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Versions: (draft-moncaster-conex-concepts-uses) 00 01 02 03 04 05 RFC 6789

ConEx                                                    B. Briscoe, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                        BT
Intended status: Informational                            R. Woundy, Ed.
Expires: April 24, 2012                                          Comcast
                                                          A. Cooper, Ed.
                                                                     CDT
                                                        October 22, 2011


                      ConEx Concepts and Use Cases
                   draft-ietf-conex-concepts-uses-03

Abstract

   This document provides the entry point to the set of documentation
   about the Congestion Exposure (ConEx) protocol.  It explains the
   motivation for including a ConEx field at the IP layer: to expose
   information about congestion to network nodes.  Although such
   information may have a number of uses, this document focuses on how
   the information communicated in the ConEx field can serve as the
   basis for significantly more efficient and effective traffic
   management than what exists on the Internet today.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 24, 2012.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of



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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.1.  Congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.2.  Congestion-Volume  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.3.  Rest-of-Path Congestion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.4.  Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  Core Use Case: Informing Traffic Management  . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.1.  Use Case Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.2.  Additional Benefits  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.3.  Comparison with Existing Approaches  . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.  Other Use Cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   5.  Deployment Arrangements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   8.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     8.1.  Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   9.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Appendix A.  Changes from previous drafts (to be removed by
                the RFC Editor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14























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1.  Introduction

   The power of Internet technology comes from multiplexing shared
   capacity with packets rather than circuits.  Network operators aim to
   provide sufficient shared capacity, but when too much packet load
   meets too little shared capacity, congestion results.  Congestion
   appears as either increased delay, dropped packets or packets
   explicitly marked with Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN)
   markings [RFC3168].  As described in Figure 1, congestion control
   currently relies on the transport receiver detecting these
   'Congestion Signals' and informing the transport sender in
   'Congestion Feedback Signals.'  The sender is then expected to reduce
   its rate in response.

   This document provides the entry point to the set of documentation
   about the Congestion Exposure (ConEx) protocol.  It focuses on the
   motivation for including a ConEx field at the IP layer.  (A companion
   document, [ConEx-Abstract-Mech], focuses on the mechanics of the
   protocol.)  Briefly, the idea is for the sender to continually signal
   expected congestion in the headers of any data it sends.  To a first
   approximation, the sender does this by relaying the 'Congestion
   Feedback Signals' back into the IP layer.  They then travel unchanged
   across the network to the receiver (shown as 'IP-Layer-ConEx-Signals'
   in Figure 1).  This enables IP layer devices on the path to see
   information about the whole path congestion.

   ,---------.                                               ,---------.
   |Transport|                                               |Transport|
   | Sender  |   .                                           |Receiver |
   |         |  /|___________________________________________|         |
   |     ,-<---------------Congestion-Feedback-Signals--<--------.     |
   |     |   |/                                              |   |     |
   |     |   |\           Transport Layer Feedback Flow      |   |     |
   |     |   | \  ___________________________________________|   |     |
   |     |   |  \|                                           |   |     |
   |     |   |   '         ,-----------.               .     |   |     |
   |     |   |_____________|           |_______________|\    |   |     |
   |     |   |    IP Layer |           |  Data Flow      \   |   |     |
   |     |   |             |(Congested)|                  \  |   |     |
   |     |   |             |  Network  |--Congestion-Signals--->-'     |
   |     |   |             |  Device   |                    \|         |
   |     |   |             |           |                    /|         |
   |     `----------->--(new)-IP-Layer-ConEx-Signals-------->|         |
   |         |             |           |                  /  |         |
   |         |_____________|           |_______________  /   |         |
   |         |             |           |               |/    |         |
   `---------'             `-----------'               '     `---------'




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         Figure 1: The ConEx Protocol in the Internet Architecture

   One of the key benefits of exposing this congestion information at
   the IP layer is that it makes the information available to network
   operators for use as input into their traffic management procedures.
   As shown in Figure 1, a ConEx-enabled sender signals whole path
   congestion, which is (approximately) the congestion one round trip
   time earlier as reported by the receiver to the sender.  The ConEx
   signal is a mark in the IP header that is easy for any IP device to
   read.  Therefore a node performing traffic management can count
   congestion as easily as it might count data volume today by simply
   counting the volume of packets with ConEx markings.

