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Versions: (draft-mathis-conex-abstract-mech) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 RFC 7713

Congestion Exposure (ConEx) Working                            M. Mathis
Group                                                        Google, Inc
Internet-Draft                                                B. Briscoe
Intended status: Informational                                        BT
Expires: May 3, 2012                                    October 31, 2011


      Congestion Exposure (ConEx) Concepts and Abstract Mechanism
                   draft-ietf-conex-abstract-mech-03

Abstract

   This document describes an abstract mechanism by which senders inform
   the network about the congestion encountered by packets earlier in
   the same flow.  Today, the network may signal congestion to the
   receiver by ECN markings or by dropping packets, and the receiver
   passes this information back to the sender in transport-layer
   feedback.  The mechanism to be developed by the ConEx WG will enable
   the sender to also relay this congestion information back into the
   network in-band at the IP layer, such that the total level of
   congestion is visible to all IP devices along the path, where it
   could, for example, be used to provide input to traffic management.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 3, 2012.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of



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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Requirements for the ConEx Signal  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  Encoding Congestion Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.1.  Naive Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.2.  ECN Based Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.2.1.  ECN Changes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.3.  Abstract Encoding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       3.3.1.  Independent Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       3.3.2.  Codepoint Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   4.  Congestion Exposure Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.1.  Network Device (Unmodified)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.2.  Modified Senders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.3.  Receivers (Optionally Modified)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.4.  Audit  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.4.1.  Using Credit to Simplify Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.4.2.  Behaviour Constraints for the Audit Function . . . . . 14
     4.5.  Policy Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       4.5.1.  Congestion Monitoring Devices  . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       4.5.2.  Rest-of-Path Congestion Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . 16
       4.5.3.  Congestion Policers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   5.  Support for Incremental Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   8.  Conclusions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   9.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   10. Comments Solicited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19












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1.  Introduction

   One of the required functions of a transport protocol is controlling
   congestion in the network.  There are three techniques in use today
   for the network to signal congestion to a transport:
   o  The most common congestion signal is packet loss.  When congested,
      the network simply discards some packets either as part of an
      active queue management function [RFC2309] or as the consequence
      of a queue overflow or other resource starvation.  The transport
      receiver detects that some data is missing and signals such
      through transport acknowledgments to the transport sender (e.g.
      TCP SACK options).  The sender performs the appropriate congestion
      control rate reduction (e.g.  [RFC5681] for TCP) and, if it is a
      reliable transport, it retransmits the missing data.
   o  If the transport supports explicit congestion notification (ECN)
      [RFC3168] or pre-congestion notification (PCN) [RFC5670] , the
      transport sender indicates this by setting an ECN-capable
      transport (ECT) codepoint in the ip header of every packet.
      Network devices can then explicitly signal congestion to the
      receiver by changing the codepoint in the IP header from ECT to
      ECN (1 bit change) of such packets.  The transport receiver
      communicates these ECN signals back to the sender, which then
      performs the appropriate congestion control rate reduction.
   o  Some experimental transport protocols and TCP variants [Vegas]
      sense queuing delays in the network and reduce their rate before
      the network has to signal congestion using loss or ECN.  A purely
      delay-sensing transport will tend to be pushed out by other
      competing transports that do not back off until they have driven
      the queue into loss.  Therefore, modern delay-sensing algorithms
      use delay in some combination with loss to signal congestion (e.g.
      LEDBAT [I-D.ietf-ledbat-congestion], Compound
      [I-D.sridharan-tcpm-ctcp]).  In the rest of this document, we will
      confine the discussion to concrete signals of congestion such as
      loss and ECN.  We will not discuss delay-sensing further, because
      it can only avoid these more concrete signals of congestion in
      some circumstances.

   In all cases the congestion signals follow the route indicated in
   Figure 1.  A congested network device sends a signal in the data
   stream on the forward path to the transport receiver, the receiver
   passes it back to the sender through transport level feedback, and
   the sender makes some congestion control adjustment.

   This document proposes to extend the capabilities of the Internet
   protocol suite with the addition of a ConEx Signal that, to a first
   approximation, relays the congestion information from the transport
   sender back through the internetwork layer.  That signal is shown in
   Figure 1.  It would be visible to all internetwork layer devices



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   along the forward (data) path and is intended to support a variety of
   new policy-controlled mechanisms that might be used to manage
   traffic.

   For the avoidance of doubt, there is no expectation that internetwork
   layer devices will do fine-grained congestion control using ConEx
   information.  That is still probably best done at the transport
   sender.  Rather, network operators will be able to use ConEx
   information to do better bulk traffic management, which in turn
   should incentivize end-system transports to be more careful about
   congesting others.

   The ConEx signals are anticipated to be most useful at longer time
   scales, for example the total congestion caused by a user might be
   serve as an input to higher level policy or billing functions,
   designed to create incentives for improving user behavior, such as
   choosing to send large quantities of data at off peak times, at lower
   rates or with less aggressive protocols such as
   LEDBAT[I-D.ietf-ledbat-congestion].  For this reason many algorithms
   and analyses are described in terms of "volume" or the time integral
   of various parameters.  For example, the "congestion volume" is
   defined to be the total number of bytes marked as
   congested[I-D.ietf-conex-concepts-uses].  Note that although the
   ConEx protocol only signals individual congestion events to the whole
   path the policy and audit functions described below are most likely
   to act on accumulated counts of these signals.

























