[Docs] [txt|pdf] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: (draft-mwdt-ccamp-fmwk) 00 01 02 03 04 05

CCAMP Working Group                                      J. Ahlberg, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                               Ericsson AB
Intended status: Informational                                M. Ye, Ed.
Expires: July 9, 2018                                Huawei Technologies
                                                                   X. Li
                                                 NEC Laboratories Europe
                                                           LM. Contreras
                                                          Telefonica I+D
                                                           CJ. Bernardos
                                        Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
                                                         January 5, 2018


A framework for Management and Control of microwave and millimeter wave
                          interface parameters
                draft-ietf-ccamp-microwave-framework-05

Abstract

   The unification of control and management of microwave radio link
   interfaces is a precondition for seamless multilayer networking and
   automated network provisioning and operation.

   This document describes the required characteristics and use cases
   for control and management of radio link interface parameters using a
   YANG Data Model.

   The purpose is to create a framework for identification of the
   necessary information elements and definition of a YANG Data Model
   for control and management of the radio link interfaces in a
   microwave node.  Some parts of the resulting model may be generic
   which could also be used by other technologies.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."




Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 1]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 9, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Conventions used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.  Terminology and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Approaches to manage and control radio link interfaces  . . .   7
     3.1.  Network Management Solutions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.2.  Software Defined Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   4.  Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.1.  Configuration Management  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.1.1.  Understand the capabilities and limitations . . . . .   9
       4.1.2.  Initial Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.1.3.  Radio link re-configuration and optimization  . . . .  10
       4.1.4.  Radio link logical configuration  . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.2.  Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.2.1.  Retrieve logical inventory and configuration from
               device  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.2.2.  Retrieve physical/equipment inventory from device . .  10
     4.3.  Status and statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.3.1.  Actual status and performance of a radio link
               interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.4.  Performance management  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.4.1.  Configuration of historical measurements to be
               performed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.4.2.  Collection of historical performance data . . . . . .  11
     4.5.  Fault Management  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.5.1.  Configuration of alarm reporting  . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.5.2.  Alarm management  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.6.  Troubleshooting and Root Cause Analysis . . . . . . . . .  11
   5.  Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   6.  Gap Analysis on Models  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13



Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 2]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


     6.1.  Microwave Radio Link Functionality  . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     6.2.  Generic Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     6.3.  Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   Appendix A.  Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20

1.  Introduction

   Microwave radio is a technology that uses high frequency radio waves
   to provide high speed wireless connections that can send and receive
   voice, video, and data information.  It is a general term used for
   systems covering a very large range of traffic capacities, channel
   separations, modulation formats and applications over a wide range of
   frequency bands from 1 GHz up to and above 100 GHz.

   The main application for microwave is backhaul for mobile broadband.
   Those networks will continue to be modernized using a combination of
   microwave and fiber technologies.  The choice of technology is a
   question about fiber presence and cost of ownership, not about
   capacity limitations in microwave.

   Microwave is already today able to fully support the capacity needs
   of a backhaul in a radio access network and will evolve to support
   multiple gigabits in traditional frequency bands and beyond 10
   gigabits in higher frequency bands with more band width.  L2 packet
   features are normally an integrated part of microwave nodes and more
   advanced L2 and L3 features will over time be introduced to support
   the evolution of the transport services to be provided by a backhaul/
   transport network.  Note that the wireless access technologies such
   as 3/4/5G and Wi-Fi are not within the scope of this microwave model
   work.

   Open and standardized interfaces are a pre-requisite for efficient
   management of equipment from multiple vendors, integrated in a single
   system/controller.  This framework addresses management and control
   of the radio link interface(s) and the relationship to other packet
   interfaces, typically to Ethernet interfaces, in a microwave node.  A
   radio link provides the transport over the air, using one or several
   carriers in aggregated or protected configurations.  Managing and
   controlling a transport service over a microwave node involves both
   radio link and packet functionality.





Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 3]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


   Already today there are numerous IETF data models, RFCs and drafts,
   with technology specific extensions that cover a large part of the
   packet domain.  Examples are IP Management [RFC7277], Routing
   Management [RFC8022] and Provider Bridge [PB-YANG].  They are based
   on the IETF YANG model for Interface Management [RFC7223], which is
   an evolution of the SNMP IF-MIB [RFC2863].