   ConEx-based traffic management can make highly efficient use of
   capacity.  In times of no congestion, all traffic management
   restraints can be removed, leaving the network's full capacity
   available to all its users.  If some users on the network cause
   disproportionate congestion, the traffic management function can
   learn about this and directly limit those users' traffic in order to
   protect the service of other users sharing the same capacity.  ConEx-
   based traffic management thus presents a step change in terms of the
   options available to operators for managing traffic on their
   networks.

   The remainder of this document explains the concepts behind ConEx and
   how exposing congestion can significantly improve Internet traffic
   management, among other benefits.  Section 2 introduces a number of
   concepts that are fundamental to understanding how ConEx-based
   traffic management works.  Section 3 shows how ConEx can be used for
   traffic management, discusses additional benefits from such usage,
   and compares ConEx-based traffic management to existing traffic
   management approaches.  Section 4 discusses other related use cases.
   Section 5 briefly discusses deployment arrangements.  The final
   sections are standard RFC back matter.

2.  Concepts

   ConEx relies on a precise definition of congestion and a number of
   newer concepts that are introduced and defined in this section.

2.1.  Congestion

   Despite its central role in network control and management,
   congestion is a remarkably difficult concept to define.  Experts in
   different disciplines and with different perspectives define
   congestion in a variety of ways [Bauer09].

   The definition used for the purposes of ConEx is expressed as the



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   probability of packet loss (or the probability of packet marking if
   ECN is in use).  This definition focuses on how congestion is
   measured, rather than describing congestion as a condition or state.

2.2.  Congestion-Volume

   The metric that ConEx exposes is congestion-volume: the volume of
   bytes dropped or ECN-marked in a given period of time.  Counting
   congestion-volume allows each user to be held responsible for his or
   her contribution to causing congestion.  Congestion-volume is a
   property of traffic, whereas congestion is a property of a link or a
   path.

   To understand congestion-volume, consider a simple example.  Imagine
   Alice sends 1GB while the loss-probability is a constant 0.2%.  Her
   contribution to congestion -- her congestion-volume -- is 1GB x 0.2%
   = 2MB.  If she then sends 3GB while the loss-probability is 0.1%,
   this adds 3MB to her congestion-volume.  Her total contribution to
   congestion is then 2MB+3MB = 5MB.

   Fortunately, measuring Alice's congestion-volume on a real network
   does not require the kind of arithmetic shown above because
   congestion-volume can be directly measured by counting the total
   volume of Alice's traffic that gets discarded or ECN-marked.  (A
   queue with a percentage loss involves multiplication inherently.)

2.3.  Rest-of-Path Congestion

   At a particular measurement point within a network, "rest-of-path
   congestion" (also known as "downstream congestion") measures the
   level of congestion that a traffic flow is expected to experience
   between the measurement point and its final destination.  "Upstream
   congestion" measures the level of congestion experienced up to the
   measurement point.

   Measurement points that only observe ECN marks are capable of
   measuring upstream congestion, whereas measurement points that
   observe ConEx marks in addition to ECN marks can use both kinds of
   marks to calculate rest-of-path congestion.  When ECN signals are
   monitored in the middle of a network, they indicate the level of
   congestion experienced so far on the path (upstream congestion).  In
   contrast, the ConEx signals inserted into IP headers as shown in
   Figure 1 indicate the level of congestion along a whole path from
   source to destination.  Therefore if a measurement point detects both
   of these signals, it can subtract the level of ECN (upstream
   congestion) from the level of ConEx (whole path) to derive a measure
   of the congestion that packets are likely to experience between the
   monitoring point and their destination (rest-of-path congestion).



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   [ConEx-Abstract-Mech] has further discussion of the constraints
   around the network's ability to measure rest-of-path congestion.

