEFINITE
                       to request that the credentials have the maximum
                       permitted lifetime.
     
     desired_mechs     Set of Object IDs, read, optional
                       set of underlying security mechanisms that
                       may be used.  GSS_C_NO_OID_SET may be used
                       to obtain an implementation-specific default.
     
     cred_usage        gss_cred_usage_t, read
                       GSS_C_BOTH - Credentials may be used
                          either to initiate or accept
                          security contexts.
                       GSS_C_INITIATE - Credentials will only be
                          used to initiate security contexts.
                       GSS_C_ACCEPT - Credentials will only be used to
                          accept security contexts.
     
     output_cred_handle  gss_cred_id_t, modify
                         The returned credential handle.  Resources
                         associated with this credential handle must
                         be released by the application after use
                         with a call to gss_release_cred().
     
     actual_mechs      Set of Object IDs, modify, optional
                       The set of mechanisms for which the
                       credential is valid.  Storage associated
                       with the returned OID-set must be released by
                       the application after use with a call to
                       gss_release_oid_set().  Specify NULL if not
                       required.
     
     time_rec          Integer, modify, optional
                       Actual number of seconds for which the
                       returned credentials will remain valid.  If the
                       implementation does not support expiration of
                       credentials, the value GSS_C_INDEFINITE will
                       be returned. Specify NULL if not required
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code.
     
     Function value:  GSS status code
     
     
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     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_BAD_MECH    Unavailable mechanism requested
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAMETYPE Type contained within desired_name parameter
                        is not supported
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAME    Value supplied for desired_name parameter is ill
                       formed.
     
     GSS_S_CREDENTIALS_EXPIRED The credentials could not be acquired
                               Because they have expired.
     
     GSS_S_NO_CRED     No credentials were found for the specified name.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.3. gss_add_cred
     
     OM_uint32 gss_add_cred (
       OM_uint32           *minor_status,
       const gss_cred_id_t input_cred_handle,
       const gss_name_t    desired_name,
       const gss_OID       desired_mech,
       gss_cred_usage_t    cred_usage,
       OM_uint32           initiator_time_req,
       OM_uint32           acceptor_time_req,
       gss_cred_id_t       *output_cred_handle,
       gss_OID_set         *actual_mechs,
       OM_uint32           *initiator_time_rec,
       OM_uint32           *acceptor_time_rec)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Adds a credential-element to a credential.  The credential-element is
     identified by the name of the principal to which it refers.  GSS-API
     implementations must impose a local access-control policy on callers
     of this routine to prevent unauthorized callers from acquiring
     credential-elements to which they are not entitled. This routine is
     not intended to provide a "login to the network" function, as such a
     function would involve the creation of new mechanism-specific
     authentication data, rather than merely acquiring a GSS-API handle to
     existing data.  Such functions, if required, should be defined in
     implementation-specific extensions to the API.
     
     If desired_name is GSS_C_NO_NAME, the call is interpreted as a
     request to add a credential element that will invoke default behavior
     when passed to gss_init_sec_context() (if cred_usage is
     GSS_C_INITIATE or GSS_C_BOTH) or gss_accept_sec_context() (if
     cred_usage is GSS_C_ACCEPT or GSS_C_BOTH).
     
     This routine is expected to be used primarily by context acceptors,
     since implementations are likely to provide mechanism-specific ways
     of obtaining GSS-API initiator credentials from the system login
     process.  Some implementations may therefore not support the
     acquisition of GSS_C_INITIATE or GSS_C_BOTH credentials via
     gss_acquire_cred for any name other than GSS_C_NO_NAME, or a name
     produced by applying either gss_inquire_cred to a valid credential,
     or gss_inquire_context to an active context.
     
     If credential acquisition is time-consuming for a mechanism, the
     mechanism may choose to delay the actual acquisition until the
     credential is required (e.g. by gss_init_sec_context or
     gss_accept_sec_context).  Such mechanism-specific implementation
     decisions should be invisible to the calling application; thus a call
     of gss_inquire_cred immediately following the call of gss_add_cred
     must return valid credential data, and may therefore incur the
     overhead of a deferred credential acquisition.
     
     This routine can be used to either compose a new credential
     containing all credential-elements of the original in addition to the
     newly-acquire credential-element, or to add the new
     
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     credential-element to an existing credential. If NULL is specified
     for the output_cred_handle parameter argument, the new
     credential-element will be added to the credential identified by
     input_cred_handle; if a valid pointer is specified for the
     output_cred_handle parameter, a new credential handle will be
     created.
     
     If GSS_C_NO_CREDENTIAL is specified as the input_cred_handle,
     gss_add_cred will compose a credential (and set the
     output_cred_handle parameter accordingly) based on default behavior.
     That is, the call will have the same effect as if the application had
     first made a call to gss_acquire_cred(), specifying the same usage
     and passing GSS_C_NO_NAME as the desired_name parameter to obtain an
     explicit credential handle embodying default behavior, passed this
     credential handle to gss_add_cred(), and finally called
     gss_release_cred() on the first credential handle.
     
     If GSS_C_NO_CREDENTIAL is specified as the input_cred_handle
     parameter, a non-NULL output_cred_handle must be supplied.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code.
     
     input_cred_handle gss_cred_id_t, read, optional
                       The credential to which a credential-element
                       will be added.  If GSS_C_NO_CREDENTIAL is
                       specified, the routine will compose the new
                       credential based on default behavior (see
                       description above).  Note that, while the
                       credential-handle is not modified by
                       gss_add_cred(), the underlying credential
                       will be modified if output_credential_handle
                       is NULL.
     
     desired_name      gss_name_t, read.
                       Name of principal whose credential
                       should be acquired.
     
     desired_mech      Object ID, read
                       Underlying security mechanism with which the
                       credential may be used.
     
     cred_usage        gss_cred_usage_t, read
                       GSS_C_BOTH - Credential may be used
                       either to initiate or accept
                       security contexts.
                       GSS_C_INITIATE - Credential will only be
                                        used to initiate security
                                        contexts.
                       GSS_C_ACCEPT - Credential will only be used to
                                      accept security contexts.
     
     initiator_time_req Integer, read, optional
     
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                        number of seconds that the credential
                        should remain valid for initiating security
                        contexts.  This argument is ignored if the
                        composed credentials are of type GSS_C_ACCEPT.
                        Specify GSS_C_INDEFINITE to request that the
                        credentials have the maximum permitted
                        initiator lifetime.
     
     acceptor_time_req Integer, read, optional
                       number of seconds that the credential
                       should remain valid for accepting security
                       contexts.  This argument is ignored if the
                       composed credentials are of type GSS_C_INITIATE.
                       Specify GSS_C_INDEFINITE to request that the
                       credentials have the maximum permitted initiator
                       lifetime.
     
     output_cred_handle gss_cred_id_t, modify, optional
                        The returned credential handle, containing
                        the new credential-element and all the
                        credential-elements from input_cred_handle.
                        If a valid pointer to a gss_cred_id_t is
                        supplied for this parameter, gss_add_cred
                        creates a new credential handle containing all
                        credential-elements from the input_cred_handle
                        and the newly acquired credential-element; if
                        NULL is specified for this parameter, the newly
                        acquired credential-element will be added
                        to the credential identified by input_cred_handle.
     
                        The resources associated with any credential
                        handle returned via this parameter must be
                        released by the application after use with a
                        call to gss_release_cred().
     
     actual_mechs      Set of Object IDs, modify, optional
                       The complete set of mechanisms for which
                       the new credential is valid.  Storage for
                       the returned OID-set must be freed by the
                       application after use with a call to
                       gss_release_oid_set(). Specify NULL if
                       not required.
     
     initiator_time_rec Integer, modify, optional
                        Actual number of seconds for which the
                        returned credentials will remain valid for
                        initiating contexts using the specified
                        mechanism.  If the implementation or mechanism
                        does not support expiration of credentials, the
                        value GSS_C_INDEFINITE will be returned. Specify
                        NULL if not required
     
     acceptor_time_rec Integer, modify, optional
                       Actual number of seconds for which the
                       returned credentials will remain valid for
     
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                       accepting security contexts using the specified
                       mechanism.  If the implementation or mechanism
                       does not support expiration of credentials, the
                       value GSS_C_INDEFINITE will be returned. Specify
                       NULL if not required
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_BAD_MECH    Unavailable mechanism requested
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAMETYPE Type contained within desired_name parameter
                       is not supported
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAME    Value supplied for desired_name parameter is
                       ill-formed.
     
     GSS_S_DUPLICATE_ELEMENT The credential already contains an element
                       for the requested mechanism with overlapping
                       usage and validity period.
     
     GSS_S_CREDENTIALS_EXPIRED The required credentials could not be
                       added because they have expired.
     
     GSS_S_NO_CRED     No credentials were found for the specified name.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.4. gss_add_oid_set_member
     
     OM_uint32 gss_add_oid_set_member (
       OM_uint32       *minor_status,
       const gss_OID   member_oid,
       gss_OID_set     *oid_set)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Add an Object Identifier to an Object Identifier set.  This routine
     is intended for use in conjunction with gss_create_empty_oid_set when
     constructing a set of mechanism OIDs for input to gss_acquire_cred.
     The oid_set parameter must refer to an OID-set that was created by
     GSS-API (e.g. a set returned by gss_create_empty_oid_set()). GSS-API
     creates a copy of the member_oid and inserts this copy into the set,
     expanding the storage allocated to the OID-set's elements array if
     necessary.  The routine may add the new member OID anywhere within
     the elements array, and implementations should verify that the new
     member_oid is not already contained within the elements array; if the
     member_oid is already present, the oid_set should remain unchanged.
     
     Parameters:
     
        minor_status      Integer, modify
                          Mechanism specific status code
     
        member_oid        Object ID, read
                          The object identifier to copied into
                          the set.
     
        oid_set           Set of Object ID, modify
                          The set in which the object identifier
                          should be inserted.
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
        GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.5. gss_canonicalize_name
     
     OM_uint32 gss_canonicalize_name (
       OM_uint32        *minor_status,
       const gss_name_t input_name,
       const gss_OID    mech_type,
       gss_name_t       *output_name)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Generate a canonical mechanism name (MN) from an arbitrary internal
     name.  The mechanism name is the name that would be returned to a
     context acceptor on successful authentication of a context where the
     initiator used the input_name in a successful call to
     gss_acquire_cred, specifying an OID set containing <mech_type> as its
     only member, followed by a call to gss_init_sec_context, specifying
     <mech_type> as the authentication mechanism.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code
     
     input_name        gss_name_t, read
                       The name for which a canonical form is
                       desired
     
     mech_type         Object ID, read
                       The authentication mechanism for which the
                       canonical form of the name is desired.  The
                       desired mechanism must be specified explicitly;
                       no default is provided.
     
     output_name       gss_name_t, modify
                       The resultant canonical name.  Storage
                       associated with this name must be freed by
                       the application after use with a call to
                       gss_release_name().
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion.
     
     GSS_S_BAD_MECH    The identified mechanism is not supported.
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAMETYPE The provided internal name contains no elements
                       that could be processed by the specified
                       mechanism.
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAME    The provided internal name was ill-formed.
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.6. gss_compare_name
     
     OM_uint32 gss_compare_name (
       OM_uint32        *minor_status,
       const gss_name_t name1,
       const gss_name_t name2,
       int              *name_equal)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Allows an application to compare two internal-form names to determine
     whether they refer to the same entity.
     
