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  INTERNET-DRAFT                                             Eric A. Hall
  Document: draft-ietf-crisp-lw-asn-00.txt                      July 2002
  Expires: January, 2003
  Category: Experimental
  
  
               Defining and Locating Autonomous System Numbers
                  using the Internet Resource Query Service
  
  
     Status of this Memo
  
     This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
     all provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026.
  
     Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
     Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
     other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
     Drafts.
  
     Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
     months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
     documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts
     as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in
     progress."
  
     The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
     http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt
  
     The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
     http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
  
  
  1.      Abstract
  
     This document defines LDAP schema and searching rules for
     autonomous system numbers, in support of the Internet Resource
     Query Service described in [ldap-whois].
  
  
  
  
  Internet Draft      draft-ietf-crisp-lw-asn-00.txt          July 2002
  
  
  
  2.      Definitions and Terminology
  
     This document unites, enhances and clarifies several pre-existing
     technologies. Readers are expected to be familiar with the
     following specifications:
  
            RFC 2247 - Using Domains in LDAP/X.500 DNs
  
            RFC 2251 - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3)
  
            RFC 2252 - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3):
            Attribute Syntax Definitions.
  
            RFC 2254 - The String Representation of LDAP Search Filters
  
            [ir-dir-req] - <draft-newton-ir-dir-requirements-00.txt> -
            Internet Registry Directory Requirements
  
            [ldap-whois] - <draft-ietf-crisp-lw-core-00.txt> - The
            Internet Resource Query Service and the Internet Resource
            Schema
  
     The following abbreviations are used throughout this document:
  
            DIT (Directory Information Tree) - A DIT is a contained
            branch of the LDAP namespace, having a root of a particular
            distinguished name. "dc=example,dc=com" is used throughout
            this document as one DIT, with many example entries being
            stored in this DIT.
  
            DN (Distinguished Name) - A distinguished name provides a
            unique identifier for an entry, through the use of a multi-
            level naming syntax. Entries are named according to their
            location relevant to the root of their containing DIT. For
            example, "cn=inetResources,dc=example,dc=com" is a DN which
            uniquely identifies the "inetResources" entry within the
            "dc=example,dc=com" DIT.
  
            RDN (Relative DN) - An RDN provides a locally-scoped unique
            identifier for an entry. A complete, globally-unique DN is
            formed by concatenating the RDNs of an entry together. For
            example, "cn=admins,cn=inetResources,dc=example,dc=com"
            consists of two RDNs ("cn=admins" and "cn=inetResources")
            within the "dc=example,dc=com" DIT. RDNs are typically only
            referenced within their local scope.
  
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            OID (Object Identifier) - An OID is a globally-unique,
            concatenated set of integers which provide a kind of
            "serial number" to attributes, object classes, syntaxes and
            other schema elements.
  
     The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
     NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"
     in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.
  
  
  3.      The inetAsNumber Object Class
  
     The inetAsNumber object class is a structural object class which
     provides administrative information about a specific autonomous
     system (AS) number. AS numbers are used to identify routing
     domains, allowing multiple discontiguous IPv4 and IPv6 network
     blocks to be referenced with a single, globally-unique identifier.
  
  
  3.1.    Naming syntax
  
     The naming syntax for AS number entries MUST follow the form of
     "cn=<inetAsNumberSyntax>,cn=inetResources,<dc-DIT>". Each AS
     number which is managed as a discrete LDAP-WHOIS network resource
     MUST have a dedicated entry in each of the DITs which provide
     public LDAP-WHOIS data regarding that autonomous system.
  
     The inetAsNumberSyntax component of an entry is subject to DN
     rules, although the inetAsNumberSyntax is also used for search and
     compare operations, and is therefore subject to specific syntax
     rules. The AS number syntax uses the decimal equivalent of a 16-
     bit autonomous system number, with the non-affective leading
     zeroes removed. An augmented BNF for this syntax is as follows:
  
          inetAsNumberSyntax = decimal value between "0" and "65535"
             inclusive, with the non-affective leading zeroes removed
  
     For example, an entry for AS number "1" from the "dc=arin,dc=net"
     DIT would have a DN of "cn=1,cn=inetResources,dc=arin,dc=net",
     while an entry for AS number "65535" from the same DIT would have
     a DN of "cn=65535,cn=inetResources,dc=arin,dc=net".
  