2.4.  Definitions

   Congestion:  In general, congestion occurs when any user's traffic
      suffers loss, ECN marking, or increased delay as a result of one
      or more network resources becoming overloaded.  For the purposes
      of ConEx, congestion is measured using the concrete signals
      provided by loss and ECN markings (delay is not considered).
      Congestion is measured as the probability of loss or the
      probability of ECN marking, usually expressed as a dimensionless
      percentage.

   Congestion-volume:  For any granularity of traffic (packet, flow,
      aggregate, link, etc.), the volume of bytes dropped or ECN-marked
      in a given period of time.  Conceptually, data volume multiplied
      by the congestion each packet of the volume experienced.  Usually
      expressed in bytes (or MB or GB).

   Rest-of-path congestion (or downstream congestion):  The level of
      congestion a flow of traffic is expected to experience on the
      remainder of its path.  In other words, at a measurement point in
      the network the rest-of-path congestion is the level of congestion
      the traffic flow has yet to experience as it travels from that
      point to the receiver.

   Upstream congestion:  The accumulated level of congestion experienced
      by a traffic flow thus far, relative to a point along its path.
      In other words, at a measurement point in the network the upstream
      congestion is the accumulated level of congestion the traffic flow
      has experienced as it travels from the sender to that point.  At
      the receiver this is equivalent to the end-to-end congestion level
      that (usually) is reported back to the sender.

   Network provider (or operator):  Operator of a residential,
      commercial, enterprise, campus or other network.

   User:  The contractual entity that represents an individual,
      household, business, or institution that uses the service of a
      network provider.  There is no implication that the contract has
      to be commercial; for instance, the users of a university or
      enterprise network service could be students or employees who do
      not pay for access but may be required to comply with some form of
      contract or acceptable use policy.  There is also no implication
      that every user is an end user.  Where two networks form a
      customer-provider relationship, the term user applies to the
      customer network.



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   [ConEx-Abstract-Mech] gives further definitions for aspects of ConEx
   related to protocol mechanisms.

3.  Core Use Case: Informing Traffic Management

   This section explains how ConEx could be used as the basis for
   traffic management, highlights additional benefits derived from
   having ConEx-aware nodes on the network, and compares ConEx-based
   traffic management to existing approaches.

3.1.  Use Case Description

   One of the key benefits that ConEx can deliver is in helping network
   operators to improve how they manage traffic on their networks.
   Consider the common case of a commercial broadband network where a
   relatively small number of users place disproportionate demand on
   network resources, at times resulting in congestion.  The network
   operator seeks a way to manage traffic such that the traffic that
   contributes more to congestion bears more of the brunt of the
   management.

   Assuming ConEx signals are visible at the IP layer, the operator can
   accomplish this by placing a congestion policer at an enforcement
   point within the network and configuring it with a traffic management
   policy that monitors each user's contribution to congestion.  As
   described in [ConEx-Abstract-Mech] and elaborated in [CongPol], a
   congestion policer can be implemented in a similar way to a bit-rate
   policer, except that it monitors and polices congestion-volume rather
   than bit-rate.  When implemented as a token bucket, the tokens
   provide users with the right to cause bits of congestion-volume,
   rather than to send bits of data volume.  The fill rate represents
   each user's congestion-volume quota.

   The congestion policer monitors the ConEx signals of the traffic
   entering the network.  As long as the network remains uncongested and
   users stay within their quotas, no action is taken.  When the network
   becomes congested and a user exhausts his quota, some action is taken
   against the traffic that breached the quota in accordance with the
   operator's traffic management policy.  For example, the traffic may
   be dropped, delayed, or marked with a lower QoS class.  In this way,
   traffic is managed according to its contribution to congestion -- not
   some application- or flow-specific policy -- and is not managed at
   all during times of no congestion.

   As an example of how a network operator might employ a ConEx-based
   traffic management system, consider a typical DSL network
   architecture (as elaborated in [TR-059] and [TR-101]).  Traffic is
   routed from regional and global IP networks to an operator-controlled



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   IP node, the Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS).  From the BRAS,
   traffic is delivered to access nodes.  The BRAS carries enhanced
   functionality including IP QoS and traffic management capabilities.

