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  INTERNET-DRAFT                                             Eric A. Hall
  Document: draft-ietf-crisp-firs-ipv4-01.txt                    May 2003
  Expires: December, 2003
  Category: Experimental
  
  
                  Defining and Locating IPv4 Address Blocks
                 in the Federated Internet Registry Service
  
  
     Status of this Memo
  
     This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
     all provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026.
  
     Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
     Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
     other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
     Drafts.
  
     Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
     months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
     documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts
     as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in
     progress."
  
     The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
     http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt
  
     The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
     http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
  
  
     Copyright Notice
  
     Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved.
  
  
     Abstract
  
     This document defines LDAP schema and searching rules for IPv4
     address blocks, in support of the Federated Internet Registry
     Service (FIRS) described in [FIRS-ARCH] and [FIRS-CORE].
  
  
  
  Internet Draft    draft-ietf-crisp-firs-ipv4-01.txt         May 2003
  
  
  
     Table of Contents
  
     1.   Introduction..............................................2
     2.   Prerequisites and Terminology.............................2
     3.   Naming Syntax.............................................3
     4.   Object Classes and Attributes.............................5
     5.   Query Processing Rules....................................7
       5.1.  Query Pre-Processing...................................8
       5.2.  Query Bootstrapping....................................8
       5.3.  LDAP Matching..........................................9
       5.4.  Example Query.........................................10
     6.   Security Considerations..................................11
     7.   IANA Considerations......................................11
     8.   Author's Addresses.......................................12
     9.   Normative References.....................................12
     10.  Acknowledgments..........................................13
     11.  Changes from Previous Versions...........................13
     12.  Full Copyright Statement.................................14
  
  1.      Introduction
  
     This specification defines the naming syntax, object classes,
     attributes, matching filters, and query processing rules for
     storing and locating IPv4 address blocks in the FIRS service.
     Refer to [FIRS-ARCH] for information on the FIRS architecture and
     [FIRS-CORE] for the schema definitions and rules which govern the
     FIRS service as a whole.
  
     Note that reverse-lookup DNS domains for IPv4 address blocks are
     managed as DNS domain entries in [FIRS-DNS]. These are entirely
     different network resources, and should not be confused with IPv4
     address block entries.
  
     The definitions in this specification are intended to be used with
     FIRS. Their usage outside of FIRS is not prohibited, but any such
     usage is beyond this specification's scope of authority.
  
  2.      Prerequisites and Terminology
  
     The complete set of specifications in the FIRS collection
     cumulative define a structured and distributed information service
     using LDAPv3 for the data-formatting and transport functions. This
     specification should be read in the context of the complete set of
     specifications, which currently include the following:
  
  
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            draft-ietf-crisp-firs-arch-01, "The Federated Internet
            Registry Service: Architecture and Implementation"
            [FIRS-ARCH]
  
            draft-ietf-crisp-firs-core-01, "The Federated Internet
            Registry Service: Core Elements" [FIRS-CORE]
  
            draft-ietf-crisp-firs-dns-01, "Defining and Locating DNS
            Domains in the Federated Internet Registry Service"
            [FIRS-DNS]
  
            draft-ietf-crisp-firs-dnsrr-01, "Defining and Locating DNS
            Resource Records in the Federated Internet Registry
            Service" [FIRS-DNSRR]
  
            draft-ietf-crisp-firs-contact-01, "Defining and Locating
            Contact Persons in the Federated Internet Registry Service"
            [FIRS-CONTCT]
  
            draft-ietf-crisp-firs-asn-01, "Defining and Locating
            Autonomous System Numbers in the Federated Internet
            Registry Service" [FIRS-ASN]
  
            draft-ietf-crisp-firs-ipv4-01, "Defining and Locating IPv4
            Address Blocks in the Federated Internet Registry Service"
            (this document) [FIRS-IPV4]
  
            draft-ietf-crisp-firs-ipv6-01, "Defining and Locating IPv6
            Address Blocks in the Federated Internet Registry Service"
            [FIRS-IPV6]
  
     The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
     NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"
     in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.
  
