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Versions: (draft-mwdt-ccamp-fmwk) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

CCAMP Working Group                                      J. Ahlberg, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                               Ericsson AB
Intended status: Informational                                M. Ye, Ed.
Expires: December 7, 2018                            Huawei Technologies
                                                                   X. Li
                                                 NEC Laboratories Europe
                                                           LM. Contreras
                                                          Telefonica I+D
                                                           CJ. Bernardos
                                        Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
                                                            June 5, 2018


A framework for Management and Control of microwave and millimeter wave
                          interface parameters
                draft-ietf-ccamp-microwave-framework-07

Abstract

   The unification of control and management of microwave radio link
   interfaces is a precondition for seamless multilayer networking and
   automated network provisioning and operation.

   This document describes the required characteristics and use cases
   for control and management of radio link interface parameters using a
   YANG Data Model.

   The purpose is to create a framework for identification of the
   necessary information elements and definition of a YANG Data Model
   for control and management of the radio link interfaces in a
   microwave node.  Some parts of the resulting model may be generic
   which could also be used by other technologies, e.g., Ethernet
   technology.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."



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   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 7, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Conventions used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.  Terminology and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Approaches to manage and control radio link interfaces  . . .   6
     3.1.  Network Management Solutions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.2.  Software Defined Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.1.  Configuration Management  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.2.  Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.3.  Status and statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.4.  Performance management  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.5.  Fault Management  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.6.  Troubleshooting and Root Cause Analysis . . . . . . . . .  11
   5.  Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  Gap Analysis on Models  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.1.  Microwave Radio Link Functionality  . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.2.  Generic Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     6.3.  Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Appendix A.  Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19







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1.  Introduction

   Microwave radio is a technology that uses high frequency radio waves
   to provide high speed wireless connections that can send and receive
   voice, video, and data information.  It is a general term used for
   systems covering a very large range of traffic capacities, channel
   separations, modulation formats and applications over a wide range of
   frequency bands from 1.4 GHz up to and above 100 GHz.

   The main application for microwave is backhaul for mobile broadband.
   Those networks will continue to be modernized using a combination of
   microwave and fiber technologies.  The choice of technology is a
   question about fiber presence and cost of ownership, not about
   capacity limitations in microwave.

   Microwave is already today able to fully support the capacity needs
   of a backhaul in a radio access network and will evolve to support
   multiple gigabits in traditional frequency bands and beyond 10
   gigabits in higher frequency bands with more bandwidth.  L2 Ethernet
   features are normally an integrated part of microwave nodes and more
   advanced L2 and L3 features will over time be introduced to support
   the evolution of the transport services to be provided by a backhaul/
   transport network.  Note that the wireless access technologies such
   as 3/4/5G and Wi-Fi are not within the scope of this microwave model
   work.

   Open and standardized interfaces are a pre-requisite for efficient
   management of equipment from multiple vendors, integrated in a single
   system/controller.  This framework addresses management and control
   of the radio link interface(s) and the relationship to other
   interfaces, typically to Ethernet interfaces, in a microwave node.  A
   radio link provides the transport over the air, using one or several
   carriers in aggregated or protected configurations.  Managing and
   controlling a transport service over a microwave node involves both
   radio link and packet transport functionality.

   Already today there are numerous IETF data models, RFCs and drafts,
   with technology specific extensions that cover a large part of the L2
   and L3 domains.  Examples are IP Management [RFC8344], Routing
   Management [RFC8349] and Provider Bridge [PB-YANG].  They are based
   on the IETF YANG model for Interface Management [RFC8343], which is
   an evolution of the SNMP IF-MIB [RFC2863].

   Since microwave nodes will contain more and more L2 and L3(packet)
   functionality which is expected to be managed using those models,
   there are advantages if radio link interfaces can be modeled and
   managed using the same structure and the same approach, specifically
   for use cases in which a microwave node is managed as one common



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   entity including both the radio link and the L2 and L3 functionality,
   e.g. at basic configuration of node and connections, centralized
   trouble shooting, upgrade and maintenance.  All interfaces in a node,
   irrespective of technology, would then be accessed from the same core
   model, i.e. [RFC8343], and could be extended with technology specific
   parameters in models augmenting that core model.  The relationship/
   connectivity between interfaces could be given by the physical
   equipment configuration, e.g. the slot in which the Radio Link
   Terminal (modem) is plugged in could be associated with a specific
   Ethernet port due to the wiring in the backplane of the system, or it
   could be flexible and therefore configured via a management system or
   controller.