   Based on typical network designs and current traffic patterns, the
   BRAS is located at a point in the network where congestion may be
   most likely to occur.  As a consequence, the BRAS is a logical choice
   of location for deploying traffic management functionality.  By
   deploying a congestion policer at the BRAS location, the operator can
   measure the congestion-volume created by users within the access
   nodes.  The policer would be provisioned with a traffic management
   policy, perhaps directing the BRAS to drop packets from users that
   exceed their congestion-volume quotas during times of congestion.
   Those users would be expected to react in the typical way to drops,
   backing off (assuming use of standard TCP), and thereby lowering
   their congestion-volumes back within the quota limits.

3.2.  Additional Benefits

   The ConEx-based approach to traffic management has a number of
   benefits in addition to efficient management of traffic.  It provides
   incentives for users to make use of scavenger transport protocols,
   such as [LEDBAT], that provide ways for bulk-transfer applications to
   rapidly yield when interactive applications require capacity.  With a
   congestion policer in place as described in Section 3.1, users of
   these protocols will be less likely to run afoul of the operator's
   traffic management policy than those whose bulk-transfer applications
   generate the same volume of traffic without being sensitive to
   congestion.

   ConEx-based traffic management also makes it possible for a user to
   control the relative performance among its own traffic flows.  If a
   user wants some flows to have more bandwidth than others, it can
   allow the higher bandwidth traffic to generate more congestion
   signals, leaving less congestion "budget" for the user to "spend" on
   other traffic.  This approach is most relevant if congestion is
   signalled by ECN, because no impairment due to loss is involved and
   delay can remain low.

3.3.  Comparison with Existing Approaches

   A variety of approaches already exist for network operators to manage
   congestion, traffic, and the disproportionate usage of scarce
   capacity by a small number of users.  Common approaches can be
   categorized as rate-based, volume-based, or application-based.

   Rate-based approaches constrain the traffic rate per user or per
   network.  A user's peak and average (or "committed") rate may be



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   limited.  These approaches have the potential to either over- or
   under-constrain the network, suppressing rates even when the network
   is uncongested or not suppressing them enough during heavy usage
   periods.

   Round-robin scheduling and fair queuing were developed to address
   these problems.  They equalize relative rates between active users
   (or flows) at a known bottleneck.  The bit-rate allocated to any one
   user depends on the number of active users at each instant.  The
   drawback of these approaches is that they favor heavy users over
   light users over time, because they do not have any memory of usage.
   Heavy users will be active at every instant whereas light users will
   only occupy their share of the link occassionally, but bit-rate is
   shared instant by instant.

   Volume-based approaches measure the overall volume of traffic a user
   sends (and/or receives) over time.  Users may be subject to an
   absolute volume cap (for example, 10GB per month) or the "heaviest"
   users may be sanctioned in some other manner.  Many providers use
   monthly volume limits and count volume regardless of whether the
   network is congested or not, creating the potential for over- or
   under-constraining problems, as with the original rate-based
   approaches.

   ConEx-based approaches, by comparison, only react during times of
   congestion and in proportion to each user's congestion contribution,
   making more efficient use of capacity and more proportionate
   management decisions.

   Unlike ConEx-based approaches, neither rate-based nor volume-based
   approaches provide incentives for applications to use scavenger
   transports.  They may even penalize users of applications that employ
   scavenger services for the large amount of volume they send, rather
   than rewarding them for carefully avoiding congestion while sending
   it.  While the volume-based approach described in Comcast's Protocol-
   Agnostic Congestion Management System [RFC6057] aims to overcome the
   over/under-constraining problem by only measuring volume and
   triggering traffic management action during periods of high
   utilization, it still does not provide incentives to use scavenger
   transports because congestion-causing volume cannot be distinguished
   from volume overall.  ConEx provides this ability.

   Application-based approaches use deep packet inspection or other
   techniques to determine what application a given traffic flow is
   associated with.  Operators may then use this information to rate-
   limit or otherwise sanction certain applications, in some cases only
   during peak hours.  These approaches suffer from being at odds with
   IPSec and some application-layer encryption, and they may raise



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   additional policy concerns.  In contrast, ConEx offers an
   application-agnostic metric to serve as the basis for traffic
   management decisions.