   Since microwave nodes will contain more and more packet functionality
   which is expected to be managed using those models, there are
   advantages if radio link interfaces can be modeled and be managed
   using the same structure and the same approach, specifically for use
   cases in which a microwave node is managed as one common entity
   including both the radio link and the packet functionality, e.g. at
   basic configuration of node and connections, centralized trouble
   shooting, upgrade and maintenance.  All interfaces in a node,
   irrespective of technology, would then be accessed from the same core
   model, i.e. [RFC7223], and could be extended with technology specific
   parameters in models augmenting that core model.  The relationship/
   connectivity between interfaces could be given by the physical
   equipment configuration, e.g. the slot in which the Radio Link
   Terminal (modem) is plugged in could be associated with a specific
   Ethernet port due to the wiring in the backplane of the system, or it
   could be flexible and therefore configured via a management system or
   controller.

   +------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Interface [RFC7223]                                              |
   |                +---------------+                                 |
   |                | Ethernet Port |                                 |
   |                +---------------+                                 |
   |                      \                                           |
   |                    +---------------------+                       |
   |                    | Radio Link Terminal |                       |
   |                    +---------------------+                       |
   |                       /              \                           |
   |     +---------------------+       +---------------------+        |
   |     | Carrier Termination |       | Carrier Termination |        |
   |     +---------------------+       +---------------------+        |
   +------------------------------------------------------------------+

            Figure 1: Relationship between interfaces in a node

   There will always be certain implementations that differ among
   products and it is therefore practically impossible to achieve
   industry consensus on every design detail.  It is therefore important
   to focus on the parameters that are required to support the use cases
   applicable for centralized, unified, multi-vendor management and to
   allow other parameters to be optional or to be covered by extensions



Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 4]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


   to the standardized model.  Furthermore, a standard that allows for a
   certain degree of freedom encourages innovation and competition which
   is something that benefits the entire industry.  It is therefore
   important that a radio link management model covers all relevant
   functions but also leaves room for product/feature-specific
   extensions.

   For microwave radio link functionality work has been initiated (ONF:
   Microwave Modeling [ONF-model], IETF: Radio Link Model
   [I-D.ahlberg-ccamp-microwave-radio-link]).  The purpose of this
   effort is to reach consensus within the industry around one common
   approach, with respect to the use cases and requirements to be
   supported, the type and structure of the model and the resulting
   attributes to be included.  This document describes the use cases and
   requirements agreed to be covered, the expected characteristics of
   the model and at the end includes an analysis of how the models in
   the two on-going initiatives fulfill these expectations and a
   recommendation on what can be reused and what gaps need to be filled
   by a new and evolved radio link model.

1.1.  Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   While [RFC2119] describes interpretations of these key words in terms
   of protocol specifications and implementations, they are used in this
   document to describe high level requirements to be met when defining
   the YANG Data Model for Microwave Radio Link.

   This document does not define any protocol extension, hence only
   RFC2119 can be considered as a normative reference.  However, the
   list of normative references includes a number of documents that can
   be useful for a better understanding of the context.

2.  Terminology and Definitions

   Microwave radio is a term commonly used for technologies that operate
   in both microwave and millimeter wave lengths and in frequency bands
   from 1.4 GHz up to and beyond 100 GHz.  In traditional bands it
   typically supports capacities of 1-3 Gbps and in 70/80 GHz band up to
   10 Gbps.  Using multi-carrier systems operating in frequency bands
   with wider channels, the technology will be capable of providing
   capacities up 100 Gbps.

   The microwave radio technology is widely used for point-to-point
   telecommunications because of its small wavelength that allows



Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 5]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


   conveniently-sized antennas to direct them in narrow beams, and the
   comparatively higher frequencies that allow broad bandwidth and high
   data transmission rates.  It is used for a broad range of fixed and
   mobile services including high-speed, point-to-point wireless local
   area networks (WLANs) and broadband access.

   ETSI EN 302 217 series defines the characteristics and requirements
   of microwave equipment and antennas.  Especially ETSI EN 302 217-2
   [EN302217-2] specifies the essential parameters for the systems
   operating from 1.4GHz to 86GHz.

