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Versions: (draft-bernstein-ccamp-wson-signaling) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 RFC 7689

Network Working Group                                      G. Bernstein
Internet Draft                                        Grotto Networking
                                                             Sugang Xu
Intended status: Standards Track                                   NICT
                                                                 Y. Lee
                                                                 Huawei
Expires: November 2015                                    G. Martinelli
                                                                  Cisco
                                                          Hiroaki Harai
                                                                   NICT

                                                           May 18, 2015



     Signaling Extensions for Wavelength Switched Optical Networks
                 draft-ietf-ccamp-wson-signaling-12.txt

Abstract

   This document provides extensions to Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
   Switching (GMPLS) signaling for control of Wavelength Switched
   Optical Networks (WSON).  Such extensions are applicable in WSONs
   under a number of conditions including: (a) when optional
   processing, such as regeneration, must be configured to occur at
   specific nodes along a path, (b) where equipment must be configured
   to accept an optical signal with specific attributes, or (c) where
   equipment must be configured to output an optical signal with
   specific attributes. This document provides mechanisms to
   support distributed wavelength assignment with choice in distributed
   wavelength assignment algorithms.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with
   the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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   Drafts.

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   reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt




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   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 9, 2015.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with
   respect to this document.  Code Components extracted from this
   document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in
   Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without
   warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in
   this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

Table of Contents


   1. Introduction...................................................3
   2. Terminology....................................................3
   3. Requirements for WSON Signaling................................4
      3.1. WSON Signal Characterization..............................4
      3.2. Per Node Processing Configuration.........................5
      3.3. Bidirectional WSON LSPs...................................6
      3.4. Distributed Wavelength Assignment Selection Method........6
      3.5. Optical Impairments.......................................6
   4. WSON Signal Traffic Parameters, Attributes and Processing......6
      4.1. Traffic Parameters for Optical Tributary Signals..........7
      4.2. WSON Processing Hop Attribute TLV.........................7
      4.2.1. Resource Block Information Sub-TLV......................8
      4.2.2. Wavelength Selection Sub-TLV............................9
   5. Security Considerations.......................................11
   6. IANA Considerations...........................................12
   7. Acknowledgments...............................................13
   8. References....................................................14
      8.1. Normative References.....................................14


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      8.2. Informative References...................................15
   Author's Addresses...............................................15


1. Introduction

   This document provides extensions to Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
   Switching (GMPLS) signaling for control of Wavelength Switched
   Optical Networks (WSON).  Fundamental extensions are given to permit
   simultaneous bidirectional wavelength assignment while more advanced
   extensions are given to support the networks described in [RFC6163]
   which feature connections requiring configuration of input, output,
   and general signal processing capabilities at a node along a Label
   Switched Path (LSP).

   These extensions build on previous work for the control of lambda
   and G.709 based networks.

   Related references with this document are [RFC7446] that provides
   a high-level information model and [WSON-Encode] that provides
   common encodings that can be applicable to other protocol extensions
   such as routing.

2. Terminology

   CWDM: Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing.

   DWDM: Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing.

   ROADM: Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer. A reduced port
   count wavelength selective switching element featuring ingress and
   egress line side ports as well as add/drop side ports.

   RWA: Routing and Wavelength Assignment.

   Wavelength Conversion/Converters: The process of converting
   information bearing optical signal centered at a given
   frequency (wavelength) to one with "equivalent" content centered at
   a different wavelength. Wavelength conversion can be implemented
   via an optical-electronic-optical (OEO) process or via a strictly
   optical process.

   WDM: Wavelength Division Multiplexing.

   Wavelength Switched Optical Networks (WSON): WDM based optical
   networks in which switching is performed selectively based on the
   frequency of an optical signal.


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   AWG: Arrayed Waveguide Grating.

   OXC: Optical Cross-Connect.

   Optical Transmitter: A device that has both a laser tuned on certain
   wavelength and electronic components, which converts electronic
   signals into optical signals.

