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Network Working Group                                           J. Myers
Internet Draft                                   Netscape Communications
Document: draft-ietf-cat-sasl-gssapi-05.txt                     May 2001


                         SASL GSSAPI mechanisms

Status of this Memo

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   Drafts.

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   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   A revised version of this draft document will be submitted to the RFC
   editor as a Proposed Standard for the Internet Community.  Discussion
   and suggestions for improvement are requested.

   NOTE TO RFC EDITOR: Prior to publication as an RFC, the RFC Editor is
   directed to replace occurrences of "[THIS-DOC]" with the RFC number
   assigned to this document.
















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1.    Abstract

   The Simple Authentication and Security Layer [SASL] is a method for
   adding authentication support to connection-based protocols.  This
   document describes the method for using the Generic Security Service
   Application Program Interface [GSSAPI] in the Simple Authentication
   and Security Layer [SASL].

   This document replaces section 7.2 of RFC 2222 [SASL], the definition
   of the "GSSAPI" SASL mechanism.

2.    Conventions Used in this Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", and "MAY"
   in this document are to be interpreted as defined in "Key words for
   use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels" [KEYWORDS].

3.    Introduction and Overview

   Each and every GSSAPI mechanism used within SASL is implicitly
   registered by this specification.

   For backwards compatibility with existing implementations of Kerberos
   V5 and SPNEGO under SASL, the SASL mechanism name for the Kerberos V5
   GSSAPI mechanism [GSSAPI-KERBEROS] is "GSSAPI" and the SASL mechanism
   for the SPNEGO GSSAPI mechanism [SPNEGO] is "GSS-SPNEGO".  The SASL
   mechanism name for any other GSSAPI mechanism is the concatenation of
   "GSS-" and the Base32 encoding of the first ten bytes of the MD5 hash
   [MD5] of the ASN.1 DER encoding [ASN1] of the GSSAPI mechanism's OID.
   Base32 encoding is described later in this document.  The Base32
   rules on padding characters and characters outside of the base32
   alphabet are not relevant to this use of Base32.

   SASL mechanism names starting with "GSS-" are reserved for SASL
   mechanisms which conform to this document.

   The specification of all SASL mechanisms conforming to this document
   is in the "Specification common to all GSSAPI mechanisms" section of
   this document.

   The IESG is considered to be the owner of all SASL mechanisms which
   conform to this document.  This does NOT necessarily imply that the
   IESG is considered to be the owner of the underlying GSSAPI
   mechanism.







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3.1   Example

   The OID for the SPKM-1 mechanism [SPKM] is 1.3.6.1.5.5.1.  The ASN.1
   DER encoding of this OID is 06 06 2b 06 01 05 05 01.  The MD5 hash of
   the ASN.1 DER encoding is 57 ee 81 82 4e ac 4d b0 e6 50 9f 60 1f 46
   8a 30.  The Base32 encoding of the first ten bytes of this is
   "K7XIDASOVRG3BZSQ".  Thus the SASL mechanism name for the SPKM-1
   GSSAPI mechanism is "GSS-K7XIDASOVRG3BZSQ".

4.    SPNEGO

   Use of the Simple and Protected GSS-API Negotiation Mechanism
   [SPNEGO] underneath SASL introduces subtle interoperability problems
   and security considerations.  To address these, this section places
   additional requirements on implementations which support SPNEGO
   underneath SASL.

   A client which supports, for example, the Kerberos V5 GSSAPI
   mechanism only underneath SPNEGO underneath the "GSS-SPNEGO" SASL
   mechanism will not interoperate with a server which supports the
   Kerberos V5 GSSAPI mechanism only underneath the "GSSAPI" SASL
   mechanism.

   Since SASL is capable of negotiating amongst GSSAPI mechanisms, the
   only reason for a server or client to support the "GSS-SPNEGO"
   mechanism is to allow a policy of only using mechanisms below a
   certain strength if those mechanism's negotiation is protected.  In
   such a case, a client or server would only want to negotiate those
   weaker mechanisms through SPNEGO.  In any case, there is no down-
   negotiation security consideration with using the strongest mechanism
   and set of options the implementation supports, so for
   interoperability that mechanism and set of options MUST be negotiable
   without using the "GSS-SPNEGO" mechanism.

   If a client's policy is to first prefer GSSAPI mechanism X, then
   non-GSSAPI mechanism Y, then GSSAPI mechanism Z, and if a server
   supports mechanisms Y and Z but not X, then if the client attempts to
   negotiate mechanism X by using the "GSS-SPNEGO" SASL mechanism, it
   may end up using mechanism Z when it should have used mechanism Y.
   For this reason, implementations MUST exclude from SPNEGO those
   GSSAPI mechanisms which are weaker than the strongest non-GSSAPI SASL
   mechanism advertised by the server.