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   ,---------.                                               ,---------.
   |Transport|                                               |Transport|
   | Sender  |   .                                           |Receiver |
   |         |  /|___________________________________________|         |
   |     ,-<---------------Congestion-Feedback-Signals--<--------.     |
   |     |   |/                                              |   |     |
   |     |   |\           Transport Layer Feedback Flow      |   |     |
   |     |   | \  ___________________________________________|   |     |
   |     |   |  \|                                           |   |     |
   |     |   |   '         ,-----------.               .     |   |     |
   |     |   |_____________|           |_______________|\    |   |     |
   |     |   |    IP Layer |           |  Data Flow      \   |   |     |
   |     |   |             |(Congested)|                  \  |   |     |
   |     |   |             |  Network  |--Congestion-Signals--->-'     |
   |     |   |             |  Device   |                    \|         |
   |     |   |             |           |                    /|         |
   |     `----------->--(new)-IP-Layer-ConEx-Signals-------->|         |
   |         |             |           |                  /  |         |
   |         |_____________|           |_______________  /   |         |
   |         |             |           |               |/    |         |
   `---------'             `-----------'               '     `---------'

   Not shown are policy devices along the data path that observe the
   ConEx Signal, and use the information to monitor or manage traffic.
   These are discussed in Section 4.5.

                                 Figure 1

1.1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   ConEx signals in IP packet headers from the sender to the network
   {ToDo: These are placeholders for whatever words we decide to use}:
   Not-ConEx:  The transport is not ConEx-capable
   ConEx-Capable:  The transport is ConEx-Capable.  This is the opposite
      of Not-ConEx and implies one of the following signals
      Re-Echo-Loss:  (aka Purple) The transport has experienced a loss
      Re-Echo-ECN:  (aka Black) The transport has experienced an ECN
         mark
      Credit:  (aka Green) The transport is building up credit to allow
         for any future delay in expected ConEx signals (see
         Section 4.4.1)






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      ConEx-Not-Marked:  The transport is ConEx-capable but is signaling
         none of Re-Echo-Loss, Re-Echo-ECN or Credit
      ConEx-Marked:  At least one of Re-Echo-Loss, Re-Echo-ECN or
         Credit.

2.  Requirements for the ConEx Signal

   Ideally, all the following requirements would be met by a Congestion
   Exposure Signal.  However it is already known that some compromises
   will be necessary, therefore all the requirements are expressed with
   the keyword 'SHOULD' rather than 'MUST'.  The only mandatory
   requirement is that a concrete protocol description MUST give sound
   reasoning if it chooses not to meet any of these requirements:
   a.  The ConEx Signal SHOULD be visible to internetwork layer devices
       along the entire path from the transport sender to the transport
       receiver.  Equivalently, it SHOULD be present in the IPv4 or IPv6
       header, and in the outermost IP header if using IP in IP
       tunneling.  The ConEx Signal SHOULD be immutable once set by the
       transport sender.  A corollary of these requirements is that the
       chosen ConEx encoding SHOULD pass silently without modification
       through pre-existing networking gear.
   b.  The ConEx Signal SHOULD be useful under only partial deployment.
       A minimal deployment SHOULD only require changes to transport
       senders.  Furthermore, partial deployment SHOULD create
       incentives for additional deployment, both in terms of enabling
       ConEx on more devices and adding richer features to existing
       devices.  Nonetheless, ConEx deployment need never be universal,
       and it is anticipated that some hosts and some transports may
       never support the ConEx Protocol and some networks may never use
       the ConEx Signals.
   c.  The ConEx Signal SHOULD be accurate.  In potentially hostile
       environments such as the public Internet, it SHOULD be possible
       for techniques to be deployed to audit the Congestion Exposure
       Signal by comparing it to the actual congestion signals on the
       forward data path.  The auditing mechanism must have a capability
       for providing sufficient disincentives against misreported
       congestion, such as by throttling traffic that reports less
       congestion than it is actually experiencing.
   d.  The ConEx Signal SHOULD be timely.  There will be a delay between
       the time when an auditing device sees an actual congestion signal
       and when it sees the subsequent Congestion Exposure Signal from
       the sender.  The minimum delay will be one round trip, but it may
       be much longer depending on the transport's choice of feedback
       delay (consider RTCP [RFC3550] for example).  It is not practical
       to expect auditing devices in the network to make allowance for
       such feedback delays.  Instead, the sender SHOULD be able to send
       ConEx signals in advance, as 'credit' for any audit function to
       hold as a balance against the risk of congestion during the



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       feedback delay.  This design choice greatly simplifies auditing
       (see Section 4.4.1).

   It is important to note that the auditing requirement implies a
   number of additional constraints: The basic auditing technique is to
   count both actual congestion signals and ConEx Signals someplace
   along the data path:
   o  For congestion signaled by ECN, auditing is most accurate when
      located near the transport receiver.  Within any flow or aggregate
      of flows, the volume of data (total number of bytes) tagged with
      ConEx Signals should never be less than the total volume of ECN
      marked data seen near the receiver.
   o  For congestion signaled by loss, totally accurate auditing is not
      believed to be possible in the general case, because it involves a
      network node detecting the absence of some packets, when it cannot
      necessarily see the transport protocol sequence numbers and when
      the missing packets might simply be taking a different route.  But
      there are common cases where sufficient audit accuracy should be
      possible:
      *  For non-IPsec traffic conforming to standard TCP sequence
         numbering on a single path, an auditor could detect losses by
         observing both the original transmission and the retransmission
         after the loss.  Such auditing would be most accurate near the
         sender.
      *  For networks designed so that losses predominantly occur due to
         Active Queue Management under the control of one IP-aware node
         on the path, the auditor could be located at this bottleneck.
         It could simply compare ConEx Signals with actual local packet
         discards.  This is a good model for most consumer access
         networks where audit accuracy could well be sufficient even if
         losses occasionally occur at other nodes in the network, such
         as border gateways (see Section 4.4 for details).