   +------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Interface [RFC8343]                                              |
   |                +---------------+                                 |
   |                | Ethernet Port |                                 |
   |                +---------------+                                 |
   |                      \                                           |
   |                    +---------------------+                       |
   |                    | Radio Link Terminal |                       |
   |                    +---------------------+                       |
   |                       /              \                           |
   |     +---------------------+       +---------------------+        |
   |     | Carrier Termination |       | Carrier Termination |        |
   |     +---------------------+       +---------------------+        |
   +------------------------------------------------------------------+

            Figure 1: Relationship between interfaces in a node

   There will always be certain implementations that differ among
   products and it is therefore practically impossible to achieve
   industry consensus on every design detail.  It is therefore important
   to focus on the parameters that are required to support the use cases
   applicable for centralized, unified, multi-vendor management and to
   allow other parameters to be optional or to be covered by extensions
   to the standardized model.  Furthermore, a standard that allows for a
   certain degree of freedom encourages innovation and competition which
   is something that benefits the entire industry.  It is therefore
   important that a radio link management model covers all relevant
   functions but also leaves room for product/feature-specific
   extensions.

   For microwave radio link functionality work has been initiated (ONF:
   Microwave Modeling [ONF-model], IETF: Radio Link Model
   [I-D.ietf-ccamp-mw-yang]).  The purpose of this effort is to reach
   consensus within the industry around one common approach, with
   respect to the use cases and requirements to be supported, the type



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   and structure of the model and the resulting attributes to be
   included.  This document describes the use cases and requirements
   agreed to be covered, the expected characteristics of the model and
   at the end includes an analysis of how the models in the two on-going
   initiatives fulfill these expectations and a recommendation on what
   can be reused and what gaps need to be filled by a new and evolved
   radio link model.

1.1.  Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119] [RFC8174]
   when, and only when, they appear in all capitals, as shown here.

2.  Terminology and Definitions

   Microwave radio is a term commonly used for technologies that operate
   in both microwave and millimeter wave lengths and in frequency bands
   from 1.4 GHz up to and beyond 100 GHz.  In traditional bands it
   typically supports capacities of 1-3 Gbps and in 70/80 GHz band up to
   10 Gbps.  Using multi-carrier systems operating in frequency bands
   with wider channels, the technology will be capable of providing
   capacities of up to 100 Gbps.

   The microwave radio technology is widely used for point-to-point
   telecommunications because of its small wavelength that allows
   conveniently-sized antennas to direct them in narrow beams, and the
   comparatively higher frequencies that allow broad bandwidth and high
   data transmission rates.  It is used for a broad range of fixed and
   mobile services including high-speed, point-to-point wireless local
   area networks (WLANs) and broadband access.

   ETSI EN 302 217 series defines the characteristics and requirements
   of microwave equipment and antennas.  Especially ETSI EN 302 217-2
   [EN302217-2] specifies the essential parameters for the systems
   operating from 1.4GHz to 86GHz.

   Carrier Termination and Radio Link Terminal are two concepts defined
   to support modeling of microwave radio link features and parameters
   in a structured and yet simple manner.

   Carrier Termination is an interface for the capacity provided over
   the air by a single carrier.  It is typically defined by its
   transmitting and receiving frequencies.

   Radio Link Terminal is an interface providing Ethernet capacity and/
   or Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) capacity to the associated



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   Ethernet and/or TDM interfaces in a node and used for setting up a
   transport service over a microwave radio link.

   Figure 2 provides a graphical representation of Carrier Termination
   and Radio Link Terminal concepts.

                 /--------- Radio Link ---------\
                  Near End              Far End

           +---------------+           +---------------+
           |    Radio Link |           | Radio Link    |
           |      Terminal |           | Terminal      |
           |               |           |               |
           |           (Protected or Bonded)           |
           |               |           |               |
           | +-----------+ |           | +-----------+ |
           | |           | | Carrier A | |           | |
           | |  Carrier  | |<--------->| |  Carrier  | |
           | |Termination| |           | |Termination| |
    ETH----| |           | |           | |           | |----ETH
           | +-----------+ |           | +-----------+ |
    TDM----|               |           |               |----TDM
           | +-----------+ |           | +-----------+ |
           | |           | | Carrier B | |           | |
           | |  Carrier  | |<--------->| |  Carrier  | |
           | |Termination| |           | |Termination| |
           | |           | |           | |           | |
           | +-----------+ |           | +-----------+ |
           |               |           |               |
           +---------------+           +---------------+

     \--- Microwave Node ---/          \--- Microwave Node ---/

           Figure 2: Radio Link Terminal and Carrier Termination

   Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an architecture that decouples
   the network control and forwarding functions enabling the network
   control to become directly programmable and the underlying
   infrastructure to be abstracted for applications and network
   services.  SDN can be used for automation of traditional network
   management functionality using an SDN approach of standardized
   programmable interfaces for control and management [RFC7426].

