[Docs] [txt|pdf] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 RFC 3046

DHC  Working Grop                                      Michael Patrick
<draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt>                  Motorola ISG
                                                       November 13, 1998


                  DHCP Relay Agent Information Option

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet Draft.  Internet Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its Areas,
   and its Working Groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet Drafts.

   Internet Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months.  Internet Drafts may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by
   other documents at any time.  It is not appropriate to use Internet
   Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as a "working
   draft" or "work in progress."

   Please check the "1id-abstracts.txt" listing contained in the
   Internet-Drafts Shadow Directories on ftp.is.co.za (Africa),
   nic.nordu.net (Europe), munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim), ds.internic.net
   (US East Coast), or ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [4].

Abstract

   Newer high-speed public Internet access technologies call for a
   high-speed modem to have a LAN attachment to one or more customer
   premise hosts.  It is advantageous to use the Dynamic Host
   Configuration Protocol as defined in RFC 2131 [1] to assign customer
   premise host IP addresses in this environment. However, a number of
   security and scaling problems arise with such "public" DHCP use.
   This document describes a new DHCP option to address these issues.
   This option extends the set of DHCP options as defined in RFC 2132
   [2].

   The new option is called the Relay Agent Information option and is
   inserted by the DHCP relay agent when forwarding client-originated
   DHCP packets to a DHCP server.  Servers recognizing the Relay Agent
   Information option may use the information to implement IP address or
   other parameter assignment policies. The DHCP Server echoes the
   option back verbatim to the relay agent in server-to-client replies,
   and the relay agent strips the option before forwarding the reply to



Expires April 1999                                              [Page 1]

<draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt>                  November 13, 1998


   the client.

   The "Relay Agent Information" option is organized as a single DHCP
   option that contains one or more "sub-options" that convey
   information known by the relay agent.  The initial sub-options are
   defined for a relay agent that is co-located in a public circuit
   access unit.  These include a "circuit ID" for the incoming circuit,
   a "remote ID" which provides a trusted identifier for the remote
   high-speed modem, and the "subnet mask" of the logical IP subnet from
   which the relay agent received the client DHCP packet.

Table of Contents


        1   Introduction........................................... 3
        1.1 High-Speed Circuit Switched Data Networks.............. 3
        1.2 DHCP Relay Agent in the Circuit Access Equipment....... 4
        2.0 Relay Agent Information Option......................... 6
        2.1 Agent Operation........................................ 7
        2.1.1 Reforwarded DHCP requests............................ 8
        2.2 Server Operation....................................... 8
        3.0 Relay Agent Information Suboptions..................... 9
        3.1 Agent Circuit ID....................................... 9
        3.2 Agent Remote ID........................................ 10
        3.3 Agent Subnet Mask...................................... 11
        4.0 Issues Resolved........................................ 11
        5.0 Security Considerations................................ 12
        6.0 IANA Considerations.................................... 13
        7.0 References............................................. 13
        8.0 Glossary............................................... 13
        9.0 Author's Address....................................... 14




        Revision History

        Rev  Date               Description
        ---  --------           -----------
        -05  11/13/98           Update per IESG review.
                                - MUST/SHOULD wording changes.
                                - Add "IANA considerations section"









Expires April 1999                                              [Page 2]

<draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt>                  November 13, 1998


1   Introduction

1.1 High-Speed Circuit Switched Data Networks

   Public Access to the Internet is usually via a circuit switched data
   network.  Today, this is primarily implemented with dial-up modems
   connecting to a Remote Access Server.  But higher speed circuit
   access networks also include ISDN, ATM, Frame Relay, and Cable Data
   Networks.  All of these networks can be characterized as a "star"
   topology where multiple users connect to a "circuit access unit" via
   switched or permanent circuits.

   With dial-up modems, only a single host PC attempts to connect to the
   central point.  The PPP protocol is widely used to assign IP
   addresses to be used by the single host PC.

   The newer high-speed circuit technologies, however, frequently
   provide a LAN interface (especially Ethernet) to one or more host
   PCs.  It is desirable to support centralized assignment of the IP
   addresses of host computers connecting on such circuits via DHCP.
   The DHCP server can be, but usually is not, co-implemented with the
   centralized circuit concentration access device.  The DHCP server is
   often connected as a separate server on the "Central LAN" to which
   the central access device (or devices) attach.

   A common physical model for high-speed Internet circuit access is
   shown in Figure 1, below.
