   The existing types of approaches share a further limitation that
   ConEx can help to overcome: performance uncertainty.  Flat-rate
   pricing plans are popular because users appreciate the certainty of
   having their monthly bill amount remain the same for each billing
   period, allowing them to plan their costs accordingly.  But while
   flat-rate pricing avoids billing uncertainty, it creates performance
   uncertainty: users cannot know whether the performance of their
   connections is being altered or degraded based on how the network
   operator is attempting to manage congestion.  By exposing congestion
   information at the IP layer, ConEx instead provides a metric that can
   serve as an open, transparent basis for traffic management policies
   that both providers and their customers can measure and verify.

4.  Other Use Cases

   ConEx information can be put to a number of uses other than informing
   traffic management.  These include:

   Informing inter-operator contracts:  ConEx information is made
      visible to every IP node, including border nodes between networks.
      Network operators can use this information to measure how much
      traffic from each network contributes to congestion in the other.
      As such, congestion-volume could be included as a metric in inter-
      operator contracts, just as volume or bit-rate are included today.

   Enabling more efficient capacity provisioning:  Operators currently
      provision capacity based on observations of a number of network
      characteristics, including averaged utilization and congestion.
      Without ConEx, a user may have little incentive to back off during
      times of congestion, even if the reduction in performance
      resulting from backing off certain applications (bulk transfer,
      for example) would go largely unnoticed by the user.  Using ConEx
      to ration congestion-volume directly creates incentives where
      appropriate for users and applications to switch to scavenger
      transports, resulting in traffic demand that more accurately
      reflects the actual capacity needed for the mix of applications on
      the network to perform well.  This enables capacity to be
      provisioned more efficiently because traffic more closely tracks
      users' real capacity needs.








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5.  Deployment Arrangements

   ConEx is designed so that it can be incrementally deployed in the
   Internet and still be valuable for early adopters.  As long as some
   senders are ConEx-enabled, a network on the path can unilaterally use
   ConEx-aware policy devices for traffic management; no changes to
   network forwarding elements are needed and ConEx still works if there
   are other networks on the path that are unaware of ConEx marks.

   The above two steps seem to represent a stand-off where neither step
   is useful until the other has made the first move: i) some sending
   hosts must be modifed to give information to the network and ii) a
   network must deploy policy devices to monitor this information and
   act on it.  Nonetheless, the developer of a scavenger transport
   protocol like LEDBAT does have a strong incentive to tell the network
   how little congestion it is causing despite sending large volumes of
   data.  In this case the developer makes the first move expecting it
   will prompt at least some networks to move in response--so that they
   use the ConEx information to reward users of the scavenger protocol.

   On the host side, we have already shown (Figure Figure 1) how the
   sender piggy-backs ConEx signals on normal data packets to re-insert
   feedback about packet drops (and/or ECN) back into the IP layer.  In
   the case of TCP, [I-D.conex-tcp-mods] specifies the required sender
   modifications.  ConEx works with any TCP receiver as long as it uses
   SACK, which most do.  There is a receiver optimisation
   [I-D.conex-accurate-ecn] that improves ConEx precision when using
   ECN, but ConEx can still use ECN without it.

   On the network side the operator solely needs to place ConEx
   congestion policers at each ingress to its network, in a similar
   arrangement to the edge-policed architecture of Diffserv [RFC2475].

   A sender can choose whether to send ConEx or Not-ConEx packets.
   ConEx packets bring information to the policer about congestion
   expected on the rest of the path beyond the policer.  Not-ConEx
   packets bring no such information.  Therefore the network will tend
   to rate-limit not-ConEx packets conservatively in order to manage the
   unknown risk of congestion.  In contrast, a network doesn't normally
   need to rate-limit ConEx-enabled packets unless they reveal a
   persistently high contribution to congestion.  This natural tendency
   for networks to favour senders that provide ConEx information
   reinforces ConEx deployment.

   The above gives only the most salient aspects of ConEx deployment.
   For further detail, [ConEx-Abstract-Mech] describes the incremental
   deployment features of the ConEx protocol and the components that
   need to be deployed for ConEx to work.  Then [I-D.conex-init-deploy]



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   gives concrete examples of feasible initial deployment scenarios.