  3.      Naming Syntax
  
     The naming syntax for IPv4 address blocks in FIRS MUST follow the
     form of "cn=<inetIpv4NetworkSyntax>,cn=inetResources,<partition>",
     where <inetIpv4NetworkSyntax > is the IPv4 address block resource,
     and where <partition> is a sequence of domainComponent relative
     distinguished names which identifies the scope of authority for
     the selected directory partition.
  
     The inetIpv4NetworkSyntax rules use the traditional "dotted-quad"
     notation, where each of four sub-components provide a decimal
  
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     value that represents one octet from a 32-bit IPv4 address, with
     the sub-components being separated by a full-stop (period)
     character, and with the four-part sequence being followed by a "/"
     character and a three-digit decimal "prefix" value.
  
     Entries which use the inetIpv4NetworkSyntax MUST use the starting
     address from a range of inclusive addresses, and MUST use CIDR
     prefix notation. In this manner, it is possible to create an
     inetIpv4Network entry for a range of addresses of any size
     (including a single host).
  
     The leading zeroes from each octet MUST be removed before the
     value is stored or used in a query. Octets which have a value of
     zero MUST be represented by the single-digit numeric value of "0".
  
     If an input string does not match this syntax, a FIRS-aware
     application MAY attempt to manipulate the input string to form a
     valid value. For example, if a user enters a traditional IPv4
     address without specifying a prefix value, the application MAY
     append "/32" to the end of the input string to form a valid
     assertion value. Similarly, if a user provides an octal or
     hexadecimal value, the client MAY attempt to convert the input
     string to the traditional dotted-quad IPv4 address notation.
  
     An augmented BNF for this syntax is as follows:
  
          inetIpv4NetworkSyntax = inetIpv4Octet "." inetIpv4Octet "."
            inetIpv4Octet "." inetIpv4Octet "/" inetIpv4Prefix
  
          inetIpv4Octet = decimal value between "0" and "255"
            inclusive, with the non-affective leading zeroes removed
  
          inetIpv4Prefix = decimal value between "1" and "32"
            inclusive, with the non-affective leading zeroes removed
  
     The schema definition for inetIpv4NetworkSyntax is as follows:
  
          inetIpv4NetworkSyntax
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.2.1 NAME 'inetIpv4NetworkSyntax' DESC
            'An IPv4 address and prefix.' )
  
     For example, an IPv4 address block with a range of addresses
     between "10.0.0.0" and "10.0.255.255" inclusive would be written
     as "cn=10.0.0.0/16", while a host address of "192.0.2.14" would be
     written as "cn=192.0.2.14/32".
  
  
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     Note that the entry name of "cn=0.0.0.0/0" encompasses the entire
     IPv4 address space.
  
     Note that the use of "/" is illegal as data in URLs, and MUST be
     escaped before it is stored in a URL as data.
  
  4.      Object Classes and Attributes
  
     IPv4 address block entries in FIRS MUST use the inetIpv4Network
     object class, in addition to the mandatory object classes defined
     in [FIRS-CORE]. IPv4 address block entries MUST be treated as
     containers capable of holding subordinate entries. If an entry
     exists as a referral source, the entry MUST also be defined with
     the referral object class, in addition to the above requirements.
  
     The inetIpv4Network object class is a structural object class
     which is subordinate to the inetResources object class. The
     inetIpv4Network object class has no mandatory attributes, although
     it does have several optional attributes. The inetIpv4Network
     object class also inherits the attributes defined in the
     inetResources object class, including the "cn" naming attribute.
  
