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Versions: (draft-fedyk-ccamp-uni-extensions) 01 02 03 04 05 draft-ietf-teas-lsp-diversity

   CCAMP Working Group                                        Zafar Ali
   Internet Draft                                        George Swallow
   Intended status: Standard Track                    Clarence Filsfils
   Expires: August 2, 2014                                 Matt Hartley
                                               Gabriele Maria Galimberti
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                             Ori Gerstel
                                                      SDN Solutions Ltd.
                                                            Kenji Kumaki
                                                        KDDI Corporation
                                                          Ruediger Kunze
                                                     Deutsche Telekom AG
                                                           Julien Meuric
                                                   France Telecom Orange
                                                        February 3, 2014
   
       Resource ReserVation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Path
                         Diversity using Exclude Route
   
                     draft-ietf-ccamp-lsp-diversity-03.txt
   
   
   Status of this Memo
   
   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
   
   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 2, 2014.
   
   Copyright Notice
   
   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.
   
   
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   Abstract
   
   RFC 4874 specifies methods by which path exclusions may be
   communicated during RSVP-TE signaling in networks where precise
   explicit paths are not computed by the LSP source node. This
   document specifies signaling for additional route exclusion
   subobjects based on Paths currently existing or expected to exist
   within the network.
   
   Conventions used in this document
   
   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
   
   Table of Contents
   
   1. Introduction ................................................2
   2. RSVP-TE signaling extensions.................................4
         2.1. Terminology..........................................4
         2.2. Path XRO Subobjects..................................5
   2.2.1. IPv4 Point-to-Point Path subobject...................... 5
   2.2.2. IPv6 Point-to-Point Path subobject...................... 8
         2.3. Processing rules for the Path XRO subobjects.........9
         2.4. Path EXRS Subobject.................................12
   3. Security Considerations.....................................13
   4. IANA Considerations.........................................13
         4.1. New XRO subobject types.............................13
         4.2. New EXRS subobject types............................14
         4.3. New RSVP error sub-codes............................14
   5. Acknowledgements............................................14
   6. References..................................................14
         6.1. Normative Reference.................................14
         6.2. Informative References..............................15
   
   1. Introduction
   
      Path diversity is a well-known requirement from Service Providers.
      Such diversity ensures Label-Switched Paths (LSPs) may be
      established without sharing resources, thus greatly reducing the
      probability of simultaneous connection failures.
   
   
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      When a source node has full topological knowledge and is permitted
      to signal an Explicit Route Object, diverse paths can be computed
      locally. However, there are scenarios when path computations are
      performed by remote nodes, thus there is a need for relevant
      diversity requirements to be communicated to those nodes. These
      include (but are not limited to):
   
      .  LSPs with loose hops in the Explicit Route Object (ERO), e.g.
        inter-domain LSPs;
   
      .  Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) User-
        Network Interface (UNI) where path computation may be performed
        by the (server layer) core node [RFC4208].
   
      [RFC4874] introduced a means of specifying nodes and resources to
      be excluded from a route, using the eXclude Route Object (XRO) and
      Explicit Exclusion Route Subobject (EXRS).
   
      [RFC4874] facilitates the calculation of diverse paths for LSPs
      based on known properties of those paths including addresses of
      links and nodes traversed, and Shared Risk Link Groups (SRLGs) of
      traversed links. Employing these mechanisms requires that the
      source node that initiates signaling knows the relevant properties
      of the path(s) from which diversity is desired. However, there are
      circumstances under which this may not be possible or desirable,
      including (but not limited to):
   
      .  Exclusion of a path which does not originate, terminate or
         traverse the source node signaling the diverse LSP, in which
         case the addresses and SRLGs of the path from which diversity
         is required are unknown to the source node.
   
      .  Exclusion of a path which is known to the source node of the
         diverse LSP, however the node has incomplete or no path
         information, e.g. due to policy. In other words, the scenario
         in which the reference path is known by the source / requesting
         node but the properties required to construct an XRO object are
         not fully known. Inter-domain and GMPLS overlay networks can
         present such restrictions.
   
      This document defines procedures that may be used to exclude the
      path taken by a particular LSP, or the paths taken by all LSPs
      belonging to a single tunnel. The diversity requirements
      considered in this document do not require that the paths in
      question belong to the same tunnel or share the same source or
      destination node.
   
