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Network Working Group                              B. Niven-Jenkins, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                  Velocix (Alcatel-Lucent)
Intended status: Standards Track                 R. van Brandenburg, Ed.
Expires: January 3, 2016                                             TNO
                                                            July 2, 2015


     Request Routing Redirection Interface for CDN Interconnection
                     draft-ietf-cdni-redirection-10

Abstract

   The Request Routing Interface comprises of (1) the asynchronous
   advertisement of footprint and capabilities by a downstream Content
   Delivery Network (CDN) that allows an upstream CDN to decide whether
   to redirect particular user requests to that downstream CDN; and (2)
   the synchronous operation of an upstream CDN requesting whether a
   downstream CDN is prepared to accept a user request and of a
   downstream CDN responding with how to actually redirect the user
   request.  This document describes an interface for the latter part,
   i.e. the CDNI Request Routing Redirection interface.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 3, 2016.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents



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   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Interface function and operation overview . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  HTTP based interface for the Redirection Interface  . . . . .   5
     4.1.  Information passed in RI requests & responses . . . . . .   7
     4.2.  JSON encoding of RI requests & responses  . . . . . . . .   8
     4.3.  MIME Media Types used by the RI interface . . . . . . . .  10
     4.4.  DNS redirection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.4.1.  DNS Redirection requests  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.4.2.  DNS Redirection responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.5.  HTTP Redirection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.5.1.  HTTP Redirection requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.5.2.  HTTP Redirection responses  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     4.6.  Cacheability and scope of responses . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     4.7.  Error responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     4.8.  Loop detection & prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     6.1.  Media type registrations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       6.1.1.  CDNI RI requests  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       6.1.2.  CDNI RI responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     6.2.  RI Error response registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
   7.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30

1.  Introduction

   A Content Delivery Network (CDN) is a system built on an existing IP
   network which is used for large scale content delivery, via
   prefetching or dynamically caching content on its distributed
   surrogates (caching servers).  [RFC6707] describes the problem area
   of interconnecting CDNs.

   The CDNI Request Routing interface outlined in [RFC7336] comprises
   of:




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   1.  The asynchronous advertisement of footprint and capabilities by a
       downstream CDN (dCDN) that allows an upstream CDN (uCDN) to
       decide whether to redirect particular user requests to that dCDN.

   2.  The synchronous operation of a uCDN requesting whether a dCDN is
       prepared to accept a user request and of a dCDN responding with
       how to actually redirect the user request.

   This document describes an interface for the latter part, i.e. the
   CDNI Request Routing Redirection interface (RI).

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   This document reuses the terminology defined in [RFC6707].

   The following additional terms are introduced by this document:

   Application Level Redirection:  The act of using an application
      specific redirection mechanism for the request routing process of
      a CDN.  The Redirection Target (RT) is the result of the routing
      decision of a CDN at the time it receives a content request via an
      application specific protocol response.  Examples of an
      application level redirection are HTTP 302 Redirection and RTMP
      302 Redirection.

   DNS Redirection:  The act of using DNS name resolution for the
      request routing process of a CDN.  In DNS Redirection, the DNS
      name server of the CDN makes the routing decision based on a local
      policy and selects one or more Redirection Targets (RTs) and
      redirects the user agent to the RT(s) by returning the details of
      the RT(s) in response to the DNS query request from the user
      agent's DNS resolver.

   HTTP Redirection:  The act of using an HTTP redirection response for
      the request routing process of a CDN.  The Redirection Target (RT)
      is the result of the routing decision of a CDN at the time it
      receives a content request via HTTP.  HTTP Redirection is a
      particular case of Application Level Redirection.

   Redirection Target (RT):  A Redirection Target is the endpoint to
      which the user agent is redirected.  In CDNI, a RT may point to a
      number of different components, some examples include a surrogate
      in the same CDN as the request router, a request router in a dCDN
      or a surrogate in a dCDN, etc.



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3.  Interface function and operation overview

   The main function of the CDNI Redirection interface (RI) is to allow
   the request routing systems in interconnected CDNs to communicate to
   facilitate the redirection of User Agent requests between
   interconnected CDNs.

   The detailed requirements for the Redirection Interface and their
   relative priorities are described in section 5 of [RFC7337].

   The User Agent will make a request to a request router in the uCDN
   using one of either DNS or HTTP.  The RI is used between the uCDN and
   one or more dCDNs.  The dCDN's RI response may contain a Redirection
   Target with a type that is compatible with the protocol used between
   User Agent and uCDN request router.  The dCDN has control over the
   Redirection Target it provides.  Depending on the returned
   Redirection Target, the User Agent's request may be redirected to:

   o  The final Surrogate, which may be in the dCDN that returned the RI
      response to the uCDN, or another CDN (if the dCDN delegates the
      delivery to another CDN).

   o  A request router (in the dCDN or another CDN), which may use a
      different redirection protocol (DNS or HTTP) than the one included
      in the RI request.

   The Redirection interface operates between the request routing
   systems of a pair of interconnected CDNs.  To enable communication
   over the Redirection Interface, the uCDN needs to know the URI (end
   point) in the dCDN to send CDNI request routing queries.

   The Redirection Interface URI may be statically pre-configured,
   dynamically discovered via the CDNI Control interface, or discovered
   via other means.  However, such discovery mechanisms are not
   specified in this document, as they are considered out of the scope
   of the Redirection Interface specification.

   The Redirection Interface is only relevant in the case of Recursive
   Request Redirection, as Iterative Request Redirection does not invoke
   any interaction over the Redirection Interface between interconnected
   CDNs.  Therefore the scope of this document is limited to Recursive
   Request Redirection.

   In the case of Recursive Request Redirection, in order to perform
   redirection of a request received from a User Agent, the uCDN queries
   the dCDN so that the dCDN can select and provide a Redirection
   Target.  In cases where a uCDN has a choice of dCDNs it is up to the
   uCDN to decide (for example via configured policies) which dCDN(s) to



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   query and in which order to query them.  A number of strategies are
   possible including selecting a preferred dCDN based on local policy,
   possibly falling back to querying an alternative dCDN(s) if the first
   dCDN does not return a Redirection Target or otherwise rejects the
   uCDN's RI request.  A more complex strategy could be to query
   multiple dCDNs in parallel before selecting one and using the
   Redirection Target provided by that dCDN.