   Carrier Termination and Radio Link Terminal are two concepts defined
   to support modeling of microwave radio link features and parameters
   in a structured and yet simple manner.

   Carrier Termination is an interface for the capacity provided over
   the air by a single carrier.  It is typically defined by its
   transmitting and receiving frequencies.

   Radio Link Terminal is an interface providing packet capacity and/or
   Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) capacity to the associated Ethernet
   and/or TDM interfaces in a node and used for setting up a transport
   service over a microwave radio link.

   Figure 2 provides a graphical representation of Carrier Termination
   and Radio Link Terminal concepts.

























Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 6]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


                 /--------- Radio Link ---------\
                  Near End              Far End

           +---------------+           +---------------+
           |    Radio Link |           | Radio Link    |
           |      Terminal |           | Terminal      |
           |               |           |               |
           |           (Protected or Bonded)           |
           |               |           |               |
           | +-----------+ |           | +-----------+ |
           | |           | | Carrier A | |           | |
           | |  Carrier  | |<--------->| |  Carrier  | |
           | |Termination| |           | |Termination| |
   Packet--| |           | |           | |           | |--Packet
           | +-----------+ |           | +-----------+ |
    TDM----|               |           |               |----TDM
           | +-----------+ |           | +-----------+ |
           | |           | | Carrier B | |           | |
           | |  Carrier  | |<--------->| |  Carrier  | |
           | |Termination| |           | |Termination| |
           | |           | |           | |           | |
           | +-----------+ |           | +-----------+ |
           |               |           |               |
           +---------------+           +---------------+

     \--- Microwave Node ---/          \--- Microwave Node ---/

           Figure 2: Radio Link Terminal and Carrier Termination

   Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an architecture that decouples
   the network control and forwarding functions enabling the network
   control to become directly programmable and the underlying
   infrastructure to be abstracted for applications and network
   services.  SDN can be used as a term for automation of traditional
   network management, which can be implemented using a similar
   approach.  The adoption of an SDN framework for management and
   control the microwave interface is one of the key applications for
   this work.

3.  Approaches to manage and control radio link interfaces

   This framework addresses the definition of an open and standardized
   interface for the radio link functionality in a microwave node.  The
   application of such an interface used for management and control of
   nodes and networks typically vary from one operator to another, in
   terms of the systems used and how they interact.  A traditional
   solution is network management system, while an emerging one is SDN.
   SDN solutions can be used as part of the network management system,



Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 7]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


   allowing for direct network programmability and automated
   configurability by means of a centralized SDN control and
   standardized interfaces to program the nodes.

3.1.  Network Management Solutions

   The classic network management solutions, with vendor specific domain
   management combined with cross domain functionality for service
   management and analytics, still dominates the market.  These
   solutions are expected to evolve and benefit from an increased focus
   on standardization by simplifying multi-vendor management and remove
   the need for vendor/domain specific management.

3.2.  Software Defined Networking

   One of the main drivers for applying SDN from an operator perspective
   is simplification and automation of network provisioning as well as
   end to end network service management.  The vision is to have a
   global view of the network conditions spanning across different
   vendors' equipment and multiple technologies.

   If nodes from different vendors shall be managed by the same SDN
   controller via a node management interface (north bound interface,
   NBI), without the extra effort of introducing intermediate systems,
   all nodes must align their node management interfaces.  Hence, an
   open and standardized node management interface are required in a
   multi-vendor environment.  Such standardized interface enables a
   unified management and configuration of nodes from different vendors
   by a common set of applications.

   On top of SDN applications to configure, manage and control the nodes
   and their associated transport interfaces including the L2 Ethernet
   and L3 packet interfaces as well as the radio interfaces, there are
   also a large variety of other more advanced SDN applications that can
   be exploited and/or developed.

   A potential flexible approach for the operators is to use SDN in a
   logical control way to manage the radio links by selecting a
   predefined operation mode.  The operation mode is a set of logical
   metrics or parameters describing a complete radio link configuration,
   such as capacity, availability, priority and power consumption.

