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DetNet                                                           N. Finn
Internet-Draft                                                    Huawei
Intended status: Standards Track                              P. Thubert
Expires: September 10, 2019                                        Cisco
                                                                B. Varga
                                                               J. Farkas
                                                                Ericsson
                                                           March 9, 2019


                 Deterministic Networking Architecture
                   draft-ietf-detnet-architecture-12

Abstract

   This document provides the overall architecture for Deterministic
   Networking (DetNet), which provides a capability to carry specified
   unicast or multicast data flows for real-time applications with
   extremely low data loss rates and bounded latency within a network
   domain.  Techniques used include: 1) reserving data plane resources
   for individual (or aggregated) DetNet flows in some or all of the
   intermediate nodes along the path of the flow; 2) providing explicit
   routes for DetNet flows that do not immediately change with the
   network topology; and 3) distributing data from DetNet flow packets
   over time and/or space to ensure delivery of each packet's data in
   spite of the loss of a path.  DetNet operates at the IP layer and
   delivers service over lower layer technologies such as MPLS and IEEE
   802.1 Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN).

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 10, 2019.






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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Terms used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  IEEE 802.1 TSN to DetNet dictionary . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.  Providing the DetNet Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.1.  Primary goals defining the DetNet QoS . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.2.  Mechanisms to achieve DetNet QoS  . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       3.2.1.  Resource allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
         3.2.1.1.  Eliminate contention loss . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
         3.2.1.2.  Jitter Reduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.2.2.  Service Protection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
         3.2.2.1.  In-Order Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
         3.2.2.2.  Packet Replication and Elimination  . . . . . . .  12
         3.2.2.3.  Packet encoding for service protection  . . . . .  14
       3.2.3.  Explicit routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     3.3.  Secondary goals for DetNet  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       3.3.1.  Coexistence with normal traffic . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       3.3.2.  Fault Mitigation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   4.  DetNet Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     4.1.  DetNet stack model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       4.1.1.  Representative Protocol Stack Model . . . . . . . . .  17
       4.1.2.  DetNet Data Plane Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       4.1.3.  Network reference model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     4.2.  DetNet systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       4.2.1.  End system  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       4.2.2.  DetNet edge, relay, and transit nodes . . . . . . . .  24
     4.3.  DetNet flows  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       4.3.1.  DetNet flow types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       4.3.2.  Source transmission behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       4.3.3.  Incomplete Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     4.4.  Traffic Engineering for DetNet  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27



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       4.4.1.  The Application Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
       4.4.2.  The Controller Plane  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
       4.4.3.  The Network Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     4.5.  Queuing, Shaping, Scheduling, and Preemption  . . . . . .  30
     4.6.  Service instance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     4.7.  Flow identification at technology borders . . . . . . . .  32
       4.7.1.  Exporting flow identification . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
       4.7.2.  Flow attribute mapping between layers . . . . . . . .  34
       4.7.3.  Flow-ID mapping examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
     4.8.  Advertising resources, capabilities and adjacencies . . .  36
     4.9.  Scaling to larger networks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
     4.10. Compatibility with Layer-2  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   6.  Privacy Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   9.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44

1.  Introduction

   This document provides the overall architecture for Deterministic
   Networking (DetNet), which provides a capability for the delivery of
   data flows with extremely low packet loss rates and bounded end-to-
   end delivery latency.  DetNet is for networks that are under a single
   administrative control or within a closed group of administrative
   control; these include campus-wide networks and private WANs.  DetNet
   is not for large groups of domains such as the Internet.

   DetNet operates at the IP layer and delivers service over lower layer
   technologies such as MPLS and IEEE 802.1 Time-Sensitive Networking
   (TSN).  DetNet accomplishes these goals by dedicating network
   resources such as link bandwidth and buffer space to DetNet flows
   and/or classes of DetNet flows, and by replicating packets along
   multiple paths.  Unused reserved resources are available to non-
   DetNet packets as long as all guarantees are fulfilled.

   The Deterministic Networking Problem Statement
   [I-D.ietf-detnet-problem-statement] introduces Deterministic
   Networking, and Deterministic Networking Use Cases
   [I-D.ietf-detnet-use-cases] summarizes the need for it.  See
   [I-D.ietf-detnet-dp-sol-mpls] and [I-D.ietf-detnet-dp-sol-ip] for
   specific techniques that can be used to identify DetNet flows and
   assign them to specific paths through a network.

   A goal of DetNet is a converged network in all respects including the
   convergence of sensitive non-IP networks onto a common network
   infrastructure.  The presence of DetNet flows does not preclude non-



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   DetNet flows, and the benefits offered DetNet flows should not,
   except in extreme cases, prevent existing Quality of Service (QoS)
   mechanisms from operating in a normal fashion, subject to the
   bandwidth required for the DetNet flows.  A single source-destination
   pair can trade both DetNet and non-DetNet flows.  End systems and
   applications need not instantiate special interfaces for DetNet
   flows.  Networks are not restricted to certain topologies;
   connectivity is not restricted.  Any application that generates a
   data flow that can be usefully characterized as having a maximum
   bandwidth should be able to take advantage of DetNet, as long as the
   necessary resources can be reserved.  Reservations can be made by the
   application itself, via network management, by an application's
   controller, or by other means, e.g., a dynamic control plane (e.g.,
   [RFC2205]).  QoS requirements of DetNet flows can be met if all
   network nodes in a DetNet domain implement DetNet capabilities.
   DetNet nodes can be interconnected with different sub-network
   technologies (Section 4.1.2), where the nodes of the subnet are not
   DetNet aware (Section 4.1.3).

   Many applications that are intended to be served by Deterministic
   Networking require the ability to synchronize the clocks in end
   systems to a sub-microsecond accuracy.  Some of the queue control
   techniques defined in Section 4.5 also require time synchronization
   among network nodes.  The means used to achieve time synchronization
   are not addressed in this document.  DetNet can accommodate various
   time synchronization techniques and profiles that are defined
   elsewhere to address the needs of different market segments.

2.  Terminology

2.1.  Terms used in this document

   The following terms are used in the context of DetNet in this
   document:

   allocation
           Resources are dedicated to support a DetNet flow.  Depending
           on an implementation, the resource may be reused by non-
           DetNet flows when it is not used by the DetNet flow.

   App-flow
           The payload (data) carried over a DetNet service.

   DetNet compound flow and DetNet member flow
           A DetNet compound flow is a DetNet flow that has been
           separated into multiple duplicate DetNet member flows for
           service protection at the DetNet service sub-layer.  Member
           flows are merged back into a single DetNet compound flow such



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           that there are no duplicate packets.  "Compound" and "member"
           are strictly relative to each other, not absolutes; a DetNet
           compound flow comprising multiple DetNet member flows can, in
           turn, be a member of a higher-order compound.

   DetNet destination
           An end system capable of terminating a DetNet flow.

   DetNet domain
           The portion of a network that is DetNet aware.  It includes
           end systems and DetNet nodes.

   DetNet edge node
           An instance of a DetNet relay node that acts as a source and/
           or destination at the DetNet service sub-layer.  For example,
           it can include a DetNet service sub-layer proxy function for
           DetNet service protection (e.g., the addition or removal of
           packet sequencing information) for one or more end systems,
           or starts or terminates resource allocation at the DetNet
           forwarding sub-layer, or aggregates DetNet services into new
           DetNet flows.  It is analogous to a Label Edge Router (LER)
           or a Provider Edge (PE) router.

   DetNet flow
           A DetNet flow is a sequence of packets which conform uniquely
           to a flow identifier, and to which the DetNet service is to
           be provided.  It includes any DetNet headers added to support
           the DetNet service and forwarding sub-layers.

   DetNet forwarding sub-layer
           DetNet functionality is divided into two sub-layers.  One of
           them is the DetNet forwarding sub-layer, which optionally
           provides resource allocation for DetNet flows over paths
           provided by the underlying network.

   DetNet intermediate node
           A DetNet relay node or DetNet transit node.

   DetNet node
           A DetNet edge node, a DetNet relay node, or a DetNet transit
           node.

   DetNet relay node
           A DetNet node including a service sub-layer function that
           interconnects different DetNet forwarding sub-layer paths to
           provide service protection.  A DetNet relay node participates
           in the DetNet service sub-layer.  It typically incorporates




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           DetNet forwarding sub-layer functions as well, in which case
           it is collocated with a transit node.

   DetNet service sub-layer
           DetNet functionality is divided into two sub-layers.  One of
           them is the DetNet service sub-layer, at which a DetNet
           service, e.g., service protection is provided.

   DetNet service proxy
           Maps between App-flows and DetNet flows.

   DetNet source
           An end system capable of originating a DetNet flow.

   DetNet system
           A DetNet aware end system, transit node, or relay node.
           "DetNet" may be omitted in some text.

   DetNet transit node
           A DetNet node operating at the DetNet forwarding sub-layer,
           that utilizes link layer and/or network layer switching
           across multiple links and/or sub-networks to provide paths
           for DetNet service sub-layer functions.  Typically provides
           resource allocation over those paths.  An MPLS LSR is an
           example of a DetNet transit node.

   DetNet-UNI
           User-to-Network Interface with DetNet specific
           functionalities.  It is a packet-based reference point and
           may provide multiple functions like encapsulation, status,
           synchronization, etc.

   end system
           Commonly called a "host" in IETF documents, and an "end
           station" is IEEE 802 documents.  End systems of interest to
           this document are either sources or destinations of DetNet
           flows.  And end system may or may not be DetNet forwarding
           sub-layer aware or DetNet service sub-layer aware.

   link
           A connection between two DetNet nodes.  It may be composed of
           a physical link or a sub-network technology that can provide
           appropriate traffic delivery for DetNet flows.

   PEF     A Packet Elimination Function (PEF) eliminates duplicate
           copies of packets to prevent excess packets flooding the
           network or duplicate packets being sent out of the DetNet




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           domain.  PEF can be implemented by a DetNet edge node, a
           DetNet relay node, or an end system.

   PRF     A Packet Replication Function (PRF) replicates DetNet flow
           packets and forwards them to one or more next hops in the
           DetNet domain.  The number of packet copies sent to the next
           hops is a DetNet flow specific parameter at the point of
           replication.  PRF can be implemented by a DetNet edge node, a
           DetNet relay node, or an end system.

   PREOF   Collective name for Packet Replication, Elimination, and
           Ordering Functions.