   Optical Receiver: A device that has both optical and electronic
   components. It detects optical signals and converts optical signals
   into electronic signals.

   Optical Transponder: A device that has both an optical transmitter
   and an optical receiver.

   Optical End Node: The end of a wavelength (optical lambdas)
   lightpath in the data plane.  It may be equipped with some
   optical/electronic devices such as wavelength
   multiplexers/demultiplexer (e.g. AWG), optical transponder, etc.,
   which are employed to transmit/terminate the optical signals for
   data transmission.

   FEC: Forward Error Correction. Forward error correction (FEC) is a
   digital signal processing technique used to enhance data
   reliability. It does this by introducing redundant data, called
   error correcting code, prior to data transmission or storage. FEC
   provides the receiver with the ability to correct errors without a
   reverse channel to request the retransmission of data.

   3R Regeneration: The process of amplifying (correcting loss),
   reshaping (correcting noise and dispersion), retiming (synchronizing
   with the network clock), and retransmitting an optical signal.



3. Requirements for WSON Signaling

   The following requirements for GMPLS based WSON signaling are in
   addition to the functionality already provided by existing GMPLS
   signaling mechanisms.

    3.1. WSON Signal Characterization

   WSON signaling needs to convey sufficient information characterizing
   the signal to allow systems along the path to determine
   compatibility and perform any required local configuration. Examples


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   of such systems include intermediate nodes (ROADMs, OXCs, Wavelength
   converters, Regenerators, OEO Switches, etc...), links (WDM systems)
   and end systems (detectors, demodulators, etc...). The details of
   any local configuration processes are out of the scope of this
   document.

   From [RFC6163] we have the following list of WSON signal
   characteristic information
    1. Optical tributary signal class (modulation format).
    2. FEC: whether forward error correction is used in the digital
         stream and what type of error correcting code is used
    3. Center frequency (wavelength)
    4. Bit rate
    5. G-PID: General Protocol Identifier for the information format

   The first three items on this list can change as a WSON signal
   traverses a network with regenerators, OEO switches, or wavelength
   converters. These parameters are summarized in the Optical Interface
   Class as defined in the [RFC7446] and the assumption is that a
   class always includes signal compatibility information.
   An ability to control wavelength conversion already exists in GMPLS
   signaling along with the ability to share client signal type
   information (G-PID). In addition, bit rate is a standard GMPLS
   signaling traffic parameter. It is referred to as Bandwidth Encoding
   in [RFC3471].

    3.2. Per Node Processing Configuration

   In addition to configuring a node along an LSP to input or output a
   signal with specific attributes, we may need to signal the node to
   perform specific processing, such as 3R regeneration, on the signal
   at a particular node.  [RFC6163] discussed three types of
   processing:

     (A) Regeneration (possibly different types)

     (B) Fault and Performance Monitoring

     (C) Attribute Conversion

   The extensions here provide for the configuration of these types of
   processing at nodes along an LSP.

    3.3. Bidirectional WSON LSPs

   WSON signaling can support LSP setup consistent with the wavelength
   continuity constraint for bidirectional connections. The following


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   cases need to be separately supported:

   (a)  Where the same wavelength is used for both upstream and
        downstream directions

   (b)  Where different wavelengths can be used for both upstream and
        downstream directions.

   This document will review existing GMPLS bidirectional solutions
   according to WSON case.

    3.4. Distributed Wavelength Assignment Selection Method

   WSON signaling can support the selection of a specific distributed
   wavelength assignment method.

   This method is beneficial in cases of equipment failure, etc., where
   fast provisioning used in quick recovery is critical to protect
   carriers/users against system loss. This requires efficient
   signaling which supports distributed wavelength assignment, in
   particular when the wavelength assignment capability is
   not available.

   As discussed in the [RFC6163] different computational approaches for
   wavelength assignment are available. One method is the use of
   distributed wavelength assignment. This feature would allow the
   specification of a particular approach when more than one is
   implemented in the systems along the path.

    3.5. Optical Impairments

   This draft does not address signaling information related to optical
   impairments.