   
   
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      If mutually diverse paths are desired for two LSPs belonging to
      different tunnels, it is recommended that they be signaled with
      XRO LSP subobjects referencing each other. The processing rules
      specified in this document cover this case.
   
      The means by which the node calculating or expanding the route of
      the signaled LSP discovers the route of the path(s) from which
      the signaled LSP requires diversity are beyond the scope of this
      document.
   
      This document addresses only the exclusion of point-to-point
      paths. Exclusion of point-to-multipoint paths is beyond the scope
      of this document.
   
   2. RSVP-TE signaling extensions
   
      This section describes the signaling extensions required to
      address the aforementioned requirements. Specifically, this
      document defines a new LSP subobject to be signaled in the
      EXCLUDE_ROUTE object (XRO) and/ or Explicit Exclusion Route
      Subobject (EXRS) defined in [RFC4874]. Inclusion of the LSP
      subobject in any other RSVP object is not defined.
   
   2.1. Terminology
   
      In this document, the following terminology is adopted:
   
      Excluded path: the path from which diversity is required.
   
      Diverse LSP: the LSP being signaled with XRO/ EXRS containing the
      path subobject referencing the excluded path(s).
   
      Processing node: the node performing a path-calculation involving
      exclusion specified in an XRO or EXRS.
   
      Destination node: in the context of an XRO, this is the
      destination of the LSP being signaled. In the context of an EXRS,
      the destination node is the last explicit node to which the loose
      hop is expanded.
   
      Penultimate node: in the context of an XRO, this is the
      penultimate hop of the LSP being signaled. In the context of an
      EXRS, the penultimate node is the penultimate node of the loose
      hop undergoing expansion.
   
   
   
   
   
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   2.2. Path XRO Subobjects
   
      New IPv4 and IPv6 Point-to-Point (P2P) Path XRO subobjects are
      defined by this document as follows.
   
   2.2.1. IPv4 Point-to-Point Path subobject
   
   
   
       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |L|    Type     |     Length    |Attribute Flags|Exclusion Flags|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                 IPv4 tunnel end point address                 |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |          Must Be Zero         |     Tunnel ID                 |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                       Extended Tunnel ID                      |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                   IPv4 tunnel sender address                  |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |          Must Be Zero         |            LSP ID             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   
   
        L:
             The L-flag is used as for the other XRO subobjects defined
             in [RFC4874].
   
             0 indicates that the attribute specified MUST be excluded.
   
             1 indicates that the attribute specified SHOULD be
             avoided.
   
        Type:
   
             IPv4 Point-to-Point Path subobject (to be assigned by IANA;
             suggested value: 36).
   
   
        Length:
   
   
   
   
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            The length contains the total length of the subobject in
            bytes, including the type and length fields. The length is
            always 24.
   
        Attribute Flags:
   
            The Attribute Flags are used to communicate desirable
            attributes of the LSP being signaled. The following flags
            are defined. Each flag acts independently.  Any combination
            of flags is permitted.
   
            0x01 = LSP ID to be ignored
   
               Indicates tunnel level exclusion. Specifically, this
               flag is used to indicate that the lsp-id field of the
               subobject is to be ignored and the exclusion applies to
               any LSP matching the rest of the supplied FEC.
   
            0x02 = Destination node exception
   
               Indicates that exclusion does not apply to the
               destination node of the LSP being signaled.
   
            0x04 = Processing node exception
   
               Indicates that exclusion does not apply to the ERO
               processing node of the LSP being signaled.
   
            0x08 = Penultimate node exception
   
               Indicates that the penultimate node of the LSP being
               signaled MAY be shared with the excluded path even when
               this violates the exclusion flags.
   
               Indicates that exclusion does not apply to the
               penultimate node of the LSP being signaled.
   
        Exclusion Flags
   
             The Exclusion-Flags are used to communicate the desired
             type(s) of exclusion. The following flags are defined.
   
             0x01 = SRLG exclusion
   
   
   
   
   
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                  Indicates that the path of the LSP being signaled is
                  requested to be SRLG diverse from the excluded path
                  specified by the LSP subobject.
   
             0x02 = Node exclusion
   
                  Indicates that the path of the LSP being signaled is
                  requested to be node diverse from the excluded path
                  specified by the LSP subobject.
   