   POF     A Packet Ordering Function (POF) re-orders packets within a
           DetNet flow that are received out of order.  This function
           can be implemented by a DetNet edge node, a DetNet relay
           node, or an end system.

   reservation
           The set of resources allocated between a source and one or
           more destinations through DetNet nodes and subnets associated
           with a DetNet flow, to provide the provisioned DetNet
           service.

2.2.  IEEE 802.1 TSN to DetNet dictionary

   This section also serves as a dictionary for translating from the
   terms used by the Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) Task Group
   [IEEE802.1TSNTG] of the IEEE 802.1 WG to those of the DetNet WG.

   Listener
           The IEEE 802.1 term for a destination of a DetNet flow.

   relay system
           The IEEE 802.1 term for a DetNet intermediate node.

   Stream
           The IEEE 802.1 term for a DetNet flow.

   Talker
           The IEEE 802.1 term for the source of a DetNet flow.

3.  Providing the DetNet Quality of Service








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3.1.  Primary goals defining the DetNet QoS

   The DetNet Quality of Service can be expressed in terms of:

   o  Minimum and maximum end-to-end latency from source to destination;
      timely delivery, and bounded jitter (packet delay variation)
      derived from these constraints.

   o  Packet loss ratio, under various assumptions as to the operational
      states of the nodes and links.

   o  An upper bound on out-of-order packet delivery.  It is worth
      noting that some DetNet applications are unable to tolerate any
      out-of-order delivery.

   It is a distinction of DetNet that it is concerned solely with worst-
   case values for the end-to-end latency, jitter, and misordering.
   Average, mean, or typical values are of little interest, because they
   do not affect the ability of a real-time system to perform its tasks.
   In general, a trivial priority-based queuing scheme will give better
   average latency to a data flow than DetNet; however, it may not be a
   suitable option for DetNet because of its worst-case latency.

   Three techniques are used by DetNet to provide these qualities of
   service:

   o  Resource allocation (Section 3.2.1).

   o  Service protection (Section 3.2.2).

   o  Explicit routes (Section 3.2.3).

   Resource allocation operates by assigning resources, e.g., buffer
   space or link bandwidth, to a DetNet flow (or flow aggregate) along
   its path.  Resource allocation greatly reduces, or even eliminates
   entirely, packet loss due to output packet contention within the
   network, but it can only be supplied to a DetNet flow that is limited
   at the source to a maximum packet size and transmission rate.  As
   DetNet flows are assumed to be rate-limited and DetNet is designed to
   provide sufficient allocated resources (including provisioned
   capacity), the use of transport layer congestion control [RFC2914]
   for App-flows is not required; however, if resources are allocated
   appropriately, use of congestion control should not impact
   transmission negatively.

   Resource allocation addresses two of the DetNet QoS requirements:
   latency and packet loss.  Given that DetNet nodes have a finite
   amount of buffer space, resource allocation necessarily results in a



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   maximum end-to-end latency.  It also addresses contention related
   packet loss.

   Other important contribution to packet loss are random media errors
   and equipment failures.  Service protection is the name for the
   mechanisms used by DetNet to address these losses.  The mechanisms
   employed are constrained by the requirement to meet the users'
   latency requirements.  Packet replication and elimination
   (Section 3.2.2) and packet encoding (Section 3.2.2.3) are described
   in this document to provide service protection; others may be found.
   For instance, packet encoding can be used to provide service
   protection against random media errors, packet replication and
   elimination can be used to provide service protection against
   equipment failures.  This mechanism distributes the contents of
   DetNet flows over multiple paths in time and/or space, so that the
   loss of some of the paths does need not cause the loss of any
   packets.

   The paths are typically (but not necessarily) explicit routes, so
   that they do not normally suffer temporary interruptions caused by
   the convergence of routing or bridging protocols.

   These three techniques can be applied independently, giving eight
   possible combinations, including none (no DetNet), although some
   combinations are of wider utility than others.  This separation keeps
   the protocol stack coherent and maximizes interoperability with
   existing and developing standards in this (IETF) and other Standards
   Development Organizations.  Some examples of typical expected
   combinations:

   o  Explicit routes plus service protection are exactly the techniques
      employed by seamless redundancy mechanisms applied on a ring
      topology as described, e.g., in [IEC62439-3-2016].  In this
      example, explicit routes are achieved by limiting the physical
      topology of the network to a ring.  Sequentialization,
      replication, and duplicate elimination are facilitated by packet
      tags added at the front or the end of Ethernet frames.  [RFC8227]
      provides another example in the context of MPLS.

   o  Resource allocation alone was originally offered by IEEE 802.1
      Audio Video bridging [IEEE802.1BA].  As long as the network
      suffers no failures, packet loss due to output packet contention
      can be eliminated through the use of a reservation protocol (e.g.,
      Multiple Stream Registration Protocol [IEEE802.1Q-2018]), shapers
      in every bridge, and proper dimensioning.

   o  Using all three together gives maximum protection.




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   There are, of course, simpler methods available (and employed, today)
   to achieve levels of latency and packet loss that are satisfactory
   for many applications.  Prioritization and over-provisioning is one
   such technique.  However, these methods generally work best in the
   absence of any significant amount of non-critical traffic in the
   network (if, indeed, such traffic is supported at all), or work only
   if the critical traffic constitutes only a small portion of the
   network's theoretical capacity, or work only if all systems are
   functioning properly, or in the absence of actions by end systems
   that disrupt the network's operations.

   There are any number of methods in use, defined, or in progress for
   accomplishing each of the above techniques.  It is expected that this
   DetNet Architecture will assist various vendors, users, and/or
   "vertical" Standards Development Organizations (dedicated to a single
   industry) to make selections among the available means of
   implementing DetNet networks.

3.2.  Mechanisms to achieve DetNet QoS

3.2.1.  Resource allocation

3.2.1.1.  Eliminate contention loss

   The primary means by which DetNet achieves its QoS assurances is to
   reduce, or even completely eliminate packet loss due to output packet
   contention within a DetNet node as a cause of packet loss.  This can
   be achieved only by the provision of sufficient buffer storage at
   each node through the network to ensure that no packets are dropped
   due to a lack of buffer storage.  Note that App-flows are generally
   not expected to be responsive to implicit [RFC2914] or explicit
   congestion notification [RFC3168].

   Ensuring adequate buffering requires, in turn, that the source, and
   every DetNet node along the path to the destination (or nearly every
   node, see Section 4.3.3) be careful to regulate its output to not
   exceed the data rate for any DetNet flow, except for brief periods
   when making up for interfering traffic.  Any packet sent ahead of its
   time potentially adds to the number of buffers required by the next
   hop DetNet node and may thus exceed the resources allocated for a
   particular DetNet flow.  Furthermore, rate limiting, e.g., using
   traffic policing and shaping functions, e.g., [RFC2475], at the
   ingress of the DetNet domain must be applied.  This is needed for
   meeting the requirements of DetNet flows as well as for protecting
   non-DetNet traffic from potentially misbehaving DetNet traffic
   sources.  Note that large buffers have some issues, see, e.g.,
   [BUFFERBLOAT].




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   The low-level mechanisms described in Section 4.5 provide the
   necessary regulation of transmissions by an end system or DetNet node
   to provide resource allocation.  The allocation of the bandwidth and
   buffers for a DetNet flow requires provisioning.  A DetNet node may
   have other resources requiring allocation and/or scheduling, that
   might otherwise be over-subscribed and trigger the rejection of a
   reservation.

3.2.1.2.  Jitter Reduction

   A core objective of DetNet is to enable the convergence of sensitive
   non-IP networks onto a common network infrastructure.  This requires
   the accurate emulation of currently deployed mission-specific
   networks, which for example rely on point-to-point analog (e.g.,
   4-20mA modulation) and serial-digital cables (or buses) for highly
   reliable, synchronized and jitter-free communications.  While the
   latency of analog transmissions is basically the speed of light,
   legacy serial links are usually slow (in the order of Kbps) compared
   to, say, Gigabit Ethernet, and some latency is usually acceptable.
   What is not acceptable is the introduction of excessive jitter, which
   may, for instance, affect the stability of control systems.

   Applications that are designed to operate on serial links usually do
   not provide services to recover the jitter, because jitter simply
   does not exist there.  DetNet flows are generally expected to be
   delivered in-order and the precise time of reception influences the
   processes.  In order to converge such existing applications, there is
   a desire to emulate all properties of the serial cable, such as clock
   transportation, perfect flow isolation and fixed latency.  While
   minimal jitter (in the form of specifying minimum, as well as
   maximum, end-to-end latency) is supported by DetNet, there are
   practical limitations on packet-based networks in this regard.  In
   general, users are encouraged to use a combination of:

   o  Sub-microsecond time synchronization among all source and
      destination end systems, and

   o  Time-of-execution fields in the application packets.

   Jitter reduction is provided by the mechanisms described in
   Section 4.5 that also provide resource allocation.

3.2.2.  Service Protection

   Service protection aims to mitigate or eliminate packet loss due to
   equipment failures, including random media and/or memory faults.
   These types of packet loss can be greatly reduced by spreading the
   data over multiple disjoint forwarding paths.  Various service



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   protection methods are described in [RFC6372], e.g., 1+1 linear
   protection.  This section describes the functional details of an
   additional method in Section 3.2.2.2, which can be implemented as
   described in Section 3.2.2.3 or as specified in
   [I-D.ietf-detnet-dp-sol-mpls] in order to provide 1+n hitless
   protection.  The appropriate service protection mechanism depends on
   the scenario and the requirements.

3.2.2.1.  In-Order Delivery

   Out-of-order packet delivery can be a side effect of service
   protection.  Packets delivered out-of-order impact the amount of
   buffering needed at the destination to properly process the received
   data.  Such packets also influence the jitter of a flow.  The DetNet
   service includes maximum allowed misordering as a constraint.  Zero
   misordering would be a valid service constraint to reflect that the
   end system(s) of the flow cannot tolerate any out-of-order delivery.
   DetNet Packet Ordering Functionality (POF) (Section 3.2.2.2) can be
   used to provide in-order delivery.

3.2.2.2.  Packet Replication and Elimination

   This section describes a service protection method that sends copies
   of the same packets over multiple paths.