5.    Base32 encoding

   The Base32 encoding is designed to represent arbitrary sequences of
   octets in a form that needs to be case insensitive but need not be
   humanly readable.



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   A 33-character subset of US-ASCII is used, enabling 5 bits to be
   represented per printable character. (The extra 33rd character, "=",
   is used to signify a special processing function.)

   The encoding process represents 40-bit groups of input bits as output
   strings of 8 encoded characters.  Proceeding from left to right, a
   40-bit input group is formed by concatenating 5 8bit input groups.
   These 40 bits are then treated as 8 concatenated 5-bit groups, each
   of which is translated into a single digit in the base32 alphabet.
   When encoding a bit stream via the base32 encoding, the bit stream
   must be presumed to be ordered with the most-significant-bit first.
   That is, the first bit in the stream will be the high-order bit in
   the first 8bit byte, and the eighth bit will be the low-order bit in
   the first 8bit byte, and so on.

   Each 5-bit group is used as an index into an array of 32 printable
   characters.  The character referenced by the index is placed in the
   output string.  These characters, identified in Table 1, below, are
   selected from US-ASCII digits and uppercase letters.

                       Table 1: The Base32 Alphabet

        Value Encoding  Value Encoding  Value Encoding  Value Encoding
            0 A             9 J            18 S            27 3
            1 B            10 K            19 T            28 4
            2 C            11 L            20 U            29 5
            3 D            12 M            21 V            30 6
            4 E            13 N            22 W            31 7
            5 F            14 O            23 X
            6 G            15 P            24 Y         (pad) =
            7 H            16 Q            25 Z
            8 I            17 R            26 2

   Special processing is performed if fewer than 40 bits are available
   at the end of the data being encoded.  A full encoding quantum is
   always completed at the end of a body.  When fewer than 40 input bits
   are available in an input group, zero bits are added (on the right)
   to form an integral number of 5-bit groups.  Padding at the end of
   the data is performed using the "=" character.  Since all base32
   input is an integral number of octets, only the following cases can
   arise: (1) the final quantum of encoding input is an integral
   multiple of 40 bits; here, the final unit of encoded output will be
   an integral multiple of 8 characters with no "=" padding, (2) the
   final quantum of encoding input is exactly 8 bits; here, the final
   unit of encoded output will be two characters followed by six "="
   padding characters, (3) the final quantum of encoding input is
   exactly 16 bits; here, the final unit of encoded output will be four
   characters followed by four "=" padding characters, (4) the final



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   quantum of encoding input is exactly 24 bits; here, the final unit of
   encoded output will be five characters followed by three "=" padding
   characters, or (5) the final quantum of encoding input is exactly 32
   bits; here, the final unit of encoded output will be seven characters
   followed by one "=" padding character.

   Because it is used only for padding at the end of the data, the
   occurrence of any "=" characters may be taken as evidence that the
   end of the data has been reached (without truncation in transit).  No
   such assurance is possible, however, when the number of octets
   transmitted was a multiple of 8 and no "=" characters are present.

   Any characters outside of the base32 alphabet are to be ignored in
   base32-encoded data.

6.    Specification common to all GSSAPI mechanisms

   Each SASL mechanism which uses a GSSAPI mechanism uses the following
   specification.

   The implementation MAY set any GSSAPI flags or arguments not
   mentioned in this specification as is necessary for the
   implementation to enforce its security policy.

6.1.  Client side of authentication protocol exchange

   The client calls GSS_Init_sec_context, passing in
   input_context_handle of 0 (initially), mech_type of the GSSAPI
   mechanism for which this SASL mechanism is registered, chan_binding
   of NULL, and targ_name equal to output_name from GSS_Import_Name
   called with input_name_type of GSS_C_NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE and
   input_name_string of "service@hostname" where "service" is the
   service name specified in the protocol's profile, and "hostname" is
   the fully qualified host name of the server.  If the client will be
   requesting a security layer, it MUST also supply to the
   GSS_Init_sec_context a mutual_req_flag of TRUE, a sequence_req_flag
   of TRUE, and an integ_req_flag of TRUE.  If the client will be
   requesting a security layer providing confidentiality protection, it
   MUST also supply to the GSS_Init_sec_context a conf_req_flag of TRUE.
   The client then responds with the resulting output_token.  If
   GSS_Init_sec_context returns GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED, then the client
   should expect the server to issue a token in a subsequent challenge.
   The client must pass the token to another call to
   GSS_Init_sec_context, repeating the actions in this paragraph.