6.  Security Considerations

   This document does not specify a mechanism, it merely motivates
   congestion exposure at the IP layer.  Therefore security
   considerations are described in the companion document that gives an
   abstract description of the ConEx protocol and the components that
   would use it [ConEx-Abstract-Mech].

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not require actions by IANA.

8.  Acknowledgments

   Bob Briscoe was partly funded by Trilogy, a research project (ICT-
   216372) supported by the European Community under its Seventh
   Framework Programme.  The views expressed here are those of the
   author only.

   The authors would like to thank the many people that have commented
   on this document: Bernard Aboba, Mikael Abrahamsson, Joao Taveira
   Araujo, Marcelo Bagnulo Braun, Steve Bauer, Caitlin Bestler, Steven
   Blake, Louise Burness, Ken Carlberg, Nandita Dukkipati, Dave McDysan,
   Wes Eddy, Matthew Ford, Ingemar Johansson, Georgios Karagiannis,
   Mirja Kuehlewind, Dirk Kutscher, Zhu Lei, Kevin Mason, Matt Mathis,
   Michael Menth, Chris Morrow, Tim Shepard, Hannes Tschofenig and
   Stuart Venters.  Please accept our apologies if your name has been
   missed off this list.

8.1.  Contributors

   Philip Eardley and Andrea Soppera made helpful text contributions to
   this document.

   The following co-edited this document through most of its life:














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      Toby Moncaster
      Computer Laboratory
      William Gates Building
      JJ Thomson Avenue
      Cambridge, CB3 0FD
      UK
      EMail: toby.moncaster@cl.cam.ac.uk

      John Leslie
      JLC.net
      10 Souhegan Street
      Milford, NH  03055
      US
      EMail: john@jlc.net

9.  Informative References

   [Bauer09]                 Bauer, S., Clark, D., and W. Lehr, "The
                             Evolution of Internet Congestion", 2009.

   [ConEx-Abstract-Mech]     Mathis, M. and B. Briscoe, "Congestion
                             Exposure (ConEx) Concepts and Abstract
                             Mechanism",
                             draft-ietf-conex-abstract-mech-02 (work in
                             progress), July 2011.

   [CongPol]                 Briscoe, B., Jacquet, A., and T. Moncaster,
                             "Policing Freedom to Use the Internet
                             Resource Pool", RE-Arch 2008 hosted at the
                             2008 CoNEXT conference , December 2008.

   [I-D.conex-accurate-ecn]  Kuehlewind, M. and R. Scheffenegger,
                             "Accurate ECN Feedback in TCP",
                             draft-kuehlewind-conex-accurate-ecn-00
                             (work in progress), July 2011.

   [I-D.conex-init-deploy]   Briscoe, B., "Initial Congestion Exposure
                             (ConEx) Deployment Examples",
                             draft-briscoe-conex-initial-deploy-00 (work
                             in progress), October 2011.

   [I-D.conex-tcp-mods]      Kuehlewind, M. and R. Scheffenegger, "TCP
                             modifications for Congestion Exposure",
                             draft-kuehlewind-conex-tcp-modifications-00
                             (work in progress), July 2011.

   [LEDBAT]                  Shalunov, S., Hazel, G., Iyengar, J., and
                             M. Kuehlewind, "Low Extra Delay Background



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                             Transport (LEDBAT)",
                             draft-ietf-ledbat-congestion-08 (work in
                             progress), May 2011.

   [RFC2475]                 Blake, S., Black, D., Carlson, M., Davies,
                             E., Wang, Z., and W. Weiss, "An
                             Architecture for Differentiated Services",
                             RFC 2475, December 1998.

   [RFC3168]                 Ramakrishnan, K., Floyd, S., and D. Black,
                             "The Addition of Explicit Congestion
                             Notification (ECN) to IP", RFC 3168,
                             September 2001.

   [RFC6057]                 Bastian, C., Klieber, T., Livingood, J.,
                             Mills, J., and R. Woundy, "Comcast's
                             Protocol-Agnostic Congestion Management
                             System", RFC 6057, December 2010.