   The uCDN->User Agent redirection protocols addressed in this draft
   are: DNS redirection and HTTP redirection.  Other types of
   application level redirection will not be discussed further in this
   document.  However, the Redirection Interface is designed to be
   extensible and could be extended to support additional application
   level redirection protocols.

   This document also defines an RI loop prevention and detection
   mechanism as part of the Redirection Interface.

4.  HTTP based interface for the Redirection Interface

   This document defines a simple interface for the Redirection
   Interface based on HTTP 1.1 [RFC7230], where the attributes of a User
   Agent's requests are encapsulated along with any other data that can
   aid the dCDN in processing the requests.  The RI response
   encapsulates the attributes of the RT(s) that the uCDN should return
   to the User Agent (if it decides to utilize the dCDN for delivery)
   along with the policy for how the response can be reused.  The
   examples of RI requests and responses below do not contain a complete
   set of HTTP headers for brevity; only the pertinent HTTP headers are
   shown.

   The same HTTP interface is used for both DNS and HTTP redirection of
   User Agent requests, although the contents of the RI requests/
   responses contain data specific to either DNS or HTTP redirection.

   This approach has been chosen because it enables CDN operators to
   only have to deploy a single interface for the RI between their CDNs,
   regardless of the User Agent redirection method.  In this way, from
   an operational point of view there is only one interface to monitor,
   manage, develop troubleshooting tools for, etc.

   In addition, having a single RI where the attributes of the User
   Agent's DNS or HTTP request are encapsulated along with the other
   data required for the dCDN to make a request routing decision, avoids
   having to try and encapsulate or proxy DNS/HTTP/RTMP/etc requests and
   find ways to somehow embed the additional CDNI Request Routing
   Redirection interface properties/data within those End User
   DNS/HTTP/RTMP/etc requests.



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   Finally, the RI is easily extendable to support other User Agent
   request redirection methods (e.g.  RTMP 302 redirection).

   The generic Recursive Request Redirection message flow between
   Request Routing systems in a pair of interconnected CDNs is as
   follows:

   User Agent                CDN B RR                  CDN A RR
       |UA Request (DNS or HTTP) |                         |
       |-------------------------------------------------->| (1)
       |                         |                         |
       |                         |HTTP POST to CDN B's RI  |
       |                         |URI encapsulating UA     |
       |                         |request attributes       |
       |                         |<------------------------| (2)
       |                         |                         |
       |                         |HTTP Response with body  |
       |                         |containing RT attributes |
       |                         |of the protocol specific |
       |                         |response to return to UA |
       |                         |------------------------>| (3)
       |                         |                         |
       |           Protocol specific response (redirection)|
       |<--------------------------------------------------| (4)
       |                         |                         |

       Figure 1: Generic Recursive Request Redirection message flow

   1.  The User Agent sends its (DNS or HTTP) request to CDN A.  The
       Request Routing System of CDN A processes the request and,
       through local policy, recognizes that the request is best served
       by another CDN, specifically CDN B (or that CDN B may be one of a
       number of candidate dCDNs it could use).

   2.  The Request Routing System of CDN A sends an HTTP POST to CDN B's
       RI URI containing the attributes of the User Agent's request.

   3.  The Request Routing System of CDN B processes the RI request and
       assuming the request is well formed, responds with an HTTP "200"
       response with a message body containing the RT(s) to return to
       the User Agent as well as parameters that indicate the properties
       of the response (cacheability and scope).

   4.  The Request Routing System of CDN A sends a protocol specific
       response (containing the returned attributes) to the User Agent,
       so that the User Agent's request will be redirected to the RT(s)
       returned by CDN B.




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4.1.  Information passed in RI requests & responses

   The information passed in RI requests splits into two basic
   categories:

   1.  The attributes of the User Agent's request to the uCDN.

   2.  Properties/parameters that the uCDN can use to control the dCDN's
       response or that can help the dCDN make its decision.

   To assist the routing decision of a dCDN, the uCDN SHOULD convey as
   much information as possible to the dCDN, for example the URI of the
   requested content and the User Agent's IP address or subnet, when
   those are known by the uCDN Request Routing system.

   In order for the dCDN to determine whether it is capable of
   delivering any requested content, it requires CDNI metadata related
   to the content the User Agent is requesting.  That metadata will
   describe the content and any policies associated with it.  It is
   expected that the RI request contains sufficient information for the
   Request Router in the dCDN to be able to retrieve the required CDNI
   Metadata via the CDNI Metadata interface.

   The information passed in RI responses splits into two basic
   categories:

   1.  The attributes of the RT to return to the User Agent in the DNS
       response or HTTP response.

   2.  Parameters/policies that indicate the properties of the response,
       such as, whether it is cacheable, the scope of the response, etc.

   In addition to details of how to redirect the User Agent, the dCDN
   may wish to return additional policy information to the uCDN to it
   with future RI requests.  For example the dCDN may wish to return a
   policy that expresses "this response can be reused without requiring
   an RI request for 60 seconds provided the User Agent's IP address is
   in the range 198.51.100.0 - 198.51.100.255".

   These additional policies split into two basic categories:

   o  Cacheability information signaled via the HTTP response headers of
      the RI response (to reduce the number of subsequent RI requests
      the uCDN needs to make).

   o  The scope of the response (if it is cacheable) signaled the HTTP
      response body of the RI response.  For example whether the




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      response applies to a wider range of IP addresses than what was
      included in the RI request.

   The cacheability of the response is indicated using the standard HTTP
   Cache-Control mechanisms.

4.2.  JSON encoding of RI requests & responses

   The body of RI requests and responses is a JSON object [RFC7159] that
   MUST conform to [RFC7493] containing a dictionary of key:value pairs.

   The following additional rules apply to all keys in RI requests and
   responses (whether in the top level object or in sub-objects):

   o  Keys MUST always be encoded in lowercase.  Requests or responses
      containing keys that are not all lowercase MUST be considered
      syntactically invalid.

   o  Unknown keys MUST be ignored but the request or response MUST NOT
      be considered invalid unless the syntax of the request or response
      is invalid (i.e. an RI request or response MUST NOT be considered
      invalid on the basis that it contains unknown keys).