   The DetNet service sub-layer includes the packet replication (PRF),
   the packet elimination (PEF), and the packet ordering functionality
   (POF) for use in DetNet edge, relay node, and end system packet
   processing.  These functions can be enabled in a DetNet edge node,
   relay node or end system.  The collective name for all three
   functions is Packet Replication, Elimination, and Ordering Functions
   (PREOF).  The packet replication and elimination service protection
   method altogether involves four capabilities:

   o  Providing sequencing information to the packets of a DetNet
      compound flow.  This may be done by adding a sequence number or
      time stamp as part of DetNet, or may be inherent in the packet,
      e.g., in a higher layer protocol, or associated to other physical
      properties such as the precise time (and radio channel) of
      reception of the packet.  This is typically done once, at or near
      the source.

   o  The Packet Replication Function (PRF) replicates these packets
      into multiple DetNet member flows and typically sends them along
      multiple different paths to the destination(s), e.g., over the
      explicit routes of Section 3.2.3.  The location within a DetNet
      node, and the mechanism used for the PRF is left open for
      implementations.



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   o  The Packet Elimination Function (PEF) eliminates duplicate packets
      of a DetNet flow based on the sequencing information and a history
      of received packets.  The output of the PEF is always a single
      packet.  This may be done at any DetNet node along the path to
      save network resources further downstream, in particular if
      multiple Replication points exist.  But the most common case is to
      perform this operation at the very edge of the DetNet network,
      preferably in or near the receiver.  The location within a DetNet
      node, and mechanism used for the PEF is left open for
      implementations.

   o  The Packet Ordering Function (POF) uses the sequencing information
      to re-order a DetNet flow's packets that are received out of
      order.

   The order in which a DetNet node applies PEF, POF, and PRF to a
   DetNet flow is left open for implementations.

   Some service protection mechanisms rely on switching from one flow to
   another when a failure of a flow is detected.  Contrarily, packet
   replication and elimination combines the DetNet member flows sent
   along multiple different paths, and performs a packet-by-packet
   selection of which to discard, e.g., based on sequencing information.

   In the simplest case, this amounts to replicating each packet in a
   source that has two interfaces, and conveying them through the
   network, along separate (Shared Risk Link Group (SRLG) disjoint)
   paths, to the similarly dual-homed destinations, that discard the
   extras.  This ensures that one path remains, even if some DetNet
   intermediate node fails.  The sequencing information can also be used
   for loss detection and for re-ordering.

   DetNet relay nodes in the network can provide replication and
   elimination facilities at various points in the network, so that
   multiple failures can be accommodated.

   This is shown in Figure 1, where the two relay nodes each replicate
   (R) the DetNet flow on input, sending the DetNet member flows to both
   the other relay node and to the end system, and eliminate duplicates
   (E) on the output interface to the right-hand end system.  Any one
   link in the network can fail, and the DetNet compound flow can still
   get through.  Furthermore, two links can fail, as long as they are in
   different segments of the network.








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                > > > > > > > > > relay > > > > > > > >
               > /------------+ R node E +------------\ >
              > /                  v + ^               \ >
      end    R +                   v | ^                + E end
      system   +                   v | ^                +   system
              > \                  v + ^               / >
               > \------------+ R relay E +-----------/ >
                > > > > > > > > >  node > > > > > > > >

               Figure 1: Packet replication and elimination

   Packet replication and elimination does not react to and correct
   failures; it is entirely passive.  Thus, intermittent failures,
   mistakenly created packet filters, or misrouted data is handled just
   the same as the equipment failures that are handled by typical
   routing and bridging protocols.

   If member flows that take different-length paths through the network
   are combined, a merge point may require extra buffering to equalize
   the delays over the different paths.  This equalization ensures that
   the resultant compound flow will not exceed its contracted bandwidth
   even after one or the other of the paths is restored after a failure.
   The extra buffering can be also used to provide in-order delivery.

3.2.2.3.  Packet encoding for service protection

   There are methods for using multiple paths to provide service
   protection that involve encoding the information in a packet
   belonging to a DetNet flow into multiple transmission units,
   combining information from multiple packets into any given
   transmission unit.  Such techniques, also known as "network coding",
   can be used as a DetNet service protection technique.

3.2.3.  Explicit routes

   In networks controlled by typical dynamic control protocols such as
   IS-IS or OSPF, a network topology event in one part of the network
   can impact, at least briefly, the delivery of data in parts of the
   network remote from the failure or recovery event.  Even the use of
   redundant paths through a network, e.g., as defined by [RFC6372] do
   not eliminate the chances of packet loss.  Furthermore, out-of-order
   packet delivery can be a side effect of route changes.

   Many real-time networks rely on physical rings of two-port devices,
   with a relatively simple ring control protocol.  This supports
   redundant paths for service protection with a minimum of wiring.  As
   an additional benefit, ring topologies can often utilize different
   topology management protocols than those used for a mesh network,



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   with a consequent reduction in the response time to topology changes.
   Of course, this comes at some cost in terms of increased hop count,
   and thus latency, for the typical path.

   In order to get the advantages of low hop count and still ensure
   against even very brief losses of connectivity, DetNet employs
   explicit routes, where the path taken by a given DetNet flow does not
   change, at least immediately, and likely not at all, in response to
   network topology events.  Service protection (Section 3.2.2 or
   Section 3.2.2.3) over explicit routes provides a high likelihood of
   continuous connectivity.  Explicit routes can be established in
   various ways, e.g., with RSVP-TE [RFC3209], with Segment Routing (SR)
   [RFC8402], via a Software Defined Networking approach [RFC8453], with
   IS-IS [RFC7813], etc.  Explicit routes are typically used in MPLS TE
   LSPs.

   Out-of-order packet delivery can be a side effect of distributing a
   single flow over multiple paths, especially when there is a change
   from one path to another when combining the flow.  This is
   irrespective of the distribution method used, and also applies to
   service protection over explicit routes.  As described in
   Section 3.2.2.1, out-of-order packets influence the jitter of a flow
   and impact the amount of buffering needed to process the data;
   therefore, DetNet service includes maximum allowed misordering as a
   constraint.  The use of explicit routes helps to provide in-order
   delivery because there is no immediate route change with the network
   topology, but the changes are plannable as they are between the
   different explicit routes.

3.3.  Secondary goals for DetNet

   Many applications require DetNet to provide additional services,
   including coexistence with other QoS mechanisms Section 3.3.1 and
   protection against misbehaving transmitters Section 3.3.2.

3.3.1.  Coexistence with normal traffic

   A DetNet network supports the dedication of a high proportion of the
   network bandwidth to DetNet flows.  But, no matter how much is
   dedicated for DetNet flows, it is a goal of DetNet to coexist with
   existing Class of Service schemes (e.g., DiffServ).  It is also
   important that non-DetNet traffic not disrupt the DetNet flow, of
   course (see Section 3.3.2 and Section 5).  For these reasons:

   o  Bandwidth (transmission opportunities) not utilized by a DetNet
      flow is available to non-DetNet packets (though not to other
      DetNet flows).




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   o  DetNet flows can be shaped or scheduled, in order to ensure that
      the highest-priority non-DetNet packet is also ensured a worst-
      case latency.

   o  When transmission opportunities for DetNet flows are scheduled in
      detail, then the algorithm constructing the schedule should leave
      sufficient opportunities for non-DetNet packets to satisfy the
      needs of the users of the network.  Detailed scheduling can also
      permit the time-shared use of buffer resources by different DetNet
      flows.

   Starvation of non-DetNet traffic must be avoided, e.g., by traffic
   policing and shaping functions (e.g., [RFC2475]).  Thus, the net
   effect of the presence of DetNet flows in a network on the non-DetNet
   flows is primarily a reduction in the available bandwidth.

3.3.2.  Fault Mitigation

   Robust real-time systems require reducing the number of possible
   failures.  Filters and policers should be used in a DetNet network to
   detect if DetNet packets are received on the wrong interface, or at
   the wrong time, or in too great a volume.  Furthermore, filters and
   policers can take actions to discard the offending packets or flows,
   or trigger shutting down the offending flow or the offending
   interface.

   It is also essential that filters and service remarking be employed
   at the network edge to prevent non-DetNet packets from being mistaken
   for DetNet packets, and thus impinging on the resources allocated to
   DetNet packets.  In particular, sending DetNet traffic into networks
   that have not been provisioned in advance to handle that DetNet
   traffic has to be treated as a fault.  The use of egress traffic
   filters, or equivalent mechanisms, to prevent this from happening are
   strongly recommended at the edges of a DetNet networks and DetNet
   supporting networks.  In this context, the term 'provisioned' has a
   broad meaning, e.g., provisioning could be performed via an
   administrative decision that the downstream network has the available
   capacity to carry the DetNet traffic that is being sent into it.

   Note that the sending of App-flows that do not use transport layer
   congestion control per [RFC2914] into a network that is not
   provisioned to handle such DetNet traffic has to be treated as a
   fault and prevented.  PRF generated DetNet member flows also need to
   be treated as not using transport layer congestion control even if
   the original App-flow supports transport layer congestion control
   because PREOF can remove congestion indications at the PEF and
   thereby hide such indications (e.g., drops, ECN markings, increased
   latency) from end systems.



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   The mechanisms to support these requirements are both data plane and
   implementation specific.  Data plane specific solutions will be
   specified in the relevant data plane solution document.  There also
   exist techniques, at present and/or in various stages of
   standardization, that can support these fault mitigation tasks that
   deliver a high probability that misbehaving systems will have zero
   impact on well-behaved DetNet flows, except of course, for the
   receiving interface(s) immediately downstream of the misbehaving
   device.  Examples of such techniques include traffic policing and
   shaping functions (e.g., [RFC2475]) and separating flows into per-
   flow rate-limited queues.

4.  DetNet Architecture

4.1.  DetNet stack model

   DetNet functionality (Section 3) is implemented in two adjacent sub-
   layers in the protocol stack: the DetNet service sub-layer and the
   DetNet forwarding sub-layer.  The DetNet service sub-layer provides
   DetNet service, e.g., service protection, to higher layers in the
   protocol stack and applications.  The DetNet forwarding sub-layer
   supports DetNet service in the underlying network, e.g., by providing
   explicit routes and resource allocation to DetNet flows.

4.1.1.  Representative Protocol Stack Model

   Figure 2 illustrates a conceptual DetNet data plane layering model.
   One may compare it to that in [IEEE802.1CB], Annex C.