                  (Note: the meaning of this flag may be modified by
                  the value of the Attribute-flags.)
   
             0x04 = Link exclusion
   
                  Indicates that the path of the LSP being signaled is
                  requested to be link diverse from the path specified
                  by the LSP subobject.
   
      The remaining fields are as defined in [RFC3209].
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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   2.2.2. IPv6 Point-to-Point Path subobject
   
   
   
       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |L|    Type     |     Length    |Attribute Flags|Exclusion Flags|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                 IPv6 tunnel end point address                 |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |             IPv6 tunnel end point address (cont.)             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |             IPv6 tunnel end point address (cont.)             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |             IPv6 tunnel end point address (cont.)             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |          Must Be Zero         |     Tunnel ID                 |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                       Extended Tunnel ID                      |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                   Extended Tunnel ID (cont.)                  |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                   Extended Tunnel ID (cont.)                  |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                   Extended Tunnel ID (cont.)                  |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                   IPv4 tunnel sender address                  |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |               IPv4 tunnel sender address (cont.)              |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |               IPv4 tunnel sender address (cont.)              |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |               IPv4 tunnel sender address (cont.)              |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |          Must Be Zero         |            LSP ID             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   
   
        L
             The L-flag is used as for the other XRO subobjects defined
             in [RFC4874].
   
             0 indicates that the attribute specified MUST be excluded.
   
   
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             1 indicates that the attribute specified SHOULD be
             avoided.
   
        Type
   
             IPv6 Point-to-Point Path subobject
                       (to be assigned by IANA; suggested value: 37).
   
   
        Length
   
            The length contains the total length of the subobject in
            bytes, including the type and length fields. The length is
            always 48.
   
      The Attribute Flags and Exclusion Flags are as defined for the
      IPv4 Point-to-Point LSP XRO subobject.
   
      The remaining fields are as defined in [RFC3209].
   
   
   2.3. Processing rules for the Path XRO subobjects
   
      XRO processing as described in [RFC4874] is unchanged.
   
      If the processing node is the destination for the LSP being
      signaled, it SHOULD NOT process a Path XRO subobject.
   
      If the L-flag is not set, the processing node follows the
      following procedure:
   
      -  The processing node MUST ensure that any path calculated for
         the signaled LSP respects the requested exclusion flags with
         respect to the excluded path referenced by the subobject,
         including local resources.
   
      -  If the processing node fails to find a path that meets the
         requested constraint, the processing node MUST return a PathErr
         with the error code "Routing Problem" (24) and error sub-code
         "Route blocked by Exclude Route" (67).
   
      -  If the excluded path referenced in the LSP subobject is
         unknown to the processing node, the processing node SHOULD
         ignore the LSP subobject in the XRO and SHOULD proceed with the
   
   
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         signaling request. After sending the Resv for the signaled LSP,
         the processing node SHOULD return a PathErr with the error code
         "Notify Error" (25) and error sub-code "Route of XRO path
         unknown" (value to be assigned by IANA, suggested value: 13)
         for the signaled LSP.
   
      If the L-flag is set, the processing node follows the procedure
      below:
   
      -  The processing node SHOULD respect the requested exclusion
         flags with respect to the excluded path to the extent possible.
   
      -  If the processing node fails to find a path that meets the
         requested constraint, it SHOULD proceed with signaling using a
         suitable path that meets the constraint as far as possible.
         After sending the Resv for the signaled LSP, it SHOULD return a
         PathErr message with error code "Notify Error" (25) and error
         sub-code "Failed to respect Exclude Route" (value: to be
         assigned by IANA, suggest value: 14) to the source node.
   
      -  If the excluded path referenced in the LSP subobject is
         unknown to the processing node, the processing node SHOULD
         ignore the LSP subobject in the XRO and SHOULD proceed with the
         signaling request. After sending the Resv for signaled LSP, the
         processing node SHOULD return a PathErr message with the error
         code "Notify Error" (25) and error sub-code "Route of XRO path
         unknown" for the signaled LSP.
   
      If, subsequent to the initial signaling of a diverse LSP:
   
      -   an excluded path referenced in the diverse LSP's XRO
         subobject becomes known to the processing node (e.g. when the
         excluded path is signaled), or
   
      -   A change in the excluded path becomes known to the processing
         node,
   
      the processing node SHOULD re-evaluate the exclusion and
      diversity constraints requested by the diverse LSP to determine
      whether they are still satisfied.
   