4. WSON Signal Traffic Parameters, Attributes and Processing

   As discussed in [RFC6163] single channel optical signals used in
   WSONs are called "optical tributary signals" and come in a number of
   classes characterized by modulation format and bit rate. Although
   WSONs are fairly transparent to the signals they carry, to ensure
   compatibility amongst various networks devices and end systems, it
   can be important to include key lightpath characteristics as traffic
   parameters in signaling [RFC6163].

   LSPs signaled through extensions provided in this document MUST
   apply the following signaling parameters:



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     . Switching Capability = WSON-LSC ([WSON-OSPF]).
     . Encoding Type = Lambda ([RFC3471])
     . Label Format = as defined in [RFC6205]

   [RFC6205] defines the label format as applicable to LSC capable
   device.

    4.1. Traffic Parameters for Optical Tributary Signals

   In [RFC3471] we see that the G-PID (client signal type) and bit rate
   (byte rate) of the signals are defined as parameters and in
   [RFC3473] they are conveyed in the Generalized Label Request object
   and the RSVP SENDER_TSPEC/FLOWSPEC objects respectively.

    4.2. WSON Processing Hop Attribute TLV

   Section 3.1. provided the requirements for signaling to indicate to
   a particular node along an LSP what type of processing to perform on
   an optical signal or how to configure that node to accept or
   transmit an optical signal with particular attributes.

   To target a specific node, this section defines a WSON Processing
   Hop Attribute TLV. This TLV is encoded as an attributes TLV, see
   [RFC5420]. The TLV is carried in the ERO and RRO LSP Attribute
   Subobjects, and processed according to the procedures, defined in
   [RSVP-RO]. The type value of the WSON Processing Hop Attribute TLV
   is TBD by IANA.

   The WSON Processing Hop Attribute TLV carries one or more sub-TLVs
   with the following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |   Length      |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
   //                            Value                            //
   |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           ...                 |        Padding                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type

         The identifier of the sub-TLV.

      Length



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         Indicates the total length of the sub-TLV in octets. That is,
         the combined length of the Type, Length, and Value fields,
         i.e., two plus the length of the Value field in octets.

   The entire sub-TLV MUST be padded with zeros to ensure four-octet
   alignment of the sub-TLV.

      Value

         Zero or more octets of data carried in the sub-TLV.

    Padding: Variable

   Padding is used to ensure that the length of the WSON Processing Hop
   Attribute TLV meets the multiple of 4 byte size requirement.

   Sub-TLV ordering is significant and MUST be preserved. Error
   processing follows [RSVP-RO].

    The following sub-TLV types are defined in this document:

   Sub-TLV Name        Type    Length
   --------------------------------------------------------------
   ResourceBlockInfo    1      variable
   WavelengthSelection  2      8 octets (2 octet padding)

   The TLV can be represented in Reduced Backus-Naur Form (RBNF)
   [RFC5511] syntax as:

   <WSON Processing Hop Attribute> ::= <ResourceBlockInfo>
   [<ResourceBlockInfo>] [<WavelengthSelection>]


    4.2.1. ResourceBlockInfo Sub-TLV

   The format of the ResourceBlockInfo sub-TLV value field is defined
   in Section 4 of [WSON-Encode]. It is a list of available Optical
   Interface Classes and processing capabilities.

   At least one ResourceBlockInfo sub-TLV MUST be present in the
   WSON_ Processing Hop Attribute TLV. No more than two
   ResourceBlockInfo sub-TLVs SHOULD be present. Any present
   ResourceBlockInfo sub-TLVs MUST be processed in the order received,
   and extra (unprocessed) SHOULD be ignored.