  
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  Internet Draft      draft-ietf-crisp-lw-asn-00.txt          July 2002
  
  
  
  3.2.    Schema definition
  
     AS number entries MUST exist with the top, inetResources and
     inetAsNumber object classes defined. If an entry exists as a
     referral, the entry MUST also be defined with the referral object
     class, in addition to the above requirements.
  
     The inetAsNumber object class is a structural object class which
     is subordinate to the inetResources object class, and which MUST
     be treated as a container class capable of holding additional
     subordinate entries. The inetAsNumber object class has no
     mandatory attributes, although it does have several optional
     attributes.
  
     The inetAsNumber object class defines attributes which are
     specific to autonomous systems and their associated routing
     domains, such as the delegation date, and the status of the
     delegation. The inetAsNumber object class is subordinate to the
     inetResources object class, so it inherits those attributes as
     well.
  
     Some of the inetAsNumber object class attributes define contact-
     related referrals which provide LDAP URLs that refer to
     inetOrgPerson entries, and these entries will need to be queried
     separately if detailed information about a particular contact is
     required. The contact attribute values follow the same rules as
     the labeledURI attribute defined in RFC 2079, with additional
     restrictions described in [ldap-whois].
  
     The various ModifiedBy and ModifiedDate attributes SHOULD be
     treated as operational attributes. Their values SHOULD be filled
     in automatically by the database management application, and
     SHOULD NOT be returned except when explicitly requested.
  
     The network-specific attributes MUST only contain network
     addresses which are directly associated with the AS number, and
     MUST use the largest superior prefix delegated to those networks
     (using the inetIpv4NetworkSyntax and inetIpv6NetworkSyntax rules);
     these attributes MUST NOT contain host or subnet addresses which
     are subordinate to another value which is already listed, and
     these attributes MUST NOT contain network addresses of networks
     which are associated with any other AS number.
  
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  Internet Draft      draft-ietf-crisp-lw-asn-00.txt          July 2002
  
  
  
     The schema definition for the inetAsNumber object class is as
     follows:
  
          inetAsNumber
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.4.0 NAME 'inetAsNumber' DESC 'Autonomous
             system attributes.' SUP inetResources STRUCTURAL MAY (
             inetAsnDelegationStatus $ inetAsnDelegationDate $
             inetAsnDelegationModifiedDate $
             inetAsnDelegationModifiedBy $ inetAsnContacts $
             inetAsnContactsModifiedBy $ inetAsnContactsModifiedDate $
             inetAsnRoutingContacts $ inetAsnRoutingContactsModifiedBy
             $ inetAsnRoutingContactsModifiedDate ) )
  
     The attributes from the inetIpv4Network object class are described
     below:
  
          inetAsnContacts
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.4.2 NAME 'inetAsnContacts' DESC
             'Contacts for reporting problems with this routing
             domain.' EQUALITY caseExactMatch SYNTAX
             1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.15 )
  
          inetAsnContactsModifiedBy
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.4.3 NAME 'inetAsnContactsModifiedBy'
             DESC 'Person who last modified the inetAsnContacts
             attribute.' EQUALITY distinguishedNameMatch SYNTAX
             1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.12 SINGLE-VALUE USAGE
             distributedOperation )
  
          inetAsnContactsModifiedDate
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.4.4 NAME 'inetAsnContactsModifiedDate'
             DESC 'Last modification date of the inetAsnContacts
             attribute.' EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch ORDERING
             generalizedTimeOrderingMatch SYNTAX
             1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.24 SINGLE-VALUE USAGE
             distributedOperation )
  
          inetAsnDelegationDate
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.4.5 NAME 'inetAsnDelegationDate' DESC
             'Date of original delegation.' EQUALITY
             generalizedTimeMatch ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch
             SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.24 SINGLE-VALUE )
  