3.  Approaches to manage and control radio link interfaces

   This framework addresses the definition of an open and standardized
   interface for the radio link functionality in a microwave node.  The
   application of such an interface used for management and control of



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   nodes and networks typically vary from one operator to another, in
   terms of the systems used and how they interact.  Possible approaches
   include via the use of a network management system (NMS), via
   software defined networking (SDN) and via some combination of NMS and
   SDN.  As there are still many networks where the NMS is implemented
   as one component/interface and the SDN controller is scoped to
   control plane functionality as a separate component/interface, this
   document does not preclude either model.  The aim of this document is
   to provide a framework for development of a common YANG Data Model
   for both management and control of microwave interfaces.

3.1.  Network Management Solutions

   The classic network management solutions, with vendor specific domain
   management combined with cross domain functionality for service
   management and analytics, still dominate the market.  These solutions
   are expected to evolve and benefit from an increased focus on
   standardization by simplifying multi-vendor management and remove the
   need for vendor/domain specific management.

3.2.  Software Defined Networking

   One of the main drivers for applying SDN from an operator perspective
   is simplification and automation of network provisioning as well as
   end to end network service management.  The vision is to have a
   global view of the network conditions spanning across different
   vendors' equipment and multiple technologies.

   If nodes from different vendors are be managed by the same SDN
   controller via a node management interface (north bound interface,
   NBI), without the extra effort of introducing intermediate systems,
   all nodes must align their node management interfaces.  Hence, an
   open and standardized node management interface is required in a
   multi-vendor environment.  Such a standardized interface enables a
   unified management and configuration of nodes from different vendors
   by a common set of applications.

   On top of SDN applications to configure, manage and control the nodes
   and their associated transport interfaces including the L2 Ethernet
   and L3 IP interfaces as well as the radio interfaces, there are also
   a large variety of other more advanced SDN applications that can be
   utilized and/or developed.

   A potentially flexible approach for the operators is to use SDN in a
   logical control way to manage the radio links by selecting a
   predefined operation mode.  The operation mode is a set of logical
   metrics or parameters describing a complete radio link configuration,
   such as capacity, availability, priority and power consumption.



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   An example of an operation mode table is shown in Figure 3.  Based on
   its operation policy (e.g., power consumption or traffic priority),
   the SDN controller selects one operation mode and translates that
   into the required configuration of the individual parameters for the
   radio link terminals and the associated carrier terminations.

   +----+---------------+------------+-------------+-----------+------+
   | ID |Description    | Capacity   |Availability | Priority  |Power |
   +----+---------------+------------+-------------+-----------+------+
   | 1  |High capacity  |  400 Mbps  | 99.9%       | Low       |High  |
   +----+---------------+------------+-------------+-----------+------+
   | 2  |High avail-    |  100 Mbps  |  99.999%    | High      |Low   |
   |    | ability       |            |             |           |      |
   +----+---------------+------------+-------------+-----------+------+

               Figure 3: Example of an operation mode table

   An operation mode bundles together the values of a set of different
   parameters.  How each operation mode maps into certain set of
   attributes is out of scope of this document.

4.  Use Cases

   The use cases described should be the basis for identification and
   definition of the parameters to be supported by a YANG Data model for
   management of radio links, applicable for centralized, unified,
   multi-vendor management.  The use cases involve configuration
   management, inventory, status and statistics, performance management,
   fault management, troubleshooting and root cause analysis.

   Other product specific use cases, addressing e.g. installation, on-
   site trouble shooting and fault resolution, are outside the scope of
   this framework.  If required, these use cases are expected to be
   supported by product specific extensions to the standardized model.

4.1.  Configuration Management

   Configuration of a radio link terminal, the constituent carrier
   terminations and when applicable the relationship to IP/Ethernet and
   TDM interfaces.

   o  Understand the capabilities and limitations

      Exchange of information between a manager and a device about the
      capabilities supported and specific limitations in the parameter
      values and enumerations that can be used.