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              |  packets going  |        ^  packets coming   ^
              v down the stack  v        |   up the stack    |
           +-----------------------+   +-----------------------+
           |        Source         |   |      Destination      |
           +-----------------------+   +-----------------------+
           |   Service sub-layer:  |   |   Service sub-layer:  |
           |   Packet sequencing   |   | Duplicate elimination |
           |    Flow replication   |   |      Flow merging     |
           |    Packet encoding    |   |    Packet decoding    |
           +-----------------------+   +-----------------------+
           | Forwarding sub-layer: |   | Forwarding sub-layer: |
           |  Resource allocation  |   |  Resource allocation  |
           |    Explicit routes    |   |    Explicit routes    |
           +-----------------------+   +-----------------------+
           |     Lower layers      |   |     Lower layers      |
           +-----------------------+   +-----------------------+
                       v                           ^
                        \_________________________/

                Figure 2: DetNet data plane protocol stack

   Not all sub-layers are required for any given application, or even
   for any given network.  The functionality shown in Figure 2 is:

   Application
           Shown as "source" and "destination" in the diagram.

   Packet sequencing
           As part of DetNet service protection, supplies the sequence
           number for packet replication and elimination
           (Section 3.2.2), thus peers with Duplicate elimination.  This
           sub-layer is not needed if a higher layer protocol is
           expected to perform any packet sequencing and duplicate
           elimination required by the DetNet flow replication.

   Duplicate elimination
           As part of the DetNet service sub-layer, based on the
           sequenced number supplied by its peer, packet sequencing,
           Duplicate elimination discards any duplicate packets
           generated by DetNet flow replication.  It can operate on
           member flows, compound flows, or both.  The replication may
           also be inferred from other information such as the precise
           time of reception in a scheduled network.  The duplicate
           elimination sub-layer may also perform resequencing of
           packets to restore packet order in a flow that was disrupted
           by the loss of packets on one or another of the multiple
           paths taken.




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   Flow replication
           As part of DetNet service protection, packets that belong to
           a DetNet compound flow are replicated into two or more DetNet
           member flows.  This function is separate from packet
           sequencing.  Flow replication can be an explicit replication
           and remarking of packets, or can be performed by, for
           example, techniques similar to ordinary multicast
           replication, albeit with resource allocation implications.
           Peers with DetNet flow merging.

   Flow merging
           As part of DetNet service protection, merges DetNet member
           flows together for packets coming up the stack belonging to a
           specific DetNet compound flow.  Peers with DetNet flow
           replication.  DetNet flow merging, together with packet
           sequencing, duplicate elimination, and DetNet flow
           replication perform packet replication and elimination
           (Section 3.2.2).

   Packet encoding
           As part of DetNet service protection, as an alternative to
           packet sequencing and flow replication, packet encoding
           combines the information in multiple DetNet packets, perhaps
           from different DetNet compound flows, and transmits that
           information in packets on different DetNet member Flows.
           Peers with Packet decoding.

   Packet decoding
           As part of DetNet service protection, as an alternative to
           flow merging and duplicate elimination, packet decoding takes
           packets from different DetNet member flows, and computes from
           those packets the original DetNet packets from the compound
           flows input to packet encoding.  Peers with Packet encoding.

   Resource allocation
           The DetNet forwarding sub-layer provides resource allocation.
           See Section 4.5.  The actual queuing and shaping mechanisms
           are typically provided by underlying subnet.  These can be
           closely associated with the means of providing paths for
           DetNet flows.  The path and the resource allocation are
           conflated in this figure.

   Explicit routes
           The DetNet forwarding sub-layer provides mechanisms to ensure
           that fixed paths are provided for DetNet flows.  These
           explicit paths avoid the impact of network convergence.





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   Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) leverages in-band
   and out-of-band signaling that validates whether the service is
   effectively obtained within QoS constraints.  OAM is not shown in
   Figure 2; it may reside in any number of the layers.  OAM can involve
   specific tagging added in the packets for tracing implementation or
   network configuration errors; traceability enables to find whether a
   packet is a replica, which DetNet relay node performed the
   replication, and which segment was intended for the replica.  Active
   and hybrid OAM methods require additional bandwidth to perform fault
   management and performance monitoring of the DetNet domain.  OAM may,
   for instance, generate special test probes or add OAM information
   into the data packet.

   The packet sequencing and replication elimination functions at the
   source and destination ends of a DetNet compound flow may be
   performed either in the end system or in a DetNet relay node.

4.1.2.  DetNet Data Plane Overview

   A "Deterministic Network" will be composed of DetNet enabled end
   systems, DetNet edge nodes, and DetNet relay nodes, which
   collectively deliver DetNet services.  DetNet relay and edge nodes
   are interconnected via DetNet transit nodes (e.g., LSRs) which
   support DetNet, but are not DetNet service aware.  All DetNet nodes
   are connected to sub-networks, where a point-to-point link is also
   considered as a simple sub-network.  These sub-networks will provide
   DetNet compatible service for support of DetNet traffic.  Examples of
   sub-network technologies include MPLS TE, IEEE 802.1 TSN and OTN.  Of
   course, multi-layer DetNet systems may also be possible, where one
   DetNet appears as a sub-network, and provides service to, a higher
   layer DetNet system.  A simple DetNet concept network is shown in
   Figure 3.  Note that in this and following figures "Forwarding" and
   "Fwd" refer to the DetNet forwarding sub-layer, "Service" and "Svc"
   refer to the DetNet service sub-layer, which are described in detail
   in Section 4.1.
















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   TSN               Edge        Transit         Relay        DetNet
   End System        Node         Node           Node        End System

   +----------+   +.........+                               +----------+
   |  Appl.   |<--:Svc Proxy:-- End to End Service -------->|  Appl.   |
   +----------+   +---------+                 +---------+   +----------+
   |   TSN    |   |TSN| |Svc|<- DetNet flow --: Service :-->| Service  |
   +----------+   +---+ +---+   +--------+    +---------+   +----------+
   |Forwarding|   |Fwd| |Fwd|   |  Fwd   |    |Fwd| |Fwd|   |Forwarding|
   +-------.--+   +-.-+ +-.-+   +--.----.+    +-.-+ +-.-+   +---.------+
           :  Link  :    /  ,-----. \   : Link  :    /  ,-----.  \
           +........+    +-[  Sub  ]-+  +.......+    +-[  Sub  ]-+
                           [Network]                   [Network]
                            `-----'                     `-----'

                 Figure 3: A Simple DetNet Enabled Network

   DetNet data plane is divided into two sub-layers: the DetNet service
   sub-layer and the DetNet forwarding sub-layer.  This helps to explore
   and evaluate various combinations of the data plane solutions
   available.  Some of them are illustrated in Figure 4.  This
   separation of DetNet sub-layers, while helpful, should not be
   considered as formal requirement.  For example, some technologies may
   violate these strict sub-layers and still be able to deliver a DetNet
   service.

                   .
                   .
     +-----------------------------+
     |  DetNet Service sub-layer   | PW, UDP, GRE
     +-----------------------------+
     | DetNet Forwarding sub-layer | IPv6, IPv4, MPLS TE LSPs, MPLS SR
     +-----------------------------+
                   .
                   .

                 Figure 4: DetNet adaptation to data plane

   In some networking scenarios, the end system initially provides a
   DetNet flow encapsulation, which contains all information needed by
   DetNet nodes (e.g., Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) [RFC3550]
   based DetNet flow carried over a native UDP/IP network or
   PseudoWire).  In other scenarios, the encapsulation formats might
   differ significantly.

   There are many valid options to create a data plane solution for
   DetNet traffic by selecting a technology approach for the DetNet
   service sub-layer and also selecting a technology approach for the



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   DetNet forwarding sub-layer.  There are a large number of valid
   combinations.

   One of the most fundamental differences between different potential
   data plane options is the basic headers used by DetNet nodes.  For
   example, the basic service can be delivered based on an MPLS label or
   an IP header.  This decision impacts the basic forwarding logic for
   the DetNet service sub-layer.  Note that in both cases, IP addresses
   are used to address DetNet nodes.  The selected DetNet forwarding
   sub-layer technology also needs to be mapped to the sub-net
   technology used to interconnect DetNet nodes.  For example, DetNet
   flows will need to be mapped to TSN Streams.

4.1.3.  Network reference model

   Figure 5 shows another view of the DetNet service related reference
   points and main components.

   DetNet                                                     DetNet
   end system                                                 end system
      _                                                             _
     / \     +----DetNet-UNI (U)                                   / \
    /App\    |                                                    /App\
   /-----\   |                                                   /-----\
   | NIC |   v         ________                                  | NIC |
   +--+--+   _____    /        \             DetNet-UNI (U) --+  +--+--+
      |     /     \__/          \                             |     |
      |    / +----+    +----+    \_____                       |     |
      |   /  |    |    |    |          \_______               |     |
      +------U PE +----+ P  +----+             \          _   v     |
          |  |    |    |    |    |              |     ___/ \        |
          |  +--+-+    +----+    |       +----+ |    /      \_      |
          \     |                |       |    | |   /         \     |
           \    |   +----+    +--+-+  +--+PE  |------         U-----+
            \   |   |    |    |    |  |  |    | |   \_      _/
             \  +---+ P  +----+ P  +--+  +----+ |     \____/
              \___  |    |    |    |           /
                  \ +----+__  +----+     DetNet-1    DetNet-2
      |            \_____/  \___________/                           |
      |                                                             |
      |      |     End-to-End service         |     |         |     |
      <------------------------------------------------------------->
      |      |     DetNet service             |     |         |     |
      |      <------------------------------------------------>     |
      |      |                                |     |         |     |

          Figure 5: DetNet Service Reference Model (multi-domain)




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   DetNet User Network Interfaces (DetNet-UNIs) ("U" in Figure 5) are
   assumed in this document to be packet-based reference points and
   provide connectivity over the packet network.  A DetNet-UNI may
   provide multiple functions, e.g., it may add networking technology
   specific encapsulation to the DetNet flows if necessary; it may
   provide status of the availability of the resources associated with a
   reservation; it may provide a synchronization service for the end
   system; it may carry enough signaling to place the reservation in a
   network without a controller, or if the controller only deals with
   the network but not the end systems.  Internal reference points of
   end systems (between the application and the NIC) are more
   challenging from control perspective and they may have extra
   requirements (e.g., in-order delivery is expected in end system
   internal reference points, whereas it is considered optional over the
   DetNet-UNI).