   When GSS_Init_sec_context returns GSS_S_COMPLETE, the client examines
   the context to ensure that it provides a level of protection
   permitted by the client's security policy.  If the context is



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   acceptable, the client takes the following actions: If the last call
   to GSS_Init_sec_context returned an output_token, then the client
   responds with the output_token, otherwise the client responds with no
   data.  The client should then expect the server to issue a token in a
   subsequent challenge.  The client passes this token to GSS_Unwrap and
   interprets the first octet of resulting cleartext as a bit-mask
   specifying the security layers supported by the server and the second
   through fourth octets as the network byte order maximum size
   output_message to send to the server (if the resulting cleartext is
   not 4 octets long, the client fails the negotiation).  The client
   then constructs data, with the first octet containing the bit-mask
   specifying the selected security layer, the second through fourth
   octets containing in network byte order the maximum size
   output_message the client is able to receive, and the remaining
   octets containing the UTF-8 encoded [UTF8] authorization identity.
   The authorization identity is not NUL-terminated.  The client passes
   the data to GSS_Wrap with conf_flag set to FALSE, and responds with
   the generated output_message.  The client can then consider the
   server authenticated.

6.2.  Server side of authentication protocol exchange

   The server passes the initial client response to
   GSS_Accept_sec_context as input_token, setting input_context_handle
   to 0 (initially), mech_type of the GSSAPI mechanism for which this
   SASL mechanism is registered, chan_binding of NULL, and
   acceptor_cred_handle equal to output_cred_handle from
   GSS_Acquire_cred called with desired_name equal to output_name from
   GSS_Import_name with input_name_type of GSS_C_NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE
   and input_name_string of "service@hostname" where "service" is the
   service name specified in the protocol's profile, and "hostname" is
   the fully qualified host name of the server.  If
   GSS_Accept_sec_context returns GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED, the server
   returns the generated output_token to the client in challenge and
   passes the resulting response to another call to
   GSS_Accept_sec_context, repeating the actions in this paragraph.

   When GSS_Accept_sec_context returns GSS_S_COMPLETE, the server
   examines the context to ensure that it provides a level of protection
   permitted by the server's security policy.  If the context is
   acceptable, the server takes the following actions: If the last call
   to GSS_Accept_sec_context returned an output_token, the server
   returns it to the client in a challenge and expects a reply from the
   client with no data.  Whether or not an output_token was returned
   (and after receipt of any response from the client to such an
   output_token), the server then constructs 4 octets of data, with the
   first octet containing a bit-mask specifying the security layers
   supported by the server and the second through fourth octets



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   containing in network byte order the maximum size output_token the
   server is able to receive.  The server must then pass the plaintext
   to GSS_Wrap with conf_flag set to FALSE and issue the generated
   output_message to the client in a challenge.  The server must then
   pass the resulting response to GSS_Unwrap and interpret the first
   octet of resulting cleartext as the bit-mask for the selected
   security layer, the second through fourth octets as the network byte
   order maximum size output_message to send to the client, and the
   remaining octets as the authorization identity.  The server must
   verify that the src_name is authorized to authenticate as the
   authorization identity.  After these verifications, the
   authentication process is complete.

6.3.  Security layer

   The security layers and their corresponding bit-masks are as follows:

      1 No security layer
      2 Integrity protection.
        Sender calls GSS_Wrap with conf_flag set to FALSE
      4 Confidentiality protection.
        Sender calls GSS_Wrap with conf_flag set to TRUE

   Other bit-masks may be defined in the future; bits which are not
   understood must be negotiated off.

   Note that SASL negotiates the maximum size of the output_message to
   send.  Implementations can use the GSS_Wrap_size_limit call to
   determine the corresponding maximum size input_message.

7.    IANA Considerations

   The IANA is advised that SASL mechanism names starting with "GSS-"
   are reserved for SASL mechanisms which conform to this document.  The
   IANA is directed to place a statement to that effect in the sasl-
   mechanisms registry.

   The IANA is directed to modify the existing registration for "GSSAPI"
   in the "sasl-mechanisms" so that RFC [THIS-DOC] is listed as the
   published specification.  Add the descriptive text "This mechanism is
   for the Kerberos V5 mechanism of GSSAPI.  Other GSSAPI mechanisms use
   other SASL mechanism names, as described in this mechanism's
   published specification."

   The IANA is directed to modify the existing registration for "GSS-
   SPNEGO" as follows.