  
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          inetAsnDelegationModifiedBy
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.4.6 NAME 'inetAsnDelegationModifiedBy'
             DESC 'Person who last modified the inetAsnDelegationStatus
             attribute.' EQUALITY distinguishedNameMatch SYNTAX
             1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.12 SINGLE-VALUE USAGE
             distributedOperation )
  
          inetAsnDelegationModifiedDate
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.4.7 NAME 'inetAsnDelegationModifiedDate'
             DESC 'Last modification date of the
             inetAsnDelegationStatus attribute.' EQUALITY
             generalizedTimeMatch ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch
             SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.24 SINGLE-VALUE USAGE
             distributedOperation )
  
          inetAsnDelegationStatus
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.4.8 NAME 'inetAsnDelegationStatus' DESC
             'Current delegation status code for this AS number.'
             EQUALITY numericStringMatch SYNTAX
             1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27{2} SINGLE-VALUE )
  
            NOTE: In an effort to facilitate internationalization and
            programmatic processing, the current status of a delegation
            is identified by a 16-bit integer. The values and status
            mapping is as follows:
  
                 0   Reserved delegation (permanently inactive)
                 1   Assigned and active (normal state)
                 2   Assigned but not yet active (new delegation)
                 3   Assigned but on hold (disputed)
                 4   Assignment revoked (database purge pending)
  
            Additional values for the inetIpv6DelegationStatus
            attribute are reserved for future use, and are to be
            administered by IANA. Note that there is no status code for
            "unassigned"; unassigned entries SHOULD NOT exist, and
            SHOULD NOT be returned as answers.
  
          inetAsnRoutingContacts
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.4.9 NAME 'inetAsnRoutingContacts' DESC
             'Contacts for routing issues with this IPv4 network.'
             EQUALITY caseExactMatch SYNTAX
             1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.15 )
  
  
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  Internet Draft      draft-ietf-crisp-lw-asn-00.txt          July 2002
  
  
          inetAsnRoutingContactsModifiedBy
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.4.10 NAME
             'inetAsnRoutingContactsModifiedBy' DESC 'Person who last
             modified the inetAsnRoutingContacts attribute.' EQUALITY
             distinguishedNameMatch SYNTAX
             1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.12 SINGLE-VALUE USAGE
             distributedOperation )
  
          inetAsnRoutingContactsModifiedDate
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.4.11 NAME
             'inetAsnRoutingContactsModifiedDate' DESC 'Last
             modification date of the inetAsnRoutingContacts
             attribute.' EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch ORDERING
             generalizedTimeOrderingMatch SYNTAX
             1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.24 SINGLE-VALUE USAGE
             distributedOperation )
  
     The inetAsNumberSyntax syntax is as follows:
  
          inetAsNumberSyntax
          ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.7161.1.4.1 NAME 'inetAsNumberSyntax' DESC 'An
             autonomous system number.' )
  
  
  3.3.    Example
  
     An example of the inetAsNumber object class is shown in Figure 1
     below, with attributes from the inetResources object class also
     being used to provide administrative contacts. This data is a
     result of a query which was sent to the LDAP servers associated
     with the "arin.net" domain.
  
  
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  Internet Draft      draft-ietf-crisp-lw-asn-00.txt          July 2002
  
  
          cn=65535,cn=inetResources,dc=arin,dc=net
          [top object class]
          [inetResources object class]
          [inetAsNumber object class]
          |
          +-attribute: description
          | value: "The example.net network"
          |
          +-attribute: inetAsnContacts
          | value: "ldap://ldap.example.com/cn=hostmaster,ou=admins,
          |           dc=example,dc=net"
          |
          +-attribute: inetGeneralContacts
            value: "ldap://ldap.example.com/cn=admins,ou=admins,
                      dc=example,dc=net"
  
     Figure 1: The inetAsNumber delegation entry for AS 65535.
  
  
  4.      inetAsNumber equalityMatch
  
     The inetAsNumber object class can be searched using relatively
     simple equalityMatch filters.
  
     In order to ensure that all of the relevant entries (including any
     referrals) are found, the search filters for these resources MUST
     specify two distinct elements: the object class of the resource
     being queried, and the naming element of the resource specified as
     a distinguished name attribute.
  
     For example, a query for "(&(objectclass=inetAsNumber)(cn:dn:1))"
     with a search base of "cn=inetResources,dc=example,dc=com" would
     find all of the inetAsNumber object class entries associated with
     AS number "1" in the LDAP-WHOIS branch of "dc=example,dc=com".
  