   The following top level keys are defined along with whether they are
   applicable to RI requests, RI responses or both:


























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   +----------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
   | Key      | Request/Response | Description                         |
   +----------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
   | dns      | Both             | The attributes of the UA's DNS      |
   |          |                  | request or the attributes of the    |
   |          |                  | RT(s) to return in a DNS response.  |
   | http     | Both             | The attributes of the UA's HTTP     |
   |          |                  | request or the attributes of the RT |
   |          |                  | to return in a HTTP response.       |
   | scope    | Response         | The scope of the response (if it is |
   |          |                  | cacheable). For example whether the |
   |          |                  | response applies to a wider range   |
   |          |                  | of IP addresses than what was       |
   |          |                  | included in the RI request.         |
   | error    | Response         | Additional details if the response  |
   |          |                  | is an error response.               |
   | cdn-path | Both             | A List of Strings. Contains a list  |
   |          |                  | of the CDN Provider IDs of previous |
   |          |                  | CDNs that have participated in the  |
   |          |                  | request routing for the associated  |
   |          |                  | User Agent request. On RI requests  |
   |          |                  | it contains the list of previous    |
   |          |                  | CDNs that this RI request has       |
   |          |                  | passed through. On RI responses it  |
   |          |                  | contains the list of CDNs that were |
   |          |                  | involved in obtaining the final     |
   |          |                  | redirection included in the RI      |
   |          |                  | response.                           |
   | max-hops | Request          | Integer specifying the maximum      |
   |          |                  | number of hops (CDN Provider IDs)   |
   |          |                  | this request is allowed to be       |
   |          |                  | propagated along. This allows the   |
   |          |                  | uCDN to coarsely constrain the      |
   |          |                  | latency of the request routing      |
   |          |                  | chain.                              |
   +----------+------------------+-------------------------------------+

                  Top-Level keys in RI requests/responses

   A single request or response MUST contain only one of the dns or http
   keys.  Requests MUST contain a cdn-path key and responses MAY contain
   a cdn-path key.  If the max-hops key is not present then there is no
   limit on the number of CDN hops that the RI request can be propagated
   along.  If the first uCDN does not wish the RI request to be
   propagated beyond the dCDN it is making the request to, then the uCDN
   MUST set max-hops to 1.





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   When cascading an RI request, a transit CDN MUST append its own CDN
   Provider ID to the list in cdn-path so that dCDNs can detect loops in
   the RI request chain.  Transit CDNs MUST check the cdn-path and MUST
   NOT cascade the RI request to dCDNs that are already listed in cdn-
   path.  Transit CDNs MUST NOT modify the cdn-path when cascading an RI
   request, except to append its own CDN Provider ID.

   The cdn-path MAY be reflected back in RI responses, although doing so
   could expose information to the uCDN that a dCDN may not wish to
   expose (for example, the existence of business relationships between
   a dCDN and other CDNs).

   If the cdn-path is reflected back in the RI response it MUST contain
   the value of cdn-path received in the associated RI request with the
   final dCDN's CDN Provider ID appended.  Transit CDNs MAY remove the
   cdn-path from RI responses but MUST NOT modify the cdn-path in other
   ways.

   The presence of an error key within a response that also contains
   either a dns or http key does not automatically indicate that the RI
   request was unsuccessful as the error key MAY be used for
   communicating additional (e.g. debugging) information.  When a
   response contains an error key as well as either a dns or http key,
   the error-code SHOULD be 1xx (e.g. 100).  See Section 4.7 for more
   details of encoding error information in RI responses.

   Note: All implementations MUST support IPv4 addresses encoded as
   specified by the 'IPv4address' rule in Section 3.2.2 of [RFC3986] and
   MUST support all IPv6 address formats specified in [RFC4291].  Server
   implementations SHOULD use IPv6 address formats specified in
   [RFC5952].

4.3.  MIME Media Types used by the RI interface

   RI requests MUST use a MIME Media Type of application/
   cdni.redirectionrequest+json.

   RI responses MUST use a MIME Media Type of application/
   cdni.redirectionresponse+json.

4.4.  DNS redirection

   The following sections provide detailed descriptions of the
   information that should be passed in RI requests and responses for
   DNS redirection.






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4.4.1.  DNS Redirection requests

   For DNS based redirection the uCDN needs to pass the following
   information to the dCDN in the RI request:

   o  The IP address of the DNS resolver that made the DNS request to
      the uCDN.

   o  The type of DNS query made (usually either A or AAAA).

   o  The class of DNS query made (usually IN).

   o  The fully qualified domain name for which DNS redirection is being
      requested.

   o  The IP address or prefix of the User Agent (if known to the uCDN).

   The information above is encoded as a set of key:value pairs within
   the dns dictionary as follows:

   +-------------+---------+-----------+-------------------------------+
   | Key         | Value   | Mandatory | Description                   |
   +-------------+---------+-----------+-------------------------------+
   | resolver-ip | String  | Yes       | The IP address of the UA's    |
   |             |         |           | DNS resolver.                 |
   | qtype       | String  | Yes       | The type of DNS query made by |
   |             |         |           | the UA's DNS resolvers in     |
   |             |         |           | uppercase (A, AAAA, etc.).    |
   | qclass      | String  | Yes       | The class of DNS query made   |
   |             |         |           | in uppercase (IN, etc.).      |
   | qname       | String  | Yes       | The fully qualified domain    |
   |             |         |           | name being queried.           |
   | c-subnet    | String  | No        | The IP address (or prefix) of |
   |             |         |           | the UA in CIDR format.        |
   | dns-only    | Boolean | No        | If True then dCDN MUST only   |
   |             |         |           | use DNS redirection and MUST  |
   |             |         |           | include RTs to one or more    |
   |             |         |           | surrogates in its RI          |
   |             |         |           | response. CDNs MUST include   |
   |             |         |           | the dns-only property set to  |
   |             |         |           | True on any cascaded RI       |
   |             |         |           | requests. Defaults to False.  |
   +-------------+---------+-----------+-------------------------------+

   An RI request for DNS-based redirection MUST include a dns
   dictionary.  This dns dictionary MUST contain the following keys:
   resolver-ip, qtype, qclass, qname and the value of each MUST be the
   value of the appropriate part of the User Agent's DNS query/request.