   SASL mechanism name: GSS-SPNEGO



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   Security considerations: See the "SPNEGO" section of RFC [THIS-DOC].

   Published Specification: RFC [THIS-DOC]

   Intended usage: LIMITED USE

   Author/Change controller: iesg@ietf.org












































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8.    References

   [ASN1] ISO/IEC 8824, "Specification of Abstract Syntax Notation One
   (ASN.1)"

   [GSSAPI] Linn, J., "Generic Security Service Application Program
   Interface Version 2, Update 1", RFC 2743, January 2000

   [GSSAPI-KERBEROS] Linn, J., "The Kerberos Version 5 GSS-API
   Mechanism", RFC 1964, June 1996

   [IMAP4] Crispin, M., "Internet Message Access Protocol - Version 4",
   RFC 1730, University of Washington, December 1994.

   [KEYWORDS] Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
   Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997

   [MD5] Rivest, R., "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm", RFC 1321, April
   1992

   [SASL] Myers, J., "Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL)",
   RFC 2222, October 1997

   [SPKM] Adams, C., "The Simple Public-Key GSS-API Mechanism (SPKM)",
   RFC 2025, October 1996

   [SPNEGO] Baize, E., Pinkas., D., "The Simple and Protected GSS-API
   Negotiation Mechanism", RFC 2478, December 1998

   [UTF8] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646",
   RFC 2279, January 1998

9.    Security Considerations

   Security issues are discussed throughout this memo.

   When a server or client supports multiple authentication mechanisms,
   each of which has a different security strength, it is possible for
   an active attacker to cause a party to use the least secure mechanism
   supported.  To protect against this sort of attack, a client or
   server which supports mechanisms of different strengths should have a
   configurable minimum strength that it will use.  It is not sufficient
   for this minimum strength check to only be on the server, since an
   active attacker can change which mechanisms the client sees as being
   supported, causing the client to send authentication credentials for
   its weakest supported mechanism.

   The client's selection of a SASL mechanism is done in the clear and



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   may be modified by an active attacker.  It is important for any new
   SASL mechanisms to be designed such that an active attacker cannot
   obtain an authentication with weaker security properties by modifying
   the SASL mechanism name and/or the challenges and responses.

   SPNEGO [SPNEGO] has protection against many of these down-negotiation
   attacks, SASL does not itself have such protection.  The section
   titled "SPNEGO" mentions considerations of choosing negotiation
   through SASL versus SPNEGO.

   The integrity protection provided by the security layer is useless to
   the client unless the client also requests mutual authentication.
   Therefore, a client wishing to benefit from the integrity protection
   of a security layer MUST pass to the GSS_Init_sec_context call a
   mutual_req_flag of TRUE.

   Additional security considerations are in the SASL [SASL] and GSSAPI
   [GSSAPI] specifications.

10.   Author's Address

   John G. Myers
   Netscape Communications
   501 E. Middlefield Road
   Mail Stop SCA 15:201
   Mountain View, CA 94043-4042

   Email: jgmyers@netscape.com























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Appendix A. Sample code

   The following is an example program which converts mechanism OIDs (of
   the form "1.3.6.1.5.5.1") to SASL mechanism names.  This sample
   program uses the reference MD5 implementation in [MD5].

   #include <stdio.h>
   #include "md5.h"

   static const
   struct compat_map {
       const unsigned char oid[15];
       const char *saslname;
   } compat_map[] = {
       { { 0x06, 0x05, 0x2b, 0x05, 0x01, 0x05, 0x02 }, "GSSAPI" },
       { { 0x06, 0x09, 0x2a, 0x86, 0x48, 0x86, 0xf7, 0x12, 0x01, 0x02, 0x02 },
         "GSSAPI" }, /* old Kerberos V5 OID */
       { { 0x06, 0x06, 0x2b, 0x06, 0x01, 0x05, 0x05, 0x02 }, "GSS-SPNEGO" },
   };

   static unsigned long parsenum(char **ptr)
   {
       unsigned long rval = 0;
       while (**ptr >= '0' && **ptr <= '9') {
           rval = rval * 10 + *(*ptr)++ - '0';
       }
       return rval;
   }

   static void asn1encode(unsigned long val, unsigned char **buf)
   {
       unsigned long tmpval;
       int noctets = 1;
       for (tmpval = val; tmpval >= 128; tmpval >>= 7) noctets++;
       while (--noctets) {
           *(*buf)++ = ((val >> (7 * noctets)) & 0x7f) | 0x80;
       }
       *(*buf)++ = val & 0x7f;
   }

   static char basis_32[] = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ234567";