4.2.  DetNet systems

4.2.1.  End system

   The traffic characteristics of an App-flow can be CBR (constant bit
   rate) or VBR (variable bit rate) and can have Layer-1 or Layer-2 or
   Layer-3 encapsulation (e.g., TDM (time-division multiplexing),
   Ethernet, IP).  These characteristics are considered as input for
   resource reservation and might be simplified to ensure determinism
   during packet forwarding (e.g., making reservations for the peak rate
   of VBR traffic, etc.).

   An end system may or may not be DetNet forwarding sub-layer aware or
   DetNet service sub-layer aware.  That is, an end system may or may
   not contain DetNet specific functionality.  End systems with DetNet
   functionalities may have the same or different forwarding sub-layer
   as the connected DetNet domain.  Categorization of end systems are
   shown in Figure 6.

















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                End system
                    |
                    |
                    |  DetNet aware ?
                   / \
           +------<   >------+
        NO |       \ /       | YES
           |        v        |
    DetNet unaware           |
      End system             |
                             | Service/Forwarding
                             |  sub-layer
                            / \  aware ?
                  +--------<   >-------------+
          f-aware |         \ /              | s-aware
                  |          v               |
                  |          | both          |
                  |          |               |
          DetNet f-aware     |        DetNet s-aware
            End system       |         End system
                             v
                       DetNet sf-aware
                         End system

                  Figure 6: Categorization of end systems

   Note some known use case examples for end systems:

   o  DetNet unaware: The classic case requiring service proxies.

   o  DetNet f-aware: A DetNet forwarding sub-layer aware system.  It
      knows about some TSN functions (e.g., reservation), but not about
      service protection.

   o  DetNet s-aware: A DetNet service sub-layer aware system.  It
      supplies sequence numbers, but doesn't know about resource
      allocation.

   o  DetNet sf-aware: A full functioning DetNet end system, it has
      DetNet functionalities and usually the same forwarding paradigm as
      the connected DetNet domain.  It can be treated as an integral
      part of the DetNet domain.

4.2.2.  DetNet edge, relay, and transit nodes

   As shown in Figure 3, DetNet edge nodes providing proxy service and
   DetNet relay nodes providing the DetNet service sub-layer are DetNet-




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   aware, and DetNet transit nodes need only be aware of the DetNet
   forwarding sub-layer.

   In general, if a DetNet flow passes through one or more DetNet-
   unaware network nodes between two DetNet nodes providing the DetNet
   forwarding sub-layer for that flow, there is a potential for
   disruption or failure of the DetNet QoS.  A network administrator
   needs to ensure that the DetNet-unaware network nodes are configured
   to minimize the chances of packet loss and delay, and provision
   enough extra buffer space in the DetNet transit node following the
   DetNet-unaware network nodes to absorb the induced latency
   variations.

4.3.  DetNet flows

4.3.1.  DetNet flow types

   A DetNet flow can have different formats while its packets are
   forwarded between the peer end systems depending on the type of the
   end systems.  Corresponding to the end system types, the following
   possible types / formats of a DetNet flow are distinguished in this
   document.  The different flow types have different requirements to
   DetNet nodes.

   o  App-flow: the payload (data) carried over a DetNet flow between
      DetNet unaware end systems.  An app-flow does not contain any
      DetNet related attributes and does not imply any specific
      requirement on DetNet nodes.

   o  DetNet-f-flow: specific format of a DetNet flow.  It only requires
      the resource allocation features provided by the DetNet forwarding
      sub-layer.

   o  DetNet-s-flow: specific format of a DetNet flow.  It only requires
      the service protection feature ensured by the DetNet service sub-
      layer.

   o  DetNet-sf-flow: specific format of a DetNet flow.  It requires
      both DetNet service sub-layer and DetNet forwarding sub-layer
      functions during forwarding.

4.3.2.  Source transmission behavior

   For the purposes of resource allocation, DetNet flows can be
   synchronous or asynchronous.  In synchronous DetNet flows, at least
   the DetNet nodes (and possibly the end systems) are closely time
   synchronized, typically to better than 1 microsecond.  By
   transmitting packets from different DetNet flows or classes of DetNet



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   flows at different times, using repeating schedules synchronized
   among the DetNet nodes, resources such as buffers and link bandwidth
   can be shared over the time domain among different DetNet flows.
   There is a tradeoff among techniques for synchronous DetNet flows
   between the burden of fine-grained scheduling and the benefit of
   reducing the required resources, especially buffer space.

   In contrast, asynchronous DetNet flows are not coordinated with a
   fine-grained schedule, so relay and end systems must assume worst-
   case interference among DetNet flows contending for buffer resources.
   Asynchronous DetNet flows are characterized by:

   o  A maximum packet size;

   o  An observation interval; and

   o  A maximum number of transmissions during that observation
      interval.

   These parameters, together with knowledge of the protocol stack used
   (and thus the size of the various headers added to a packet), provide
   the bandwidth that is needed for the DetNet flow.

   The source is required not to exceed these limits in order to obtain
   DetNet service.  If the source transmits less data than this limit
   allows, the unused resource such as link bandwidth can be made
   available by the DetNet system to non-DetNet packets as long as all
   guarantees are fulfilled.  However, making those resources available
   to DetNet packets in other DetNet flows would serve no purpose.
   Those other DetNet flows have their own dedicated resources, on the
   assumption that all DetNet flows can use all of their resources over
   a long period of time.

   There is no expectation in DetNet for App-flows to be responsive to
   congestion control [RFC2914] or explicit congestion notification
   [RFC3168].  The assumption is that a DetNet flow, to be useful, must
   be delivered in its entirety.  That is, while any useful application
   is written to expect a certain number of lost packets, the real-time
   applications of interest to DetNet demand that the loss of data due
   to the network is a rare event.

   Although DetNet strives to minimize the changes required of an
   application to allow it to shift from a special-purpose digital
   network to an Internet Protocol network, one fundamental shift in the
   behavior of network applications is impossible to avoid: the
   reservation of resources before the application starts.  In the first
   place, a network cannot deliver finite latency and practically zero
   packet loss to an arbitrarily high offered load.  Secondly, achieving



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   practically zero packet loss for DetNet flows means that DetNet nodes
   have to dedicate buffer resources to specific DetNet flows or to
   classes of DetNet flows.  The requirements of each reservation have
   to be translated into the parameters that control each DetNet
   system's queuing, shaping, and scheduling functions and delivered to
   the DetNet nodes and end systems.

   All nodes in a DetNet domain are expected to support the data
   behavior required to deliver a particular DetNet service.  If a node
   itself is not DetNet service aware, the DetNet nodes that are
   adjacent to such non-DetNet aware nodes must ensure that the non-
   DetNet aware node is provisioned to appropriately support the DetNet
   service.  For example, an IEEE 802.1 TSN node may be used to
   interconnect DetNet aware nodes, and these DetNet nodes can map
   DetNet flows to 802.1 TSN flows.  Another example, an MPLS-TE or TP
   domain may be used to interconnect DetNet aware nodes, and these
   DetNet nodes can map DetNet flows to TE LSPs which can provide the
   QoS requirements of the DetNet service.

4.3.3.  Incomplete Networks

   The presence in the network of intermediate nodes or subnets that are
   not fully capable of offering DetNet services complicates the ability
   of the intermediate nodes and/or controller to allocate resources, as
   extra buffering must be allocated at points downstream from the non-
   DetNet intermediate node for a DetNet flow.  This extra buffering may
   increase latency and/or jitter.

4.4.  Traffic Engineering for DetNet

   Traffic Engineering Architecture and Signaling (TEAS) [TEAS] defines
   traffic-engineering architectures for generic applicability across
   packet and non-packet networks.  From a TEAS perspective, Traffic
   Engineering (TE) refers to techniques that enable operators to
   control how specific traffic flows are treated within their networks.

   Because if its very nature of establishing explicit optimized paths,
   Deterministic Networking can be seen as a new, specialized branch of
   Traffic Engineering, and inherits its architecture with a separation
   into planes.

   The Deterministic Networking architecture is thus composed of three
   planes, a (User) Application Plane, a Controller Plane, and a Network
   Plane, which echoes that of Figure 1 of Software-Defined Networking
   (SDN): Layers and Architecture Terminology [RFC7426], and the
   Controllers identified in [RFC8453] and [RFC7149].





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4.4.1.  The Application Plane

   Per [RFC7426], the Application Plane includes both applications and
   services.  In particular, the Application Plane incorporates the User
   Agent, a specialized application that interacts with the end user /
   operator and performs requests for Deterministic Networking services
   via an abstract Flow Management Entity, (FME) which may or may not be
   collocated with (one of) the end systems.

   At the Application Plane, a management interface enables the
   negotiation of flows between end systems.  An abstraction of the flow
   called a Traffic Specification (TSpec) provides the representation.
   This abstraction is used to place a reservation over the (Northbound)
   Service Interface and within the Application plane.  It is associated
   with an abstraction of location, such as IP addresses and DNS names,
   to identify the end systems and possibly specify DetNet nodes.

4.4.2.  The Controller Plane

   The Controller Plane corresponds to the aggregation of the Control
   and Management Planes in [RFC7426], though Common Control and
   Measurement Plane (CCAMP) [CCAMP] makes an additional distinction
   between management and measurement.  When the logical separation of
   the Control, Measurement and other Management entities is not
   relevant, the term Controller Plane is used for simplicity to
   represent them all, and the term Controller Plane Function (CPF)
   refers to any device operating in that plane, whether is it a Path
   Computation Element (PCE) [RFC4655], or a Network Management entity
   (NME), or a distributed control plane.  The CPF is a core element of
   a controller, in charge of computing Deterministic paths to be
   applied in the Network Plane.

   A (Northbound) Service Interface enables applications in the
   Application Plane to communicate with the entities in the Controller
   Plane as illustrated in Figure 7.

   One or more CPF(s) collaborate to implement the requests from the FME
   as Per-Flow Per-Hop Behaviors installed in the DetNet nodes for each
   individual flow.  The CPFs place each flow along a deterministic
   sequence of DetNet nodes so as to respect per-flow constraints such
   as security and latency, and optimize the overall result for metrics
   such as an abstract aggregated cost.  The deterministic sequence can
   typically be more complex than a direct sequence and include
   redundant paths, with one or more packet replication and elimination
   points.  Scaling to larger networks is discussed in Section 4.9.