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   An example RI request (uCDN->dCDN) for DNS based redirection:

   POST /dcdn/ri HTTP/1.1
   Host: rr1.dcdn.example.net
   Content-Type: application/cdni.redirectionrequest+json
   Accept: application/cdni.redirectionresponse+json

   {
     "dns" : {
       "resolver-ip" : "192.0.2.1",
       "c-subnet" : "198.51.100.0/24",
       "qtype" : "A",
       "qclass" : "IN",
       "qname" : "www.example.com"
     },
     "cdn-path": ["AS64496:0"],
     "max-hops": 3
   }

4.4.2.  DNS Redirection responses

   For a successful DNS based redirection, the dCDN needs to return one
   of the following to the uCDN in the RI response:

   o  The IP address(es) of (or the CNAME of) RTs that are dCDN
      surrogates (if the dCDN is performing DNS based redirection
      directly to a surrogate); or

   o  The IP address(es) of (or the CNAME of) RTs that are Request
      Routers (if the dCDN will perform request redirection itself).  A
      dCDN MUST NOT return a RT which is a Request Router if the dns-
      only key is set to True in the RI request.

   The information above is encoded as a set of key:value pairs within
   the dns dictionary as follows:
















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   +-------+-----------+-----------+-----------------------------------+
   | Key   | Value     | Mandatory | Description                       |
   +-------+-----------+-----------+-----------------------------------+
   | rcode | Integer   | Yes       | DNS response code (see            |
   |       |           |           | [RFC6895]).                       |
   | name  | String    | Yes       | The fully qualified domain name   |
   |       |           |           | the response relates to.          |
   | a     | List of   | No        | Set of IPv4 Addresses of RT(s).   |
   |       | String    |           |                                   |
   | aaaa  | List of   | No        | Set of IPv6 Addresses of RT(s).   |
   |       | String    |           |                                   |
   | cname | List of   | No        | Set of fully qualified domain     |
   |       | String    |           | names of RT(s).                   |
   | ttl   | Integer   | No        | TTL in seconds of DNS response.   |
   |       |           |           | Default is 0.                     |
   +-------+-----------+-----------+-----------------------------------+

   A successful RI response for DNS-based redirection MUST include a dns
   dictionary and MAY include an error dictionary (see Section 4.7).  An
   unsuccessful RI response for DNS-based redirection MUST include an
   error dictionary.  If a dns dictionary is included in the RI
   response, it MUST include at least one of the following keys: a,
   aaaa, cname.  The dns dictionary MAY include both 'a' and 'aaaa'
   keys.  If the dns dictionary contains a cname key it MUST NOT contain
   either an a or aaaa key.

   An example of a successful RI response (dCDN->uCDN) for DNS based
   redirection with both a and aaaa keys is listed below :

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Date: Mon, 06 Aug 2012 18:41:38 GMT
   Content-Type: application/cdni.redirectionresponse+json

   {
     "dns" : {
       "rcode" : 0,
       "name" : "www.example.com",
       "a" : ["203.0.113.200", "203.0.113.201", "203.0.113.202"],
       "aaaa" : ["2001:DB8::C8", "2001:DB8::C9"],
       "ttl" : 60
     }
   }

   A further example of a successful RI response (dCDN->uCDN) for DNS
   based redirection is listed below, in this case with a cname key
   containing the FQDN of the RT.





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   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Date: Mon, 06 Aug 2012 18:41:38 GMT
   Content-Type: application/cdni.redirectionresponse+json

   {
     "dns" : {
       "rcode" : 0,
       "name" : "www.example.com",
       "cname" : ["rr1.dcdn.example"],
       "ttl" : 20
     }
   }

4.5.  HTTP Redirection

   The following sections provide detailed descriptions of the
   information that should be passed in RI requests and responses for
   HTTP redirection.

   The dictionary keys used in HTTP Redirection requests and responses
   use the following conventions for their prefixes:

   o  c- is prefixed to keys for information related to the Client (User
      Agent).

   o  cs- is prefixed to keys for information passed by the Client (User
      Agent) to the Server (uCDN).

   o  sc- is prefixed to keys for information to be passed by the Server
      (uCDN) to the Client (User Agent).

4.5.1.  HTTP Redirection requests

   For HTTP-based redirection the uCDN needs to pass the following
   information to the dCDN in the RI request:

   o  The IP address of the User Agent.

   o  The URI requested by the User Agent.

   o  The HTTP method requested by the User Agent

   o  The HTTP version number requested by the User Agent.

   The uCDN may also decide to pass the presence and value of particular
   HTTP headers included in the User Agent request to the dCDN.





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   The information above is encoded as a set of key:value pairs within
   the http dictionary as follows:

   +-------------------+--------+-----------+--------------------------+
   | Key               | Value  | Mandatory | Description              |
   +-------------------+--------+-----------+--------------------------+
   | c-ip              | String | Yes       | The IP address of the    |
   |                   |        |           | UA.                      |
   | cs-uri            | String | Yes       | The Effective Request    |
   |                   |        |           | URI [RFC7230] requested  |
   |                   |        |           | by the UA.               |
   | cs-method         | String | Yes       | The method part of the   |
   |                   |        |           | request-line as defined  |
   |                   |        |           | in Section 3.1.1 of      |
   |                   |        |           | [RFC7230].               |
   | cs-version        | String | Yes       | The HTTP-version part of |
   |                   |        |           | the request-line as      |
   |                   |        |           | defined in Section 3.1.1 |
   |                   |        |           | of [RFC7230].            |
   | cs-(<headername>) | String | No        | The field-value of the   |
   |                   |        |           | HTTP header field named  |
   |                   |        |           | <HeaderName> as a        |
   |                   |        |           | string, for example      |
   |                   |        |           | cs-(cookie) would        |
   |                   |        |           | contain the value of the |
   |                   |        |           | HTTP Cookie header from  |
   |                   |        |           | the UA request.          |
   +-------------------+--------+-----------+--------------------------+

   An RI request for HTTP-based redirection MUST include an http
   dictionary.  This http dictionary MUST contain the following keys:
   c-ip, cs-method, cs-version and cs-uri and the value of each MUST be
   the value of the appropriate part of the User Agent's HTTP request.