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      Support for the XPIC (Cross Polarization Interference
      Cancellation) feature or not and the maximum modulation supported
      are two examples on information that could be exchanged.

   o  Initial Configuration

      Initial configuration of a radio link terminal, enough to
      establish L1 connectivity to an associated radio link terminal on
      a device at far end over the hop.  It may also include
      configuration of the relationship between a radio link terminal
      and an associated traffic interface, e.g. an Ethernet interface,
      unless that is given by the equipment configuration.

      Frequency, modulation, coding and output power are examples of
      parameters typically configured for a carrier termination and type
      of aggregation/bonding or protection configurations expected for a
      radio link terminal.

   o  Radio link re-configuration and optimization

      Re-configuration, update or optimization of an existing radio link
      terminal.  Output power and modulation for a carrier termination
      and protection schemas and activation/de-activation of carriers in
      a radio link terminal are examples on parameters that can be re-
      configured and used for optimization of the performance of a
      network.

   o  Radio link logical configuration

      Radio link terminals configured to include a group of carriers are
      widely used in microwave technology.  There are several kinds of
      groups: aggregation/bonding, 1+1 protection/redundancy, etc.  To
      avoid configuration on each carrier termination directly, a
      logical control provides flexible management by mapping a logical
      configuration to a set of physical attributes.  This could also be
      applied in a hierarchical SDN environment where some domain
      controllers are located between the SDN controller and the radio
      link terminal.

4.2.  Inventory

   o  Retrieve logical inventory and configuration from device

      Request from manager and response by device with information about
      radio interfaces, their constitution and configuration.

   o  Retrieve physical/equipment inventory from device




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      Request from manager about physical and/or equipment inventory
      associated with the radio link terminals and carrier terminations.

4.3.  Status and statistics

   o  Actual status and performance of a radio link interface

      Manager requests and device responds with information about actual
      status and statistics of configured radio link interfaces and
      their constituent parts.  It's important to report the effective
      bandwidth of a radio link since it can be configured to
      dynamically adjust the modulation based on the current signal
      conditions.

4.4.  Performance management

   o  Configuration of historical performance measurements

      Configuration of historical performance measurements for a radio
      link interface and/or its constituent parts.  See Section 4.1
      above.

   o  Collection of historical performance data

      Collection of historical performance data in bulk by the manager
      is a general use case for a device and not specific to a radio
      link interface.

      Collection of an individual counter for a specific interval is in
      same cases required as a complement to the retrieval in bulk as
      described above.

4.5.  Fault Management

   o  Configuration of alarm reporting

      Configuration of alarm reporting associated specifically with
      radio interfaces, e.g. configuration of alarm severity, is a
      subset of the configuration use case to be supported.  See
      Section 4.1 above.

   o  Alarm management

      Alarm synchronization, visualization, handling, notifications and
      events are generic use cases for a device and should be supported
      on a radio link interface.  There are however radio-specific
      alarms that are important to report, where signal degradation of
      the radio link is one example.



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4.6.  Troubleshooting and Root Cause Analysis

   Information and actions required by a manager/operator to investigate
   and understand the underlying issue to a problem in the performance
   and/or functionality of a radio link terminal and the associated
   carrier terminations.

5.  Requirements

   For managing a microwave node including both the radio link and the
   packet transport functionality, a unified data model is desired to
   unify the modeling of the radio link interfaces and the L2/L3
   interfaces using the same structure and the same modelling approach.
   If some part of model is generic for other technology usage, it
   should be clearly stated.

   The purpose of the YANG Data Model is for management and control of
   the radio link interface(s) and the relationship/connectivity to
   other interfaces, typically to Ethernet interfaces, in a microwave
   node.

   The capability of configuring and managing microwave nodes includes
   the following requirements for the modelling:

   1.  It MUST be possible to configure, manage and control a radio link
       terminal and the constituent carrier terminations.

       A.  Configuration of frequency, channel bandwidth, modulation,
           coding and transmitter output power MUST be supported for a
           carrier termination.

       B.  A radio link terminal MUST configure the associated carrier
           terminations and the type of aggregation/bonding or
           protection configurations expected for the radio link
           terminal.

       C.  The capability, e.g. the maximum modulation supported, and
           the actual status/statistics, e.g. administrative status of
           the carriers, SHOULD also be supported by the data model.