     If either name presented to gss_compare_name denotes an anonymous
     principal, the routines should indicate that the two names do not
     refer to the same identity.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code.
     
     name1             gss_name_t, read
                       internal-form name
     
     name2             gss_name_t, read
                       internal-form name
     
     name_equal        boolean, modify
                       non-zero - names refer to same entity
                       zero - names refer to different entities
                             (strictly, the names are not known
                             to refer to the same identity).
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAMETYPE The two names were of incomparable types.
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAME    One or both of name1 or name2 was ill-formed.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.7. gss_context_time
     
     OM_uint32 gss_context_time (
       OM_uint32          *minor_status,
       const gss_ctx_id_t context_handle,
       OM_uint32          *time_rec)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Determines the number of seconds for which the specified context will
     remain valid.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Implementation specific status code.
     
     context_handle    gss_ctx_id_t, read
                       Identifies the context to be interrogated.
     
     time_rec          Integer, modify
                       Number of seconds that the context will remain
                       valid.  If the context has already expired,
                       zero will be returned.
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_CONTEXT_EXPIRED The context has already expired
     
     GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT  The context_handle parameter did not identify
                       a valid context
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.8. gss_create_empty_oid_set
     
     OM_uint32 gss_create_empty_oid_set (
       OM_uint32    *minor_status,
       gss_OID_set  *oid_set)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Create an object-identifier set containing no object identifiers, to
     which members may be subsequently added using the
     gss_add_oid_set_member() routine.  These routines are intended to be
     used to construct sets of mechanism object identifiers, for input to
     gss_acquire_cred.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code
     
     oid_set           Set of Object IDs, modify
                       The empty object identifier set.
                       The routine will allocate the
                       gss_OID_set_desc object, which the
                       application must free after use with
                       a call to gss_release_oid_set().
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.9. gss_delete_sec_context
     
     OM_uint32 gss_delete_sec_context (
       OM_uint32    *minor_status,
       gss_ctx_id_t *context_handle,
       gss_buffer_t output_token)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Delete a security context.  gss_delete_sec_context will delete the
     local data structures associated with the specified security context,
     and may generate an output_token, which when passed to the peer
     gss_process_context_token will instruct it to do likewise.  If no
     token is required by the mechanism, the GSS-API should set the length
     field of the output_token (if provided) to zero.  No further security
     services may be obtained using the context specified by
     context_handle.
     
     In addition to deleting established security contexts,
     gss_delete_sec_context must also be able to delete "half-built"
     security contexts resulting from an incomplete sequence of
     gss_init_sec_context()/gss_accept_sec_context() calls.
     
     The output_token parameter is retained for compatibility with version
     1 of the GSS-API.  It is recommended that both peer applications
     invoke gss_delete_sec_context passing the value GSS_C_NO_BUFFER for
     the output_token parameter, indicating that no token is required, and
     that gss_delete_sec_context should simply delete local context data
     structures.  If the application does pass a valid buffer to
     gss_delete_sec_context, mechanisms are encouraged to return a
     zero-length token, indicating that no peer action is necessary, and
     that no token should be transferred by the application.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code.
     
     context_handle    gss_ctx_id_t, modify
                       context handle identifying context to delete.
                       After deleting the context, the GSS-API will set
                       this context handle to GSS_C_NO_CONTEXT.
     
     output_token      buffer, opaque, modify, optional
                       token to be sent to remote application to
                       instruct it to also delete the context.  It
                       is recommended that applications specify
                       GSS_C_NO_BUFFER for this parameter, requesting
                       local deletion only.  If a buffer parameter is
                       provided by the application, the mechanism may
                       return a token in it;  mechanisms that implement
                       only local deletion should set the length field of
                       this token to zero to indicate to the application
                       that no token is to be sent to the peer.
     
     
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     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT  No valid context was supplied
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.10.gss_display_name
     
     OM_uint32 gss_display_name (
       OM_uint32        *minor_status,
       const gss_name_t input_name,
       gss_buffer_t     output_name_buffer,
       gss_OID          *output_name_type)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Allows an application to obtain a textual representation of an opaque
     internal-form  name for display purposes.  The syntax of a printable
     name is defined by the GSS-API implementation.
     
     If input_name denotes an anonymous principal, the implementation
     should return the gss_OID value GSS_C_NT_ANONYMOUS as the
     output_name_type, and a textual name that is syntactically distinct
     from all valid supported printable names in output_name_buffer.
     
     If input_name was created by a call to gss_import_name, specifying
     GSS_C_NO_OID as the name-type, implementations that employ lazy
     conversion between name types may return GSS_C_NO_OID via the
     output_name_type parameter.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code.
     
     input_name        gss_name_t, read
                       name to be displayed
     
     output_name_buffer  buffer, character-string, modify
                       buffer to receive textual name string.
                       The application must free storage associated
                       with this name after use with a call to
                       gss_release_buffer().
     
     output_name_type  Object ID, modify, optional
                       The type of the returned name.  The returned
                       gss_OID will be a pointer into static storage,
                       and should be treated as read-only by the caller
                       (in particular, the application should not attempt
                       to free it). Specify NULL if not required.
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAME    input_name was ill-formed
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.11.gss_display_status
     
     OM_uint32 gss_display_status (
       OM_uint32      *minor_status,
       OM_uint32      status_value,
       int            status_type,
       const gss_OID  mech_type,
       OM_uint32      *message_context,
       gss_buffer_t   status_string)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Allows an application to obtain a textual representation of a GSS-API
     status code, for display to the user or for logging purposes.  Since
     some status values may indicate multiple conditions, applications may
     need to call gss_display_status multiple times, each call generating
     a single text string.  The message_context parameter is used by
     gss_display_status to store state information about which error
     messages have already been extracted from a given status_value;
     message_context must be initialized to 0 by the application prior to
     the first call, and gss_display_status will return a non-zero value
     in this parameter if there are further messages to extract.
     
     The message_context parameter contains all state information required
     by gss_display_status in order to extract further messages from the
     status_value;  even when a non-zero value is returned in this
     parameter, the application is not required to call gss_display_status
     again unless subsequent messages are desired.  The following code
     extracts all messages from a given status code and prints them to
     stderr:
     
     
     OM_uint32 message_context;
     OM_uint32 status_code;
     OM_uint32 maj_status;
     OM_uint32 min_status;
     gss_buffer_desc status_string;
     
            ...
     
     message_context = 0;
     
     do {
     
       maj_status = gss_display_status (
                       &min_status,
                       status_code,
                       GSS_C_GSS_CODE,
                       GSS_C_NO_OID,
                       &message_context,
                       &status_string)
     
       fprintf(stderr,
               "%.*s\n",
              (int)status_string.length,
     
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              (char *)status_string.value);
     
       gss_release_buffer(&min_status, &status_string);
     
     } while (message_context != 0);
     
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code.
     
     status_value      Integer, read
                       Status value to be converted
     
     status_type       Integer, read
                       GSS_C_GSS_CODE - status_value is a GSS status
                       code
     
     GSS_C_MECH_CODE - status_value is a mechanism
                       status code
     
     mech_type         Object ID, read, optional
                       Underlying mechanism (used to interpret a
                       minor status value) Supply GSS_C_NO_OID to
                       obtain the system default.
     
     message_context   Integer, read/modify
                       Should be initialized to zero by the
                       application prior to the first call.
                       On return from gss_display_status(),
                       a non-zero status_value parameter indicates
                       that additional messages may be extracted
                       from the status code via subsequent calls
                       to gss_display_status(), passing the same
                       status_value, status_type, mech_type, and
                       message_context parameters.
     
     status_string     buffer, character string, modify
                       textual interpretation of the status_value.
                       Storage associated with this parameter must
                       be freed by the application after use with
                       a call to gss_release_buffer().
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_BAD_MECH    Indicates that translation in accordance with
                       an unsupported mechanism type was requested
     
     GSS_S_BAD_STATUS  The status value was not recognized, or the
                       status type was neither GSS_C_GSS_CODE nor
                       GSS_C_MECH_CODE.
     
     
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     7.12.gss_duplicate_name
     
     OM_uint32 gss_duplicate_name (
       OM_uint32        *minor_status,
       const gss_name_t src_name,
       gss_name_t       *dest_name)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Create an exact duplicate of the existing internal name src_name.
     The new dest_name will be independent of src_name (i.e. src_name and
     dest_name must both be released, and the release of one shall not
     affect the validity of the other).
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code.
     
     src_name          gss_name_t, read
                       internal name to be duplicated.
     
     dest_name         gss_name_t, modify
                       The resultant copy of <src_name>.
                       Storage associated with this name must
                       be freed by the application after use
                       with a call to gss_release_name().
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAME    The src_name parameter was ill-formed.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.13.gss_export_name
     
     OM_uint32 gss_export_name (
       OM_uint32        *minor_status,
       const gss_name_t input_name,
       gss_buffer_t     exported_name)
     
     Purpose:
     
     To produce a canonical contiguous string representation of a
     mechanism name (MN), suitable for direct comparison (e.g. with
     memcmp) for use in authorization functions (e.g. matching entries in
     an access-control list).
     The <input_name> parameter must specify a valid MN (i.e. an internal
     name generated by gss_accept_sec_context or by
     gss_canonicalize_name).
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code
     
     input_name        gss_name_t, read
                       The MN to be exported
     
     exported_name     gss_buffer_t, octet-string, modify
                       The canonical contiguous string form of
                       <input_name>.  Storage associated with
                       this string must freed by the application
                       after use with gss_release_buffer().
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_NAME_NOT_MN The provided internal name was not a mechanism
                       name.
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAME    The provided internal name was ill-formed.
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAMETYPE The internal name was of a type not supported
                       by the GSS-API implementation.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.14.gss_export_sec_context
     
     OM_uint32 gss_export_sec_context (
       OM_uint32    *minor_status,
       gss_ctx_id_t *context_handle,
       gss_buffer_t interprocess_token)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Provided to support the sharing of work between multiple processes.
     This routine will typically be used by the context-acceptor, in an
     application where a single process receives incoming connection
     requests and accepts security contexts over them, then passes the
     established context to one or more other processes for message
     exchange. gss_export_sec_context() deactivates the security context
     for the calling process and creates an interprocess token which, when
     passed to gss_import_sec_context in another process, will re-activate
     the context in the second process. Only a single instantiation of a
     given context may be active at any one time; a subsequent attempt by
     a context exporter to access the exported security context will fail.
     
     The implementation may constrain the set of processes by which the
     interprocess token may be imported, either as a function of local
     security policy, or as a result of implementation decisions.  For
     example, some implementations may constrain contexts to be passed
     only between processes that run under the same account, or which are
     part of the same process group.
     
     The interprocess token may contain security-sensitive information
     (for example cryptographic keys).  While mechanisms are encouraged to
     either avoid placing such sensitive information within interprocess
     tokens, or to encrypt the token before returning it to the
     application, in a typical object-library GSS-API implementation this
     may not be possible. Thus the application must take care to protect
     the interprocess token, and ensure that any process to which the
     token is transferred is trustworthy.
     
     If creation of the interprocess token is succesful, the
     implementation shall deallocate all process-wide resources associated
     with the security context, and set the context_handle to
     GSS_C_NO_CONTEXT.  In the event of an error that makes it impossible
     to complete the export of the security context, the implementation
     must not return an interprocess token, and should strive to leave the
     security context referenced by the context_handle parameter
     untouched.  If this is impossible, it is permissible for the
     implementation to delete the security context, providing it also sets
     the context_handle parameter to GSS_C_NO_CONTEXT.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code
     
     context_handle    gss_ctx_id_t, modify
                       context handle identifying the context to
     
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                       transfer.
     
     interprocess_token   buffer, opaque, modify
                          token to be transferred to target process.
                          Storage associated with this token must be
                          freed by the application after use with a
                          call to gss_release_buffer().
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_CONTEXT_EXPIRED The context has expired
     
     GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT  The context was invalid
     
     GSS_S_UNAVAILABLE The operation is not supported.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.15.gss_get_mic
     
     OM_uint32 gss_get_mic (
       OM_uint32          *minor_status,
       const gss_ctx_id_t context_handle,
       gss_qop_t             qop_req,
       const gss_buffer_t message_buffer,
       gss_buffer_t       msg_token)
     
     
     Purpose:
     
     Generates a cryptographic MIC for the supplied message, and places
     the MIC in a token for transfer to the peer application. The qop_req
     parameter allows a choice between several cryptographic algorithms,
     if supported by the chosen mechanism.
     
     Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted
     by gss_wrap() to provide "secure framing", implementations must
     support derivation of MICs from zero-length messages.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Implementation specific status code.
     
     context_handle    gss_ctx_id_t, read
                       identifies the context on which the message
                       will be sent
     
     qop_req           gss_qop_t, read, optional
                       Specifies requested quality of protection.
                       Callers are encouraged, on portability grounds,
                       to accept the default quality of protection
                       offered by the chosen mechanism, which may be
                       requested by specifying GSS_C_QOP_DEFAULT for
                       this parameter.  If an unsupported protection
                       strength is requested, gss_get_mic will return a
                       major_status of GSS_S_BAD_QOP.
     
     message_buffer    buffer, opaque, read
                       message to be protected
     
     msg_token         buffer, opaque, modify
                       buffer to receive token.  The application must
                       free storage associated with this buffer after
                       use with a call to gss_release_buffer().
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_CONTEXT_EXPIRED The context has already expired
     
     GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT  The context_handle parameter did not identify
     
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                       a valid context
     
     GSS_S_BAD_QOP     The specified QOP is not supported by the
                       mechanism.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.16.gss_import_name
     
     OM_uint32 gss_import_name (
       OM_uint32          *minor_status,
       const gss_buffer_t input_name_buffer,
       const gss_OID      input_name_type,
       gss_name_t         *output_name)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Convert a contiguous string name to internal form.  In general, the
     internal name returned (via the <output_name> parameter) will not be
     an MN; the exception to this is if the <input_name_type> indicates
     that the contiguous string provided via the <input_name_buffer>
     parameter is of type GSS_C_NT_EXPORT_NAME, in which case the returned
     internal name will be an MN for the mechanism that exported the name.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code
     
     input_name_buffer  buffer, octet-string, read
                       buffer containing contiguous string name to convert
     
     input_name_type   Object ID, read, optional
                       Object ID specifying type of printable
                       name.  Applications may specify either
                       GSS_C_NO_OID to use a mechanism-specific
                       default printable syntax, or an OID recognized
                       by the GSS-API implementation to name a
                       specific namespace.
     
     output_name       gss_name_t, modify
                       returned name in internal form.  Storage
                       associated with this name must be freed
                       by the application after use with a call
                       to gss_release_name().
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAMETYPE The input_name_type was unrecognized
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAME    The input_name parameter could not be interpreted
                       as a name of the specified type
     
     GSS_S_BAD_MECH    The input name-type was GSS_C_NT_EXPORT_NAME,
                       but the mechanism contained within the
                       input-name is not supported
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.17.gss_import_sec_context
     
     OM_uint32 gss_import_sec_context (
       OM_uint32          *minor_status,
       const gss_buffer_t interprocess_token,
       gss_ctx_id_t       *context_handle)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Allows a process to import a security context established by another
     process.  A given interprocess token may be imported only once.  See
     gss_export_sec_context.
     
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code
     
     interprocess_token  buffer, opaque, modify
                         token received from exporting process
     
     context_handle    gss_ctx_id_t, modify
                       context handle of newly reactivated context.
                       Resources associated with this context handle
                       must be released by the application after use
                       with a call to gss_delete_sec_context().
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion.
     
     GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT  The token did not contain a valid context
     reference.
     
     GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_TOKEN The token was invalid.
     
     GSS_S_UNAVAILABLE The operation is unavailable.
     
     GSS_S_UNAUTHORIZED Local policy prevents the import of this context
                        by the current process.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.18.gss_indicate_mechs
     
     OM_uint32 gss_indicate_mechs (
       OM_uint32   *minor_status,
       gss_OID_set *mech_set)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Allows an application to determine which underlying security
     mechanisms are available.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code.
     
     mech_set          set of Object IDs, modify
                       set of implementation-supported mechanisms.
                       The returned gss_OID_set value will be a
                       dynamically-allocated OID set, that should
                       be released by the caller after use with a
                       call to gss_release_oid_set().
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.19.gss_init_sec_context
     
     OM_uint32 gss_init_sec_context (
       OM_uint32                    *minor_status,
       const gss_cred_id_t          initiator_cred_handle,
       gss_ctx_id_t                 *context_handle,\
       const gss_name_t             target_name,
       const gss_OID                mech_type,
       OM_uint32                    req_flags,
       OM_uint32                    time_req,
       const gss_channel_bindings_t input_chan_bindings,
       const gss_buffer_t           input_token
       gss_OID                      *actual_mech_type,
       gss_buffer_t                 output_token,
       OM_uint32                    *ret_flags,
       OM_uint32                    *time_rec )
     
     
     
     Purpose:
     
     Initiates the establishment of a security context between the
     application and a remote peer.  Initially, the input_token parameter
     should be specified either as GSS_C_NO_BUFFER, or as a pointer to a
     gss_buffer_desc object whose length field contains the value zero.
     The routine may return a output_token which should be transferred to
     the peer application, where the peer application will present it to
     gss_accept_sec_context.  If no token need be sent,
     gss_init_sec_context will indicate this by setting the length field
     of the output_token argument to zero. To complete the context
     establishment, one or more reply tokens may be required from the peer
     application; if so, gss_init_sec_context will return a status
     containing the supplementary information bit GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED.
     In this case, gss_init_sec_context should be called again when the
     reply token is received from the peer application, passing the reply
     token to gss_init_sec_context via the input_token parameters.
     
     Portable applications should be constructed to use the token length
     and return status to determine whether a token needs to be sent or
     waited for.  Thus a typical portable caller should always invoke
     gss_init_sec_context within a loop:
     
     int context_established = 0;
     gss_ctx_id_t context_hdl = GSS_C_NO_CONTEXT;
            ...
     input_token->length = 0;
     
     while (!context_established) {
       maj_stat = gss_init_sec_context(&min_stat,
                                       cred_hdl,
                                       &context_hdl,
                                       target_name,
                                       desired_mech,
                                       desired_services,
                                       desired_time,
     
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                                       input_bindings,
                                       input_token,
                                       &actual_mech,
                                       output_token,
                                       &actual_services,
                                       &actual_time);
       if (GSS_ERROR(maj_stat)) {
         report_error(maj_stat, min_stat);
       };
     
       if (output_token->length != 0) {
         send_token_to_peer(output_token);
         gss_release_buffer(&min_stat, output_token)
       };
       if (GSS_ERROR(maj_stat)) {
     
         if (context_hdl != GSS_C_NO_CONTEXT)
           gss_delete_sec_context(&min_stat,
                                  &context_hdl,
                                  GSS_C_NO_BUFFER);
         break;
       };
       if (maj_stat & GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED) {
         receive_token_from_peer(input_token);
       } else {
         context_established = 1;
       };
     };
     
     Whenever the routine returns a major status that includes the value
     GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED, the context is not fully established and the
     following restrictions apply to the output parameters:
     
         The value returned via the time_rec parameter is undefined
         Unless the accompanying ret_flags parameter contains the bit
         GSS_C_PROT_READY_FLAG, indicating that per-message services may
         be applied in advance of a successful completion status, the
         value returned via the actual_mech_type parameter is undefined
         until the routine returns a major status value of
         GSS_S_COMPLETE.
     
         The values of the GSS_C_DELEG_FLAG, GSS_C_MUTUAL_FLAG,
         GSS_C_REPLAY_FLAG, GSS_C_SEQUENCE_FLAG, GSS_C_CONF_FLAG,
         GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG and GSS_C_ANON_FLAG bits returned via the
         ret_flags parameter should contain the values that the
         implementation expects would be valid if context establishment
         were to succeed.  In particular, if the application has
         requested a service such as delegation or anonymous
         authentication via the req_flags argument, and such a service
         is unavailable from the underlying mechanism,
         gss_init_sec_context should generate a token that will not
         provide the service, and indicate via the ret_flags argument
         that the service will not be supported.  The application may
         choose to abort the context establishment by calling
         gss_delete_sec_context (if it cannot continue in the absence
     
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         of the service), or it may choose to transmit the token
         and continue context establishment (if the service was merely
         desired but not mandatory).
     
         The values of the GSS_C_PROT_READY_FLAG and GSS_C_TRANS_FLAG
         bits within ret_flags should indicate the actual state at the
         time gss_init_sec_context returns, whether or not the context
         is fully established.
     
         GSS-API implementations that support per-message protection
         are encouraged to set the GSS_C_PROT_READY_FLAG in the final
         ret_flags returned to a caller (i.e. when accompanied by a
         GSS_S_COMPLETE status code).  However, applications should not
         rely on this behavior as the flag was not defined in Version 1
         of the GSS-API.  Instead, applications should determine what
         per-message services are available after a successful context
         establishment according to the GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG and
         GSS_C_CONF_FLAG values.
     
         All other bits within the ret_flags argument should be set
         to zero.
     
     If the initial call of gss_init_sec_context() fails, the
     implementation should not create a context object, and should leave
     the value of the context_handle parameter set to GSS_C_NO_CONTEXT to
     indicate this.  In the event of a failure on a subsequent call, the
     implementation is permitted to delete the "half-built" security
     context (in which case it should set the context_handle parameter to
     GSS_C_NO_CONTEXT), but the preferred behavior is to leave the
     security context untouched for the application to delete (using
     gss_delete_sec_context).
     
     During context establishment, the informational status bits
     GSS_S_OLD_TOKEN and GSS_S_DUPLICATE_TOKEN indicate fatal errors, and
     GSS-API mechanisms should always return them in association with a
     routine error of GSS_S_FAILURE.  This requirement for pairing did not
     exist in version 1 of the GSS-API specification, so applications that
     wish to run over version 1 implementations must special-case these
     codes.
     
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer,  modify
                       Mechanism specific status code.
     
     initiator_cred_handle  gss_cred_id_t, read, optional
                            handle for credentials claimed.  Supply
                            GSS_C_NO_CREDENTIAL to act as a default
                            initiator principal.  If no default
                            initiator is defined, the function will
                            return GSS_S_NO_CRED.
     
     context_handle    gss_ctx_id_t, read/modify
                       context handle for new context.  Supply
     
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                       GSS_C_NO_CONTEXT for first call; use value
                       returned by first call in continuation calls.
                       Resources associated with this context-handle
                       must be released by the application after use
                       with a call to gss_delete_sec_context().
     
     target_name       gss_name_t, read
                       Name of target
     
     mech_type         OID, read, optional
                       Object ID of desired mechanism. Supply
                       GSS_C_NO_OID to obtain an implementation
                       specific default
     
     req_flags         bit-mask, read
                       Contains various independent flags, each of
                       which requests that the context support a
                       specific service option.  Symbolic
                       names are provided for each flag, and the
                       symbolic names corresponding to the required
                       flags should be logically-ORed
                       together to form the bit-mask value.  The
                       flags are:
     
                       GSS_C_DELEG_FLAG
                         True - Delegate credentials to remote peer
                         False - Don't delegate
     
                       GSS_C_MUTUAL_FLAG
                         True - Request that remote peer
                                authenticate itself
                         False - Authenticate self to remote peer
                                 only
     
                       GSS_C_REPLAY_FLAG
                         True - Enable replay detection for
                                messages protected with gss_wrap
                                or gss_get_mic
                         False - Don't attempt to detect
                                 replayed messages
     
                       GSS_C_SEQUENCE_FLAG
                         True - Enable detection of out-of-sequence
                                protected messages
                         False - Don't attempt to detect
                                 out-of-sequence messages
     
                       GSS_C_CONF_FLAG
                         True - Request that confidentiality service
                                be made available (via gss_wrap)
                         False - No per-message confidentiality service
                                 is required.
     