   /*
    * Convert the GSSAPI mechanism 'oid' of length 'oidlen', placing
    * the result into 'retbuf', which must be of size 21
    */
   void oidToSaslMech(const unsigned char *oid, unsigned oidlen, char *retbuf)
   {



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       int i;
       MD5_CTX md5ctx;
       unsigned char md5buf[16];
       char *out;
       unsigned char *in;
       unsigned char *p;
       int len;

       /* See if it has a backwards-compatibility SASL mechanism name */
       for (i = 0; i < (sizeof(compat_map) / sizeof(compat_map[0])); i++) {
           if (memcmp(compat_map[i].oid, oid, oidlen) == 0) {
               strcpy(retbuf, compat_map[i].saslname);
               return;
           }
       }

       MD5Init(&md5ctx);
       MD5Update(&md5ctx, (unsigned char *)oid, oidlen);
       MD5Final(md5buf, &md5ctx);

       printf("MD5 hash:            ");
       for (p = md5buf; p < md5buf + 16; p++) {
           printf("%02x ", *p);
       }
       printf("\n");

       in = md5buf;
       strcpy(retbuf, "GSS-");
       out = retbuf + strlen(retbuf);
       len = 10;
       while (len) {
           *out++ = basis_32[in[0] >> 3];
           *out++ = basis_32[((in[0] & 7) << 2) | (in[1] >> 6)];
           *out++ = basis_32[(in[1] & 0x3f) >> 1];
           *out++ = basis_32[((in[1] & 1) << 4) | (in[2] >> 4)];
           *out++ = basis_32[((in[2] & 0xf) << 1) | (in[3] >> 7)];
           *out++ = basis_32[(in[3] & 0x7f) >> 2];
           *out++ = basis_32[((in[3] & 3) << 3) | (in[4] >> 5)];
           *out++ = basis_32[(in[4] & 0x1f)];
           in += 5;
           len -= 5;
       }
       *out++ = '\0';
   }

   main(int argc, char **argv)
   {
       char *oidstr;



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       unsigned long val1, val2;
       unsigned char asn1buf[1024];
       unsigned char *asn1start = asn1buf + 4;
       unsigned char *asn1next = asn1start;
       unsigned char *asn1lennext;
       unsigned char *p;
       MD5_CTX md5ctx;
       unsigned char md5buf[16];
       char saslmechbuf[21];
       int i;

       if (argc != 2) {
           fprintf(stderr, "usage: %s oid\n", argv[0]);
           exit(1);
       }

       oidstr = argv[1];
       val1 = parsenum(&oidstr);
       if (*oidstr++ != '.') goto badoid;
       val2 = parsenum(&oidstr);
       if (*oidstr && *oidstr++ != '.') goto badoid;
       *asn1next++ = val1 * 40 + val2;

       while (*oidstr) {
           val1 = parsenum(&oidstr);
           if (*oidstr && *oidstr++ != '.') goto badoid;

           asn1encode(val1, &asn1next);
       }

       /* Now that we know the length of the OID, generate the tag
        * and length
        */
       asn1lennext = asn1next;
       *asn1lennext++ = 6;
       asn1encode(asn1next - asn1start, &asn1lennext);

       /* Copy tag and length to beginning */
       memcpy(asn1start - (asn1lennext - asn1next), asn1next,
           asn1lennext - asn1next);
       asn1start -= asn1lennext - asn1next;

       printf("ASN.1 DER encoding:  ");
       for (p = asn1start; p < asn1next; p++) {
           printf("%02x ", *p);
       }
       printf("\n");




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       oidToSaslMech(asn1start, asn1next - asn1start, saslmechbuf);
       printf("SASL mechanism name: %s\n", saslmechbuf);

       exit(0);

   badoid:
       fprintf(stderr, "bad oid syntax\n");
       exit(1);
   }










































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                           Table of Contents



Status of this Memo ...............................................    i
1.    Abstract ....................................................    2
2.    Conventions Used in this Document ...........................    2
3.    Introduction and Overview ...................................    2
3.1   Example .....................................................    3
4.    SPNEGO ......................................................    3
5.    Base32 encoding .............................................    3
6.    Specification common to all GSSAPI mechanisms ...............    5
6.1.  Client side of authentication protocol exchange .............    5
6.2.  Server side of authentication protocol exchange .............    6
6.3.  Security layer ..............................................    7
7.    IANA Considerations .........................................    7
8.    References ..................................................    9
9.    Security Considerations .....................................    9
10.   Author's Address ............................................   10
Appendix A. Sample code ...........................................   11




























J. Myers                                                       [Page ii]


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