   The http dictionary of an RI request MUST contain a maximum of one
   cs-(<headername>) key for each unique header field-name (HTTP header
   field). <headername> MUST be identical to the equivalent HTTP header
   field-name encoded in all lowercase.

   In the case where the User Agent request includes multiple HTTP
   header fields with the same field-name, it is RECOMMENDED that the
   uCDN combines these different HTTP headers into a single value
   according to Section 3.2.2 of [RFC7230].  However, because of the
   plurality of already defined HTTP header fields, and inconsistency of
   some of these header fields concerning the combination mechanism
   defined in RFC 7230, the uCDN MAY have to deviate from using the
   combination mechanism where appropriate.  For example, it MAY only




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   send the contents of the first occurrence of the HTTP Headers
   instead.

   An example RI request (uCDN->dCDN) for HTTP based redirection:

   POST /dcdn/rrri HTTP/1.1
   Host: rr1.dcdn.example.net
   Content-Type: application/cdni.redirectionrequest+json
   Accept: application/cdni.redirectionresponse+json

   {
     "http": {
       "c-ip": "198.51.100.1",
       "cs-uri": "http://www.example.com",
       "cs-version": "HTTP/1.1",
       "cs-method": "GET"
     },
     "cdn-path": ["AS64496:0"],
     "max-hops": 3
   }

4.5.2.  HTTP Redirection responses

   For a successful HTTP based redirection, the dCDN needs to return one
   of the following to the uCDN in the RI response:

   o  A URI pointing to an RT that is the selected dCDN surrogate(s) (if
      the dCDN is performing HTTP based redirection directly to a
      surrogate); or

   o  A URI pointing to an RT that is a Request Router (if the dCDN will
      perform request redirection itself).

   The information above is encoded as a set of key:value pairs within
   the http dictionary as follows:
















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   +-------------------+---------+-----------+-------------------------+
   | Key               | Value   | Mandatory | Description             |
   +-------------------+---------+-----------+-------------------------+
   | sc-status         | Integer | Yes       | The status-code part of |
   |                   |         |           | the status-line as      |
   |                   |         |           | defined in Section      |
   |                   |         |           | 3.1.2 of [RFC7230] to   |
   |                   |         |           | return to the UA        |
   |                   |         |           | (usually set to 302).   |
   | sc-version        | String  | Yes       | The HTTP-version part   |
   |                   |         |           | of the status-line as   |
   |                   |         |           | defined in Section      |
   |                   |         |           | 3.1.2 of [RFC7230] to   |
   |                   |         |           | return to the UA.       |
   | sc-reason         | String  | Yes       | The reason-phrase part  |
   |                   |         |           | of the status-line as   |
   |                   |         |           | defined in Section      |
   |                   |         |           | 3.1.2 of [RFC7230] to   |
   |                   |         |           | return to the UA.       |
   | cs-uri            | String  | Yes       | The URI requested by    |
   |                   |         |           | the UA/client.          |
   | sc-(location)     | String  | Yes       | The contents of the     |
   |                   |         |           | Location header to      |
   |                   |         |           | return to the UA (i.e.  |
   |                   |         |           | a URI pointing to the   |
   |                   |         |           | RT(s)).                 |
   | sc-(<headername>) | String  | No        | The field-value of the  |
   |                   |         |           | HTTP header field named |
   |                   |         |           | <HeaderName> to return  |
   |                   |         |           | to the UA. For example, |
   |                   |         |           | sc-(expires) would      |
   |                   |         |           | contain the value of    |
   |                   |         |           | the HTTP Expires        |
   |                   |         |           | header.                 |
   +-------------------+---------+-----------+-------------------------+

   Note: The sc-(location) key in the table above is an example of
   sc-(<headername>) that has been called out separately as its presence
   is mandatory in RI responses.

   A successful RI response for HTTP-based redirection MUST include an
   http dictionary and MAY include an error dictionary (see
   Section 4.7).  An unsuccessful RI response for HTTP-based redirection
   MUST include an error dictionary.  If an http dictionary is included
   in the RI response, it MUST include at least the following keys: sc-
   status, sc-version, sc-reason, cs-uri, sc-(location).





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   The http dictionary of an RI response MUST contain a maximum of one
   sc-(<headername>) key for each unique header field-name (HTTP header
   field). <headername> MUST be identical to the equivalent HTTP header
   field-name encoded in all lowercase.

   The uCDN MAY decide to not return, override or alter any or all of
   the HTTP headers defined by sc-(<headername>) keys before sending the
   HTTP response to the UA.  It should be noted that in some cases,
   sending the HTTP Headers indicated by the dCDN transparently on to
   the UA might result in, for the uCDN, undesired behaviour.  As an
   example, the dCDN might include sc-(cache-control), sc-(last-
   modified) and sc-(expires) keys in the http dictionary, through which
   the dCDN may try to influence the cacheability of the response by the
   UA.  If the uCDN would pass these HTTP headers on to the UA, this
   could mean that further requests from the uCDN would go directly to
   the dCDN, bypassing the uCDN and any logging it may perform on
   incoming requests.  The uCDN is therefore recommended to carefully
   consider which HTTP headers to pass on, and which to either override
   or not pass on at all.

   An example of a successful RI response (dCDN->uCDN) for HTTP based
   redirection:

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Date: Mon, 06 Aug 2012 18:41:38 GMT
   Content-Type: application/cdni.redirectionresponse+json

   {
     "http": {
       "sc-status": 302,
       "sc-version": "HTTP/1.1",
       "sc-reason": "Found",
       "cs-uri": "http://www.example.com"
       "sc-(location)":
         "http://sur1.dcdn.example/ucdn/example.com",
     }
   }

4.6.  Cacheability and scope of responses

   RI responses may be cacheable.  As long as a cached RI response is
   not stale according to standard HTTP Cache-Control or other
   applicable mechanisms, it may be reused by the uCDN in response to
   User Agent requests without sending another RI request to the dCDN.