   Given that loss-based and ECN-based ConEx might sometimes be best
   audited at different locations, having distinct encodings would widen
   the design space for the auditing function.  Using the same encoding
   for both signals is likely to make one of the auditing techniques
   infeasible, and the others less accurate.

3.  Encoding Congestion Exposure

   Most protocol specifications start with a description of packet
   formats and codepoints with their associated meanings.  This document
   does not: It is already known that choosing the encoding for the
   ConEx Signal is likely to entail some engineering compromises that
   have the potential to reduce the protocol's usefulness in some
   settings.  Rather than making these engineering choices prematurely,
   this document side steps the encoding problem by describing an



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   abstract representation of ConEx Signals.  All of the elements of the
   protocol can be defined in terms of this abstract representation.
   Most important, the preliminary use cases for the protocol are
   described in terms of the abstract representation in companion
   documents [I-D.ietf-conex-concepts-uses].

   Once we have some experience of example use cases we can evaluate
   different encoding schemes.  Any encoding chosen for ConEx
   experiments may include compromises; it may include some conflated
   code points, some information may be lost resulting in weakening or
   disabling some of the algorithms and eliminating some use cases.  For
   instance the experimental ConEx encoding chosen for IPv6
   [I-D.ietf-conex-destopt] had to make compromises on tunnelling.  The
   abstract encoding requirements that follow still stand despite this
   choice, in case experience shows these were not the best compromises
   to make.

   The goal of this approach is to be as complete as possible for
   discovering the potential usage and capabilities of the ConEx
   protocol, so we have some hope of making optimal design decisions
   when choosing the encoding.

3.1.  Naive Encoding

   For tutorial purposes, it is helpful to describe a naive encoding of
   the ConEx protocol for TCP and similar protocols: set a bit (not
   specified here) in the IP header on all retransmissions or once per
   ECN signaled window reduction.  Clearly network devices along the
   forward path can see this bit and act on it.  For example any device
   along the path can count marked and unmarked packets to estimate the
   total congestion levels along the entire path.

   This simple encoding is sufficient to provide many of the envisioned
   benefits for ConEx and could be unilaterally deployed across a
   significant fraction of all Internet traffic by a agreement of small
   number of OS vendors and content providers.  However, this encoding
   does not support sufficient auditing and might motivate users and/or
   applications to misrepresent the congestion that they are causing.
   As a consequence the naive encoding is not likely to be trusted and
   thus create its own disincentives for further deployment.

   To be successful, ConEx not only has to function while partially
   deployed, but at all stages of partial deployment it has to create
   incentives for further deployment.  Central to making this work are
   strong auditing capabilities that do not permit congestion to be
   misrepresented as either non-congested or non-ConEx capable traffic.

   Nonetheless, this Naive encoding does present a clear mental model of



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   how the ConEx protocol might function under various uses.  It is
   useful for thought experiments where it can be stipulated that all
   participants are honest, and be used to understand the incentives
   that might be introduced by ConEx.

3.2.  ECN Based Encoding

   Ideally ConEx and ECN are orthogonal signals and SHOULD be entirely
   independent.  However, given the limited number of header bit and/or
   code points, these signals may have to share code points, at least
   partially.

   The re-ECN specification [I-D.briscoe-tsvwg-re-ecn-tcp] presents an
   implementation of ConEx that had to be tightly integrated with the
   encoding of ECN in order to fit into the IP header.  The central
   theme of the re-ECN work is an audit mechanism that can provide
   sufficient disincentives against misrepresenting congestion
   [I-D.briscoe-tsvwg-re-ecn-motiv], which is analyzed extensively in
   Briscoe's PhD dissertation [Refb-dis].

   Re-ECN is a good example of one chosen set of compromises attempting
   to meet the requirements of Section 2.  However, the present document
   takes a step back, aiming to state the ideal requirements in order to
   allow the Internet community to assess whether other compromises are
   possible.

   In particular, different incremental deployment choices may be
   desirable to meet the partial deployment requirement of Section 2.
   Re-ECN requires the receiver to be at least ECN-capable as well as
   requiring an update to the sender.  Although ConEx will inherently
   require change at the sender, it would be preferable if it could
   work, even partially, with any receiver.

   The chosen ConEx protocol certainly must not require ECN to be
   deployed in any network.  In this respect re-ECN is already a good
   example--it acts perfectly well as a loss-based ConEx protocol it the
   loss-based audit techniques in Section 4.4 are used.  However, it
   would still be desirable to avoid the dependence on an ECN receiver.

   For a tutorial background on re-ECN techniques, see [Re-fb,
   FairerFaster].

3.2.1.  ECN Changes

   Although the re-ECN protocol requires no changes to the network part
   of the ECN protocol, it is important to note that it does propose
   some relatively minor modifications to the host-to-host aspects of
   the ECN protocol specified in RFC 3168.  They include: redefining the



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   ECT(1) code point (the change is consistent with RFC3168 but requires
   deprecating the experimental ECN nonce [RFC3540]); modifications to
   the ECN negotiations carried on the SYN and SYN-ACK; and using a
   different state machine to carry ECN signals in the transport
   acknowledgments from a modified Receiver to the Sender.  This last
   change is optional, but it permits the transport protocol to carry
   multiple congestion signals per round trip.  It greatly simplifies
   accurate auditing, and is likely to be useful in other transports,
   e.g.  DCTCP [DCTCP].