   An example of an operation mode table is shown in Figure 3.  Based on
   its operation policy (e.g., power consumption or traffic priority),
   the SDN controller selects one operation mode and translates that
   into the required configuration of the individual parameters for the
   radio link terminals and the associated carrier terminations.




Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 8]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


   +----+---------------+------------+-------------+-----------+------+
   | ID |Description    | Capacity   |Availability | Priority  |Power |
   +----+---------------+------------+-------------+-----------+------+
   | 1  |High capacity  |  400 Mbps  | 99.9%       | Low       |High  |
   +----+---------------+------------+-------------+-----------+------+
   | 2  |High avail-    |  100 Mbps  |  99.999%    | High      |Low   |
   |    | ability       |            |             |           |      |
   +----+---------------+------------+-------------+-----------+------+

               Figure 3: Example of an operation mode table

   An operation mode bundles together the values of a set of different
   parameters.  How each operation mode maps into certain set of
   attributes is out of scope of this document.  Effort on a
   standardizing operation mode is required to implement a smoothly
   operator environment.

4.  Use Cases

   The use cases described should be the basis for identification and
   definition of the parameters to be supported by a YANG Data model for
   management of radio links, applicable for centralized, unified,
   multi-vendor management.

   Other product specific use cases, addressing e.g. installation, on-
   site trouble shooting and fault resolution, are outside the scope of
   this framework.  If required, these use cases are expected to be
   supported by product specific extensions to the standardized model.

4.1.  Configuration Management

   Configuration of a radio link terminal, the constituent carrier
   terminations and when applicable the relationship to packet/Ethernet
   and TDM interfaces.

4.1.1.  Understand the capabilities and limitations

   Exchange of information between a manager and a device about the
   capabilities supported and specific limitations in the parameter
   values and enumerations that can be used.

   Support for the XPIC (Cross Polarization Interference Cancellation)
   feature or not and the maximum modulation supported are two examples
   on information that could be exchanged.







Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 9]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


4.1.2.  Initial Configuration

   Initial configuration of a radio link terminal, enough to establish
   L1 connectivity over the hop to an associated radio link terminal on
   a device at far end.  It MAY also include configuration of the
   relationship between a radio link terminal and an associated traffic
   interface, e.g. an Ethernet interface, unless that is given by the
   equipment configuration.

   Frequency, modulation, coding and output power are examples of
   parameters typically configured for a carrier termination and type of
   aggregation/bonding or protection configurations expected for a radio
   link terminal.

4.1.3.  Radio link re-configuration and optimization

   Re-configuration, update or optimization of an existing radio link
   terminal.  Output power and modulation for a carrier termination and
   protection schemas and activation/de-activation of carriers in a
   radio link terminal are examples on parameters that can be re-
   configured and used for optimization of the performance of a network.

4.1.4.  Radio link logical configuration

   Radio link terminals comprising a group of carriers are widely used
   in microwave technology.  There are several kinds of groups:
   aggregation/bonding, 1+1 protection/redundancy, etc.  To avoid
   configuration on each carrier termination directly, a logical control
   provides flexible management by mapping a logical configuration to a
   set of physical attributes.  This could also be applied in a
   hierarchical SDN environment where some domain controllers are
   located between the SDN controller and the radio link terminal.

4.2.  Inventory

4.2.1.  Retrieve logical inventory and configuration from device

   Request from manager and response by device with information about
   radio interfaces, their constitution and configuration.

4.2.2.  Retrieve physical/equipment inventory from device

   Request from manager about physical and/or equipment inventory
   associated with the radio link terminals and carrier terminations.







Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 10]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


4.3.  Status and statistics

4.3.1.  Actual status and performance of a radio link interface

   Manager requests and device responds with information about actual
   status and statistics of configured radio link interfaces and their
   constituent parts.

4.4.  Performance management

4.4.1.  Configuration of historical measurements to be performed

   Configuration of historical measurements to be performed on a radio
   link interface and/or its constituent parts is a subset of the
   configuration use case to be supported.  See Section 4.1 above.

4.4.2.  Collection of historical performance data

   Collection of historical performance data in bulk by the manager is a
   general use case for a device and not specific to a radio link
   interface.

   Collection of an individual counter for a specific interval is in
   same cases required as a complement to the retrieval in bulk as
   described above.