                       GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG
                         True - Request that integrity service be
     
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                                made available (via gss_wrap or
                                gss_get_mic)
                         False - No per-message integrity service
                                 is required.
     
                       GSS_C_ANON_FLAG
                         True - Do not reveal the initiator's
                                identity to the acceptor.
                         False - Authenticate normally.
     
     time_req          Integer, read, optional
                       Desired number of seconds for which context
                       should remain valid.  Supply 0 to request a
                       default validity period.
     
     input_chan_bindings  channel bindings, read, optional
                          Application-specified bindings.  Allows
                          application to securely bind channel
                          identification information to the security
                          context.  Specify GSS_C_NO_CHANNEL_BINDINGS
                          if channel bindings are not used.
     
     input_token       buffer, opaque, read, optional (see text)
                       Token received from peer application.
                       Supply GSS_C_NO_BUFFER, or a pointer to
                       a buffer containing the value GSS_C_EMPTY_BUFFER
                       on initial call.
     
     actual_mech_type  OID, modify, optional
                       Actual mechanism used.  The OID returned via
                       this parameter will be a pointer to static
                       storage that should be treated as read-only;
                       In particular the application should not attempt
                       to free it.  Specify NULL if not required.
     
     output_token      buffer, opaque, modify
                       token to be sent to peer application.  If
                       the length field of the returned buffer is
                       zero, no token need be sent to the peer
                       application.  Storage associated with this
                       buffer must be freed by the application
                       after use with a call to gss_release_buffer().
     
     ret_flags         bit-mask, modify, optional
                       Contains various independent flags, each of which
                       indicates that the context supports a specific
                       service option.  Specify NULL if not
                       required.  Symbolic names are provided
                       for each flag, and the symbolic names
                       corresponding to the required flags should be
                       logically-ANDed with the ret_flags value to test
                       whether a given option is supported by the
                       context.  The flags are:
     
                       GSS_C_DELEG_FLAG
     
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                         True - Credentials were delegated to
                                the remote peer
                         False - No credentials were delegated
     
                       GSS_C_MUTUAL_FLAG
                         True - The remote peer has authenticated
                                itself.
                         False - Remote peer has not authenticated
                                 itself.
     
                       GSS_C_REPLAY_FLAG
                         True - replay of protected messages
                                will be detected
                         False - replayed messages will not be
                                 detected
     
                       GSS_C_SEQUENCE_FLAG
                         True - out-of-sequence protected
                                messages will be detected
                         False - out-of-sequence messages will
                                 not be detected
     
                       GSS_C_CONF_FLAG
                         True - Confidentiality service may be
                                invoked by calling gss_wrap routine
                         False - No confidentiality service (via
                                 gss_wrap) available. gss_wrap will
                                 provide message encapsulation,
                                 data-origin authentication and
                                 integrity services only.
     
                       GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG
                         True - Integrity service may be invoked by
                                calling either gss_get_mic or gss_wrap
                                routines.
                         False - Per-message integrity service
                                 unavailable.
     
                       GSS_C_ANON_FLAG
                         True - The initiator's identity has not been
                                revealed, and will not be revealed if
                                any emitted token is passed to the
                                acceptor.
                         False - The initiator's identity has been or
                                 will be authenticated normally.
     
                       GSS_C_PROT_READY_FLAG
                         True - Protection services (as specified
                                by the states of the GSS_C_CONF_FLAG
                                and GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG) are available for
                                use if the accompanying major status
                                return value is either GSS_S_COMPLETE or
                                GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED.
                         False - Protection services (as specified
                                 by the states of the GSS_C_CONF_FLAG
     
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                                 and GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG) are available
                                 only if the accompanying major status
                                 return value is GSS_S_COMPLETE.
     
                       GSS_C_TRANS_FLAG
                         True - The resultant security context may
                                be transferred to other processes via
                                a call to gss_export_sec_context().
                         False - The security context is not
                                 transferrable.
     
                       All other bits should be set to zero.
     
     time_rec          Integer, modify, optional
                       number of seconds for which the context
                       will remain valid. If the implementation does
                       not support context expiration, the value
                       GSS_C_INDEFINITE will be returned.  Specify
                       NULL if not required.
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED Indicates that a token from the peer
                           application is required to complete the
                           context, and that gss_init_sec_context
                           must be called again with that token.
     
     GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_TOKEN Indicates that consistency checks performed
                           on the input_token failed
     
     GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_CREDENTIAL Indicates that consistency checks
                                performed on the credential failed.
     
     GSS_S_NO_CRED     The supplied credentials were not valid for
                       context initiation, or the credential handle
                       did not reference any credentials.
     
     GSS_S_CREDENTIALS_EXPIRED The referenced credentials have expired
     
     GSS_S_BAD_BINDINGS The input_token contains different channel
                        bindings to those specified via the
                        input_chan_bindings parameter
     
     GSS_S_BAD_SIG     The input_token contains an invalid MIC, or a MIC
                       that could not be verified
     
     GSS_S_OLD_TOKEN   The input_token was too old.  This is a fatal
                       error during context establishment
     
     GSS_S_DUPLICATE_TOKEN The input_token is valid, but is a duplicate
                           of a token already processed.  This is a
                           fatal error during context establishment.
     
     
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     GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT  Indicates that the supplied context handle did
                       not refer to a valid context
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAMETYPE The provided target_name parameter contained an
                        invalid or unsupported type of name
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAME    The provided target_name parameter was ill-formed.
     
     GSS_S_BAD_MECH    The specified mechanism is not supported by the
                       provided credential, or is unrecognized by the
                       implementation.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.20.gss_inquire_context
     
     OM_uint32 gss_inquire_context (
       OM_uint32          *minor_status,
       const gss_ctx_id_t context_handle,
       gss_name_t         *src_name,
       gss_name_t         *targ_name,
       OM_uint32          *lifetime_rec,
       gss_OID            *mech_type,
       OM_uint32          *ctx_flags,
       int                *locally_initiated,
       int                *open )
     
     Purpose:
     
     Obtains information about a security context.  The caller must
     already have obtained a handle that refers to the context, although
     the context need not be fully established.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code
     
     context_handle    gss_ctx_id_t, read
                       A handle that refers to the security context.
     
     src_name          gss_name_t, modify, optional
                       The name of the context initiator.
                       If the context was established using anonymous
                       authentication, and if the application invoking
                       gss_inquire_context is the context acceptor,
                       an anonymous name will be returned.  Storage
                       associated with this name must be freed by the
                       application after use with a call to
                       gss_release_name().  Specify NULL if not
                       required.
     
     targ_name         gss_name_t, modify, optional
                       The name of the context acceptor.
                       Storage associated with this name must be
                       freed by the application after use with a call
                       to gss_release_name().  If the context acceptor
                       did not authenticate itself, and if the initiator
                       did not specify a target name in its call to
                       gss_init_sec_contect(), the value GSS_C_NO_NAME
                       will be returned.  Specify NULL if not required.
     
     lifetime_rec      Integer, modify, optional
                       The number of seconds for which the context
                       will remain valid.  If the context has
                       expired, this parameter will be set to zero.
                       If the implementation does not support
                       context expiration, the value
                       GSS_C_INDEFINITE will be returned.  Specify
     
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                       NULL if not required.
     
     mech_type         gss_OID, modify, optional
                       The security mechanism providing the
                       context.  The returned OID will be a
                       pointer to static storage that should
                       be treated as read-only by the application;
                       in particular the application should not
                       attempt to free it.  Specify NULL if not
                       required.
     
     ctx_flags         bit-mask, modify, optional
                       Contains various independent flags, each of
                       which indicates that the context supports
                       (or is expected to support, if ctx_open is
                       false) a specific service option.  If not
                       needed, specify NULL.  Symbolic names are
                       provided for each flag, and the symbolic names
                       corresponding to the required flags
                       should be logically-ANDed with the ret_flags
                       value to test whether a given option is
                       supported by the context.  The flags are:
     
                       GSS_C_DELEG_FLAG
                         True - Credentials were delegated from
                                the initiator to the acceptor.
                         False - No credentials were delegated
     
                       GSS_C_MUTUAL_FLAG
                         True - The acceptor was authenticated
                                to the initiator
                         False - The acceptor did not authenticate
                                 itself.
     
                       GSS_C_REPLAY_FLAG
                         True - replay of protected messages
                                will be detected
                         False - replayed messages will not be
                                 detected
     
                       GSS_C_SEQUENCE_FLAG
                         True - out-of-sequence protected
                                messages will be detected
                         False - out-of-sequence messages will not
                                 be detected
     
                       GSS_C_CONF_FLAG
                         True - Confidentiality service may be invoked
                                by calling gss_wrap routine
                         False - No confidentiality service (via
                                 gss_wrap) available. gss_wrap will
                                 provide message encapsulation,
                                 data-origin authentication and
                                 integrity services only.
     
     
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                       GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG
                         True - Integrity service may be invoked by
                                calling either gss_get_mic or gss_wrap
                                routines.
                         False - Per-message integrity service
                                 unavailable.
     
                       GSS_C_ANON_FLAG
                         True - The initiator's identity will not
                                be revealed to the acceptor.
                                The src_name parameter (if
                                requested) contains an anonymous
                                internal name.
                         False - The initiator has been
                                 authenticated normally.
     
                       GSS_C_PROT_READY_FLAG
                         True - Protection services (as specified
                                by the states of the GSS_C_CONF_FLAG
                                and GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG) are available
                                for use.
                         False - Protection services (as specified
                                 by the states of the GSS_C_CONF_FLAG
                                 and GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG) are available
                                 only if the context is fully
                                 established (i.e. if the open parameter
                                 is non-zero).
     
                       GSS_C_TRANS_FLAG
                         True - The resultant security context may
                                be transferred to other processes via
                                a call to gss_export_sec_context().
                         False - The security context is not
                                 transferrable.
     
     locally_initiated Boolean, modify
                       Non-zero if the invoking application is the
                       context initiator.
                       Specify NULL if not required.
     
     open              Boolean, modify
                       Non-zero if the context is fully established;
                       Zero if a context-establishment token
                       is expected from the peer application.
                       Specify NULL if not required.
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT  The referenced context could not be accessed.
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.21.gss_inquire_cred
     
     OM_uint32 gss_inquire_cred (
       OM_uint32           *minor_status,
       const gss_cred_id_t cred_handle,
       gss_name_t          *name,
       OM_uint32           *lifetime,
       gss_cred_usage_t    *cred_usage,
       gss_OID_set         *mechanisms )
     
     Purpose:
     
     Obtains information about a credential.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code
     
     cred_handle       gss_cred_id_t, read
                       A handle that refers to the target credential.
                       Specify GSS_C_NO_CREDENTIAL to inquire about
                       the default initiator principal.
     
     name              gss_name_t, modify, optional
                       The name whose identity the credential asserts.
                       Storage associated with this name should be freed
                       by the application after use with a call to
                       gss_release_name().  Specify NULL if not required.
     
     lifetime          Integer, modify, optional
                       The number of seconds for which the credential
                       will remain valid.  If the credential has
                       expired, this parameter will be set to zero.
                       If the implementation does not support
                       credential expiration, the value
                       GSS_C_INDEFINITE will be returned.  Specify
                       NULL if not required.
     
     cred_usage        gss_cred_usage_t, modify, optional
                       How the credential may be used.  One of the
                       following:
                       GSS_C_INITIATE
                       GSS_C_ACCEPT
                       GSS_C_BOTH
                       Specify NULL if not required.
     
     mechanisms        gss_OID_set, modify, optional
                       Set of mechanisms supported by the credential.
                       Storage associated with this OID set must be
                       freed by the application after use with a call
                       to gss_release_oid_set().  Specify NULL if not
                       required.
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
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     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_NO_CRED     The referenced credentials could not be accessed.
     
     GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_CREDENTIAL The referenced credentials were invalid.
     
     GSS_S_CREDENTIALS_EXPIRED The referenced credentials have expired.
                       If the lifetime parameter was not passed as NULL,
                       it will be set to 0.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.22.gss_inquire_cred_by_mech
     
     OM_uint32 gss_inquire_cred_by_mech (
       OM_uint32           *minor_status,
       const gss_cred_id_t cred_handle,
       const gss_OID       mech_type,
       gss_name_t          *name,
       OM_uint32           *initiator_lifetime,
       OM_uint32           *acceptor_lifetime,
       gss_cred_usage_t    *cred_usage )
     
     Purpose:
     
     Obtains per-mechanism information about a credential.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code
     
     cred_handle       gss_cred_id_t, read
                       A handle that refers to the target credential.
                       Specify GSS_C_NO_CREDENTIAL to inquire about
                       the default initiator principal.
     
     mech_type         gss_OID, read
                       The mechanism for which information should be
                       returned.
     
     name              gss_name_t, modify, optional
                       The name whose identity the credential asserts.
                       Storage associated with this name must be
                       freed by the application after use with a call
                       to gss_release_name().  Specify NULL if not
                       required.
     
     initiator_lifetime  Integer, modify, optional
                       The number of seconds for which the credential
                       will remain capable of initiating security contexts
                       under the specified mechanism.  If the credential
                       can no longer be used to initiate contexts, or if
                       the credential usage for this mechanism is
                       GSS_C_ACCEPT, this parameter will be set to zero.
                       If the implementation does not support expiration
                       of initiator credentials, the value
                       GSS_C_INDEFINITE will be returned.  Specify NULL
                       if not required.
     
     acceptor_lifetime Integer, modify, optional
                       The number of seconds for which the credential
                       will remain capable of accepting security contexts
                       under the specified mechanism.  If the credential
                       can no longer be used to accept contexts, or if
                       the credential usage for this mechanism is
     
     
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                       GSS_C_INITIATE, this parameter will be set to zero.
     
                       If the implementation does not support expiration
                       of acceptor credentials, the value GSS_C_INDEFINITE
                       will be returned.  Specify NULL if not required.
     
     cred_usage        gss_cred_usage_t, modify, optional
                       How the credential may be used with the specified
                       mechanism.  One of the following:
                         GSS_C_INITIATE
                         GSS_C_ACCEPT
                         GSS_C_BOTH
                       Specify NULL if not required.
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_NO_CRED     The referenced credentials could not be accessed.
     
     GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_CREDENTIAL The referenced credentials were invalid.
     
     GSS_S_CREDENTIALS_EXPIRED The referenced credentials have expired.
                      If the lifetime parameter was not passed as NULL,
                      it will be set to 0.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.23.gss_inquire_mechs_for_name
     
     OM_uint32 gss_inquire_mechs_for_name (
       OM_uint32        *minor_status,
       const gss_name_t input_name,
       gss_OID_set      *mech_types )
     
     Purpose:
     
     Returns the set of mechanisms supported by the GSS-API implementation
     that may be able to process the specified name.
     
     Each mechanism returned will recognize at least one element within
     the name.  It is permissible for this routine to be implemented
     within a mechanism-independent GSS-API layer, using the type
     information contained within the presented name, and based on
     registration information provided by individual mechanism
     implementations.  This means that the returned mech_types set may
     indicate that a particular mechanism will understand the name when in
     fact it would refuse to accept the name as input to
     gss_canonicalize_name, gss_init_sec_context, gss_acquire_cred or
     gss_add_cred (due to some property of the specific name, as opposed
     to the name type).  Thus this routine should be used only as a
     pre-filter for a call to a subsequent mechanism-specific routine.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Implementation specific status code.
     
     input_name        gss_name_t, read
                       The name to which the inquiry relates.
     
     mech_types        gss_OID_set, modify
                       Set of mechanisms that may support the
                       specified name.  The returned OID set
                       must be freed by the caller after use
                       with a call to gss_release_oid_set().
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAME    The input_name parameter was ill-formed.
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAMETYPE The input_name parameter contained an invalid or
                        unsupported type of name
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.24.gss_inquire_names_for_mech
     
     OM_uint32 gss_inquire_names_for_mech (
       OM_uint32     *minor_status,
       const gss_OID mechanism,
       gss_OID_set   *name_types)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Returns the set of nametypes supported by the specified mechanism.
     
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Implementation specific status code.
     
     mechanism         gss_OID, read
                       The mechanism to be interrogated.
     
     name_types        gss_OID_set, modify
                       Set of name-types supported by the specified
                       mechanism.  The returned OID set must be
                       freed by the application after use with a
                       call to gss_release_oid_set().
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.25.gss_process_context_token
     
     OM_uint32 gss_process_context_token (
       OM_uint32          *minor_status,
       const gss_ctx_id_t context_handle,
       const gss_buffer_t token_buffer)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Provides a way to pass an asynchronous token to the security service.
     Most context-level tokens are emitted and processed synchronously by
     gss_init_sec_context and gss_accept_sec_context, and the application
     is informed as to whether further tokens are expected by the
     GSS_C_CONTINUE_NEEDED major status bit.  Occasionally, a mechanism
     may need to emit a context-level token at a point when the peer
     entity is not expecting a token.  For example, the initiator's final
     call to gss_init_sec_context may emit a token and return a status of
     GSS_S_COMPLETE, but the acceptorÆs call to gss_accept_sec_context may
     fail.  The acceptor's mechanism may wish to send a token containing
     an error indication to the initiator, but the initiator is not
     expecting a token at this point, believing that the context is fully
     established.  Gss_process_context_token provides a way to pass such a
     token to the mechanism at any time.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Implementation specific status code.
     
     context_handle    gss_ctx_id_t, read
                       context handle of context on which token is to
                       be processed
     
     token_buffer      buffer, opaque, read
                       token to process
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_TOKEN Indicates that consistency checks performed
                       on the token failed
     
     GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT  The context_handle did not refer to a valid context
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.26.gss_release_buffer
     
     OM_uint32 gss_release_buffer (
       OM_uint32    *minor_status,
       gss_buffer_t buffer)
     
     
     
     Purpose:
     
     Free storage associated with a buffer.  The storage must have been
     allocated by a GSS-API routine.  In addition to freeing the
     associated storage, the routine will zero the length field in the
     descriptor to which the buffer parameter refers, and implementations
     are encouraged to additionally set the pointer field in the
     descriptor to NULL.  Any buffer object returned by a GSS-API routine
     may be passed to gss_release_buffer (even if there is no storage
     associated with the buffer).
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code
     
     buffer            buffer, modify
                       The storage associated with the buffer will be
                       deleted.  The gss_buffer_desc object will not
                       be freed, but its length field will be zeroed.
     
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.27.gss_release_cred
     
     OM_uint32 gss_release_cred (
       OM_uint32     *minor_status,
       gss_cred_id_t *cred_handle)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Informs GSS-API that the specified credential handle is no longer
     required by the application, and frees associated resources.
     Implementations are encouraged to set the cred_handle to
     GSS_C_NO_CREDENTIAL on successful completion of this call.
     
     Parameters:
     
     cred_handle       gss_cred_id_t, modify, optional
                       Opaque handle identifying credential
                       to be released.  If GSS_C_NO_CREDENTIAL
                       is supplied, the routine will complete
                       successfully, but will do nothing.
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code.
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_NO_CRED     Credentials could not be accessed.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.28.gss_release_name
     
     OM_uint32 gss_release_name (
       OM_uint32  *minor_status,
       gss_name_t *name)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Free GSSAPI-allocated storage associated with an internal-form name.
     Implementations are encouraged to set the name to GSS_C_NO_NAME on
     successful completion of this call.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code
     
     name              gss_name_t, modify
                       The name to be deleted
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_BAD_NAME    The name parameter did not contain a valid name
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.29.gss_release_oid_set
     
     OM_uint32 gss_release_oid_set (
       OM_uint32   *minor_status,
       gss_OID_set *set)
     
     
     
     Purpose:
     
     Free storage associated with a GSSAPI-generated gss_OID_set object.
     The set parameter must refer to an OID-set that was returned from a
     GSS-API routine.  gss_release_oid_set() will free the storage
     associated with each individual member OID, the OID set's elements
     array, and the gss_OID_set_desc.
     
     Implementations are encouraged to set the gss_OID_set parameter to
     GSS_C_NO_OID_SET on successful completion of this routine.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code
     
     set               Set of Object IDs, modify
                       The storage associated with the gss_OID_set
                       will be deleted.
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.30.gss_test_oid_set_member
     
     OM_uint32 gss_test_oid_set_member (
       OM_uint32         *minor_status,
       const gss_OID     member,
       const gss_OID_set set,
       int               *present)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Interrogate an Object Identifier set to determine whether a specified
     Object Identifier is a member.  This routine is intended to be used
     with OID sets returned by gss_indicate_mechs(), gss_acquire_cred(),
     and gss_inquire_cred(), but will also work with user-generated sets.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code
     
     member            Object ID, read
                       The object identifier whose presence
                       is to be tested.
     
     set               Set of Object ID, read
                       The Object Identifier set.
     
     present           Boolean, modify
                       non-zero if the specified OID is a member
                       of the set, zero if not.
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.31.gss_unwrap
     
     OM_uint32 gss_unwrap (
       OM_uint32          *minor_status,
       const gss_ctx_id_t context_handle,
       const gss_buffer_t input_message_buffer,
       gss_buffer_t       output_message_buffer,
       int                *conf_state,
       gss_qop_t          *qop_state)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Converts a message previously protected by gss_wrap back to a usable
     form, verifying the embedded MIC.  The conf_state parameter indicates
     whether the message was encrypted; the qop_state parameter indicates
     the strength of protection that was used to provide the
     confidentiality and integrity services.
     
     Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted
     by gss_wrap() to provide "secure framing", implementations must
     support the wrapping and unwrapping of zero-length messages.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code.
     
     context_handle    gss_ctx_id_t, read
                       Identifies the context on which the message
                       arrived
     
     input_message_buffer  buffer, opaque, read
                       protected message
     
     output_message_buffer  buffer, opaque, modify
                       Buffer to receive unwrapped message.
                       Storage associated with this buffer must
                       be freed by the application after use use
                       with a call to gss_release_buffer().
     
     conf_state        boolean, modify, optional
                       Non-zero - Confidentiality and integrity
                                  protection were used
                       Zero - Integrity service only was used
                       Specify NULL if not required
     
     qop_state         gss_qop_t, modify, optional
                       Quality of protection provided.
                       Specify NULL if not required
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_TOKEN The token failed consistency checks
     
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     GSS_S_BAD_SIG     The MIC was incorrect
     
     GSS_S_DUPLICATE_TOKEN The token was valid, and contained a correct
                           MIC for the message, but it had already been
                           processed
     
     GSS_S_OLD_TOKEN   The token was valid, and contained a correct MIC
                       for the message, but it is too old to check for
                       duplication.
     