   An RI response MUST NOT be reused unless the request from the User
   Agent would generate an identical RI request to the dCDN as the one
   that resulted in the cached RI response (except for the c-ip field



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   provided that the User Agent's c-ip is covered by the scope in the
   original RI response, as elaborated upon below).

   Additionally, although RI requests only encode a single User Agent
   request to be redirected there may be cases where a dCDN wishes to
   indicate to the uCDN that the RI response can be reused for other
   User Agent requests without the uCDN having to make another request
   via the RI.  For example a dCDN may know that it will always select
   the same Surrogates for a given set of User Agent IP addresses and in
   order to reduce request volume across the RI or to remove the
   additional latency associated with an RI request, the dCDN may wish
   to indicate that set of User Agent IP addresses to the uCDN in the
   initial RI response.  This is achieved by including an optional scope
   dictionary in the RI response.

   Scope is encoded as a set of key:value pairs within the scope
   dictionary as follows:

   +---------+--------+-----------+------------------------------------+
   | Key     | Value  | Mandatory | Description                        |
   +---------+--------+-----------+------------------------------------+
   | iprange | List   | No        | A List of IP subnets in CIDR       |
   |         | of     |           | notation that this RI response can |
   |         | String |           | be reused for, provided the RI     |
   |         |        |           | response is still considered       |
   |         |        |           | fresh.                             |
   +---------+--------+-----------+------------------------------------+

   If a uCDN has multiple cached responses with overlapping scopes and a
   UA request comes in for which the User Agent's IP matches with the IP
   subnets in multiple of these cached responses, the uCDN SHOULD use
   the most recent cached response when determining the approriate RI
   response to use.

   The following is an example of a DNS redirection response from
   Section 4.4.2 that is cacheable by the uCDN for 30 seconds and can be
   returned to any User Agent with an IPv4 address in 198.51.100.0/24.














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   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Date: Mon, 06 Aug 2012 18:41:38 GMT
   Content-Type: application/cdni.redirectionresponse+json
   Cache-Control: public, max-age=30

   {
     "dns" : {
       "rcode" : 0,
       "name" : "www.example.com",
       "a" : ["203.0.113.200", "203.0.113.201"],
       "aaaa" : ["2001:DB8::C8", "2001:DB8::C9"],
       "ttl" : 60
     }
     "scope" : {
       "iprange" : ["198.51.100.0/24"]
     }
   }

   Example of HTTP redirection response from Section 4.5.2 that is
   cacheable by the uCDN for 60 seconds and can be returned to any User
   Agent with an IPv4 address in 198.51.100.0/24.

   Note: The response to the UA is only valid for 30 seconds, whereas
   the uCDN can cache the RI response for 60 seconds.

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Date: Mon, 06 Aug 2012 18:41:38 GMT
   Content-Type: application/cdni.redirectionresponse+json
   Cache-Control: public, max-age=60

   {
     "http": {
       "sc-status": 302,
       "cs-uri": "http://www.example.com"
       "sc-(location)":
         "http://sur1.dcdn.example/ucdn/example.com",
       "sc-(cache-control)" : "public, max-age=30"
     }
     "scope" : {
       "iprange" : ["198.51.100.0/24"]
     }
   }

4.7.  Error responses

   From a uCDN perspective, there are two types of errors that can be
   the result of the transmission of an RI request to a dCDN:




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   1.  An HTTP protocol error signaled via an HTTP status code,
       indicating a problem with the reception or parsing of the RI
       request or the generation of the RI response by the dCDN, and

   2.  An RI-level error specified in an RI response message

   This section deals with the latter type.  The former type is outside
   the scope of this document.

   There are numerous reasons for a dCDN to be unable to return an
   affirmative RI response to a uCDN.  Reasons may include both dCDN
   internal issues such as capacity problems, as well as reasons outside
   the influence of the dCDN, such as a malformed RI request.  To aid
   with diagnosing the cause of errors, RI responses SHOULD include an
   error dictionary to provide additional information to the uCDN as to
   the reason/cause of the error.  The intention behind the error
   dictionary is to aid with either manual or automatic diagnosis of
   issues.  The resolution of such issues is outside the scope of this
   document; this document does not specify any consequent actions a
   uCDN should take upon receiving a particular error code.

   Error information (if present) is encoded as a set of key:value pairs
   within a JSON-encoded error dictionary as follows:

   +------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+
   | Key        | Value   | Mandatory | Description                    |
   +------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+
   | error-code | Integer | Yes       | A three-digit numeric code     |
   |            |         |           | defined by the server to       |
   |            |         |           | indicate the error(s) that     |
   |            |         |           | occurred.                      |
   | reason     | String  | No        | A string providing further     |
   |            |         |           | information related to the     |
   |            |         |           | error.                         |
   +------------+---------+-----------+--------------------------------+

   The first digit of the error-code defines the class of error.  There
   are 5 classes of error distinguished by the first digit of the error-
   code:

      1xx: Informational (no error): The response should not be
      considered an error by the uCDN, which may proceed by redirecting
      the UA according to the values in the RI response.  The error code
      and accompanying description may be used for informational
      purposes, e.g. for logging.

      2xx: Reserved.




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      3xx: Reserved.

      4xx: uCDN error: The dCDN can not or will not process the request
      due to something that is perceived to be a uCDN error, for example
      the RI request could not be parsed succesfully by the dCDN.  The
      last two-digits may be used to more specifically indicate the
      source of the problem.

      5xx: dCDN error: Indicates that the dCDN is aware that it has
      erred or is incapable of satisfying the RI request for some
      reason, for example the dCDN was able to parse the RI request but
      encountered an error for some reason.  Examples include the dCDN
      not being able to retrieve the associated metadata or the dCDN
      being out of capacity.

   The following error codes are defined and maintained by IANA (see
   Section 6):

   Error codes with a "Reason" of "<reason>" do not have a defined value
   for their 'reason'-key.  Depending on the error-code semantics, the
   value of this field may be determined dynamically.






