     The schema definition for the inetIpv4Network object class is as
     follows:
  
          inetIpv4Network
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.2.0 NAME 'inetIpv4Network' DESC 'IPv4
            network attributes.' SUP inetResources STRUCTURAL MAY (
            inetIpv4DelegationStatus $ inetIpv4DelegationDate $
            inetIpv4Registrar $ inetIpv4Registry $ inetIpv4Contacts $
            inetIpv4RoutingContacts $ ) )
  
     The attributes from the inetIpv4Network object class are described
     below:
  
          inetIpv4Contacts
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.2.2 NAME 'inetIpv4Contacts' DESC
            'Contacts for general administrative issues concerning this
            IPv4 address block.' EQUALITY caseIgnoreMatch SYNTAX
            inetContactSyntax )
  
  
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          inetIpv4DelegationDate
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.2.3 NAME 'inetIpv4DelegationDate' DESC
            'Date this IPv4 address block was delegated.' EQUALITY
            generalizedTimeMatch ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch
            SYNTAX generalizedTime SINGLE-VALUE )
  
          inetIpv4DelegationStatus
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.2.4 NAME 'inetIpv4DelegationStatus' DESC
            'Delegation status of this IPv4 address block.' EQUALITY
            numericStringMatch SYNTAX numericString{2} SINGLE-VALUE )
  
            NOTE: In an effort to facilitate internationalization and
            programmatic processing, the current status of a delegation
            is identified by a 16-bit integer. The values and status
            mapping is as follows:
  
                 0   Reserved delegation (permanently inactive)
                 1   Assigned and active (normal state)
                 2   Assigned but not yet active (new delegation)
                 3   Assigned but on hold (disputed)
                 4   Assignment revoked (database purge pending)
  
            Additional values are reserved for future use, and are to
            be administered by IANA.
  
            Note that there is no status code for "unassigned";
            unassigned entries SHOULD NOT exist, and SHOULD NOT be
            returned as answers.
  
          inetIpv4Registrar
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.2.5 NAME 'inetIpv4Registrar' DESC
            'Registrar who delegated this IPv4 address block.' EQUALITY
            caseIgnoreMatch SYNTAX directoryString )
  
            NOTE: The inetIpv4Registrar attribute uses a URL to
            indicate the registrar who delegated the address block. The
            attribute structure is identical to the labeledURI
            attribute, as defined in [RFC2798], including the URL and
            textual comments. The data can refer to any valid URL.
  
          inetIpv4Registry
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.2.6 NAME 'inetIpv4Registry' DESC
            'Registry where this IPv4 address block is managed.'
            EQUALITY caseIgnoreMatch SYNTAX directoryString )
  
  
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            NOTE: The inetIpv4Registry attribute uses a URL to indicate
            the registry who is ultimately responsible for the address
            block. The attribute structure is identical to the
            labeledURI attribute, as defined in [RFC2798], including
            the URL and textual comments. The data can refer to any
            valid URL.
  
          inetIpv4RoutingContacts
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.2.7 NAME 'inetIpv4RoutingContacts' DESC
            'Contacts for routing-related problems with this IPv4
            address block.' EQUALITY caseExactMatch SYNTAX
            inetContactSyntax )
  
     An example of the inetIpv4Network object class is shown in Figure
     1 below. The example includes attributes from the inetIpv4Network,
     inetResources, and inetAssociatedResources object classes.
  
          cn=192.0.2.0/24,cn=inetResources,dc=arin,dc=net
          [top object class]
          [inetResources object class]
          [inetIpv4Network object class]
          [inetAssociatedResources object class]
          |
          +-attribute: description
          | value: "Example Hosting's IPv4 address block"
          |
          +-attribute: inetIpv4Contacts
          | value: "hostmaster@example.com"
          |
          +-attribute: inetAssociatedAsNumbers
          | value: "65535"
          |
          +-attribute: inetIpv4Registrar
            value: "http://www.arin.net/ (ARIN)"
  
     Figure 1: The entry for the 192.0.2.0/24 address block in the
     dc=arin,dc=net partition.
  
  5.      Query Processing Rules
  
     Queries for IPv4 address blocks have several special requirements,
     as discussed in the following sections.
  
     Refer to [FIRS-CORE] for general information about FIRS queries.
  
  
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  5.1.    Query Pre-Processing
  
     Clients MUST ensure that the query input is normalized according
     to the rules specified in section 3 before the input is used as
     the assertion value to the resulting LDAP query.
  