     GSS_S_UNSEQ_TOKEN The token was valid, and contained a correct MIC
                       for the message, but has been verified out of
                       sequence; a later token has already been
                       received.
     
     GSS_S_GAP_TOKEN   The token was valid, and contained a correct MIC
                       for the message, but has been verified out of
                       sequence; an earlier expected token has not yet
                       been received.
     
     GSS_S_CONTEXT_EXPIRED The context has already expired
     
     GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT  The context_handle parameter did not identify
                       a valid context
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.32.gss_verify_mic
     
     OM_uint32 gss_verify_mic (
       OM_uint32          *minor_status,
       const gss_ctx_id_t context_handle,
       const gss_buffer_t message_buffer,
       const gss_buffer_t token_buffer,
       gss_qop_t          *qop_state)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Verifies that a cryptographic MIC, contained in the token parameter,
     fits the supplied message.  The qop_state parameter allows a message
     recipient to determine the strength of protection that was applied to
     the message.
     
     Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted
     by gss_wrap() to provide "secure framing", implementations must
     support the calculation and verification of MICs over zero-length
     messages.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code.
     
     context_handle    gss_ctx_id_t, read
                       Identifies the context on which the message
                       arrived
     
     message_buffer    buffer, opaque, read
                       Message to be verified
     
     token_buffer      buffer, opaque, read
                       Token associated with message
     
     qop_state         gss_qop_t, modify, optional
                       quality of protection gained from MIC
                       Specify NULL if not required
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_TOKEN The token failed consistency checks
     
     GSS_S_BAD_SIG     The MIC was incorrect
     
     GSS_S_DUPLICATE_TOKEN The token was valid, and contained a correct
                       MIC for the message, but it had already been
                       processed
     
     GSS_S_OLD_TOKEN   The token was valid, and contained a correct MIC
                       for the message, but it is too old to check for
                       duplication.
     
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     GSS_S_UNSEQ_TOKEN The token was valid, and contained a correct MIC
                       for the message, but has been verified out of
                       sequence; a later token has already been received.
     
     GSS_S_GAP_TOKEN   The token was valid, and contained a correct MIC
                       for the message, but has been verified out of
                       sequence; an earlier expected token has not yet
                       been received.
     
     GSS_S_CONTEXT_EXPIRED The context has already expired
     
     GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT  The context_handle parameter did not identify a
                       valid context
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.33.gss_wrap
     
     OM_uint32 gss_wrap (
       OM_uint32          *minor_status,
       const gss_ctx_id_t context_handle,
       int               conf_req_flag,
       gss_qop_t          qop_req
       const gss_buffer_t input_message_buffer,
       int                *conf_state,
       gss_buffer_t       output_message_buffer )
     
     Purpose:
     
     Attaches a cryptographic MIC and optionally encrypts the specified
     input_message.  The output_message contains both the MIC and the
     message.  The qop_req parameter allows a choice between several
     cryptographic algorithms, if supported by the chosen mechanism.
     
     Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted
     by gss_wrap() to provide "secure framing", implementations must
     support the wrapping of zero-length messages.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code.
     
     context_handle    gss_ctx_id_t, read
                       Identifies the context on which the message
                       will be sent
     
     conf_req_flag     boolean, read
                       Non-zero - Both confidentiality and integrity
                                  services are requested
                       Zero - Only integrity service is requested
     
     qop_req           gss_qop_t, read, optional
                       Specifies required quality of protection.  A
                       mechanism-specific default may be requested by
                       setting qop_req to GSS_C_QOP_DEFAULT.  If an
                       unsupported protection strength is requested,
                       gss_wrap will return a major_status of
                       GSS_S_BAD_QOP.
     
     input_message_buffer  buffer, opaque, read
                       Message to be protected
     
     conf_state        boolean, modify, optional
                       Non-zero - Confidentiality, data origin
                                  authentication and integrity
                                  services have been applied
                       Zero - Integrity and data origin services only
                              has been applied.
                       Specify NULL if not required
     
     
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     output_message_buffer  buffer, opaque, modify
                       Buffer to receive protected message.
                       Storage associated with this message must
                       be freed by the application after use with
                       a call to gss_release_buffer().
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_CONTEXT_EXPIRED The context has already expired
     
     GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT  The context_handle parameter did not identify a
                       valid context
     
     GSS_S_BAD_QOP     The specified QOP is not supported by the
                       mechanism.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     7.34.gss_wrap_size_limit
     
     OM_uint32 gss_wrap_size_limit (
       OM_uint32          *minor_status,
       const gss_ctx_id_t context_handle,
       int                conf_req_flag,
       gss_qop_t          qop_req,
       OM_uint32          req_output_size,
       OM_uint32          *max_input_size)
     
     Purpose:
     
     Allows an application to determine the maximum message size that, if
     presented to gss_wrap with the same conf_req_flag and qop_req
     parameters, will result in an output token containing no more than
     req_output_size bytes.
     
     This call is intended for use by applications that communicate over
     protocols that impose a maximum message size.  It enables the
     application to fragment messages prior to applying protection.
     
     GSS-API implementations are recommended but not required to detect
     invalid QOP values when gss_wrap_size_limit() is called. This routine
     guarantees only a maximum message size, not the availability of
     specific QOP values for message protection.
     
     Successful completion of this call does not guarantee that gss_wrap
     will be able to protect a message of length max_input_size bytes,
     since this ability may depend on the availability of system resources
     at the time that gss_wrap is called.  However, if the implementation
     itself imposes an upper limit on the length of messages that may be
     processed by gss_wrap, the implementation should not return a value
     via max_input_bytes that is greater than this length.
     
     Parameters:
     
     minor_status      Integer, modify
                       Mechanism specific status code
     
     context_handle    gss_ctx_id_t, read
                       A handle that refers to the security over
                       which the messages will be sent.
     
     conf_req_flag     Boolean, read
                       Indicates whether gss_wrap will be asked
                       to apply confidentiality protection in
                       addition to integrity protection.  See
                       the routine description for gss_wrap
                       for more details.
     
     qop_req           gss_qop_t, read
                       Indicates the level of protection that
                       gss_wrap will be asked to provide.  See
                       the routine description for gss_wrap for
                       more details.
     
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     req_output_size   Integer, read
                       The desired maximum size for tokens emitted
                       by gss_wrap.
     
     max_input_size    Integer, modify
                       The maximum input message size that may
                       be presented to gss_wrap in order to
                       guarantee that the emitted token shall
                       be no larger than req_output_size bytes.
     
     Function value:   GSS status code
     
     GSS_S_COMPLETE    Successful completion
     
     GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT  The referenced context could not be accessed.
     
     GSS_S_CONTEXT_EXPIRED The context has expired.
     
     GSS_S_BAD_QOP     The specified QOP is not supported by the
                       mechanism.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     8.   SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
     
     
     This document specifies a service interface for security facilities
     and services; as such, security considerations appear throughout the
     specification. Nonetheless, it is appropriate to summarize certain
     specific points relevant to GSS-API implementors and calling
     applications. Usage of the GSS-API interface does not in itself
     provide security services or assurance; instead, these attributes are
     dependent on the underlying mechanism(s) which support a GSS-API
     implementation. Callers must be attentive to the requests made to
     GSS-API calls and to the status indicators returned by GSS-API, as
     these specify the security service characteristics which GSS-API will
     provide. When the interprocess context transfer facility is used,
     appropriate local controls should be applied to constrain access to
     interprocess tokens and to the sensitive data which they contain.
     
     
     
     APPENDIX A. GSS-API C header file gssapi.h
     
     C-language GSS-API implementations should include a copy of the
     following header-file.
     
     #ifndef GSSAPI_H_
     #define GSSAPI_H_
     
     
     
     /*
      * First, include stddef.h to get size_t defined.
      */
     #include <stddef.h>
     
     /*
      * If the platform supports the xom.h header file, it should be
      * included here.
      */
     #include <xom.h>
     
     
     /*
      * Now define the three implementation-dependent types.
      */
     typedef <platform-specific> gss_ctx_id_t;
     typedef <platform-specific> gss_cred_id_t;
     typedef <platform-specific> gss_name_t;
     
     /*
      * The following type must be defined as the smallest natural
      * unsigned integer supported by the platform that has at least
      * 32 bits of precision.
      */
     typedef <platform-specific> gss_uint32;
     
     
     
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     #ifdef OM_STRING
     /*
      * We have included the xom.h header file.  Verify that OM_uint32
      * is defined correctly.
      */
     
     #if sizeof(gss_uint32) != sizeof(OM_uint32)
     #error Incompatible definition of OM_uint32 from xom.h
     #endif
     
     typedef OM_object_identifier gss_OID_desc, *gss_OID;
     
     #else
     
     /*
      * We can't use X/Open definitions, so roll our own.
      */
     
     typedef gss_uint32 OM_uint32;
     
     typedef struct gss_OID_desc_struct {
       OM_uint32 length;
       void      *elements;
     } gss_OID_desc, *gss_OID;
     
     #endif
     
     typedef struct gss_OID_set_desc_struct  {
       size_t     count;
       gss_OID    elements;
     } gss_OID_set_desc, *gss_OID_set;
     
     typedef struct gss_buffer_desc_struct {
       size_t length;
       void *value;
     } gss_buffer_desc, *gss_buffer_t;
     
     typedef struct gss_channel_bindings_struct {
       OM_uint32 initiator_addrtype;
       gss_buffer_desc initiator_address;
       OM_uint32 acceptor_addrtype;
       gss_buffer_desc acceptor_address;
       gss_buffer_desc application_data;
     } *gss_channel_bindings_t;
     
     /*
      * For now, define a QOP-type as an OM_uint32
      */
     typedef OM_uint32 gss_qop_t;
     
     typedef int gss_cred_usage_t;
     
     /*
      * Flag bits for context-level services.
      */
     
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     #define GSS_C_DELEG_FLAG      1
     #define GSS_C_MUTUAL_FLAG     2
     #define GSS_C_REPLAY_FLAG     4
     #define GSS_C_SEQUENCE_FLAG   8
     #define GSS_C_CONF_FLAG       16
     #define GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG      32
     #define GSS_C_ANON_FLAG       64
     #define GSS_C_PROT_READY_FLAG 128
     #define GSS_C_TRANS_FLAG      256
     
     
     /*
      * Credential usage options
      */
     #define GSS_C_BOTH     0
     #define GSS_C_INITIATE 1
     #define GSS_C_ACCEPT   2
     
     /*
      * Status code types for gss_display_status
      */
     #define GSS_C_GSS_CODE  1
     #define GSS_C_MECH_CODE 2
     
     /*
      * The constant definitions for channel-bindings address families
      */
     #define GSS_C_AF_UNSPEC     0
     #define GSS_C_AF_LOCAL      1
     #define GSS_C_AF_INET       2
     #define GSS_C_AF_IMPLINK    3
     #define GSS_C_AF_PUP        4
     #define GSS_C_AF_CHAOS      5
     #define GSS_C_AF_NS         6
     #define GSS_C_AF_NBS        7
     #define GSS_C_AF_ECMA       8
     #define GSS_C_AF_DATAKIT    9
     #define GSS_C_AF_CCITT      10
     #define GSS_C_AF_SNA        11
     #define GSS_C_AF_DECnet     12
     #define GSS_C_AF_DLI        13
     #define GSS_C_AF_LAT        14
     #define GSS_C_AF_HYLINK     15
     #define GSS_C_AF_APPLETALK  16
     #define GSS_C_AF_BSC        17
     #define GSS_C_AF_DSS        18
     #define GSS_C_AF_OSI        19
     #define GSS_C_AF_X25        21
     