   [TR-059]                  Anschutz, T., Ed., "DSL Forum Technical
                             Report TR-059: Requirements for the Support
                             of QoS-Enabled IP Services",
                             September 2003.

   [TR-101]                  Cohen, A., Ed. and E. Schrum, Ed., "DSL
                             Forum Technical Report TR-101: Migration to
                             Ethernet-Based DSL Aggregation",
                             April 2006.

Appendix A.  Changes from previous drafts (to be removed by the RFC
             Editor)

   From draft-ietf-conex-concepts-uses-02 to -03:  Reorganization and
      re-write of most sections.

   From draft-ietf-conex-concepts-uses-01 to -02:  New Abstract &
      Introduction.  Concepts and Misconceptions sections added around
      definitions.  Minor clarifications to Existing Traffic Management
      and Use-Cases sections, with Other use Cases Added.  Deployment
      Arrangements Section added.

   From draft-ietf-conex-concepts-uses-00 to -01:

      Added section on timescales: Section 6







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      Revised introduction to clarify congestion definitions

      Changed source for congestion definition in Section 2

      Other minor changes

   From draft-moncaster-conex-concepts-uses-02 to
   draft-ietf-conex-concepts-uses-00 (per decisions of working group):

      Removed section on DDoS mitigation use case.

      Removed appendix on ConEx Architectural Elements.  PLEASE NOTE:
      Alignment of terminology with the Abstract Mechanism draft has
      been deferred to the next version.

   From draft-moncaster-conex-concepts-uses-01 to
   draft-moncaster-conex-concepts-uses-02:

      Updated document to take account of the new Abstract Mechanism
      draft [ConEx-Abstract-Mech].

      Updated the definitions section.

      Removed sections on Requirements and Mechanism.

      Moved section on ConEx Architectural Elements to appendix.

      Minor changes throughout.

   From draft-moncaster-conex-concepts-uses-00 to
   draft-moncaster-conex-concepts-uses-01:

      Changed end of Abstract to better reflect new title

      Created new section describing the architectural elements of
      ConEx.  Added Edge Monitors and Border Monitors (other elements
      are Ingress, Egress and Border Policers).

      Extensive re-write of use cases partly in response to suggestions
      from Dirk Kutscher

      Improved layout of Section 2 and added definitions of Whole Path
      Congestion, ConEx-Enabled and ECN-Enabled.  Re-wrote definition of
      Congestion Volume.  Renamed Ingress and Egress Router to Ingress
      and Egress Node as these nodes may not actually be routers.






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      Improved document structure.  Merged sections on Exposing
      Congestion and ECN.

      Added new section on ConEx requirements with a ConEx Issues
      subsection.  Text for these came from the start of the old ConEx
      Use Cases section

      Added a sub-section on Partial vs Full Deployment (Section 5.5)

      Added a discussion on ConEx as a Business Secret

   From draft-conex-mechanism-00 to
   draft-moncaster-conex-concepts-uses-00:

      Changed filename to draft-moncaster-conex-concepts-uses.

      Changed title to ConEx Concepts and Use Cases.

      Chose uniform capitalization of ConEx.

      Moved definition of Congestion Volume to list of definitions.

      Clarified mechanism section.  Changed section title.

      Modified text relating to conex-aware policing and policers (which
      are NOT defined terms).

      Re-worded bullet on distinguishing ConEx and non-ConEx traffic in
      use cases section.

Authors' Addresses

   Bob Briscoe (editor)
   BT
   B54/77, Adastral Park
   Martlesham Heath
   Ipswich  IP5 3RE
   UK

   Phone: +44 1473 645196
   EMail: bob.briscoe@bt.com
   URI:   http://bobbriscoe.net/









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   Richard Woundy (editor)
   Comcast
   1701 John F Kennedy Boulevard
   Philadelphia, PA  19103
   US

   EMail: richard_woundy@cable.comcast.com
   URI:   http://www.comcast.com


   Alissa Cooper (editor)
   CDT
   1634 Eye St. NW, Suite 1100
   Washington, DC  20006
   US

   EMail: acooper@cdt.org


































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