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4.4.3.  The Network Plane

   The Network Plane represents the network devices and protocols as a
   whole, regardless of the Layer at which the network devices operate.
   It includes Forwarding Plane (data plane), Application, and
   Operational Plane (e.g., OAM) aspects.

   The network Plane comprises the Network Interface Cards (NIC) in the
   end systems, which are typically IP hosts, and DetNet nodes, which
   are typically IP routers and MPLS switches.  Network-to-Network
   Interfaces such as used for Traffic Engineering path reservation in
   [RFC5921], as well as User-to-Network Interfaces (UNI) such as
   provided by the Local Management Interface (LMI) between network and
   end systems, are both part of the Network Plane, both in the control
   plane and the data plane.

   A Southbound (Network) Interface enables the entities in the
   Controller Plane to communicate with devices in the Network Plane as
   illustrated in Figure 7.  This interface leverages and extends TEAS
   to describe the physical topology and resources in the Network Plane.

       End                                                     End
       System                                               System

      -+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Northbound -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

                CPF         CPF              CPF              CPF

      -+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Southbound -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

                 DetNet     DetNet     DetNet     DetNet
                  Node       Node       Node       Node
       NIC                                                     NIC
                 DetNet     DetNet     DetNet     DetNet
                  Node       Node       Node       Node

              Figure 7: Northbound and Southbound interfaces

   The DetNet nodes (and possibly the end systems NIC) expose their
   capabilities and physical resources to the controller (the CPF), and
   update the CPFs with their dynamic perception of the topology, across
   the Southbound Interface.  In return, the CPFs set the per-flow paths
   up, providing a Flow Characterization that is more tightly coupled to
   the DetNet node Operation than a TSpec.

   At the Network plane, DetNet nodes may exchange information regarding
   the state of the paths, between adjacent DetNet nodes and possibly
   with the end systems, and forward packets within constraints



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   associated to each flow, or, when unable to do so, perform a last
   resort operation such as drop or declassify.

   This document focuses on the Southbound interface and the operation
   of the Network Plane.

4.5.  Queuing, Shaping, Scheduling, and Preemption

   DetNet achieves bounded delivery latency by reserving bandwidth and
   buffer resources at each DetNet node along the path of the DetNet
   flow.  The reservation itself is not sufficient, however.
   Implementors and users of a number of proprietary and standard real-
   time networks have found that standards for specific data plane
   techniques are required to enable these assurances to be made in a
   multi-vendor network.  The fundamental reason is that latency
   variation in one DetNet system results in the need for extra buffer
   space in the next-hop DetNet system(s), which in turn, increases the
   worst-case per-hop latency.

   Standard queuing and transmission selection algorithms allow traffic
   engineering Section 4.4 to compute the latency contribution of each
   DetNet node to the end-to-end latency, to compute the amount of
   buffer space required in each DetNet node for each incremental DetNet
   flow, and most importantly, to translate from a flow specification to
   a set of values for the managed objects that control each relay or
   end system.  For example, the IEEE 802.1 WG has specified (and is
   specifying) a set of queuing, shaping, and scheduling algorithms that
   enable each DetNet node, and/or a central controller, to compute
   these values.  These algorithms include:

   o  A credit-based shaper [IEEE802.1Qav] (superseded by
      [IEEE802.1Q-2018]).

   o  Time-gated queues governed by a rotating time schedule based on
      synchronized time [IEEE802.1Qbv] (superseded by
      [IEEE802.1Q-2018]).

   o  Synchronized double (or triple) buffers driven by synchronized
      time ticks.  [IEEE802.1Qch] (superseded by [IEEE802.1Q-2018]).

   o  Pre-emption of an Ethernet packet in transmission by a packet with
      a more stringent latency requirement, followed by the resumption
      of the preempted packet [IEEE802.1Qbu] (superseded by
      [IEEE802.1Q-2018]), [IEEE802.3br] (superseded by
      [IEEE802.3-2018]).

   While these techniques are currently embedded in Ethernet
   [IEEE802.3-2018] and bridging standards, we can note that they are



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   all, except perhaps for packet preemption, equally applicable to
   other media than Ethernet, and to routers as well as bridges.  Other
   media may have its own methods, see, e.g.,
   [I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture], [RFC7554].  Further techniques are
   defined by the IETF, e.g., [RFC8289] and [RFC8033].  DetNet may
   include such definitions in the future, or may define how these
   techniques can be used by DetNet nodes.

4.6.  Service instance

   A Service instance represents all the functions required on a DetNet
   node to allow the end-to-end service between the UNIs.

   The DetNet network general reference model is shown in Figure 8 for a
   DetNet service scenario (i.e., between two DetNet-UNIs).  In this
   figure, end systems ("A" and "B") are connected directly to the edge
   nodes of an IP/MPLS network ("PE1" and "PE2").  End systems
   participating in DetNet communication may require connectivity before
   setting up an App-flow that requires the DetNet service.  Such a
   connectivity related service instance and the one dedicated for
   DetNet service share the same access.  Packets belonging to a DetNet
   flow are selected by a filter configured on the access ("F1" and
   "F2").  As a result, data flow specific access ("access-A + F1" and
   "access-B + F2") are terminated in the flow specific service instance
   ("SI-1" and "SI-2").  A tunnel is used to provide connectivity
   between the service instances.

   The tunnel is exclusively used for the packets of the DetNet flow
   between "SI-1" and "SI-2".  The service instances are configured to
   implement DetNet functions and a flow specific DetNet forwarding.
   The service instance and the tunnel may or may not be shared by
   multiple DetNet flows.  Sharing the service instance by multiple
   DetNet flows requires properly populated forwarding tables of the
   service instance.

















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             access-A                                     access-B
              <----->    <-------- tunnel ---------->     <----->

                 +---------+        ___  _        +---------+
   End system    |  +----+ |       /   \/ \_      | +----+  | End system
       "A" -------F1+    | |      /         \     | |    +F2----- "B"
                 |  |    +========+ IP/MPLS +=======+    |  |
                 |  |SI-1| |      \__  Net._/     | |SI-2|  |
                 |  +----+ |         \____/       | +----+  |
                 |PE1      |                      |      PE2|
                 +---------+                      +---------+


             Figure 8: DetNet network general reference model

   The tunnel between the service instances may have some special
   characteristics.  For example, in case of a DetNet L3 service, there
   are differences in the usage of the PW for DetNet traffic compared to
   the network model described in [RFC6658].  In the DetNet scenario,
   the PW is likely to be used exclusively by the DetNet flow, whereas
   [RFC6658] states: "The packet PW appears as a single point-to-point
   link to the client layer.  Network-layer adjacency formation and
   maintenance between the client equipment will follow the normal
   practice needed to support the required relationship in the client
   layer ... This packet PseudoWire is used to transport all of the
   required Layer-2 and Layer-3 protocols between LSR1 and LSR2".
   Further details are network technology specific and can be found in
   [I-D.ietf-detnet-dp-sol-mpls] and [I-D.ietf-detnet-dp-sol-ip].

4.7.  Flow identification at technology borders

   This section discusses what needs to be done at technology borders
   including Ethernet as one of the technologies.  Flow identification
   for MPLS and IP data planes are described in
   [I-D.ietf-detnet-dp-sol-mpls] and [I-D.ietf-detnet-dp-sol-ip],
   respectively.

4.7.1.  Exporting flow identification

   A DetNet node may need to map specific flows to lower layer flows (or
   Streams) in order to provide specific queuing and shaping services
   for specific flows.  For example:

   o  A non-IP, strictly L2 source end system X may be sending multiple
      flows to the same L2 destination end system Y.  Those flows may
      include DetNet flows with different QoS requirements, and may
      include non-DetNet flows.




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   o  A router may be sending any number of flows to another router.
      Again, those flows may include DetNet flows with different QoS
      requirements, and may include non-DetNet flows.

   o  Two routers may be separated by bridges.  For these bridges to
      perform any required per-flow queuing and shaping, they must be
      able to identify the individual flows.

   o  A Label Edge Router (LER) may have a Label Switched Path (LSP) set
      up for handling traffic destined for a particular IP address
      carrying only non-DetNet flows.  If a DetNet flow to that same
      address is requested, a separate LSP may be needed, in order that
      all of the Label Switch Routers (LSRs) along the path to the
      destination give that flow special queuing and shaping.

   The need for a lower-layer node to be aware of individual higher-
   layer flows is not unique to DetNet.  But, given the endless
   complexity of layering and relayering over tunnels that is available
   to network designers, DetNet needs to provide a model for flow
   identification that is better than packet inspection.  That is not to
   say that packet inspection to Layer-4 or Layer-5 addresses will not
   be used, or the capability standardized; but, there are alternatives.

   A DetNet relay node can connect DetNet flows on different paths using
   different flow identification methods.  For example:

   o  A single unicast DetNet flow passing from router A through a
      bridged network to router B may be assigned a TSN Stream
      identifier that is unique within that bridged network.  The
      bridges can then identify the flow without accessing higher-layer
      headers.  Of course, the receiving router must recognize and
      accept that TSN Stream.

   o  A DetNet flow passing from LSR A to LSR B may be assigned a
      different label than that used for other flows to the same IP
      destination.

   In any of the above cases, it is possible that an existing DetNet
   flow can be an aggregate carrying multiple other DetNet flows.  (Not
   to be confused with DetNet compound vs. member flows.)  Of course,
   this requires that the aggregate DetNet flow be provisioned properly
   to carry the aggregated flows.

   Thus, rather than packet inspection, there is the option to export
   higher-layer information to the lower layer.  The requirement to
   support one or the other method for flow identification (or both) is
   a complexity that is part of DetNet control models.