     #define GSS_C_AF_NULLADDR   255
     
     /*
      * Various Null values
      */
     #define GSS_C_NO_NAME ((gss_name_t) 0)
     
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     #define GSS_C_NO_BUFFER ((gss_buffer_t) 0)
     #define GSS_C_NO_OID ((gss_OID) 0)
     #define GSS_C_NO_OID_SET ((gss_OID_set) 0)
     #define GSS_C_NO_CONTEXT ((gss_ctx_id_t) 0)
     #define GSS_C_NO_CREDENTIAL ((gss_cred_id_t) 0)
     #define GSS_C_NO_CHANNEL_BINDINGS ((gss_channel_bindings_t) 0)
     #define GSS_C_EMPTY_BUFFER {0, NULL}
     
     /*
      * Some alternate names for a couple of the above
      * values.  These are defined for V1 compatibility.
      */
     #define GSS_C_NULL_OID GSS_C_NO_OID
     #define GSS_C_NULL_OID_SET GSS_C_NO_OID_SET
     
     /*
      * Define the default Quality of Protection for per-message
      * services.  Note that an implementation that offers multiple
      * levels of QOP may define GSS_C_QOP_DEFAULT to be either zero
      * (as done here) to mean "default protection", or to a specific
      * explicit QOP value.  However, a value of 0 should always be
      * interpreted by a GSS-API implementation as a request for the
      * default protection level.
      */
     #define GSS_C_QOP_DEFAULT 0
     
     /*
      * Expiration time of 2^32-1 seconds means infinite lifetime for a
      * credential or security context
      */
     #define GSS_C_INDEFINITE 0xfffffffful
     
     /*
      * The implementation must reserve static storage for a
      * gss_OID_desc object containing the value
      * {10, (void *)"\x2a\x86\x48\x86\xf7\x12"
      * "\x01\x02\x01\x01"},
      * corresponding to an object-identifier value of
      * {iso(1) member-body(2) United States(840) mit(113554)
      * infosys(1) gssapi(2) generic(1) user_name(1)}.  The constant
      * GSS_C_NT_USER_NAME should be initialized to point
      * to that gss_OID_desc.
      */
     extern gss_OID GSS_C_NT_USER_NAME;
     
     /*
      * The implementation must reserve static storage for a
      * gss_OID_desc object containing the value
      * {10, (void *)"\x2a\x86\x48\x86\xf7\x12"
      *              "\x01\x02\x01\x02"},
      * corresponding to an object-identifier value of
      * {iso(1) member-body(2) United States(840) mit(113554)
      * infosys(1) gssapi(2) generic(1) machine_uid_name(2)}.
      * The constant GSS_C_NT_MACHINE_UID_NAME should be
      * initialized to point to that gss_OID_desc.
     
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      */
     extern gss_OID GSS_C_NT_MACHINE_UID_NAME;
     
     /*
      * The implementation must reserve static storage for a
      * gss_OID_desc object containing the value
      * {10, (void *)"\x2a\x86\x48\x86\xf7\x12"
      *              "\x01\x02\x01\x03"},
      * corresponding to an object-identifier value of
      * {iso(1) member-body(2) United States(840) mit(113554)
      * infosys(1) gssapi(2) generic(1) string_uid_name(3)}.
      * The constant GSS_C_NT_STRING_UID_NAME should be
      * initialized to point to that gss_OID_desc.
      */
     extern gss_OID GSS_C_NT_STRING_UID_NAME;
     
     /*
      * The implementation must reserve static storage for a
      * gss_OID_desc object containing the value
      * {6, (void *)"\x2b\x06\x01\x05\x06\x02"},
      * corresponding to an object-identifier value of
      * {iso(1) org(3) dod(6) internet(1) security(5)
      * nametypes(6) gss-host-based-services(2)).  The constant
      * GSS_C_NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE_X should be initialized to point
      * to that gss_OID_desc.  This is a deprecated OID value, and
      * implementations wishing to support hostbased-service names
      * should instead use the GSS_C_NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE OID,
      * defined below, to identify such names;
      * GSS_C_NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE_X should be accepted a synonym
      * for GSS_C_NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE when presented as an input
      * parameter, but should not be emitted by GSS-API
      * implementations
      */
     extern gss_OID GSS_C_NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE_X;
     
     /*
      * The implementation must reserve static storage for a
      * gss_OID_desc object containing the value
      * {10, (void *)"\x2a\x86\x48\x86\xf7\x12"
      *              "\x01\x02\x01\x04"}, corresponding to an
      * object-identifier value of {iso(1) member-body(2)
      * Unites States(840) mit(113554) infosys(1) gssapi(2)
      * generic(1) service_name(4)}.  The constant
      * GSS_C_NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE should be initialized
      * to point to that gss_OID_desc.
      */
     extern gss_OID GSS_C_NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE;
     
     /*
      * The implementation must reserve static storage for a
      * gss_OID_desc object containing the value
      * {6, (void *)"\x2b\x06\01\x05\x06\x03"},
      * corresponding to an object identifier value of
      * {1(iso), 3(org), 6(dod), 1(internet), 5(security),
      * 6(nametypes), 3(gss-anonymous-name)}.  The constant
     
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      * and GSS_C_NT_ANONYMOUS should be initialized to point
      * to that gss_OID_desc.
      */
     extern gss_OID GSS_C_NT_ANONYMOUS;
     
     
     /*
      * The implementation must reserve static storage for a
      * gss_OID_desc object containing the value
      * {6, (void *)"\x2b\x06\x01\x05\x06\x04"},
      * corresponding to an object-identifier value of
      * {1(iso), 3(org), 6(dod), 1(internet), 5(security),
      * 6(nametypes), 4(gss-api-exported-name)}.  The constant
      * GSS_C_NT_EXPORT_NAME should be initialized to point
      * to that gss_OID_desc.
      */
     extern gss_OID GSS_C_NT_EXPORT_NAME;
     
     
     /* Major status codes */
     
     #define GSS_S_COMPLETE 0
     
     /*
      * Some "helper" definitions to make the status code macros obvious.
      */
     #define GSS_C_CALLING_ERROR_OFFSET 24
     #define GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET 16
     #define GSS_C_SUPPLEMENTARY_OFFSET 0
     #define GSS_C_CALLING_ERROR_MASK 0377ul
     #define GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_MASK 0377ul
     #define GSS_C_SUPPLEMENTARY_MASK 0177777ul
     
     /*
      * The macros that test status codes for error conditions.
      * Note that the GSS_ERROR() macro has changed slightly from
      * the V1 GSS-API so that it now evaluates its argument
      * only once.
      */
     #define GSS_CALLING_ERROR(x) \
      (x & (GSS_C_CALLING_ERROR_MASK << GSS_C_CALLING_ERROR_OFFSET))
     #define GSS_ROUTINE_ERROR(x) \
      (x & (GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_MASK << GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET))
     #define GSS_SUPPLEMENTARY_INFO(x) \
      (x & (GSS_C_SUPPLEMENTARY_MASK << GSS_C_SUPPLEMENTARY_OFFSET))
     #define GSS_ERROR(x) \
      (x & ((GSS_C_CALLING_ERROR_MASK << GSS_C_CALLING_ERROR_OFFSET) | \
            (GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_MASK << GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)))
     
     /*
      * Now the actual status code definitions
      */
     
     /*
      * Calling errors:
     
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      */
     #define GSS_S_CALL_INACCESSIBLE_READ \
     (1ul << GSS_C_CALLING_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_CALL_INACCESSIBLE_WRITE \
     (2ul << GSS_C_CALLING_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_CALL_BAD_STRUCTURE \
     (3ul << GSS_C_CALLING_ERROR_OFFSET)
     
     /*
      * Routine errors:
      */
     #define GSS_S_BAD_MECH             (1ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_BAD_NAME             (2ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_BAD_NAMETYPE         (3ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_BAD_BINDINGS         (4ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_BAD_STATUS           (5ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_BAD_SIG              (6ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_BAD_MIC GSS_S_BAD_SIG
     #define GSS_S_NO_CRED              (7ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT           (8ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_TOKEN      (9ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_CREDENTIAL (10ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_CREDENTIALS_EXPIRED  (11ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_CONTEXT_EXPIRED      (12ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_FAILURE              (13ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_BAD_QOP              (14ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_UNAUTHORIZED         (15ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_UNAVAILABLE          (16ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_DUPLICATE_ELEMENT    (17ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     #define GSS_S_NAME_NOT_MN          (18ul <<
     GSS_C_ROUTINE_ERROR_OFFSET)
     
     /*
      * Supplementary info bits:
      */
     #define GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED \
              (1ul << (GSS_C_SUPPLEMENTARY_OFFSET + 0))
     #define GSS_S_DUPLICATE_TOKEN \
     
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              (1ul << (GSS_C_SUPPLEMENTARY_OFFSET + 1))
     #define GSS_S_OLD_TOKEN \
              (1ul << (GSS_C_SUPPLEMENTARY_OFFSET + 2))
     #define GSS_S_UNSEQ_TOKEN \
              (1ul << (GSS_C_SUPPLEMENTARY_OFFSET + 3))
     #define GSS_S_GAP_TOKEN \
              (1ul << (GSS_C_SUPPLEMENTARY_OFFSET + 4))
     
     /*
      * Finally, function prototypes for the GSS-API routines.
      */
     
     OM_uint32 gss_acquire_cred
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /*  minor_status */
                    const gss_name_t,       /* desired_name */
                    OM_uint32,              /* time_req */
                    const gss_OID_set,      /* desired_mechs */
                    gss_cred_usage_t,       /* cred_usage */
                    gss_cred_id_t ,         /* output_cred_handle */
                    gss_OID_set ,           /* actual_mechs */
                    OM_uint32 *             /* time_rec */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_release_cred
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    gss_cred_id_t *         /* cred_handle */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_init_sec_context
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_cred_id_t,    /* initiator_cred_handle */
                    gss_ctx_id_t ,          /* context_handle */
                    const gss_name_t,       /* target_name */
                    const gss_OID,          /* mech_type */
                    OM_uint32,              /* req_flags */
                    OM_uint32,              /* time_req */
                    const gss_channel_bindings_t,
                                            /* input_chan_bindings */
                    const gss_buffer_t,     /* input_token */
                    gss_OID ,               /* actual_mech_type */
                    gss_buffer_t,           /* output_token */
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* ret_flags */
                    OM_uint32 *             /* time_rec */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_accept_sec_context
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    gss_ctx_id_t ,          /* context_handle */
                    const gss_cred_id_t,    /* acceptor_cred_handle */
                    const gss_buffer_t,     /* input_token_buffer */
                    const gss_channel_bindings_t,
                                            /* input_chan_bindings */
                    gss_name_t ,            /* src_name */
                    gss_OID ,               /* mech_type */
                    gss_buffer_t,           /* output_token */
     
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                    OM_uint32 ,             /* ret_flags */
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* time_rec */
                    gss_cred_id_t *         /* delegated_cred_handle */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_process_context_token
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_ctx_id_t,     /* context_handle */
                    const gss_buffer_t      /* token_buffer */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_delete_sec_context
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    gss_ctx_id_t ,          /* context_handle */
                    gss_buffer_t            /* output_token */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_context_time
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_ctx_id_t,     /* context_handle */
                    OM_uint32 *             /* time_rec */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_get_mic
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_ctx_id_t,     /* context_handle */
                    gss_qop_t,              /* qop_req */
                    const gss_buffer_t,     /* message_buffer */
                    gss_buffer_t            /* message_token */
                   );
     