4.5.  Fault Management

4.5.1.  Configuration of alarm reporting

   Configuration of alarm reporting associated specifically with radio
   interfaces, e.g. configuration of alarm severity, is a subset of the
   configuration use case to be supported.  See Section 4.1 above.

4.5.2.  Alarm management

   Alarm synchronization, visualization, handling, notifications and
   events are generic use cases for a device and not specific to a radio
   link interface and should be supported accordingly.

4.6.  Troubleshooting and Root Cause Analysis

   Information and actions required by a manager/operator to investigate
   and understand the underlying issue to a problem in the performance
   and/or functionality of a radio link terminal and the associated
   carrier terminations.





Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 11]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


5.  Requirements

   For managing a microwave node including both the radio link and the
   packet functionality, a unified data model is desired to unify the
   modeling of the radio link interfaces and the packet interfaces using
   the same structure and the same modelling approach.  If some part of
   model is generic for other technology usage, it should be clearly
   stated.

   The purpose of the YANG Data Model is for management and control of
   the radio link interface(s) and the relationship/connectivity to
   other packet interfaces, typically to Ethernet interfaces, in a
   microwave node.

   The capability of configuring and managing microwave nodes includes
   the following requirements for the modelling:

   1.  It MUST be possible to configure, manage and control a radio link
       terminal and the constituent carrier terminations.

       A.  Configuration of frequency, channel bandwidth, modulation,
           coding and transmitter output power MUST be supported for a
           carrier termination.

       B.  A radio link terminal MUST configure the associated carrier
           terminations and the type of aggregation/bonding or
           protection configurations expected for the radio link
           terminal.

       C.  The capability, e.g. the maximum modulation supported, and
           the actual status/statistics, e.g. administrative status of
           the carriers, SHOULD also be supported by the data model.

       D.  The definition of the features and parameters SHOULD be based
           on established microwave equipment and radio standards, such
           as ETSI EN 302 217 [EN302217-2] which specifies the essential
           parameters for microwave systems operating from 1.4GHz to
           86GHz.

   2.  It MUST be possible to map different traffic types (e.g.  TDM,
       Ethernet) to the transport capacity provided by a specific radio
       link terminal.

   3.  It MUST be possible to configure and collect historical
       measurements (for the use case described in section 5.4) to be
       performed on a radio link interface, e.g. minimum, maximum and
       average transmit power and receive level in dBm.




Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 12]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


   4.  It MUST be possible to configure and retrieve alarms reporting
       associated with the radio interfaces, e.g. configuration of alarm
       severity, supported alarms like configuration fault, signal lost,
       modem fault, radio fault.

6.  Gap Analysis on Models

   The purpose of the gap analysis is to identify and recommend what
   existing and established models as well as draft models under
   definition to support the use cases and requirements specified in the
   previous chapters.  It shall also make a recommendation on how the
   gaps not supported should be filled, including the need for
   development of new models and evolution of existing models and
   drafts.

   For microwave radio link functionality work has been initiated (ONF:
   Microwave Modeling [ONF-model], IETF: Radio Link Model
   [I-D.ahlberg-ccamp-microwave-radio-link].  The analysis is expected
   to take these initiatives into consideration and make a
   recommendation on how to make use of them and how to complement them
   in order to fill the gaps identified.

   For generic functionality, not specific for radio link, the ambition
   is to refer to existing or emerging models that could be applicable
   for all functional areas in a microwave node.

6.1.  Microwave Radio Link Functionality

   [ONF-CIM] defines a CoreModel of the ONF Common Information Model.
   An information model describes the things in a domain in terms of
   objects, their properties (represented as attributes), and their
   relationships.  The ONF information model is expressed in Unified
   Modeling Language (UML).  The ONF CoreModel is independent of
   specific data plane technology.  Data plane technology specific
   properties are acquired in a runtime solution via "filled in" cases
   of specification (LtpSpec etc.).  These can be used to augment the
   CoreModel to provide a data plane technology specific representation.