   All of these adjustments to RFC 3168 may also be needed in a future
   standardized ConEx protocol.  There will need to be very careful
   consideration of any proposed changes to ECN or other existing
   protocols, because any such changes increase the cost of deployment.

3.3.  Abstract Encoding

   Ideally, this document would not describe encoding at all, and leave
   that little detail to some future document.  However, given the
   protocol engineering mindset of most readers, we have discovered that
   nearly everybody invents an encoding in order to help themselves
   understand the document.  We sketch here two different plausible
   encodings: independently settable bits or an enumerated set of
   mutually exclusive codepoints.

   In both cases, the amount of congestion is signaled by the volume of
   marked data--just as the volume of lost data or ECN marked data
   signals the amount of congestion experienced.  Thus the size of each
   packet carrying a ConEx Signal is significant.

3.3.1.  Independent Bits

   This encoding involves flag bits, each of which the sender can set
   independently to indicate to the network one of the following four
   signals:
   ConEx (Not-ConEx)  The transport is (or is not) using ConEx with this
      packet (the protocol MUST be arranged so that legacy transport
      senders implicitly send Not-ConEx)
   Re-Echo-Loss (Not-Re-Echo-Loss)  The transport has (or has not)
      experienced a loss
   Re-Echo-ECN (Not-Re-Echo-ECN)  The transport has (or has not)
      experienced ECN-signaled congestion
   Credit (Not-Credit)  The transport is (or is not) building up
      congestion credit (see Section 4.4 on the audit function)

   This encoding does not imply any exclusion property among the
   signals.  Multiple types of congestion (ECN, loss) can be signalled
   on the same ACKs.



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3.3.2.  Codepoint Encoding

   This encoding involves signaling one of the following five
   codepoints:

   ENUM {Not-ConEx, ConEx-Not-Marked, Re-Echo-Loss, Re-Echo-ECN, Credit}

   Each named codepoint has the same meaning as in the encoding using
   independent bits (Section 3.3.1).  The use of any one codepoint
   implies the negative of all the others.

   Inherently, the semantics of most of the enumerated codepoints are
   mutually exclusive.  'Credit' is the only one that might need to be
   used in combination with either Re-Echo-Loss or Re-Echo-ECN, but even
   that requirement is questionable.  It must not be forgotten that the
   enumerated encoding loses the flexibility to signal these two
   combinations, whereas the encoding with four independent bits is not
   so limited.  Alternatively two extra codepoints could be assigned to
   these two combinations of semantics.

4.  Congestion Exposure Components

   Figure 1 shows three of the main components of Congestion exposure:
   network devices subject to congestion, transport sender and transport
   receiver.  There are two additional components,that, in principle,
   could be placed anywhere along the data path.  They are a ConEx
   auditor and a Policy Device.

   The role of the auditor is to encourage accurate ConEx signals by
   detecting and sanctioning flows that misrepresent the amount of
   congestion that they are causing.  The auditor compares the ConEx
   signals to some direct observation of the congestion, to verify that
   the ConEx signals are accurate.

   The policy device is the natural ultimate consumer of ConEx signal.
   It uses ConEx to facilitate better traffic management through
   improved instrumentation, monitoring or control of the traffic.

   All 5 components are described in more detail.

4.1.  Network Device (Unmodified)

   Congestion signals originate from network devices as they do today.
   A congested router, switch or other network device can discard or ECN
   mark packets when it is congested. .






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4.2.  Modified Senders

   The sending transport needs to be modified to send Congestion
   Exposure Signals in response to congestion feedback signals (see
   [I-D.conex-tcp-mods]).  We want to permit ConEx senders to be able to
   turn off ECN (e.g. if the receiver does not support ECN).  However,
   we want to encourage a ConEx sender to at least attempt to negotiate
   EC, because it is known that ConEx without ECN is harder to audit,
   and thus potentially exposed to fraud.  Since honest users have the
   potential to benefit from stronger mechanisms to manage traffic they
   have an incentive to deploy ConEx and ECN together.  This incentive
   is not sufficient to prevent a dishonest user from constructing (or
   configuring) a sender that enables ConEx after choosing not to
   negotiate ECN, but is should be sufficient to prevent this from being
   the sustained default case for any significant pool of users.

   Permitting ConEx without ECN is necessary to facilitate bootstrapping
   other parts of ConEx deployment.

4.3.  Receivers (Optionally Modified)

   Any receiving transport may already feedback sufficiently useful
   signals to the sender so that it does not need to be altered.

   If the transport receiver does not support ECN, then it's native loss
   signaling mechanism (required for compliance with existing congestion
   control standards) will be sufficient for the Sender to generate
   ConEx signals.

   A traditional ECN implementation (RFC 3168 for TCP) signals
   congestion no more than once per round trip.  The sender may require
   more precise feedback from the receiver otherwise it is at risk of
   appearing to be understating its ConEx Signals (see Section 3.2.1).

   Ideally, ConEx should be added to a transport like TCP without
   mandatory modifications to the receiver.  But an optional
   modification to the receiver could be recommended for precision (see
   [I-D.conex-accurate-ecn]).  This was the approach taken when adding
   re-ECN to TCP [I-D.briscoe-tsvwg-re-ecn-tcp].