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   +------+--------------+---------------------------------------------+
   | Code | Reason       | Description                                 |
   +------+--------------+---------------------------------------------+
   | 100  | <reason>     | Generic informational error-code meant for  |
   |      | (see         | carrying a human-readable string            |
   |      | Description) |                                             |
   | 400  | <reason>     | Generic error-code for uCDN errors where    |
   |      | (see         | the dCDN can not or will not process the    |
   |      | Description) | request due to something that is perceived  |
   |      |              | to be a uCDN error. The reason field may be |
   |      |              | used to provide more details about the      |
   |      |              | source of the error.                        |
   | 500  | <reason>     | Generic error-code for dCDN errors where    |
   |      | (see         | the dCDN is aware that it has erred or is   |
   |      | Description) | incapable of satisfying the RI request for  |
   |      |              | some reason. The reason field may be used   |
   |      |              | to provide more details about the source of |
   |      |              | the error.                                  |
   | 501  | Unable to    | The dCDN is unable to retrieve the metadata |
   |      | retrieve     | associated with the content requested by    |
   |      | metadata     | the UA. This may indicate a configuration   |
   |      |              | error or the content requested by the UA    |
   |      |              | not existing.                               |
   | 502  | Loop         | The dCDN detected a redirection loop (see   |
   |      | detected     | Section 4.8).                               |
   | 503  | Maximum hops | The dCDN detected the maximum number of     |
   |      | exceeded     | redirection hops exceeding max-hops (see    |
   |      |              | Section 4.8).                               |
   | 504  | Out of       | The dCDN does not currently have sufficient |
   |      | capacity     | capacity to handle the UA request.          |
   | 505  | Delivery     | The dCDN does not support the (set of)      |
   |      | protocol not | delivery protocols indicated in the CDNI    |
   |      | supported    | Metadata of the content requested content   |
   |      |              | by the UA.                                  |
   | 506  | Redirection  | The dCDN does not support the requested     |
   |      | protocol not | redirection protocol.  This error-code is   |
   |      | supported    | also used when the RI request has the dns-  |
   |      |              | only flag set to True and the dCDN is not   |
   |      |              | support or is not prepared to return a RT   |
   |      |              | of a surrogate directly.                    |
   +------+--------------+---------------------------------------------+

                                  Table 1

   The following is an example of an unsuccessful RI response
   (dCDN->uCDN) for a DNS based User Agent request:





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   HTTP/1.1 500 Internal Server Error
   Date: Mon, 06 Aug 2012 18:41:38 GMT
   Content-Type: application/cdni.redirectionresponse+json
   Cache-Control: private, no-cache

   {
     "error" : {
       "error-code" : 504,
       "description" : "Out of capacity"
     }
   }

   The following is an example of a successful RI response (dCDN->uCDN)
   for a HTTP based User Agent request containing an error dictionary
   for informational purposes:

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Date: Mon, 06 Aug 2012 18:41:38 GMT
   Content-Type: application/cdni.redirectionresponse+json
   Cache-Control: private, no-cache

   {
      "http": {
       "sc-status": 302,
       "sc-version": "HTTP/1.1",
       "sc-reason": "Found",
       "cs-uri": "http://www.example.com"
       "sc-(location)":
         "http://sur1.dcdn.example/ucdn/example.com",
      },
      "error" : {
       "error-code" : 100,
       "description" :
         "This is a human-readable message meant for debugging purposes"
     }
   }

4.8.  Loop detection & prevention

   In order to prevent and detect RI request loops, each CDN MUST insert
   its CDN Provider ID into the cdn-path key of every RI request it
   originates or cascades.  When receiving RI requests a dCDN MUST check
   the cdn-path and reject any RI requests which already contain the
   dCDN's Provider ID in the cdn-path.  Transit CDNs MUST check the cdn-
   path and not cascade the RI request to dCDNs that are already listed
   in cdn-path.  Transit CDNs MUST NOT propagate to any downstream CDNs
   if the number of CDN Provider IDs in cdn-path (before adding its own
   Provider ID) is equal to or greater than max-hops.



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   The CDN Provider ID uniquely identifies each CDN provider during the
   course of request routing redirection.  It consists of the characters
   AS followed by the CDN Provider's AS number, then a colon (':') and
   an additional qualifier that is used to guarantee uniqueness in case
   a particular AS has multiple independent CDNs deployed.  For example
   "AS64496:0".

   If a dCDN receives an RI request whose cdn-path already contains that
   dCDN's Provider ID the dCDN SHOULD send an RI response with an error
   code of 502.

   If a dCDN receives an RI request where the number of CDN Provider IDs
   in cdn-path is greater than max-hops, the dCDN SHOULD send an RI
   response with an error code of 503.

   It should be noted that the loop detection & prevention mechanisms
   described above only cover preventing and detecting loops within the
   RI itself.  As well as loops within the RI itself, there is also the
   possibility of loops in the data plane, for example if the IP
   address(es) or URI(s) returned in RI responses do not resolve
   directly to a surrogate in the final dCDN there is the possibility
   that a User Agent may be continuosly redirected through a loop of
   CDNs.  The specification of solutions to address data plane request
   redirection loops between CDNs is outside of the scope of this
   document.

5.  Security Considerations

   Information passed over the RI could be considered personal or
   sensitive, for example RI requests contain parts of a User Agent's
   original request and RI responses reveal information about the dCDN's
   policy for which surrogates should serve which content/user
   locations.

   The RI interface also provides a mechanism whereby a uCDN could probe
   a dCDN and infer the dCDN's edge topology by making repeated RI
   requests for different content and/or UA IP addresses and correlating
   the responses from the dCDN.  Additionally the ability for a dCDN to
   indicate that an RI response applies more widely than the original
   request (via the scope dictionary) may significantly reduce the
   number of RI requests required to probe and infer the dCDN's edge
   topology.

   The same information could be obtained in the absence of the RI
   interface, but it could be more difficult to gather as it would
   require a distributed set of machines with a range of different IP
   addresses each making requests directly to the dCDN.  However, the RI
   facilitates easier collection of such information as it enables a



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   single client to query the dCDN for a redirection/surrogate selection
   on behalf of any UA IP address.

   An implementation of the CDNI Redirection interface MUST support TLS
   transport as per [RFC2818] and [RFC7230].  The use of TLS for
   transport of the CDNI Redirection interface messages allows:

   o  The dCDN and uCDN to authenticate each other (to ensure they are
      transmitting/receiving CDNI Redirection minterface messages from
      an authenticated CDN).

   o  CDNI Redirection interface messages to be transmitted with
      confidentiality.

   o  The integrity of the CDNI Redirection interface messages to be
      protected during the exchange.