     The authoritative partition for an IPv4 address block is
     determined by mapping the normalized input to an associated
     reverse-lookup DNS domain name, and then mapping the resulting DNS
     domain name to a sequence of domainComponent labels.
  
     The least-significant octet MUST include the subnet prefix in this
     mapping process, except in those cases where the address falls on
     an eight-bit boundary. In those cases where the address block
     specifies a 32-bit host address, the subnet prefix MUST be
     stripped from the input during the mapping process. In those cases
     where the address block specifies a legacy "address class", the
     least-significant octet and subnet prefix MUST both be stripped
     from the input during the mapping process. These steps are
     necessary in order to ensure that the reverse-pointer delegations
     in the public DNS are correctly matched to the authoritative
     partitions (note that these rules only apply to the mapping
     process by which an authoritative partition is constructed, and
     does not apply to the process by which the entry-specific relative
     distinguished name is constructed).
  
     For example, a host-specific IPv4 address block of "192.0.2.14/32"
     would be mapped to the reverse-lookup DNS domain name of
     "14.2.0.192.in-addr.arpa." which would in turn be mapped to
     "dc=14,dc=2,dc=0,dc=192,dc=in-addr,dc=arpa". Meanwhile, the "Class
     C" block of "192.0.2.0/24" would be mapped to the reverse-lookup
     DNS domain name of "2.0.192.in-addr.arpa." which would in turn be
     mapped to "dc=2,dc=0,dc=192,dc=in-addr,dc=arpa". Finally, a
     classless IPv4 address block of "192.0.2.0/20" would be mapped to
     the reverse-lookup DNS domain name of "0/14.2.0.192.in-addr.arpa"
     which would in turn be mapped to the fully-qualified distinguished
     name of "dc=0/14,dc=2,dc=0,dc=192,dc=in-addr,dc=arpa".
  
  5.2.    Query Bootstrapping
  
     FIRS clients MUST use the top-down bootstrap model by default for
     IPv4 address block queries. As such, the search base for default
     queries would be set to "dc=arpa" rather than being set to the
     fully-qualified distinguished name of the authoritative partition.
  
  
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     FIRS clients MAY use the targeted or bottom-up bootstrap models
     for queries if necessary or desirable. However, it is not likely
     that entries will be found for all IPv4 address block resources
     using these models. As such, the top-down bootstrap model will be
     the most useful in most cases, and MUST be used by default.
  
  5.3.    LDAP Matching
  
     FIRS clients MUST use the inetIpv4NetworkMatch extensible matching
     filter in LDAP searches for IPv4 address block entries.
  
     The inetIpv4NetworkMatch filter provides an identifier and search
     string format which collectively inform a queried server that a
     specific IPv4 address should be searched for, and that any
     matching inetIpv4network object class entries should be returned.
  
     The inetIpv4NetworkMatch extensibleMatch filter is defined as
     follows:
  
          inetIpv4NetworkMatch
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.2.8 NAME 'inetIpv4NetworkMatch' SYNTAX
            inetIpv4NetworkSyntax )
  
     The assertion value MUST be a normalized IPv4 address, using the
     inetIpv4NetworkSyntax defined in section 3.
  
     A FIRS server MUST compare the assertion value against the RDN of
     all entries in the inetResources container of the partition
     specified in the search base which have an object class of
     inetIpv4Network. Any entry with an object class of inetIpv4Network
     and with a relative distinguished name which clearly encompasses
     the IPv4 address provided in the assertion value MUST be returned.
     Entries which do not clearly encompass the queried address MUST
     NOT be returned. Entries which do not have an object class of
     inetIpv4Network MUST NOT be returned.
  
     In order to ensure that all of the relevant entries are found
     (including any referrals), the search filters for these resources
     MUST specify the inetIpv4Network object class along with the
     search criteria. For example, "(&(objectclass=inetIpv4Network)
     (1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.2.8:=192.0.2.0/24))" with a search base of
     "cn=inetResources,dc=arin,dc=net" would find all of the
     inetIpv4Network object class entries which were superior to the
     "192.0.2.0/24" address block in the "dc=arin,dc=net" partition.
  