     Response entries MAY be fully-developed entries, or MAY be
     referrals generated from entries which have the referral object
     class defined. Any attribute values which are received MUST be
     displayed by the client. If a subordinate reference referral is
     received, the client MUST restart the query, using the provided
     data as the new search base. If any continuation reference
     referrals are received, the client SHOULD start new queries for
     each reference, and append the output of those queries to the
     original query's output.
  
  
  
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  5.      Security Considerations
  
     This document describes an application of the LDAPv3 protocol, and
     as such it inherits the security considerations associated with
     LDAPv3, as described in section 7 of RFC 2251.
  
     By nature, LDAP is a read-write protocol, while the legacy WHOIS
     service has always been a read-only service. As such, there are
     significant risks associated with allowing unintended updates by
     unauthorized third-parties. Moreover, allowing the LDAP-WHOIS
     service to update the underlying delegation databases could result
     in network resources being stolen from their lawful operators. For
     example, if the LDAP front-end had update access to a domain
     delegation database, a malicious third-party could theoretically
     take ownership of that domain by exploiting an authentication
     weakness, thereby causing ownership of the domain to be changed to
     another party. For this reason, it is imperative that the LDAP-
     WHOIS service not be allowed to make critical modifications to
     delegated resources without ensuring that all possible precautions
     have been taken.
  
     The query processing models described in this document make use of
     DNS lookups in order to locate the LDAP servers associated with a
     particular resource. DNS is susceptible to certain attacks and
     forgeries which may be used to redirect clients to LDAP servers
     which are not authoritative for the resource in question.
  
     Some operators may choose to purposefully provide misleading or
     erroneous information in an effort to avoid responsibility for bad
     behavior. In addition, there are likely to be sporadic operator
     errors which will result in confusing or erroneous answers.
  
     This document provides multiple query models which will cause the
     same query to be answered by different servers (one would be
     processed by a delegation entity, while another would be processed
     by an operational entity). As a result, each of the servers may
     provide different information, depending upon the query type that
     was originally selected.
  
     For all of the reasons listed above, it is essential that
     applications and end-users not make critical decisions based on
     the information provided by the LDAP-WHOIS service without having
     reason to believe the veracity of the information. Users should
     limit unknown or untrusted information to routine purposes.
  
  
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     Finally, there are physical security issues associated with any
     service which provides physical addressing and delivery
     information. Although organizations are generally encouraged to
     provide as much information as they feel comfortable with, no
     information is required.
  
  
  6.      IANA Considerations
  
     This document defines an application of the LDAPv3 protocol rather
     than a new Internet application protocol. As such, there are no
     protocol-related IANA considerations.
  
     However, this document does define several LDAP schema elements,
     including object classes, attributes, syntaxes and extensibleMatch
     filters, and these elements should be assigned OID values from the
     IANA branch, rather than being assigned from a particular
     enterprise branch.
  
     Finally, this document also describes several instances where
     public DNS and LDAP servers are queried. It is expected that IANA
     will establish and maintain these LDAP servers (and the necessary
     DNS SRV domain names and resource records) required for this
     service to operate. This includes providing SRV resource records
     in the generic TLDs and the root domain, and also includes
     administering the referenced LDAP servers.
  
  
  7.      Author's Addresses
  
     Eric A. Hall
     ehall@ehsco.com
  
  
  8.      References
  
            RFC 2247 - Using Domains in LDAP/X.500 DNs
  
            RFC 2251 - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3)
  
            RFC 2252 - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3):
            Attribute Syntax Definitions.
  
            RFC 2254 - The String Representation of LDAP Search Filters
  
  
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  Internet Draft      draft-ietf-crisp-lw-asn-00.txt          July 2002
  
  
            [ir-dir-req] - <draft-newton-ir-dir-requirements-00.txt> -
            Internet Registry Directory Requirements
  
            [ldap-whois] - <draft-ietf-crisp-lw-core-00.txt> - The
            Internet Resource Query Service and the Internet Resource
            Schema
  
  
  9.      Acknowledgments
  
     Portions of this work were funded by Network Solutions, Inc.
  
  
  
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