       D.  The definition of the features and parameters SHOULD be based
           on established microwave equipment and radio standards, such
           as ETSI EN 302 217 [EN302217-2] which specifies the essential
           parameters for microwave systems operating from 1.4GHz to
           86GHz.






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   2.  It MUST be possible to map different traffic types (e.g.  TDM,
       Ethernet) to the transport capacity provided by a specific radio
       link terminal.

   3.  It MUST be possible to configure and collect historical
       measurements (for the use case described in section 5.4) to be
       performed on a radio link interface, e.g. minimum, maximum and
       average transmit power and receive level in dBm.

   4.  It MUST be possible to configure and retrieve alarms reporting
       associated with the radio interfaces, e.g. configuration of alarm
       severity, supported alarms like configuration fault, signal lost,
       modem fault, radio fault.

6.  Gap Analysis on Models

   The purpose of the gap analysis is to identify and recommend what
   models to use in a microwave device to support the use cases and
   requirements specified in the previous chapters.  This draft shall
   also make a recommendation on how the gaps not supported should be
   filled, including the need for development of new models and
   evolution of existing models and drafts.

   For microwave radio link functionality work has been initiated (ONF:
   Microwave Modeling [ONF-model], IETF: Radio Link Model
   [I-D.ietf-ccamp-mw-yang].  The analysis is expected to take these
   initiatives into consideration and make a recommendation on how to
   make use of them and how to complement them in order to fill the gaps
   identified.

   For generic functionality, not specific for radio link, the ambition
   is to refer to existing or emerging models that could be applicable
   for all functional areas in a microwave node.

6.1.  Microwave Radio Link Functionality

   [ONF-CIM] defines a CoreModel of the ONF Common Information Model.
   An information model describes the things in a domain in terms of
   objects, their properties (represented as attributes), and their
   relationships.  The ONF information model is expressed in Unified
   Modeling Language (UML).  The ONF CoreModel is independent of
   specific data plane technology.  The technology specific content,
   acquired in a runtime solution via "filled in" cases of
   specification, augment the CoreModel to provide a forwarding
   technology-specific representation.

   IETF Data Model defines an implementation and protocol-specific
   details.  YANG is a data modeling language used to model the



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   configuration and state data.  [RFC8343] defines a generic YANG data
   model for interface management which doesn't include technology
   specific information.  To describe the technology specific
   information, several YANG data models have been proposed in IETF by
   augmenting [RFC8343], e.g.  [RFC8344].  The YANG data model is a
   popular approach for modeling many packet transport technology
   interfaces, and it is thereby well positioned to become an industry
   standard.  In light of this trend, [I-D.ietf-ccamp-mw-yang] provides
   a YANG data model proposal for radio interfaces, which is well
   aligned with the structure of other technology-specific YANG data
   models augmenting [RFC8343].

   [RFC3444] explains the difference between Information Model(IM) and
   Data Models(DM).  IM is to model managed objects at a conceptual
   level for designers and operators, while DM is defined at a lower
   level and includes many details for implementers.  In addition, the
   protocol-specific details are usually included in DM.  Since
   conceptual models can be implemented in different ways, multiple DMs
   can be derived from a single IM.

   It is recommended to use the structure of the IETF: Radio Link Model
   [I-D.ietf-ccamp-mw-yang] as the starting point, since
   [I-D.ietf-ccamp-mw-yang] is a data model providing the wanted
   alignment with [RFC8343].  To cover the identified gaps, it is
   recommended to define new leafs/parameters in
   [I-D.ietf-ccamp-mw-yang] while taking reference from [ONF-CIM].  It
   is also recommended to add the required data nodes to describe the
   interface layering for the capacity provided by a radio link terminal
   and the associated Ethernet and TDM interfaces in a microwave node.
   The principles and data nodes for interface layering described in
   [RFC8343] should be used as a basis.

6.2.  Generic Functionality

   For generic functionality, not specific for radio link, the
   recommendation is to refer to existing RFCs or emerging drafts
   according to the table in Figure 4 below.  New Radio Link Model is
   used in the table for the cases where the functionality is
   recommended to be included in the new radio link model as described
   in Section 6.1.