4.4.  Audit

   To audit ConEx Signals against actual losses (as opposed to ECN) an
   auditor could use one of the following techniques:







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   TCP-specific approach:  The auditor could monitor TCP flows or
      aggregates of flows, only holding state on a flow if it first
      sends a Credit or a Re-Echo-Loss marking.  The auditor could
      detect retransmissions by monitoring sequence numbers.  It would
      assure that (volume of retransmitted data) <= (volume of data
      marked Re-Echo-Loss).  Traffic would only be auditable in this way
      if it conformed to the standard TCP protocol and the IP payload
      was not encrypted (e.g. with IPsec).
   Predominant bottleneck approach:  Unlike the above TCP-specific
      solution, this technique would work for IP packets carrying any
      transport layer protocol, and whether encrypted or not.  But it
      only works well for networks designed so that losses predominantly
      occur under the management of one IP-aware node on the path.  The
      auditor could then be located at this bottleneck.  It could simply
      compare ConEx Signals with actual local losses.  Most consumer
      access networks are design to this model, e.g. the radio network
      controller (RNC) in a cellular network or the broadband remote
      access server (BRAS) in a digital subscriber line (DSL) network.

      The accuracy of an auditor at one predominant bottleneck might
      still be sufficient, even if losses occasionally occurred at other
      nodes in the network (e.g. border gateways).  Although the auditor
      at the predominant bottleneck would not always be able to detect
      losses at other nodes, transports would not know where losses were
      occurring either.  Therefore a transport would not know which
      losses it could cheat on without getting caught, and which ones it
      couldn't.

   To audit ConEx Signals against actual ECN markings or losses, the
   auditor could work as follows: monitor flows or aggregates of flows,
   only holding state on a flow if it first sends a ConEx-Marked packet
   (Credit or either Re-Echo marking).  Count the number of bytes marked
   with Credit or Re-Echo-ECN.  Separately count the number of bytes
   marked with ECN.  Use Credits to assure that {#ECN} <= {#Re-Echo-ECN}
   + {#Credit}, even though the Re-Echo-ECN markings are delayed by at
   least one RTT.

4.4.1.  Using Credit to Simplify Audit

   At the audit function,there will be an inherent delay of at least one
   round trip between a congestion signal and the subsequent ConEx
   signal it triggers--as it makes the two passes of the feedback loop
   in Figure 1.  However, the audit function cannot be expected to wait
   for a round trip to check that one signal balances the other, because
   it is hard for a network device to know the RTT of each transport.

   Instead, it considerably simplifies the audit function if the source
   transport is made responsible for removing the round trip delay in



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   ConEx signals.  The transport SHOULD signal sufficient credit in
   advance to cover any reasonably expected congestion during its
   feedback delay.  Then, the audit function does not need to make
   allowance for round trip delays--that it cannot quantify.  This
   design choice correctly makes the transport responsible for both
   minimizing feedback delay and for the risk that packets in flight
   will cause congestion to others before the source can react.

   For example, imagine the audit function keeps a running account of
   the balance between actual congestion signals (loss or ECN), which it
   counts as negative, and ConEx signals, which it counts as positive.
   Having made the transport responsible for round trip delays, it will
   be expected to have pre-loaded the audit function with some credit at
   the start.  Therefore, if ever the balance does go negative, the
   audit function can immediately start punishing a flow, without any
   grace period.

   The one-way nature of packet forwarding probably makes per-flow state
   unavoidable for the audit function.  This was a necessary sacrifice
   to avoid per-flow state elsewhere in the wider ConEx architecture.
   Nonetheless, care was taken to ensure that packets could bring soft-
   state to the audit function, so that it would continue to work if a
   flow shifted to a different audit device, perhaps after a reroute or
   an audit device failure.  Therefore, although the audit function is
   likely to need flow state memory, at least it complies with the
   'fate-sharing' design principle of the Internet [IntDesPrinciples],
   and at least per-flow audit is only required at the outer edges of
   the internetwork, where it is less of a scalability concern.

   Note also that ConEx does not intend to embed rules in the network on
   how individual flows _behave_.  The audit function only does per-flow
   processing to check the integrity of ConEx _information_.

4.4.2.  Behaviour Constraints for the Audit Function

   There is no intention to standardise how to design or implement the
   audit function.  However, it is necessary to lay down the following
   normative constraints on audit behaviour so that transport designers
   will know what to design against and implementers of audit devices
   will know what pitfalls to avoid:
   Minimal False Hits:  Audit SHOULD introduce minimal false hits for
      honest flows;
   Minimal False Misses:  Audit SHOULD quickly detect and sanction
      dishonest flows, preferably at the first dishonest packet;







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   Transport Oblivious:  Audit MUST NOT be designed around one
      particular rate response, such as any particular TCP congestion
      control algorithm or one particular resource sharing regime such
      as TCP-friendliness [RFC3448].  An important goal is to give
      ingress networks the freedom to unilaterally allow different rate
      responses to congestion and different resource sharing regimes
      [Evol_cc], without having to coordinate with downstream networks;
   Sufficient Sanction:  Audit MUST introduce sufficient sanction (e.g.
      loss in goodput) so that sources cannot understate congestion and
      play off losses at the audit function against higher allowed
      throughput at a congestion policer [Salvatori05];
   Manage Memory Exhaustion:  Audit SHOULD be able to counter state
      exhaustion attacks.  For instance, if the audit function uses
      flow-state, it should not be possible for sources to exhaust its
      memory capacity by gratuitously sending numerous packets, each
      with a different flow ID.
   Identifier Accountability:  Audit MUST NOT be vulnerable to `identity
      whitewashing', where a transport can label a flow with a new ID
      more cheaply than paying the cost of continuing to use its current
      ID [CheapPseud];

4.5.  Policy Devices

   Policy devices are characterised by a need to be configured with a
   policy related to the users or neighboring networks being served.  In
   contrast, the auditing devices referred to in the previous section
   primarily enforce compliance with the ConEx protocol and do not need
   to be configured with any client-specific policy.