      -   If the requested exclusion constraints for the diverse LSP
         are no longer satisfied and an alternative path for the diverse
         LSP that can satisfy those constraints exists, the processing
         node SHOULD send a PathErr message for the diverse LSP with the
         error code "Notify Error" (25) and a new error sub-code
         "compliant path exists" (value: to be assigned by IANA, suggest
   
   
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         value: 15). A source node receiving a PathErr message with this
         error code and sub-code combination MAY try to reoptimize the
         diverse tunnel to the new compliant path.
   
      -   If the requested exclusion constraints for the diverse LSP
         are no longer satisfied and no alternative path for the diverse
         LSP that can satisfy those constraints exists, then:
   
           o If the L-flag was not set in the original exclusion, the
              processing node MUST send a PathErr message for the
              diverse LSP with the error code "Routing Problem" (24) and
              error sub-code "Route blocked by Exclude Route" (67). The
              PSR flag SHOULD NOT be set.
   
           o If the L-flag was set in the original exclusion, the
              processing node SHOULD send a PathErr message for the
              diverse LSP with the error code error code "Notify Error"
              (25) and error sub-code "Failed to respect Exclude Route"
              (value: to be assigned by IANA, suggest value: 14).
   
      The following rules apply whether or not the L-flag is set:
   
      -  An XRO object MAY contain multiple path subobjects.
   
      -  A source node receiving a PathErr message with the error code
         "Notify Error" (25) and error sub-codes "Route of XRO path
         unknown" or "Failed to respect Exclude Route" MAY take no
         action.
   
      -  The attribute-flags affect the processing of the XRO subobject
         as follows:
   
           o  When the "LSP ID to be ignored" flag is set, the
             processing node MUST calculate a path based on exclusions
             from the paths of all known LSPs matching the tunnel-id,
             source, destination and extended tunnel-id specified in
             the subobject (i.e., tunnel level exclusion). When this
             flag is not set, the lsp-id is not ignored and the
             exclusion applies only to the specified LSP (i.e., LSP
             level exclusion).
   
           o  When the "destination node exception" flag is not set, the
             exclusion flags SHOULD also be respected for the
             destination node.
   
   
   
   
   
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           o  When the "processing node exception" flag is not set, the
             exclusion flags SHOULD also be respected for the
             processing node.
   
           o  When the "penultimate node exception" flag is not set, the
             exclusion flags SHOULD also be respected for the
             penultimate node.
   
   2.4. Path EXRS Subobject
   
      [RFC4874] defines the EXRS ERO subobject. An EXRS is used to
      identify abstract nodes or resources that must not or should not
      be used on the path between two inclusive abstract nodes or
      resources in the explicit route. An EXRS contains one or more
      subobjects of its own, called EXRS subobjects [RFC4874].
   
      An EXRS MAY include an IPv4 Point-to-Point (P2P) Path subobject
      as specified in section 2.2.1. In this case, the EXRS format
      would be as follows:
   
      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |L|    Type     |     Length    |           Reserved            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |L|    Type     |     Length    |Attribute Flags|Exclusion Flags|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                 IPv4 tunnel end point address                 |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |          Must Be Zero         |     Tunnel ID                 |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                       Extended Tunnel ID                      |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                   IPv4 tunnel sender address                  |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |          Must Be Zero         |            LSP ID             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   
   
      The meanings of respective fields in EXRS header are as defined
      in [RFC4874]. The meanings of respective fields in IPv4 P2P Path
      subobject are as defined earlier in this document.
   
      The processing rules for the EXRS object are unchanged from
      [RFC4874]. When the EXRS contains one or more Path subobject(s),
   
   
   
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      the processing rules specified in Section 2.3 apply to the node
      processing the ERO with the EXRS subobject.
   
      If a loose-hop expansion results in the creation of another
      loose-hop in the outgoing ERO, the processing node MAY include
      the EXRS in the newly-created loose hop for further processing by
      downstream nodes.
   
      The processing node exception for the EXRS subobject applies to
      the node processing the ERO.
   