     
     OM_uint32 gss_verify_mic
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_ctx_id_t,     /* context_handle */
                    const gss_buffer_t,     /* message_buffer */
                    const gss_buffer_t,     /* token_buffer */
                    gss_qop_t *             /* qop_state */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_wrap
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_ctx_id_t,     /* context_handle */
                    int,                    /* conf_req_flag */
                    gss_qop_t,              /* qop_req */
                    const gss_buffer_t,     /* input_message_buffer */
                    int ,                   /* conf_state */
                    gss_buffer_t            /* output_message_buffer */
                   );
     
     
     OM_uint32 gss_unwrap
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_ctx_id_t,     /* context_handle */
                    const gss_buffer_t,     /* input_message_buffer */
     
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                    gss_buffer_t,           /* output_message_buffer */
                    int ,                   /* conf_state */
                    gss_qop_t *             /* qop_state */
                   );
     
     
     
     OM_uint32 gss_display_status
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    OM_uint32,              /* status_value */
                    int,                    /* status_type */
                    const gss_OID,          /* mech_type */
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* message_context */
                    gss_buffer_t            /* status_string */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_indicate_mechs
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    gss_OID_set *           /* mech_set */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_compare_name
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_name_t,       /* name1 */
                    const gss_name_t,       /* name2 */
                    int *                   /* name_equal */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_display_name
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_name_t,       /* input_name */
                    gss_buffer_t,           /* output_name_buffer */
                    gss_OID *               /* output_name_type */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_import_name
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_buffer_t,     /* input_name_buffer */
                    const gss_OID,          /* input_name_type */
                    gss_name_t *            /* output_name */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_export_name
                   (OM_uint32,              /* minor_status */
                    const gss_name_t,       /* input_name */
                    gss_buffer_t            /* exported_name */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_release_name
                   (OM_uint32 *,            /* minor_status */
                    gss_name_t *            /* input_name */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_release_buffer
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
     
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                    gss_buffer_t            /* buffer */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_release_oid_set
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    gss_OID_set *           /* set */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_inquire_cred
                   (OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_cred_id_t,    /* cred_handle */
                    gss_name_t ,            /* name */
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* lifetime */
                    gss_cred_usage_t ,      /* cred_usage */
                    gss_OID_set *           /* mechanisms */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_inquire_context (
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_ctx_id_t,     /* context_handle */
                    gss_name_t ,            /* src_name */
                    gss_name_t ,            /* targ_name */
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* lifetime_rec */
                    gss_OID ,               /* mech_type */
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* ctx_flags */
                    int ,                   /* locally_initiated */
                    int *                   /* open */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_wrap_size_limit (
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_ctx_id_t,     /* context_handle */
                    int,                    /* conf_req_flag */
                    gss_qop_t,              /* qop_req */
                    OM_uint32,              /* req_output_size */
                    OM_uint32 *             /* max_input_size */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_add_cred (
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_cred_id_t,    /* input_cred_handle */
                    const gss_name_t,       /* desired_name */
                    const gss_OID,          /* desired_mech */
                    gss_cred_usage_t,       /* cred_usage */
                    OM_uint32,              /* initiator_time_req */
                    OM_uint32,              /* acceptor_time_req */
                    gss_cred_id_t ,         /* output_cred_handle */
                    gss_OID_set ,           /* actual_mechs */
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* initiator_time_rec */
                    OM_uint32 *             /* acceptor_time_rec */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_inquire_cred_by_mech (
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_cred_id_t,    /* cred_handle */
     
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                    const gss_OID,          /* mech_type */
                    gss_name_t ,            /* name */
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* initiator_lifetime */
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* acceptor_lifetime */
                    gss_cred_usage_t *      /* cred_usage */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_export_sec_context (
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    gss_ctx_id_t ,          /* context_handle */
                    gss_buffer_t            /* interprocess_token */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_import_sec_context (
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_buffer_t,     /* interprocess_token */
                    gss_ctx_id_t *          /* context_handle */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_create_empty_oid_set (
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    gss_OID_set *           /* oid_set */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_add_oid_set_member (
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_OID,          /* member_oid */
                    gss_OID_set *           /* oid_set */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_test_oid_set_member (
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_OID,          /* member */
                    const gss_OID_set,      /* set */
                    int *                   /* present */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_inquire_names_for_mech (
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_OID,          /* mechanism */
                    gss_OID_set *           /* name_types */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_inquire_mechs_for_name (
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_name_t,       /* input_name */
                    gss_OID_set *           /* mech_types */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_canonicalize_name (
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_name_t,       /* input_name */
                    const gss_OID,          /* mech_type */
                    gss_name_t *            /* output_name */
                   );
     
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     OM_uint32 gss_duplicate_name (
                    OM_uint32 ,             /* minor_status */
                    const gss_name_t,       /* src_name */
                    gss_name_t *            /* dest_name */
                   );
     
     /*
      * The following routines are obsolete variants of gss_get_mic,
      * gss_verify_mic, gss_wrap and gss_unwrap.  They should be
      * provided by GSS-API V2 implementations for backwards
      * compatibility with V1 applications.  Distinct entrypoints
      * (as opposed to #defines) should be provided, both to allow
      * GSS-API V1 applications to link against GSS-API V2
     implementations,
      * and to retain the slight parameter type differences between the
      * obsolete versions of these routines and their current forms.
      */
     
     OM_uint32 gss_sign
                   (OM_uint32 ,        /* minor_status */
                    gss_ctx_id_t,      /* context_handle */
                    int,               /* qop_req */
                    gss_buffer_t,      /* message_buffer */
                    gss_buffer_t       /* message_token */
                   );
     
     
     OM_uint32 gss_verify
                   (OM_uint32 ,        /* minor_status */
                    gss_ctx_id_t,      /* context_handle */
                    gss_buffer_t,      /* message_buffer */
                    gss_buffer_t,      /* token_buffer */
                    int *              /* qop_state */
                   );
     
     OM_uint32 gss_seal
                   (OM_uint32 ,        /* minor_status */
                    gss_ctx_id_t,      /* context_handle */
                    int,               /* conf_req_flag */
                    int,               /* qop_req */
                    gss_buffer_t,      /* input_message_buffer */
                    int ,              /* conf_state */
                    gss_buffer_t       /* output_message_buffer */
                   );
     
     
     OM_uint32 gss_unseal
                   (OM_uint32 ,        /* minor_status */
                    gss_ctx_id_t,      /* context_handle */
                    gss_buffer_t,      /* input_message_buffer */
                    gss_buffer_t,      /* output_message_buffer */
                    int ,              /* conf_state */
                    int *              /* qop_state */
                   );
     
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     #endif /* GSSAPI_H_ */
     
     
     
     
     
     APPENDIX B. Additional constraints for application binary portability
     
     The purpose of this C-bindings document is to encourage source-level
     portability of applications across GSS-API implementations on
     different platforms and atop different mechanisms.  Additional goals
     that have not been explicitly addressed by this document are
     link-time and run-time portability.
     
     Link-time portability provides the ability to compile an application
     against one implementation of GSS-API, and then link it against a
     different implementation on the same platform.  It is a stricter
     requirement than source-level portability.
     
     Run-time portability differs from link-time portability only on those
     platforms that implement dynamically loadable GSS-API
     implementations, but do not offer load-time symbol resolution. On
     such platforms, run-time portability is a stricter requirement than
     link-time portability, and will typically include the precise
     placement of the various GSS-API routines within library entrypoint
     vectors.
     
     Individual platforms will impose their own rules that must be
     followed to achieve link-time (and run-time, if different)
     portability.  In order to ensure either form of binary portability,
     an ABI specification must be written for GSS-API implementations on
     that platform.  However, it is recognized that there are some issues
     that are likely to be common to all such ABI specifications. This
     appendix is intended to be a repository for such common issues, and
     contains some suggestions that individual ABI specifications may
     choose to reference. Since machine architectures vary greatly, it may
     not be possible or desirable to follow these suggestions on all
     platforms.
     
     
     B.1. Pointers
     
     While ANSI-C provides a single pointer type for each declared type,
     plus a single (void *) type, some platforms (notably those using
     segmented memory architectures) augment this with various modified
     pointer types (e.g. far pointers, near pointers). These language
     bindings assume ANSI-C, and thus do not address such non-standard
     implementations.  GSS-API implementations for such platforms must
     choose an appropriate memory model, and should use it consistently
     throughout.  For example, if a memory model is chosen that requires
     the use of far pointers when passing routine parameters, then far
     
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     pointers should also be used within the structures defined by
     GSS-API.
     
     
     B.2. Internal structure alignment
     
     GSS-API defines several data-structures containing differently-sized
     fields.  An ABI specification should include a detailed description
     of how the fields of such structures are aligned, and if there is any
     internal padding in these data structures.  The use of compiler
     defaults for the platform is recommended.
     
     
     B.3. Handle types
     
     The C bindings specify that the gss_cred_id_t and gss_ctx_id_t types
     should be implemented as either pointer or arithmetic types, and that
     if pointer types are used, care should be taken to ensure that two
     handles may be compared with the == operator. Note that ANSI-C does
     not guarantee that two pointer values may be compared with the ==
     operator unless either the two pointers point to members of a single
     array, or at least one of the pointers contains a NULL value.
     
     For binary portability, additional constraints are required. The
     following is an attempt at defining platform-independent constraints.
     
     The size of the handle type must be the same as sizeof(void *), using
     the appropriate memory model.
     
     The == operator for the chosen type must be a simple bit-wise
     comparison.  That is, for two in-memory handle objects h1 and h2, the
     boolean value of the expression
     
        (h1 == h2)
     
     should always be the same as the boolean value of the expression
     
        (memcmp(&h1, &h2, sizeof(h1)) == 0)
     
     The actual use of the type (void *) for handle types is discouraged,
     not for binary portability reasons, but since it effectively disables
     much of the compile-time type-checking that the compiler can
     otherwise perform, and is therefore not "programmer-friendly".  If a
     pointer implementation is desired, and if the platform's
     implementation of pointers permits, the handles should be implemented
     as pointers to distinct implementation-defined types.
     
     
     B.4. The gss_name_t type
     
     The gss_name_t type, representing the internal name object, should be
     implemented as a pointer type.  The use of the (void *) type is
     discouraged as it does not allow the compiler to perform strong
     type-checking.  However, the pointer type chosen should be of the
     same size as the (void *) type.  Provided this rule is obeyed, ABI
     
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     specifications need not further constrain the implementation of
     gss_name_t objects.
     
     
     B.5. The int and size_t types
     
     Some platforms may support differently sized implementations of the
     "int" and "size_t" types, perhaps chosen through compiler switches,
     and perhaps dependent on memory model.  An ABI specification for such
     a platform should include required implementations for these types.
     It is recommended that the default implementation (for the chosen
     memory model, if appropriate) is chosen.
     
     
     B.6. Procedure-calling conventions
     
     Some platforms support a variety of different binary conventions for
     calling procedures.  Such conventions cover things like the format of
     the stack frame, the order in which the routine parameters are pushed
     onto the stack, whether or not a parameter count is pushed onto the
     stack, whether some argument(s) or return values are to be passed in
     registers, and whether the called routine or the caller is
     responsible for removing the stack frame on return.  For such
     platforms, an ABI specification should specify which calling
     convention is to be used for GSS-API implementations.
     
     
     REFERENCES
     
     [GSSAPI]    J. Linn, "Generic Security Service
                 Application Program Interface, Version 2",
                 RFC2078.
     
     [XOM]       OSI Object Management API Specification,
                 Version 2.0 t", X.400 API Association &
                 X/Open Company Limited, August 24, 1990
                 Specification of datatypes and routines for
                 manipulating information objects.
     
     
     AUTHOR'S ADDRESS
     
     John Wray                       Internet email: John_Wray@Iris.com
     Iris Associates                         Telephone: +1-978-392-6689
     5 Technology Park Drive,
     Westford, MA  01886
     USA
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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