4.5.1.  Congestion Monitoring Devices

   Policy devices can typically be decomposed into two functions i)
   monitoring the ConEx signal to compare it with a policy then ii)
   acting in some way on the result.  Various actions might be invoked
   against 'out of contract' traffic, such as policing (see
   Section 4.5.3), re-routing, or downgrading the class of service.

   Alternatively a policy device might not act directly on the traffic,
   but instead report to management systems that are designed to control
   congestion indirectly.  For instance the reports might trigger
   capacity upgrades, penalty clauses in contracts, levy charges between
   networks based on congestion, or merely send warnings to clients who
   are causing excessive congestion.

   Nonetheless, whatever action is invoked, the congestion monitoring
   function will always be a necessary part of any policy device.





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4.5.2.  Rest-of-Path Congestion Monitoring

   ConEx signals indicate the level of congestion along a whole path
   from source to destination.  In contrast when ECN signals are
   monitored in the middle of a network, they indicate the level of
   congestion experienced so far on the path.

   If a monitor in the middle of a network (e.g. at a border) measures
   both of these signals, it can subtract the level of ECN (path so far)
   from the level of ConEx (whole path) to derive a measure of the
   congestion that packets are likely to experience between the
   monitoring point and their destination (rest-of-path congestion).

   It will often be preferable for policy devices to monitor rest-of-
   path congestion if they can, because it is a measure of the
   downstream congestion that the policy device can directly influence
   by controlling the traffic passing through it.

   A monitor cannot reliably measure upstream congestion if it is
   signaled by losses rather than ECN.  Therefore a monitor can only
   accurately measure rest-of-path congestion if it ignores traffic from
   non-ECN-capable transports (Not-ECT) and if the congested queues
   upstream of the monitor are ECN-enabled.

4.5.3.  Congestion Policers

   A congestion policer can be implemented in a very similar way to a
   bit-rate policer, but its effect can be focused solely on traffic
   causing congestion downstream, which ConEx signals make visible.
   Without ConEx signals, the only way to mitigate congestion is to
   blindly limit traffic bit-rate, on the assumption that high bit-rate
   is more likely to cause congestion.

   A congestion policer monitors all ConEx traffic entering a network,
   or some identifiable subset.  Using ConEx signals (and preferably
   subtracting ECN signals), it measures the amount of congestion that
   this traffic is contributing somewhere downstream.  If this exceeds a
   policy-configured 'congestion-bit-rate' the congestion policer can
   limit all the monitored ConEx traffic.

   A congestion policer can be implemented by a simple token bucket.
   But unlike a bit-rate policer, it removes a token only when it
   forwards a packet that is ConEx-Marked, effectively treating Not-
   ConEx-Marked packets as invisible.  Consequently, because tokens give
   the right to send congested bits, the fill-rate of the token bucket
   will represent the allowed congestion-bit-rate.  This should provide
   sufficient traffic management without having to additionally
   constrain the straight bit-rate at all.  See [CongPol] for details.



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5.  Support for Incremental Deployment

   The ConEx abstract protocol described so far is intended to support
   incremental deployment in every possible respect.  For convenience,
   the following list collects together all the features of ConEx that
   support incremental deployment, and points to further information on
   each:
   Packets:  The wire protocol encoding allows each packet to indicate
      whether it is using ConEx or not (see Section 3 on Encoding
      Congestion Exposure).
   Sources:  ConEx requires a modification to the source in order to
      send ConEx packet markings (see Section 4.2).  Although ConEx
      support can be indicated on a packet-by-packet basis, it is likely
      that all the packets in a flow will either consistently support
      ConEx or consistently not.  It is also likely that, if the
      implementation of a transport protocol supports ConEx, all the
      packets sent from that host using that protocol will be ConEx
      packets.

      The implementations of some of the transport protocols on a host
      might not support ConEx (e.g. the implementation of DNS over UDP
      might not support ConEx, while perhaps RTP over UDP and TCP will).
      Any non-upgraded transports and non-upgraded hosts will simply
      continue to send regular Not-ConEx packets as always.

      A network operator can create incentives for sources to
      voluntarily reveal ConEx information.  Without ConEx information,
      a network operator tends to have to limit the bit-rate or volume
      from a site more than is necessary, just in case it might congest
      others.  With ConEx information, the operator can solely limit
      congestion-causing traffic, and otherwise allow complete freedom.
      This greater freedom acts as an inducement for the source to
      volunteer ConEx information.
   Receivers:  A ConEx source should be able to work without a modified
      receiver.  However, without sufficiently precise congestion
      feedback from the receiver, the source may have to conservatively
      send extra Re-Echo markings in order to avoid understating
      congestion.  The need for more precise receiver feedback is not
      exclusive to ConEx, for instance Data Centre TCP (DCTCP [DCTCP])
      uses precise feedback to good effect.  Nonetheless, if a receiver
      offers precise feedback, it will be best if ConEx uses it (see
      Section 4.3).
   Proxies:  Although it was stated above that ConEx requires a
      modification to the source, ConEx markings could theoretically be
      introduced by a proxy for the source, as long as it can intercept
      feedback from the receiver.  Similarly, more precise feedback
      could thoretically be provided by a proxy for the receiver rather
      than modifying the receiver itself.