   In an environment where any such protection is required, the use of a
   mutually authenticated encrypted transport MUST be used to ensure
   confidentiality of the redirection information.  TLS MUST be used
   (including authentication of the remote end) by the server-side
   (dCDN) and the client-side (uCDN) of the CDNI Redirection interface.

   The general TLS usage guidance in [RFC7525] SHOULD be followed.

6.  IANA Considerations

6.1.  Media type registrations

6.1.1.  CDNI RI requests

   The MIME media type for CDNI RI requests is application/
   cdni.redirectionrequest+json.

   Type Name: application

   Subtype name: cdni.redirectionrequest+json

   Required parameters: N/A

   Optional parameters: N/A

   Encoding considerations: binary

   Security Considerations: See [RFCthis], Section 5

   Interoperability Considerations: Described in [RFCthis]




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   Published Specification: [RFCthis]

   Applications that use this media type: No known applications
   currently use this media type.

   Additional Information:

      Deprecated alias names for this type: N/A

      Magic number(s): N/A

      File Extensions: N/A

      Macintosh file type code(s): TEXT

   Person & email address to contact for further information: IESG
   <iesg@ietf.org>

   Intended Useage: COMMON

   Restrictions on usage: None

   Author: Ben Niven-Jenkins <ben.niven-jenkins@alcatel-lucent.com>

   Change controller: IESG <iesg@ietf.org>

   Note: No "charset" parameter is defined for this registration because
   a charset parameter is not defined for application/json [RFC7159].

6.1.2.  CDNI RI responses

   The MIME media type for CDNI RI responses is application/
   cdni.redirectionresponse+json.

   Type Name: application

   Subtype name: cdni.redirectionresponse+json

   Required parameters: N/A

   Optional parameters: N/A

   Encoding considerations: binary

   Security Considerations: See [RFCthis], Section 5

   Interoperability Considerations: Described in [RFCthis]




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   Published Specification: [RFCthis]

   Applications that use this media type: No known applications
   currently use this media type.

   Additional Information:

      Deprecated alias names for this type: N/A

      Magic number(s): N/A

      File Extensions: N/A

      Macintosh file type code(s): TEXT

   Person & email address to contact for further information: IESG
   <iesg@ietf.org>

   Intended Useage: COMMON

   Restrictions on usage: None

   Author: Ben Niven-Jenkins <ben.niven-jenkins@alcatel-lucent.com>

   Change controller: IESG <iesg@ietf.org>

   Note: No "charset" parameter is defined for this registration because
   a charset parameter is not defined for application/json [RFC7159].

6.2.  RI Error response registry

   This document establishes a new IANA registry for CDNI RI Error
   response codes.

   An expert reviewer is advised to examine new registrations for
   possible duplication with existing error codes and to ensure that the
   new code is in accordance with the error classes defined in section
   Section 4.7 of this document.

   New registrations are required to provide the following information:

      Code: A three-digit numeric error-code, in accordance with the
      error classes defined in section Section 4.7 of this document.

      Reason: A string that provides further information related to the
      error that will be included in the JSON error dictionary with the
      'reason'-key.  Depending on the error-code semantics, the value of
      this field may be determined dynamically.  In that case, the



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      registration should set this value to '<reason>' and define its
      semantics in the description field.

      Description: A brief description of the error code semantics.

      Specification: An optional reference to a specification that
      defines in the error code in more detail.

   The entries in Table 1 are registered by this document.

7.  Contributors

   [RFC Editor Note: Please move the contents of this section to the
   Authors' Addresses section prior to publication as an RFC.]

   The following persons have participated as co-authors to this
   document:

      Wang Danhua, Huawei, Email: wangdanhua@huawei.com

      He Xiaoyan, Huawi, Email: hexiaoyan@huawei.com

      Ge Chen, China Telecom, Email: cheng@gsta.com

      Ni Wei, China Mobile, Email: niwei@chinamobile.com

      Yunfei Zhang, Email:hishigh@gmail.com

      Spencer Dawkins, Huawei, Email: spencer@wonderhamster.org

8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Taesang Choi, Francois le Faucheur,
   Matt Miller and Scott Wainner for their valuable comments and input
   to this document.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC
              3986, January 2005.





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   [RFC4291]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

   [RFC5952]  Kawamura, S. and M. Kawashima, "A Recommendation for IPv6
              Address Text Representation", RFC 5952, August 2010.

   [RFC7230]  Fielding, R. and J. Reschke, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol
              (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing", RFC 7230, June
              2014.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014.

   [RFC6895]  Eastlake, D., "Domain Name System (DNS) IANA
              Considerations", BCP 42, RFC 6895, April 2013.

   [RFC7493]  Bray, T., "The I-JSON Message Format", RFC 7493, March
              2015.

   [RFC7525]  Sheffer, Y., Holz, R., and P. Saint-Andre,
              "Recommendations for Secure Use of Transport Layer
              Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security
              (DTLS)", BCP 195, RFC 7525, May 2015.

9.2.  Informative References

   [RFC6707]  Niven-Jenkins, B., Le Faucheur, F., and N. Bitar, "Content
              Distribution Network Interconnection (CDNI) Problem
              Statement", RFC 6707, September 2012.

   [RFC7336]  Peterson, L., Davie, B., and R. van Brandenburg,
              "Framework for Content Distribution Network
              Interconnection (CDNI)", RFC 7336, August 2014.

   [RFC7337]  Leung, K. and Y. Lee, "Content Distribution Network
              Interconnection (CDNI) Requirements", RFC 7337, August
              2014.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.

Authors' Addresses










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   Ben Niven-Jenkins (editor)
   Velocix (Alcatel-Lucent)
   3 Ely Road
   Milton, Cambridge  CB24 6DD
   UK

   Email: ben.niven-jenkins@alcatel-lucent.com


   Ray van Brandenburg (editor)
   TNO
   Brassersplein 2
   Delft  2612CT
   the Netherlands

   Phone: +31-88-866-7000
   Email: ray.vanbrandenburg@tno.nl


































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