   IETF Data Model defines an implementation and NETCONF-specific
   details.  YANG is a data modeling language used to model the
   configuration and state data.  It is well aligned with the structure
   of the YANG data models proposed for the different packet interfaces
   which are all based on [RFC7223].  Furthermore, several YANG data
   models have been proposed in the IETF for other transport
   technologies such as optical transport; e.g.  [RFC7277],
   [I-D.ietf-ccamp-otn-topo-yang], [I-D.ietf-ospf-yang].  In light of
   this trend, the IETF data model is becoming a popular approach for




Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 13]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


   modeling most packet transport technology interfaces and it is
   thereby well positioned to become an industry standard.

   [RFC3444] explains the difference between Information Model(IM) and
   Data Models(DM).  IM is to model managed objects at a conceptual
   level for designers and operators, DM is defined at a lower level and
   includes many details for implementers.  In addition, the protocol-
   specific details are usually included in DM.  Since conceptual models
   can be implemented in different ways, multiple DMs can be derived
   from a single IM.  To ensure better interoperability, it is better to
   focus on DM directly.

   [RFC7223] describes an interface management model, however it doesn't
   include technology specific information, e.g., for radio interface.
   [I-D.ahlberg-ccamp-microwave-radio-link] provides a model proposal
   for radio interfaces, which includes support for basic configuration,
   status and performance but lacks full support for alarm management
   and interface layering, i.e. the connectivity of the transported
   capacity (TDM and Ethernet) with other internal technology specific
   interfaces in a microwave node.

   The recommendation is to use the structure of the IETF: Radio Link
   Model [I-D.ahlberg-ccamp-microwave-radio-link] as the starting point,
   since it is a data model providing the wanted alignment with
   [RFC7223].  For the definition of the detailed leafs/parameters, the
   recommendation is to use the IETF: Radio Link Model and the ONF:
   Microwave Modeling [ONF-model] as the basis and to define new ones to
   cover identified gaps.  The parameters in those models have been
   defined by both operators and vendors within the industry and the
   implementations of the ONF Model have been tested in the Proof of
   Concept events in multi-vendor environments, showing the validity of
   the approach proposed in this framework document.

   It is also recommended to add the required data nodes to describe the
   interface layering for the capacity provided by a radio link terminal
   and the associated Ethernet and TDM interfaces in a microwave node.
   The principles and data nodes for interface layering described in
   [RFC7223] should be used as a basis.

6.2.  Generic Functionality

   For generic functionality, not specific for radio link, the
   recommendation is to refer to existing RFCs or emerging drafts
   according to the table in Figure 4 below.  New Radio Link Model is
   used in the table for the cases where the functionality is
   recommended to be included in the new radio link model as described
   in Section 6.1.




Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 14]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


   +------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   | Generic Functionality              | Recommendation              |
   |                                    |                             |
   +------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   |1.Fault Management                  |                             |
   |                                    |                             |
   | Alarm Configuration                | New Radio Link Model        |
   |                                    |                             |
   | Alarm notifications/               | [I-D.ietf-ccamp-            |
   | synchronization                    | alarm-module]               |
   +------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   |2.Performance Management            |                             |
   |                                    |                             |
   | Performance Configuration/         | New Radio Link Model        |
   | Activation                         |                             |
   |                                    |                             |
   | Performance Collection             | New Radio Link Model and    |
   |                                    | XML files                   |
   +------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   |3.Physical/Equipment Inventory      | [I-D.ietf-netmod-entity]    |
   +------------------------------------+-----------------------------+

     Figure 4: Recommendation on how to support generic functionality

   Microwave specific alarm configurations are recommended to be
   included in the new radio link model and could be based on what is
   supported in the IETF and ONF Radio Link Models.  Alarm notifications
   and synchronization are general and is recommended to be supported by
   a generic model, such as [I-D.ietf-ccamp-alarm-module].

   Activation of interval counters and thresholds could be a generic
   function but it is recommended to be supported by the new radio link
   specific model and can be based on both the ONF and IETF Microwave
   Radio Link models.

   Collection of interval/historical counters is a generic function that
   needs to be supported in a node.  File based collection via SSH File
   Transfer Protocol(SFTP) and collection via a NETCONF/YANG interfaces
   are two possible options and the recommendation is to include support
   for the latter in the new radio link specific model.  The ONF and
   IETF Microwave Radio Link models can be used as a basis also in this
   area.