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   Queues:  No modification to queues is needed for ConEx.

      However, once ConEx is deployed, it is possible that a queue
      implementation could take advantage of the ConEx information in
      packets.  For instance, it has been suggested
      [I-D.briscoe-tsvwg-re-ecn-tcp] that a queue would be more robust
      against flooding if it preferentially discarded Not-ConEx packets
      then Not-Marked ConEx packets.

      A ConEx sender re-echoes congestion whether the queues signaling
      congestion are ECN-enabled or not.  Nonetheless, auditing works
      best if most congestion is indicated by ECN rather than loss (see
      Section 2).  Also, monitoring rest-of-path congestion is not
      accurate if there are congested non-ECN queues upstream of the
      monitoring point (Section 4.5.2).
   Networks:  If a subset of traffic sources (or proxies) use ConEx
      signals to reveal congestion in the internetwork layer, a network
      operator can choose (or not) to use this information for traffic
      management.  As long as the end-to-end ConEx signals are present,
      each network can unilaterally choose to use them--independently of
      whether other networks do.

      ConEx packets may safely traverse a network that ignores them.
      Networks MUST NOT change ConEx packets to Not-ConEx.  If
      necessary, endpoints would be able to detect if a network were
      removing ConEx signals.

      An operator can deploy policy devices (Section 4.5) wherever
      traffic enters its network, in order to monitor the downstream
      congestion that incoming traffic contributes to, and control it if
      necessary.  See [I-D.ietf-conex-concepts-uses] for further
      discussion of deployment incentives for networks and scenarios
      where some networks use ConEx-based policy devices and other
      don't.

      An operator can deploy audit devices Section 4.4 unilaterally
      within its own network to verify that traffic sources are not
      understating ConEx information.  From the viewpoint of one network
      operator (say N_a), it only cares that the level of ConEx
      signaling is sufficient to cover congestion in its own network.
      If traffic continues into a congested downstream network (say
      N_b), it is of no concern to the first network (N_a) if the end-
      to-end ConEx signaling is insufficient to cover the congestion in
      N_b as well.  This is N-b's concern, and N_b can both detect such
      anomalous traffic and deal with it using ConEx-based policy
      devices (Section 4.5).





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6.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.

   Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an
   RFC.

7.  Security Considerations

   Significant parts of this whole document are about auditability of
   ConEx Signals, in particular Section 4.4.

8.  Conclusions

   {ToDo:}

9.  Acknowledgements

   This document was improved by review comments from Toby Moncaster,
   Nandita Dukkipati, Mirja Kuehlewind and Caitlin Bestler.

10.  Comments Solicited

   Comments and questions are encouraged and very welcome.  They can be
   addressed to the IETF Congestion Exposure (ConEx) working group
   mailing list <conex@ietf.org>, and/or to the authors.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]                         Bradner, S., "Key words for use in
                                     RFCs to Indicate Requirement
                                     Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
                                     March 1997.

11.2.  Informative References

   [CheapPseud]                      Friedman, E. and P. Resnick, "The
                                     Social Cost of Cheap Pseudonyms",
                                     Journal of Economics and Management
                                     Strategy 10(2)173--199, 1998.

   [CongPol]                         Jacquet, A., Briscoe, B., and T.
                                     Moncaster, "Policing Freedom to Use
                                     the Internet Resource Pool", Proc
                                     ACM Workshop on Re-Architecting the
                                     Internet (ReArch'08) ,



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                                     December 2008, <http://
                                     bobbriscoe.net/projects/
                                     refb/#polfree>.

   [DCTCP]                           Alizadeh, M., Greenberg, A., Maltz,
                                     D., Padhye, J., Patel, P.,
                                     Prabhakar, B., Sengupta, S., and M.
                                     Sridharan, "Data Center TCP
                                     (DCTCP)", ACM SIGCOMM
                                     CCR 40(4)63--74, October 2010, <htt
                                     p://portal.acm.org/
                                     citation.cfm?id=1851192>.

   [Evol_cc]                         Gibbens, R. and F. Kelly, "Resource
                                     pricing and the evolution of
                                     congestion control",
                                     Automatica 35(12)1969--1985,
                                     December 1999, <http://
                                     www.statslab.cam.ac.uk/~frank/
                                     evol.html>.

   [FairerFaster]                    Briscoe, B., "A Fairer, Faster
                                     Internet Protocol", IEEE
                                     Spectrum Dec 2008:38--43,
                                     December 2008, <http://
                                     bobbriscoe.net/projects/
                                     refb/#fairfastip>.

   [I-D.briscoe-tsvwg-re-ecn-motiv]  Briscoe, B., Jacquet, A.,
                                     Moncaster, T., and A. Smith, "Re-
                                     ECN: A Framework for adding
                                     Congestion Accountability to
                                     TCP/IP", draft-briscoe-tsvwg-re-
                                     ecn-tcp-motivation-02 (work in
                                     progress), October 2010.

   [I-D.briscoe-tsvwg-re-ecn-tcp]    Briscoe, B., Jacquet, A.,
                                     Moncaster, T., and A. Smith, "Re-
                                     ECN: Adding Accountability for
                                     Causing Congestion to TCP/IP",
                                     draft-briscoe-tsvwg-re-ecn-tcp-09
                                     (work in progress), October 2010.

   [I-D.conex-accurate-ecn]          Kuehlewind, M. and R.
                                     Scheffenegger, "Accurate ECN
                                     Feedback in TCP", draft-kuehlewind-
                                     conex-accurate-ecn-01 (work in
                                     progress), October 2011.