  
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     Note that the entry name of "cn=0.0.0.0/0" encompasses the entire
     IPv4 address space. When used in conjunction with referrals, this
     entry MAY be used to redirect all inetIpv4NetworkMatch queries to
     another partition for subsequent processing.
  
     The matching filters defined in this specification MUST be
     supported by FIRS clients and servers. FIRS servers MAY support
     additional sub-string filters, soundex filters, or any other
     filters they wish (these may be required to support generic LDAP
     clients), although FIRS clients MUST NOT expect any additional
     filters to be available.
  
  5.4.    Example Query
  
     The following example assumes that the user has specified
     "192.0.2.14/32" as the query value:
  
        a.  Normalize the input, which is "192.0.2.14/32" in this case.
  
        b.  Determine the authoritative partition.
  
            1.   Map the input sequence to the reverse-lookup domain
                 name, which is "14.2.0.192.in-addr.arpa" in this case.
  
            2.   Map the domain name to an authoritative partition,
                 which is "dc=14,dc=2,dc=0,dc=192,dc=in-addr,dc=arpa"
                 in this case. By default, queries for IPv4 address
                 blocks use the top-down model, meaning that the right-
                 most relative distinguished name of "dc=arpa" will be
                 used as the authoritative partition.
  
        c.  Determine the search base for the query, which will be
            "cn=inetResources,dc=arpa" if the defaults are used.
  
        d.  Initiate a DNS lookup for the SRV resource records
            associated with "_ldap._tcp.arpa." For the purpose of this
            example, assume that this lookup succeeds, with the DNS
            response message indicating that "firs.iana.org" is the
            preferred LDAP server.
  
        e.  Submit an LDAPv3 query to the specified server, using
            "(&(objectClass=inetIpv4Network)
            (1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.2.8:=192.0.2.14/32))" as the matching
            filter, "cn=inetResources,dc=arpa" as the search base, and
            the global query defaults defined in [FIRS-CORE].
  
  
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        f.  Assume that the queried server returns a continuation
            reference referral which points to
            "ldap:///cn=inetResources,dc=arin,dc=net". The
            distinguished name element of
            "cn=inetResources,dc=arin,dc=net" will be used as the new
            search base, while "dc=arin,dc=net" will be used as the new
            authoritative partition.
  
        g.  Initiate a DNS lookup for the SRV resource records
            associated with "_ldap._tcp. arin.net." For the purpose of
            this example, assume that this lookup succeeds, with the
            DNS response message indicating that "firs.arin.net" is the
            preferred LDAP server.
  
        h.  Submit an LDAPv3 query to the specified server, using
            "(&(objectClass=inetIpv4Network)
            (1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.2.8:=192.0.2.14/32)" as the matching
            filter, "cn=inetResources,dc=arin,dc=net" as the search
            base, and the global query defaults defined in [FIRS-CORE].
  
        i.  Assume that no other referrals are received. Display the
            answer data which has been received and exit the query.
  
  6.      Security Considerations
  
     Security considerations are discussed in [FIRS-ARCH].
  
  7.      IANA Considerations
  
     This specification uses the "dc=arpa" directory partition by
     default, with the expectation that FIRS-capable LDAP servers will
     be established, with this partition containing IPv4-specific
     entries which will provide referrals to the appropriate
     registrar's partitions. It is further expected that IANA will
     oversee the creation and management of the ARPA domain's LDAP SRV
     resource records, the "dc=arpa" LDAP partition, and the necessary
     LDAP servers.
  
     The inetIpv4DelegationStatus attribute uses numeric code values.
     It is expected that IANA will manage the assignment of these
     values.
  
     Additional IANA considerations are discussed in [FIRS-ARCH].
  