   The ResourceBlockInfo field contains several information elements as
   defined by [WSON-Encode]. The following rules apply to the sub-TLV:


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   o  RB Set Field can carry one or more RB Identifier. Only the first
      of RB Identifier listed in the RB Set Field SHALL be processed,
      any others SHOULD be ignored.

   o  In the case of unidirectional LSPs, only one ResourceBlockInfo
      sub-TLV SHALL be processed and the I and O bits can be safely
      ignored.

   o  In the case of a bidirectional LSP, there MUST be either:

     (a) only one ResourceBlockInfo sub-TLV present in a
         WSON_Processing Hop Attribute TLV, and the bits I and O both
         set to 1, or

     (b) two ResourceBlockInfo sub-TLVs present, one of which has only
         the I bit set and the other of which has only the O bit set.

   o  The rest of information carried within the ResourceBlockInfo
      sub-TLV includes Optical Interface Class List, Input Bit Rate
      List and Processing Capability List. These lists MAY contain one
      or more elements. These elements apply equally to both
      bidirectional and unidirectional LSPs.

   Any violation of these rules detected by a transit or egress node
   SHALL be treated as an error and be processed per [RSVP-RO].

   A ResourceBlockInfo sub-TLV can be constructed by a node and added
   to a ERO_Hop_ATTRIBUTE subobject in order to be processed by
   downstream nodes (transit and egress). As defined in [RSVP-RO], the
   R bit reflects the LSP_REQUIRED_ATTRIBUTE and LSP_ATTRIBUTE semantic
   defined in [RFC5420] and SHOULD be set accordingly.

   Once a node properly parses a ResourceBlockInfo Sub-TLV received in
   an ERO_Hop_ATTRIBUTE subobject (according to the rules stated above
   and in [RSVP-RO]), the node allocates the indicated resources, e.g.,
   the selected regeneration pool, for the LSP. In addition, the node
   SHOULD report compliance by adding a RRO_Hop_ATTRIBUTE subobject
   with the WSON Processing Hop Attribute TLV (and its sub-
   TLVs) indicating the utilized resources. ResourceBlockInfo Sub-TLVs
   carried in a RRO_Hop_ATTRIBUTE subobject are subject to [RSVP-RO]
   and standard RRO processing, see [RFC3209].

    4.2.2. WavelengthSelection Sub-TLV

   Routing + Distributed Wavelength Assignment (R+DWA) is one of the
   options defined by the [RFC6163]. The output from the routing


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   function will be a path but the wavelength will be selected on a
   hop-by-hop basis.

   As discussed in [RFC6163], the wavelength assignment can be either
   for a unidirectional lightpath or for a bidirectional lightpath
   constrained to use the same lambda in both directions.

   In order to indicate wavelength assignment directionality and
   wavelength assignment method, the Wavelength Selection, or
   WavelengthSelection, sub-TLV is defined to be carried in the WSON
   Processing Hop Attribute TLV defined above.

   The WavelengthSelection sub-TLV value field is defined as:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |W|  WA Method  |                    Reserved                   |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Where:

   W (1 bit): 0 denotes requiring the same wavelength in both
   directions, 1 denotes that different wavelengths on both directions
   are allowed.

   Wavelength Assignment (WA) Method (7 bits):

   0 - unspecified (any); This does not constrain the WA method used by
   a specific node. This value is implied when the WavelengthSelection
   Sub-TLV is absent.


   1 - First-Fit. All the wavelengths are numbered and this WA method
   chooses the available wavelength with the lowest index.

   2 - Random. This WA method chooses an available wavelength randomly.

   3 - Least-Loaded (multi-fiber). This WA method selects the
   wavelength that has the largest residual capacity on the most loaded
   link along the route. This method is used in multi-fiber networks.
   If used in single-fiber networks, it is equivalent to the FF WA
   method.

   4- 127: Unassigned.



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   The processing rules of this TLV are as follows:

   If a receiving node does not support the attribute(s), its behaviors
   are specified below:

   - W bit not supported: a PathErr MUST be generated with the Error
     Code "Routing Problem" (24) with error sub-code "Unsupported
     WavelengthSelection Symmetry value" (value to be assigned by IANA,
     suggested value: 107).