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   [I-D.conex-tcp-mods]              Kuehlewind, M. and R.
                                     Scheffenegger, "TCP modifications
                                     for Congestion Exposure", draft-
                                     kuehlewind-conex-tcp-modifications-
                                     00 (work in progress), July 2011.

   [I-D.ietf-conex-concepts-uses]    Briscoe, B., Woundy, R., and A.
                                     Cooper, "ConEx Concepts and Use
                                     Cases",
                                     draft-ietf-conex-concepts-uses-03
                                     (work in progress), October 2011.

   [I-D.ietf-conex-destopt]          Krishnan, S., Kuehlewind, M., and
                                     C. Ucendo, "IPv6 Destination Option
                                     for Conex",
                                     draft-ietf-conex-destopt-01 (work
                                     in progress), October 2011.

   [I-D.ietf-ledbat-congestion]      Shalunov, S., Hazel, G., and J.
                                     Iyengar, "Low Extra Delay
                                     Background Transport (LEDBAT)",
                                     draft-ietf-ledbat-congestion-03
                                     (work in progress), October 2010.

   [I-D.sridharan-tcpm-ctcp]         Sridharan, M., Tan, K., Bansal, D.,
                                     and D. Thaler, "Compound TCP: A New
                                     TCP Congestion Control for High-
                                     Speed and Long Distance  Networks",
                                     draft-sridharan-tcpm-ctcp-02 (work
                                     in progress), November 2008.

   [IntDesPrinciples]                Clark, D., "The Design Philosophy
                                     of the DARPA Internet Protocols",
                                     ACM SIGCOMM CCR 18(4)106--114,
                                     August 1988, <http://www.acm.org/
                                     sigcomm/ccr/archive/1995/jan95/
                                     ccr-9501-clark.pdf>.

   [RFC0791]                         Postel, J., "Internet Protocol",
                                     STD 5, RFC 791, September 1981.

   [RFC2309]                         Braden, B., Clark, D., Crowcroft,
                                     J., Davie, B., Deering, S., Estrin,
                                     D., Floyd, S., Jacobson, V.,
                                     Minshall, G., Partridge, C.,
                                     Peterson, L., Ramakrishnan, K.,
                                     Shenker, S., Wroclawski, J., and L.
                                     Zhang, "Recommendations on Queue



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                                     Management and Congestion Avoidance
                                     in the Internet", RFC 2309,
                                     April 1998.

   [RFC3168]                         Ramakrishnan, K., Floyd, S., and D.
                                     Black, "The Addition of Explicit
                                     Congestion Notification (ECN) to
                                     IP", RFC 3168, September 2001.

   [RFC3448]                         Handley, M., Floyd, S., Padhye, J.,
                                     and J. Widmer, "TCP Friendly Rate
                                     Control (TFRC): Protocol
                                     Specification", RFC 3448,
                                     January 2003.

   [RFC3514]                         Bellovin, S., "The Security Flag in
                                     the IPv4 Header", RFC 3514, April 1
                                     2003.

   [RFC3540]                         Spring, N., Wetherall, D., and D.
                                     Ely, "Robust Explicit Congestion
                                     Notification (ECN) Signaling with
                                     Nonces", RFC 3540, June 2003.

   [RFC3550]                         Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S.,
                                     Frederick, R., and V. Jacobson,
                                     "RTP: A Transport Protocol for
                                     Real-Time Applications", STD 64,
                                     RFC 3550, July 2003.

   [RFC5670]                         Eardley, P., "Metering and Marking
                                     Behaviour of PCN-Nodes", RFC 5670,
                                     November 2009.

   [RFC5681]                         Allman, M., Paxson, V., and E.
                                     Blanton, "TCP Congestion Control",
                                     RFC 5681, September 2009.

   [Re-fb]                           Briscoe, B., Jacquet, A., Di
                                     Cairano-Gilfedder, C., Salvatori,
                                     A., Soppera, A., and M. Koyabe,
                                     "Policing Congestion Response in an
                                     Internetwork Using Re-Feedback",
                                     ACM SIGCOMM CCR 35(4)277--288,
                                     August 2005, <http://www.acm.org/
                                     sigs/sigcomm/sigcomm2005/
                                     techprog.html#session8>.




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   [Refb-dis]                        Briscoe, B., "Re-feedback: Freedom
                                     with Accountability for Causing
                                     Congestion in a Connectionless
                                     Internetwork", UCL PhD
                                     Dissertation , 2009, <http://
                                     bobbriscoe.net/projects/
                                     refb/#refb-dis>.

   [Salvatori05]                     Salvatori, A., "Closed Loop Traffic
                                     Policing", Politecnico Torino and
                                     Institut Eurecom Masters Thesis ,
                                     September 2005.

   [Vegas]                           Brakmo, L. and L. Peterson, "TCP
                                     Vegas: End-to-End Congestion
                                     Avoidance on a Global Internet",
                                     IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in
                                     Communications 13(8)1465--80,
                                     October 1995, <http://
                                     ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel1/49/9740/
                                     00464716.pdf?arnumber=464716>.

Authors' Addresses

   Matt Mathis
   Google, Inc
   1600 Amphitheater Parkway
   Mountain View, California  93117
   USA

   EMail: mattmathis at google.com


   Bob Briscoe
   BT
   B54/77, Adastral Park
   Martlesham Heath
   Ipswich  IP5 3RE
   UK

   Phone: +44 1473 645196
   EMail: bob.briscoe@bt.com
   URI:   http://bobbriscoe.net/








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