   Physical and/or equipment inventory associated with the radio link
   terminals and carrier terminations is recommended to be covered by a
   model generic for the complete node, e.g.  [I-D.ietf-netmod-entity]
   and it is thereby outside the scope of the radio link specific model.




Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 15]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


6.3.  Summary

   The conclusions and recommendations from the analysis can be
   summarized as follows:

   1.  A Microwave Radio Link YANG Data Model should be defined with a
       scope enough to support the use cases and requirements in
       Sections 4 and 5 of this document.

   2.  Use the structure in the IETF: Radio Link Model
       [I-D.ahlberg-ccamp-microwave-radio-link] as the starting point.
       It augments [RFC7223] and is thereby as required aligned with the
       structure of the models for management of the packet domain.

   3.  Use established microwave equipment and radio standards, such as
       [EN302217-2], and the IETF: Radio Link Model
       [I-D.ahlberg-ccamp-microwave-radio-link] and the ONF: Microwave
       Modeling [ONF-model] as the basis for the definition of the
       detailed leafs/parameters to support the specified use cases and
       requirements, and proposing new ones to cover identified gaps.

   4.  Add the required data nodes to describe the interface layering
       for the capacity provided by a radio link terminal and the
       associated Ethernet and TDM interfaces, using the principles and
       data nodes for interface layering described in [RFC7223] as a
       basis.

   5.  Include support for configuration of microwave specific alarms in
       the Microwave Radio Link model and rely on a generic model such
       as [I-D.ietf-ccamp-alarm-module] for notifications and alarm
       synchronization.

   6.  Use a generic model such as [I-D.ietf-netmod-entity] for
       physical/equipment inventory.

   It is furthermore recommended that the Microwave Radio Link YANG Data
   Model should be validated by both operators and vendors as part of
   the process to make it stable and mature.  During the Hackathon in
   IETF 99, a project "SDN Applications for microwave radio link via
   IETF YANG Data Model" successfully validated this framework and the
   YANG data model[I-D.ietf-ccamp-mw-yang].  The project also received
   the BEST OVERALL award from the Hackathon.

7.  Security Considerations

   Security issue concerning the access control to Management interfaces
   can be generally addressed by authentication techniques providing
   origin verification, integrity and confidentiality.  In addition,



Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 16]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


   management interfaces can be physically or logically isolated, by
   configuring them to be only accessible out-of-band, through a system
   that is physically or logically separated from the rest of the
   network infrastructure.  In case where management interfaces are
   accessible in-band at the client device or within the microwave
   transport network domain, filtering or firewalling techniques can be
   used to restrict unauthorized in-band traffic.  Authentication
   techniques may be additionally used in all cases.

   This framework describes the requirements and characteristics of a
   YANG Data Model for control and management of the radio link
   interfaces in a microwave node.  It is supposed to be accessed via a
   management protocol with a secure transport layer, such as NETCONF
   [RFC6241].

8.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2863]  McCloghrie, K. and F. Kastenholz, "The Interfaces Group
              MIB", RFC 2863, DOI 10.17487/RFC2863, June 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2863>.

   [RFC3444]  Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between
              Information Models and Data Models", RFC 3444,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3444, January 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3444>.

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.

   [RFC7223]  Bjorklund, M., "A YANG Data Model for Interface
              Management", RFC 7223, DOI 10.17487/RFC7223, May 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7223>.






Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 17]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


   [RFC7277]  Bjorklund, M., "A YANG Data Model for IP Management",
              RFC 7277, DOI 10.17487/RFC7277, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7277>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [EN302217-2]
              "Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for
              point to-point equipment and antennas; Part 2: Digital
              systems operating in frequency bands from 1 GHz to 86 GHz;
              Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of
              article 3.2 of Directive 2014/53/EU", EN 302 217-2
              V3.1.1 , May 2017.

   [I-D.ahlberg-ccamp-microwave-radio-link]
              Ahlberg, J., Carlson, J., Lund, H., Olausson, T., Ye, M.,
              and M. Vaupotic, "Microwave Radio Link YANG Data Models",
              draft-ahlberg-ccamp-microwave-radio-link-01 (work in
              progress), May 2016.