      The destination node exception for the EXRS subobject applies to
      the explicit node identified by the ERO subobject that identifies
      the next abstract node. This flag is only processed if the L bit
      is set in the ERO subobject that identifies the next abstract
      node.
   
      The penultimate node exception for the EXRS subobject applies to
      the node before the explicit node identified by the ERO subobject
      that identifies the next abstract node. This flag is only
      processed if the L bit is set in the ERO subobject that
      identifies the next abstract node.
   
   3. Security Considerations
   
      This document does not introduce any additional security issues
      above those identified in [RFC5920], [RFC2205], [RFC3209],
      [RFC3473] and [RFC4874].
   
   4. IANA Considerations
   
   4.1. New XRO subobject types
   
      IANA registry: RSVP PARAMETERS
      Subsection: Class Names, Class Numbers, and Class Types
   
      This document introduces two new subobjects for the EXCLUDE_ROUTE
      object [RFC4874], C-Type 1.
   
      Subobject Type
                         Subobject Description
      --------------
                         ---------------------
      To be assigned by IANA                    IPv4 P2P Path subobject
        (suggested value: 36)
      To be assigned by IANA                    IPv6 P2P Path subobject
        (suggested value: 37)
   
   
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   4.2. New EXRS subobject types
   
      The IPv4 and IPv6 P2P Path subobjects are also defined as new
      EXRS subobjects.
   
   4.3. New RSVP error sub-codes
   
      IANA registry: RSVP PARAMETERS
      Subsection: Error Codes and Globally-Defined Error Value Sub-
      Codes
   
      For Error Code "Notify Error" (25) (see [RFC3209]) the following
      sub-codes are defined.
   
         Sub-code                            Value
         --------                            -----
   
         Route of XRO path unknown           To be assigned by IANA.
                                             Suggested Value: 13.
   
         Failed to respect Exclude Route     To be assigned by IANA.
                                             Suggested Value: 14.
   
         Compliant path exists               To be assigned by IANA.
                                             Suggested Value: 15.
   
   5. Acknowledgements
   
      The authors would like to thank Luyuan Fang and Walid Wakim for
      their review comments.
   
   6. References
   
   6.1. Normative References
   
      [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
   
      [RFC3209] Awduche, D., Berger, L., Gan, D., Li, T., Srinivasan,
                V., and G. Swallow, "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for
                LSP Tunnels", RFC 3209, December 2001.
   
   
   
   
   
   
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      [RFC3473] Berger, L., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
                (GMPLS) Signaling Resource ReserVation Protocol-Traffic
                Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions", RFC 3473, January
                2003.
   
      [RFC4874] Lee, CY., Farrel, A., and S. De Cnodder, "Exclude
                Routes - Extension to Resource ReserVation Protocol-
                Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE)", RFC 4874, April 2007.
   
   6.2. Informative References
   
      [RFC4208] Swallow, G., Drake, J., Ishimatsu, H., and Y. Rekhter,
                "Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS)
                User-Network Interface (UNI): Resource ReserVation
                Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Support for the
                Overlay Model", RFC 4208, October 2005.
   
      [RFC2205] Braden, R. (Ed.), Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S. and
                S. Jamin, "Resource ReserVation Protocol -- Version 1
                Functional Specification", RFC 2205, September 1997.
   
      [RFC5920] Fang, L., Ed., "Security Framework for MPLS and GMPLS
                Networks", RFC 5920, July 2010.
   
   
   
   Authors' Addresses
   
      Zafar Ali
      Cisco Systems.
      Email: zali@cisco.com
   
      Clarence Filsfils
      Cisco Systems, Inc.
      cfilsfil@cisco.com
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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      Gabriele Maria Galimberti
      Cisco Systems
      ggalimbe@cisco.com
   
      Ori Gerstel
      SDN Solutions Ltd.
      origerstel@gmail.com
   
      Matt Hartley
      Cisco Systems
      Email: mhartley@cisco.com
   
      Kenji Kumaki
      KDDI Corporation
      Email: ke-kumaki@kddi.com
   
      Rudiger Kunze
      Deutsche Telekom AG
      Ruediger.Kunze@telekom.de
   
      Julien Meuric
      France Telecom Orange
      Email: julien.meuric@orange.com
   
      George Swallow
      Cisco Systems
      swallow@cisco.com
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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