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   +------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   | Generic Functionality              | Recommendation              |
   |                                    |                             |
   +------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   |1.Fault Management                  |                             |
   |                                    |                             |
   | Alarm Configuration                | New Radio Link Model        |
   |                                    |                             |
   | Alarm notifications/               | [I-D.ietf-ccamp-            |
   | synchronization                    | alarm-module]               |
   +------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   |2.Performance Management            |                             |
   |                                    |                             |
   | Performance Configuration/         | New Radio Link Model        |
   | Activation                         |                             |
   |                                    |                             |
   | Performance Collection             | New Radio Link Model and    |
   |                                    | XML files                   |
   +------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   |3.Physical/Equipment Inventory      | [RFC8348]                   |
   +------------------------------------+-----------------------------+

     Figure 4: Recommendation on how to support generic functionality

   Microwave specific alarm configurations are recommended to be
   included in the new radio link model and could be based on what is
   supported in the IETF and ONF Radio Link Models.  Alarm notifications
   and synchronization are general and is recommended to be supported by
   a generic model, such as [I-D.ietf-ccamp-alarm-module].

   Activation of interval counters and thresholds could be a generic
   function but it is recommended to be supported by the new radio link
   specific model and can be based on both the ONF and IETF Microwave
   Radio Link models.

   Collection of interval/historical counters is a generic function that
   needs to be supported in a node.  File based collection via SSH File
   Transfer Protocol(SFTP) and collection via a NETCONF/YANG interfaces
   are two possible options and the recommendation is to include support
   for the latter in the new radio link specific model.  The ONF and
   IETF Microwave Radio Link models can be used as a basis also in this
   area.

   Physical and/or equipment inventory associated with the radio link
   terminals and carrier terminations is recommended to be covered by a
   model generic for the complete node, e.g.  [RFC8348] and it is
   thereby outside the scope of the radio link specific model.




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6.3.  Summary

   The conclusions and recommendations from the analysis can be
   summarized as follows:

   1.  A Microwave Radio Link YANG Data Model should be defined with a
       scope enough to support the use cases and requirements in
       Sections 4 and 5 of this document.

   2.  Use the structure in the IETF: Radio Link Model
       [I-D.ietf-ccamp-mw-yang] as the starting point.  It augments
       [RFC8343] and is thereby as required aligned with the structure
       of the models for management of the L2 and L3 domains.

   3.  Use established microwave equipment and radio standards, such as
       [EN302217-2], and the IETF: Radio Link Model
       [I-D.ietf-ccamp-mw-yang] and the ONF: Microwave Modeling
       [ONF-model] as the basis for the definition of the detailed
       leafs/parameters to support the specified use cases and
       requirements, and proposing new ones to cover identified gaps.

   4.  Add the required data nodes to describe the interface layering
       for the capacity provided by a radio link terminal and the
       associated Ethernet and TDM interfaces, using the principles and
       data nodes for interface layering described in [RFC8343] as a
       basis.

   5.  Include support for configuration of microwave specific alarms in
       the Microwave Radio Link model and rely on a generic model such
       as [I-D.ietf-ccamp-alarm-module] for notifications and alarm
       synchronization.

   6.  Use a generic model such as [RFC8348] for physical/equipment
       inventory.

7.  Security Considerations

   The configuration information may be considered sensitive or
   vulnerable in the network environments.  Unauthorized access to
   configuration data nodes can have a negative effect on network
   operations, e.g., interrupting the ability to forward traffic, or
   increasing the interference level of the network.  The status and
   inventory reveal some network information that could be very helpful
   to an attacker.  A malicious attack to that information may result in
   a loss of customer data.  Security issue concerning the access
   control to Management interfaces can be generally addressed by
   authentication techniques providing origin verification, integrity
   and confidentiality.  In addition, management interfaces can be



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   physically or logically isolated, by configuring them to be only
   accessible out-of-band, through a system that is physically or
   logically separated from the rest of the network infrastructure.  In
   case where management interfaces are accessible in-band at the client
   device or within the microwave transport network domain, filtering or
   firewalling techniques can be used to restrict unauthorized in-band
   traffic.  Authentication techniques may be additionally used in all
   cases.

   This framework describes the requirements and characteristics of a
   YANG Data Model for control and management of the radio link
   interfaces in a microwave node.  It is supposed to be accessed via a
   management protocol with a secure transport layer, such as NETCONF
   [RFC6241].