   - WA method not supported: a PathErr MUST be generated with the
     Error Code "Routing Problem" (24) with error sub-code "Unsupported
     Wavelength Assignment value" (value to be assigned by IANA,
     suggested value: 108).


   A WavelengthSelection sub-TLV can be constructed by a node and added
   to a ERO_Hop_ATTRIBUTE subobject in order to be processed by
   downstream nodes (transit and egress). As defined in [RSVP-RO], the
   R bit reflects the LSP_REQUIRED_ATTRIBUTE and LSP_ATTRIBUTE semantic
   defined in [RFC5420] and SHOULD be set accordingly.

   Once a node properly parses the WavelengthSelection Sub-TLV received
   in an ERO_Hop_ATTRIBUTE subobject, the node use the indicated
   wavelength assignment method (at that hop) for the LSP. In addition,
   the node SHOULD report compliance by adding a RRO_Hop_ATTRIBUTE
   subobject with the WSON Processing Hop Attribute TLV (and its
   sub-TLVs) indicated the utilized method. WavelengthSelection
   Sub-TLVs carried in a RRO_Hop_ATTRIBUTE subobject are subject to
   [RSVP-RO] and standard RRO processing, see [RFC3209].



5. Security Considerations

   This document is built on the mechanisms defined in [RFC3473], and
   only differs in specific information communicated. As such, this
   document introduces no new security considerations to the existing
   GMPLS signaling protocols. See [RFC3473], for details of the
   supported security measures. Additionally, [RFC5920] provides an
   overview of security vulnerabilities and protection mechanisms for
   the GMPLS control plane.



6. IANA Considerations



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   Upon approval of this document, IANA is requested to make the
   assignment of a new value for the existing "Attributes TLV Space"
   registry located at http://www.iana.org/assignments/rsvp-te-
   parameters/, as updated by [RSVP-RO]:

   Type  Name      Allowed on  Allowed on   Allowed on   Reference
                   LSP         LSP REQUIRED RO LSP
                   ATTRIBUTES  ATTRIBUTES   Attribute
                                            Subobject


   TBA   WSON      No          No           Yes          [This.I-D]
         Processing
         Hop
         Attribute
         TLV

   Upon approval of this document, IANA is requested to create a new
   registry named "Sub-TLV Types for WSON Processing Hop Attribute TLV"
   located at http://www.iana.org/assignments/rsvp-te-parameters/.

   The following entries are to be added:

   Value            Sub-TLV Type            Reference

   1                ResourceBlockInfo       [This.I-D]

   2                WavelengthSelection     [This.I-D]

   All assignments are to be performed via Standards Action or
   Specification Required policies as defined in [RFC5226
   <http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5226>].

   Upon approval of this document, IANA is requested to create a new
   registry named "Values for Wavelength Assignment Method field in
   WavelengthSelection Sub-TLV" located at
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/rsvp-te-parameters/.

   The following entries are to be added:


   Value          Meaning                    Reference


   0             unspecified                [This.I-D]

   1             First-Fit                  [This.I-D]


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   2             Random                     [This.I-D]

   3             Least-Loaded (multi-fiber) [This.I-D]

   4-127         unassigned


   All assignments are to be performed via Standards Action or
   Specification Required policies as defined in [RFC5226]. The
   assignment policy chosen for any specific code point must be
   clearly stated in the document that describes the code point so
   that IANA can apply the correct policy.


   Upon approval of this document, IANA is requested to make the
   assignment of a new value for the existing "Sub-Codes . 24 Routing
   Problem" registry located at http://www.iana.org/assignments/rsvp-
   parameters/:

   Value              Description                          Reference

   107                 Unsupported WavelengthSelection
                       symmetry value                       [This.I-D]

   108                 Unsupported Wavelength Assignment
                       value                                [This.I-D]

7. Acknowledgments

   Authors would like to thanks Lou Berger, Cyril Margaria and Xian
   Zhang for comments and suggestions.



8. References

    8.1. Normative References

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5226] Narten, T., H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
             IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 5226, May 2008.