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4.7.2.  Flow attribute mapping between layers

   Forwarding of packets of DetNet flows over multiple technology
   domains may require that lower layers are aware of specific flows of
   higher layers.  Such an "exporting of flow identification" is needed
   each time when the forwarding paradigm is changed on the forwarding
   path (e.g., two LSRs are interconnected by a L2 bridged domain,
   etc.).  The three representative forwarding methods considered for
   deterministic networking are:

   o  IP routing

   o  MPLS label switching

   o  Ethernet bridging

   A packet with corresponding Flow-IDs is illustrated in Figure 9,
   which also indicates where each Flow-ID can be added or removed.

       add/remove     add/remove
       Eth Flow-ID    IP Flow-ID
           |             |
           v             v
        +-----------------------------------------------------------+
        |      |      |      |                                      |
        | Eth  | MPLS |  IP  |     Application data                 |
        |      |      |      |                                      |
        +-----------------------------------------------------------+
                  ^
                  |
              add/remove
             MPLS Flow-ID

                  Figure 9: Packet with multiple Flow-IDs

   The additional (domain specific) Flow-ID can be

   o  created by a domain specific function or

   o  derived from the Flow-ID added to the App-flow.

   The Flow-ID must be unique inside a given domain.  Note that the
   Flow-ID added to the App-flow is still present in the packet, but
   some nodes may lack the function to recognize it; that's why the
   additional Flow-ID is added.






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4.7.3.  Flow-ID mapping examples

   IP nodes and MPLS nodes are assumed to be configured to push such an
   additional (domain specific) Flow-ID when sending traffic to an
   Ethernet switch (as shown in the examples below).

   Figure 10 shows a scenario where an IP end system ("IP-A") is
   connected via two Ethernet switches ("ETH-n") to an IP router ("IP-
   1").

                                     IP domain
                  <-----------------------------------------------

           +======+                                       +======+
           |L3-ID |                                       |L3-ID |
           +======+  /\                           +-----+ +======+
                    /  \       Forward as         |     |
                   /IP-A\      per ETH-ID         |IP-1 |      Recognize
   Push  ------>  +-+----+         |              +---+-+  <----- ETH-ID
   ETH-ID           |         +----+-----+            |
                    |         v          v            |
                    |      +-----+    +-----+         |
                    +------+     |    |     +---------+
           +......+        |ETH-1+----+ETH-2|           +======+
           .L3-ID .        +-----+    +-----+           |L3-ID |
           +======+             +......+                +======+
           |ETH-ID|             .L3-ID .                |ETH-ID|
           +======+             +======+                +------+
                                |ETH-ID|
                                +======+

                             Ethernet domain
                           <---------------->

         Figure 10: IP nodes interconnected by an Ethernet domain

   End system "IP-A" uses the original App-flow specific ID ("L3-ID"),
   but as it is connected to an Ethernet domain it has to push an
   Ethernet-domain specific flow-ID ("ETH-ID") before sending the packet
   to "ETH-1" node.  Ethernet switch "ETH-1" can recognize the data flow
   based on the "ETH-ID" and it does forwarding toward "ETH-2".  "ETH-2"
   switches the packet toward the IP router.  "IP-1" must be configured
   to receive the Ethernet Flow-ID specific multicast flow, but (as it
   is an L3 node) it decodes the data flow ID based on the "L3-ID"
   fields of the received packet.

   Figure 11 shows a scenario where MPLS domain nodes ("PE-n" and "P-m")
   are connected via two Ethernet switches ("ETH-n").



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                                    MPLS domain
                  <----------------------------------------------->

       +=======+                                  +=======+
       |MPLS-ID|                                  |MPLS-ID|
       +=======+  +-----+                 +-----+ +=======+ +-----+
                  |     |   Forward as    |     |           |     |
                  |PE-1 |   per ETH-ID    | P-2 +-----------+ PE-2|
   Push   ----->  +-+---+        |        +---+-+           +-----+
   ETH-ID           |      +-----+----+       |  \ Recognize
                    |      v          v       |   +-- ETH-ID
                    |   +-----+    +-----+    |
                    +---+     |    |     +----+
           +.......+    |ETH-1+----+ETH-2|   +=======+
           .MPLS-ID.    +-----+    +-----+   |MPLS-ID|
           +=======+                         +=======+
           |ETH-ID |         +.......+       |ETH-ID |
           +=======+         .MPLS-ID.       +-------+
                             +=======+
                             |ETH-ID |
                             +=======+
                          Ethernet domain
                        <---------------->

        Figure 11: MPLS nodes interconnected by an Ethernet domain

   "PE-1" uses the MPLS specific ID ("MPLS-ID"), but as it is connected
   to an Ethernet domain it has to push an Ethernet-domain specific
   flow-ID ("ETH-ID") before sending the packet to "ETH-1".  Ethernet
   switch "ETH-1" can recognize the data flow based on the "ETH-ID" and
   it does forwarding toward "ETH-2".  "ETH-2" switches the packet
   toward the MPLS node ("P-2").  "P-2" must be configured to receive
   the Ethernet Flow-ID specific multicast flow, but (as it is an MPLS
   node) it decodes the data flow ID based on the "MPLS-ID" fields of
   the received packet.

   One can appreciate from the above example that, when the means used
   for DetNet flow identification is altered or exported, the means for
   encoding the sequence number information must similarly be altered or
   exported.

4.8.  Advertising resources, capabilities and adjacencies

   Provisioning of DetNet requires knowledge about:

   o  Details of the DetNet system's capabilities that are required in
      order to accurately allocate that DetNet system's resources, as
      well as other DetNet systems' resources.  This includes, for



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      example, which specific queuing and shaping algorithms are
      implemented (Section 4.5), the number of buffers dedicated for
      DetNet allocation, and the worst-case forwarding delay and
      misordering.

   o  The actual state of a DetNet node's DetNet resources.

   o  The identity of the DetNet system's neighbors, and the
      characteristics of the link(s) between the DetNet systems,
      including the latency of the links (in nanoseconds).

4.9.  Scaling to larger networks

   Reservations for individual DetNet flows require considerable state
   information in each DetNet node, especially when adequate fault
   mitigation (Section 3.3.2) is required.  The DetNet data plane, in
   order to support larger numbers of DetNet flows, must support the
   aggregation of DetNet flows.  Such aggregated flows can be viewed by
   the DetNet nodes' data plane largely as individual DetNet flows.
   Without such aggregation, the per-relay system may limit the scale of
   DetNet networks.  Example techniques that may be used include MPLS
   hierarchy and IP DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs).

4.10.  Compatibility with Layer-2

   Standards providing similar capabilities for bridged networks (only)
   have been and are being generated in the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards
   Committee.  The present architecture describes an abstract model that
   can be applicable both at Layer-2 and Layer-3, and over links not
   defined by IEEE 802.

   DetNet enabled end systems and DetNet nodes can be interconnected by
   sub-networks, i.e., Layer-2 technologies.  These sub-networks will
   provide DetNet compatible service for support of DetNet traffic.
   Examples of sub-network technologies include MPLS TE, 802.1 TSN, and
   a point-to-point OTN link.  Of course, multi-layer DetNet systems may
   be possible too, where one DetNet appears as a sub-network, and
   provides service to, a higher layer DetNet system.

5.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations for DetNet are described in detail in
   [I-D.ietf-detnet-security].  This section considers exclusively
   security considerations which are specific to the DetNet
   architecture.

   Security aspects which are unique to DetNet are those whose aim is to
   provide the specific quality of service aspects of DetNet, which are



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   primarily to deliver data flows with extremely low packet loss rates
   and bounded end-to-end delivery latency.  A DetNet may be implemented
   using MPLS and/or IP (including both v4 and v6) technologies, and
   thus inherits the security properties of those technologies at both
   the data plane and the control plane.

   Security considerations for DetNet are constrained (compared to, for
   example, the open Internet) because DetNet is defined to operate only
   within a single administrative domain (see Section 1).  The primary
   considerations are to secure the request and control of DetNet
   resources, maintain confidentiality of data traversing the DetNet,
   and provide the availability of the DetNet quality of service.

   To secure the request and control of DetNet resources, authentication
   and authorization can be used for each device connected to a DetNet
   domain, most importantly to network controller devices.  Control of a
   DetNet network may be centralized or distributed (within a single
   administrative domain).  In the case of centralized control,
   precedent for security considerations as defined for Abstraction and
   Control of Traffic Engineered Networks (ACTN) can be found in
   [RFC8453], Section 9.  In the case of distributed control protocols,
   DetNet security is expected to be provided by the security properties
   of the protocols in use.  In any case, the result is that
   manipulation of administratively configurable parameters is limited
   to authorized entities.

   To maintain confidentiality of data traversing the DetNet,
   application flows can be protected through whatever means is provided
   by the underlying technology.  For example, encryption may be used,
   such as that provided by IPSec [RFC4301] for IP flows and by MACSec
   [IEEE802.1AE-2018] for Ethernet (Layer-2) flows.

   DetNet flows are identified on a per-flow basis, which may provide
   attackers with additional information about the data flows (when
   compared to networks that do not include per-flow identification).
   This is an inherent property of DetNet which has security
   implications that should be considered when determining if DetNet is
   a suitable technology for any given use case.

   To provide uninterrupted availability of the DetNet quality of
   service, provisions can be made against DOS attacks and delay
   attacks.  To protect against DOS attacks, excess traffic due to
   malicious or malfunctioning devices can be prevented or mitigated,
   for example through the use of traffic admission control applied at
   the input of a DetNet domain, as described in Section 3.2.1, and
   through the fault mitigation methods described in Section 3.3.2.  To
   prevent DetNet packets from being delayed by an entity external to a
   DetNet domain, DetNet technology definition can allow for the



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   mitigation of Man-In-The-Middle attacks, for example through use of
   authentication and authorization of devices within the DetNet domain.

   Because DetNet mechanisms or applications that rely on DetNet can
   make heavy use of methods that require precise time synchronization,
   the accuracy, availability, and integrity of time synchronization is
   of critical importance.  Extensive discussion of this topic can be
   found in [RFC7384].

   DetNet use cases are known to have widely divergent security
   requirements.  The intent of this section is to provide a baseline
   for security considerations which are common to all DetNet designs
   and implementations, without burdening individual designs with
   specifics of security infrastructure which may not be germane to the
   given use case.  Designers and implementers of DetNet systems are
   expected to take use case specific considerations into account in
   their DetNet designs and implementations.

6.  Privacy Considerations

   DetNet provides a Quality of Service (QoS), and as such, is not
   expected to directly raise any new privacy considerations, the
   generic considerations for such mechanisms apply.  In particular,
   such markings allow for an attacker to correlate flows or to select
   particular types of flow for more detailed inspection.

   However, the requirement for every (or almost every) node along the
   path of a DetNet flow to identify DetNet flows may present an
   additional attack surface for privacy, should the DetNet paradigm be
   found useful in broader environments.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not require an action from IANA.