  
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  8.      Author's Addresses
  
     Eric A. Hall
     ehall@ehsco.com
  
  9.      Normative References
  
          [RFC2247]     Kille, S., Wahl, M., Grimstad, A., Huber, R.,
                         and Sataluri, S. "Using Domains in LDAP/X.500
                         DNs", RFC 2247, January 1998.
  
          [RFC2251]     Wahl, M., Howes, T., and Kille, S.
                         "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3)",
                         RFC 2251, December 1997.
  
          [RFC2252]     Wahl, M., Coulbeck, A., Howes, T., and Kille,
                         S. "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
                         (v3): Attribute Syntax Definitions", RFC 2252,
                         December 1997.
  
          [RFC2254]     Howes, T. "The String Representation of LDAP
                         Search Filters", RFC 2254, December 1997.
  
          [FIRS-ARCH]   Hall, E. "The Federated Internet Registry
                         Service: Architecture and Implementation
                         Guide", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-arch-01, May
                         2003.
  
          [FIRS-ASN]    Hall, E. "Defining and Locating Autonomous
                         System Numbers in the Federated Internet
                         Registry Service", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-asn-
                         01, May 2003.
  
          [FIRS-CONTCT] Hall, E. "Defining and Locating Contact
                         Persons in the Federated Internet Registry
                         Service", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-contact-01,
                         May 2003.
  
          [FIRS-CORE]   Hall, E. "The Federated Internet Registry
                         Service: Core Elements", draft-ietf-crisp-
                         firs-core-01, May 2003.
  
          [FIRS-DNS]    Hall, E. "Defining and Locating DNS Domains in
                         the Federated Internet Registry Service",
                         draft-ietf-crisp-firs-dns-01, May 2003.
  
          [FIRS-DNSRR]  Hall, E. "Defining and Locating DNS Resource
                         Records in the Federated Internet Registry
  
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                         Service", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-dnsrr-01, May
                         2003.
  
          [FIRS-IPV4]   Hall, E. "Defining and Locating IPv4 Address
                         Blocks in the Federated Internet Registry
                         Service", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-ipv4-01, May
                         2003.
  
          [FIRS-IPV6]   Hall, E. "Defining and Locating IPv6 Address
                         Blocks in the Federated Internet Registry
                         Service", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-ipv6-01, May
                         2003.
  
  10.     Acknowledgments
  
     Funding for the RFC editor function is currently provided by the
     Internet Society.
  
     Portions of this document were funded by Verisign Labs.
  
     The first version of this specification was co-authored by Andrew
     Newton of Verisign Labs, and subsequent versions continue to be
     developed with his active participation.
  
  11.     Changes from Previous Versions
  
     draft-ietf-crisp-firs-ipv4-01:
  
        *   Several clarifications and corrections have been made.
  
     draft-ietf-crisp-firs-ipv4-00:
  
        *   Restructured the document set.
  
        *   "Attribute references" have been eliminated from the
            specification. All referential attributes now provide
            actual data instead of URL pointers to data. Clients that
            wish to retrieve these values will need to start new
            queries using the data values instead of URLs.
  
        *   The attribute-specific operational attributes have been
            eliminated as unnecessary.
  
        *   The inetIpv4Registrar and inetIpv4Registry attributes were
            added.
  
  
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  Internet Draft    draft-ietf-crisp-firs-ipv4-01.txt         May 2003
  
  
        *   Several attributes had their OIDs changed. NOTE THAT THIS
            IS AN INTERNET DRAFT, AND THAT THE OIDS ARE SUBJECT TO
            ADDITIONAL CHANGES AS THIS DOCUMENT IS EDITED.
  
        *   Several typographical errors have been fixed.
  
        *   Some unnecessary text has been removed.
  
  12.     Full Copyright Statement
  
     Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.
  
     This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished
     to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise
     explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared,
     copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without
     restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice
     and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative
     works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any
     way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references to the
     Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed
     for the purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the
     procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards
     process must be followed, or as required to translate it into
     languages other than English.
  
     The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not
     be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.
  
     This document and the information contained herein is provided on
     an "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
     ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
     IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF
     THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
     WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
  
  
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