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   [RFC6205] T. Otani, H. Guo, K. Miyazaki, D. Caviglia, "Generalized
             Labels for Lambda-Switch-Capable Label Switching
             Routers", RFC 6205, March 2011.

   [WSON-Encode]  Bernstein G., Lee Y., Li D., and W. Imajuku, "Routing
             and Wavelength Assignment Information Encoding for
             Wavelength Switched Optical Networks", draft-ietf-ccamp-
             rwa-wson-encode, work in progress.

   [WSON-OSPF] Lee, Y, Bernstein G., "GMPLS OSPF Enhancement for Signal
             and Network Element Compatibility for Wavelength Switched
             Optical Networks", draft-ietf-ccamp-wson-signal-
             compatibility-ospf, work in progress.

   [RFC5511] Farrel, A., "Routing Backus-Naur Form (RBNF): A Syntax
             Used to Form Encoding Rules in Various Routing Protocol
             Specifications", RFC 5511, April 2009.

   [RFC3209] Awduche, D., et al., "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP
             Tunnels", RFC 3209, December 2001.

   [RFC3471] Berger, L., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
             (GMPLS) Signaling Functional Description", RFC 3471,
             January 2003.

   [RFC3473] Berger, L., Ed., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
             Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Resource ReserVation Protocol-
             Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions", RFC 3473,
             January 2003.

   [RFC5420] Farrel, A., Ed., Papadimitriou, D., Vasseur, J.-P., and A.
             Ayyangar, "Encoding of Attributes for MPLS LSP
             Establishment Using Resource Reservation Protocol Traffic
             Engineering (RSVP-TE)", RFC 5420, February 2009.

   [RSVP-RO] Margaria, C., et al, "LSP Attribute in ERO", draft-ietf-
             ccamp-lsp-attribute-ro, work in progress.


    8.2. Informative References

   [RFC5920] Fang, L., Ed., "Security Framework for MPLS and GMPLS


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             Networks", RFC 5920, July 2010.

   [RFC6163]  Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, W. Imajuku, "Framework for GMPLS
             and PCE Control of Wavelength Switched Optical Networks",
             RFC 6163, February 2008.

   [RFC7446] G. Bernstein, Y. Lee, D. Li, W. Imajuku, "Routing and
             Wavelength Assignment Information Model for Wavelength
             Switched Optical Networks", RFC 7446, February 2015.



9. Contributors

   Nicola Andriolli
   Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy
   Email: nick@sssup.it

   Alessio Giorgetti
   Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy
   Email: a.giorgetti@sssup.it

   Lin Guo
   Key Laboratory of Optical Communication and Lightwave Technologies
   Ministry of Education
   P.O. Box 128, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications,
   P.R.China
   Email: guolintom@gmail.com

   Yuefeng Ji
   Key Laboratory of Optical Communication and Lightwave Technologies
   Ministry of Education
   P.O. Box 128, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications,
   P.R.China
   Email: jyf@bupt.edu.cn

   Daniel King
   Old Dog Consulting

   Email: daniel@olddog.co.uk


Authors' Addresses

   Greg M. Bernstein (editor)
   Grotto Networking
   Fremont California, USA


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   Phone: (510) 573-2237
   Email: gregb@grotto-networking.com

   Young Lee (editor)
   Huawei Technologies
   5340 Legacy Dr. Building 3
   Plano, TX 75024
   USA

   Phone: (469) 277-5838
   Email: leeyoung@huawei.com

   Sugang Xu
   National Institute of Information and Communications Technology
   4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei,
   Tokyo, 184-8795 Japan

   Phone: +81 42-327-6927
   Email: xsg@nict.go.j

   Giovanni Martinelli
   Cisco
   Via Philips 12
   20052 Monza, IT

   Phone: +39 039-209-2044
   Email: giomarti@cisco.com

   Hiroaki Harai
   National Institute of Information and Communications Technology
   4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei,
   Tokyo, 184-8795 Japan

   Phone: +81 42-327-5418
   Email: harai@nict.go.jp













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