8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors wish to thank Lou Berger, David Black, Stewart Bryant,
   Rodney Cummings, Ethan Grossman, Craig Gunther, Marcel Kiessling,
   Rudy Klecka, Jouni Korhonen, Erik Nordmark, Shitanshu Shah, Wilfried
   Steiner, George Swallow, Michael Johas Teener, Pat Thaler, Thomas
   Watteyne, Patrick Wetterwald, Karl Weber, Anca Zamfir, for their
   various contributions to this work.








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9.  Informative References

   [BUFFERBLOAT]
              Gettys, J. and K. Nichols, "Bufferbloat: Dark Buffers in
              the Internet", January 2012.

   [CCAMP]    IETF, "Common Control and Measurement Plane Working
              Group",
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/charter-ietf-ccamp/>.

   [I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture]
              Thubert, P., "An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode
              of IEEE 802.15.4", draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-20 (work
              in progress), March 2019.

   [I-D.ietf-detnet-dp-sol-ip]
              Korhonen, J. and B. Varga, "DetNet IP Data Plane
              Encapsulation", draft-ietf-detnet-dp-sol-ip-01 (work in
              progress), October 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-detnet-dp-sol-mpls]
              Korhonen, J. and B. Varga, "DetNet MPLS Data Plane
              Encapsulation", draft-ietf-detnet-dp-sol-mpls-01 (work in
              progress), October 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-detnet-problem-statement]
              Finn, N. and P. Thubert, "Deterministic Networking Problem
              Statement", draft-ietf-detnet-problem-statement-09 (work
              in progress), December 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-detnet-security]
              Mizrahi, T., Grossman, E., Hacker, A., Das, S., Dowdell,
              J., Austad, H., Stanton, K., and N. Finn, "Deterministic
              Networking (DetNet) Security Considerations", draft-ietf-
              detnet-security-04 (work in progress), March 2019.

   [I-D.ietf-detnet-use-cases]
              Grossman, E., "Deterministic Networking Use Cases", draft-
              ietf-detnet-use-cases-20 (work in progress), December
              2018.

   [IEC62439-3-2016]
              International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) TC 65/SC
              65C - Industrial networks, "IEC 62439-3:2016 Industrial
              communication networks - High availability automation
              networks - Part 3: Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP) and
              High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR)", 2016,
              <https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/24447>.



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   [IEEE802.1AE-2018]
              IEEE Standards Association, "IEEE Std 802.1AE-2018 MAC
              Security (MACsec)", 2018,
              <https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8585421>.

   [IEEE802.1BA]
              IEEE Standards Association, "IEEE Std 802.1BA-2011 Audio
              Video Bridging (AVB) Systems", 2011,
              <https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6032690/>.

   [IEEE802.1CB]
              IEEE Standards Association, "IEEE Std 802.1CB-2017 Frame
              Replication and Elimination for Reliability", 2017,
              <https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8091139/>.

   [IEEE802.1Q-2018]
              IEEE Standards Association, "IEEE Std 802.1Q-2018 Bridges
              and Bridged Networks", 2018,
              <https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8403927>.

   [IEEE802.1Qav]
              IEEE Standards Association, "IEEE Std 802.1Qav-2009
              Bridges and Bridged Networks - Amendment 12: Forwarding
              and Queuing Enhancements for Time-Sensitive Streams",
              2009, <https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5375704/>.

   [IEEE802.1Qbu]
              IEEE Standards Association, "IEEE Std 802.1Qbu-2016
              Bridges and Bridged Networks - Amendment 26: Frame
              Preemption", 2016,
              <https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7553415/>.

   [IEEE802.1Qbv]
              IEEE Standards Association, "IEEE Std 802.1Qbv-2015
              Bridges and Bridged Networks - Amendment 25: Enhancements
              for Scheduled Traffic", 2015,
              <https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7572858/>.

   [IEEE802.1Qch]
              IEEE Standards Association, "IEEE Std 802.1Qch-2017
              Bridges and Bridged Networks - Amendment 29: Cyclic
              Queuing and Forwarding", 2017,
              <https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7961303/>.

   [IEEE802.1TSNTG]
              IEEE Standards Association, "IEEE 802.1 Time-Sensitive
              Networking Task Group", <http://www.ieee802.org/1/tsn>.




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   [IEEE802.3-2018]
              IEEE Standards Association, "IEEE Std 802.3-2018 Standard
              for Ethernet", 2018,
              <https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8457469>.

   [IEEE802.3br]
              IEEE Standards Association, "IEEE Std 802.3br-2016
              Standard for Ethernet Amendment 5: Specification and
              Management Parameters for Interspersing Express Traffic",
              2016, <http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7900321/>.

   [RFC2205]  Braden, R., Ed., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., and S.
              Jamin, "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- Version 1
              Functional Specification", RFC 2205, DOI 10.17487/RFC2205,
              September 1997, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2205>.

   [RFC2475]  Blake, S., Black, D., Carlson, M., Davies, E., Wang, Z.,
              and W. Weiss, "An Architecture for Differentiated
              Services", RFC 2475, DOI 10.17487/RFC2475, December 1998,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2475>.

   [RFC2914]  Floyd, S., "Congestion Control Principles", BCP 41,
              RFC 2914, DOI 10.17487/RFC2914, September 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2914>.

   [RFC3168]  Ramakrishnan, K., Floyd, S., and D. Black, "The Addition
              of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP",
              RFC 3168, DOI 10.17487/RFC3168, September 2001,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3168>.

   [RFC3209]  Awduche, D., Berger, L., Gan, D., Li, T., Srinivasan, V.,
              and G. Swallow, "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP
              Tunnels", RFC 3209, DOI 10.17487/RFC3209, December 2001,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3209>.

   [RFC3550]  Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
              Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
              Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, DOI 10.17487/RFC3550,
              July 2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3550>.

   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, DOI 10.17487/RFC4301,
              December 2005, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4301>.

   [RFC4655]  Farrel, A., Vasseur, J., and J. Ash, "A Path Computation
              Element (PCE)-Based Architecture", RFC 4655,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4655, August 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4655>.



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   [RFC5921]  Bocci, M., Ed., Bryant, S., Ed., Frost, D., Ed., Levrau,
              L., and L. Berger, "A Framework for MPLS in Transport
              Networks", RFC 5921, DOI 10.17487/RFC5921, July 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5921>.

   [RFC6372]  Sprecher, N., Ed. and A. Farrel, Ed., "MPLS Transport
              Profile (MPLS-TP) Survivability Framework", RFC 6372,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6372, September 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6372>.

   [RFC6658]  Bryant, S., Ed., Martini, L., Swallow, G., and A. Malis,
              "Packet Pseudowire Encapsulation over an MPLS PSN",
              RFC 6658, DOI 10.17487/RFC6658, July 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6658>.

   [RFC7149]  Boucadair, M. and C. Jacquenet, "Software-Defined
              Networking: A Perspective from within a Service Provider
              Environment", RFC 7149, DOI 10.17487/RFC7149, March 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7149>.

   [RFC7384]  Mizrahi, T., "Security Requirements of Time Protocols in
              Packet Switched Networks", RFC 7384, DOI 10.17487/RFC7384,
              October 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7384>.

   [RFC7426]  Haleplidis, E., Ed., Pentikousis, K., Ed., Denazis, S.,
              Hadi Salim, J., Meyer, D., and O. Koufopavlou, "Software-
              Defined Networking (SDN): Layers and Architecture
              Terminology", RFC 7426, DOI 10.17487/RFC7426, January
              2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7426>.

   [RFC7554]  Watteyne, T., Ed., Palattella, M., and L. Grieco, "Using
              IEEE 802.15.4e Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) in the
              Internet of Things (IoT): Problem Statement", RFC 7554,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7554, May 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7554>.

   [RFC7813]  Farkas, J., Ed., Bragg, N., Unbehagen, P., Parsons, G.,
              Ashwood-Smith, P., and C. Bowers, "IS-IS Path Control and
              Reservation", RFC 7813, DOI 10.17487/RFC7813, June 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7813>.

   [RFC8033]  Pan, R., Natarajan, P., Baker, F., and G. White,
              "Proportional Integral Controller Enhanced (PIE): A
              Lightweight Control Scheme to Address the Bufferbloat
              Problem", RFC 8033, DOI 10.17487/RFC8033, February 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8033>.





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   [RFC8227]  Cheng, W., Wang, L., Li, H., van Helvoort, H., and J.
              Dong, "MPLS-TP Shared-Ring Protection (MSRP) Mechanism for
              Ring Topology", RFC 8227, DOI 10.17487/RFC8227, August
              2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8227>.

   [RFC8289]  Nichols, K., Jacobson, V., McGregor, A., Ed., and J.
              Iyengar, Ed., "Controlled Delay Active Queue Management",
              RFC 8289, DOI 10.17487/RFC8289, January 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8289>.

   [RFC8402]  Filsfils, C., Ed., Previdi, S., Ed., Ginsberg, L.,
              Decraene, B., Litkowski, S., and R. Shakir, "Segment
              Routing Architecture", RFC 8402, DOI 10.17487/RFC8402,
              July 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8402>.

   [RFC8453]  Ceccarelli, D., Ed. and Y. Lee, Ed., "Framework for
              Abstraction and Control of TE Networks (ACTN)", RFC 8453,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8453, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8453>.

   [TEAS]     IETF, "Traffic Engineering Architecture and Signaling
              Working Group",
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/charter-ietf-teas/>.

Authors' Addresses

   Norman Finn
   Huawei
   3101 Rio Way
   Spring Valley, California  91977
   US

   Phone: +1 925 980 6430
   Email: norman.finn@mail01.huawei.com


   Pascal Thubert
   Cisco Systems
   Village d'Entreprises Green Side
   400, Avenue de Roumanille
   Batiment T3
   Biot - Sophia Antipolis  06410
   FRANCE

   Phone: +33 4 97 23 26 34
   Email: pthubert@cisco.com





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   Balazs Varga
   Ericsson
   Magyar tudosok korutja 11
   Budapest  1117
   Hungary

   Email: balazs.a.varga@ericsson.com


   Janos Farkas
   Ericsson
   Magyar tudosok korutja 11
   Budapest  1117
   Hungary

   Email: janos.farkas@ericsson.com



































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