   [I-D.ietf-ccamp-alarm-module]
              Vallin, S. and M. Bjorklund, "YANG Alarm Module", draft-
              ietf-ccamp-alarm-module-00 (work in progress), December
              2017.

   [I-D.ietf-ccamp-mw-yang]
              Ahlberg, J., Ye, M., Li, X., Kawada, K., Bernardos, C.,
              Spreafico, D., and M. Vaupotic, "A YANG Data Model for
              Microwave Radio Link", draft-ietf-ccamp-mw-yang-02 (work
              in progress), October 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-ccamp-otn-topo-yang]
              zhenghaomian@huawei.com, z., Fan, Z., Sharma, A., Liu, X.,
              Belotti, S., Xu, Y., Wang, L., and O. Dios, "A YANG Data
              Model for Optical Transport Network Topology", draft-ietf-
              ccamp-otn-topo-yang-02 (work in progress), October 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-netmod-entity]
              Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., Dong, J., and D. Romascanu, "A
              YANG Data Model for Hardware Management", draft-ietf-
              netmod-entity-07 (work in progress), December 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-ospf-yang]
              Yeung, D., Qu, Y., Zhang, Z., Chen, I., and A. Lindem,
              "Yang Data Model for OSPF Protocol", draft-ietf-ospf-
              yang-09 (work in progress), October 2017.





Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 18]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


   [ONF-CIM]  "Core Information Model", version 1.2 , September 2016,
              <https://www.opennetworking.org/wp-
              content/uploads/2014/10/TR-512_CIM_(CoreModel)_1.2.zip>.

   [ONF-model]
              "Microwave Information Model", version 1.0 , December
              2016,
              <https://www.opennetworking.org/images/stories/downloads/
              sdn-resources/technical-reports/
              TR-532-Microwave-Information-Model-V1.pdf>.

   [PB-YANG]  "IEEE 802.1X and 802.1Q Module Specifications", version
              0.4 , May 2015,
              <http://www.ieee802.org/1/files/public/docs2015/
              new-mholness-YANG-8021x-0515-v04.pdf>.

   [RFC8022]  Lhotka, L. and A. Lindem, "A YANG Data Model for Routing
              Management", RFC 8022, DOI 10.17487/RFC8022, November
              2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8022>.

Appendix A.  Contributors

   Marko Vaupotic
   Aviat Networks
   Motnica 9
   Trzin-Ljubljana  1236
   Slovenia

   Email: Marko.Vaupotic@aviatnet.com


   Jeff Tantsura
   Huawei Technologies CO., Ltd

   Email: jefftant.ietf@gmail.com


   Koji Kawada
   NEC Corporation
   1753, Shimonumabe Nakahara-ku
   Kawasaki, Kanagawa 211-8666
   Japan

   Email: k-kawada@ah.jp.nec.com







Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 19]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


   Ippei Akiyoshi
   NEC
   1753, Shimonumabe Nakahara-ku
   Kawasaki, Kanagawa 211-8666
   Japan

   Email: i-akiyoshi@ah.jp.nec.com


   Daniela Spreafico
   Nokia - IT
   Via Energy Park, 14
   Vimercate (MI)  20871
   Italy

   Email: daniela.spreafico@nokia.com

Authors' Addresses

   Jonas Ahlberg (editor)
   Ericsson AB
   Lindholmspiren 11
   Goteborg  417 56
   Sweden

   Email: jonas.ahlberg@ericsson.com


   Ye Min (editor)
   Huawei Technologies
   No.1899, Xiyuan Avenue
   Chengdu  611731
   P.R.China

   Email: amy.yemin@huawei.com


   Xi Li
   NEC Laboratories Europe
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   Germany

   Email: Xi.Li@neclab.eu







Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 20]


Internet-Draft             Microwave Framework              January 2018


   Luis M. Contreras
   Telefonica I+D
   Ronda de la Comunicacion, S/N
   Madrid  28050
   Spain

   Email: luismiguel.contrerasmurillo@telefonica.com


   Carlos J. Bernardos
   Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
   Av. Universidad, 30
   Madrid, Leganes  28911
   Spain

   Email: cjbc@it.uc3m.es



































Ahlberg, et al.           Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 21]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.126, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/