8.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [EN302217-2]
              "Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for
              point to-point equipment and antennas; Part 2: Digital
              systems operating in frequency bands from 1 GHz to 86 GHz;
              Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of
              article 3.2 of Directive 2014/53/EU", EN 302 217-2
              V3.1.1 , May 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-ccamp-alarm-module]
              Vallin, S. and M. Bjorklund, "YANG Alarm Module", draft-
              ietf-ccamp-alarm-module-01 (work in progress), February
              2018.





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   [I-D.ietf-ccamp-mw-yang]
              Ahlberg, J., Ye, M., Li, X., Spreafico, D., and M.
              Vaupotic, "A YANG Data Model for Microwave Radio Link",
              draft-ietf-ccamp-mw-yang-05 (work in progress), March
              2018.

   [ONF-CIM]  "Core Information Model", version 1.2 , September 2016,
              <https://www.opennetworking.org/wp-
              content/uploads/2014/10/TR-512_CIM_(CoreModel)_1.2.zip>.

   [ONF-model]
              "Microwave Information Model", version 1.0 , December
              2016,
              <https://www.opennetworking.org/images/stories/downloads/
              sdn-resources/technical-reports/
              TR-532-Microwave-Information-Model-V1.pdf>.

   [PB-YANG]  "IEEE 802.1X and 802.1Q Module Specifications", version
              0.4 , May 2015,
              <http://www.ieee802.org/1/files/public/docs2015/
              new-mholness-YANG-8021x-0515-v04.pdf>.

   [RFC2863]  McCloghrie, K. and F. Kastenholz, "The Interfaces Group
              MIB", RFC 2863, DOI 10.17487/RFC2863, June 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2863>.

   [RFC3444]  Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between
              Information Models and Data Models", RFC 3444,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3444, January 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3444>.

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.

   [RFC7426]  Haleplidis, E., Ed., Pentikousis, K., Ed., Denazis, S.,
              Hadi Salim, J., Meyer, D., and O. Koufopavlou, "Software-
              Defined Networking (SDN): Layers and Architecture
              Terminology", RFC 7426, DOI 10.17487/RFC7426, January
              2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7426>.

   [RFC8343]  Bjorklund, M., "A YANG Data Model for Interface
              Management", RFC 8343, DOI 10.17487/RFC8343, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8343>.






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   [RFC8344]  Bjorklund, M., "A YANG Data Model for IP Management",
              RFC 8344, DOI 10.17487/RFC8344, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8344>.

   [RFC8348]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., Dong, J., and D. Romascanu, "A
              YANG Data Model for Hardware Management", RFC 8348,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8348, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8348>.

   [RFC8349]  Lhotka, L., Lindem, A., and Y. Qu, "A YANG Data Model for
              Routing Management (NMDA Version)", RFC 8349,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8349, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8349>.

Appendix A.  Contributors

   Marko Vaupotic
   Aviat Networks
   Motnica 9
   Trzin-Ljubljana  1236
   Slovenia

   Email: Marko.Vaupotic@aviatnet.com


   Jeff Tantsura

   Email: jefftant.ietf@gmail.com


   Koji Kawada
   NEC Corporation
   1753, Shimonumabe Nakahara-ku
   Kawasaki, Kanagawa 211-8666
   Japan

   Email: k-kawada@ah.jp.nec.com


   Ippei Akiyoshi
   NEC
   1753, Shimonumabe Nakahara-ku
   Kawasaki, Kanagawa 211-8666
   Japan

   Email: i-akiyoshi@ah.jp.nec.com





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   Daniela Spreafico
   Nokia - IT
   Via Energy Park, 14
   Vimercate (MI)  20871
   Italy

   Email: daniela.spreafico@nokia.com


Authors' Addresses

   Jonas Ahlberg (editor)
   Ericsson AB
   Lindholmspiren 11
   Goteborg  417 56
   Sweden

   Email: jonas.ahlberg@ericsson.com


   Ye Min (editor)
   Huawei Technologies
   No.1899, Xiyuan Avenue
   Chengdu  611731
   P.R.China

   Email: amy.yemin@huawei.com


   Xi Li
   NEC Laboratories Europe
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   Germany

   Email: Xi.Li@neclab.eu


   Luis Contreras
   Telefonica I+D
   Ronda de la Comunicacion, S/N
   Madrid  28050
   Spain

   Email: luismiguel.contrerasmurillo@telefonica.com






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   Carlos Bernardos
   Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
   Av. Universidad, 30
   Madrid, Leganes  28911
   Spain

   Email: cjbc@it.uc3m.es












































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