Expires April 1999                                              [Page 3]

<draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt>                  November 13, 1998





                      +---------------+                          |
        Central       |   Circuit     |-- ckt 1--- Modem1-- Host-|- Host A
        LAN     |     |   Access      |                     Lan  |- Host B
                |     |   Unit 1      |                          |- Host C
                |-----|               |--                        |
                |     |(relay agent)  |...
   +---------+  |     +---------------+
   |  DHCP   |--|
   | Server  |  |
   +---------+  |
                |
                |     +---------------+
   +---------+  |     |   Circuit     |-- ckt 1--- Modem2-- Host--- Host D
   | Other   |  |     |   Access      |                     Lan
   | Servers |--|-----|   Unit 2      |
   |  (Web,  |  |     |               |-- ckt 2--- Modem3-- Host--- Host E
   |   DNS)  |  |     |(relay agent)  |...                  Lan
   |         |        +---------------+
   +---------+
            Figure 1:  DHCP High Speed Circuit Access Model


   Note that in this model, the "modem" connects to a LAN at the user
   site, rather than to a single host. Multiple hosts are implemented at
   this site.  Although it is certainly possible to implement a full IP
   router at the user site, this requires a relatively expensive piece
   of equipment (compared to typical modem costs).  Furthermore, a
   router requires an IP address not only for every host, but for the
   router itself. Finally, a user-side router requires a dedicated
   Logical IP Subnet (LIS) for each user.  While this model is
   appropriate for relatively small corporate networking environments,
   it is not appropriate for large, public accessed networks. In this
   scenario, it is advantageous to implement an IP networking model that
   does not allocate an IP address for the modem (or other networking
   equipment device at the user site), and especially not an entire LIS
   for the user side LAN.

1.2 DHCP Relay Agent in the Circuit Access Unit

   It is desirable to use DHCP to assign the IP addresses for public
   high-speed circuit access.  A number of circuit access units (e.g.
   RAS's, cable modem termination systems, ADSL access units, etc)
   connect to a LAN (or local internet) to which is attached a DHCP
   server.




Expires April 1999                                              [Page 4]

<draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt>                  November 13, 1998


   For scaling and security reasons, it is advantageous to implement a
   "router hop" at the circuit access unit, much like high-capacity
   RAS's do today.  The circuit access equipment acts as both a router
   to the circuits and as the DHCP relay agent.

   The advantages of co-locating the DHCP relay agent with the circuit
   access equipment are:

   DHCP broadcast replies can be routed to only the proper circuit,
   avoiding, say, the replication of the DCHP reply broadcast onto
   thousands of access circuits;

   The same mechanism used to identify the remote connection of the
   circuit (e.g. a user ID requested by a Remote Access Server acting as
   the circuit access equipment) may be used as a host identifier by
   DHCP, and used for parameter assignment.  This includes centralized
   assignment of IP addresses to hosts.  This provides a secure remote
   ID from a trusted source -- the relay agent.

   A number of issues arise when forwarding DHCP requests from hosts
   connecting publicly accessed high-speed circuits with LAN connections
   at the host. Many of these are security issues arising from DHCP
   client requests from untrusted sources.  How does the relay agent
   know to which circuit to forward replies?  How does the system
   prevent  DHCP IP exhaustion attacks?  This is when an attacker
   requests all available IP addresses from a DHCP server by sending
   requests with fabricated client MAC addresses.  How can an IP address
   or LIS be permanently assigned to a particular user or modem?  How
   does one prevent "spoofing" of client identifer fields used to assign
   IP addresses?  How does one prevent denial of service by "spoofing"
   other client's MAC addresses?

   All of these issues may be addressed by having the circuit access
   equipment, which is a trusted component, add information to DHCP
   client requests that it forwards to the DHCP server.
















Expires April 1999                                              [Page 5]

<draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt>                  November 13, 1998


2.0 Relay Agent Information Option

   This document defines a new DHCP Option called the Relay Agent
   Information Option.  It is a "container" option for specific agent-
   supplied sub-options.  The format of the Relay Agent Information
   option is:


            Code   Len     Agent Information Field
           +------+------+------+------+------+------+--...-+------+
           |  82  |   N  |  i1  |  i2  |  i3  |  i4  |      |  iN  |
           +------+------+------+------+------+------+--...-+------+

   The length N gives the total number of octets in the Agent
   Information Field. The Agent Information field consists of a sequence
   of SubOpt/Length/Value tuples for each sub-option, encoded in the
   following manner:


            SubOpt  Len     Sub-option Value
           +------+------+------+------+------+------+--...-+------+
           |  1   |   N  |  s1  |  s2  |  s3  |  s4  |      |  sN  |
           +------+------+------+------+------+------+--...-+------+
            SubOpt  Len     Sub-option Value
           +------+------+------+------+------+------+--...-+------+
           |  2   |   N  |  i1  |  i2  |  i3  |  i4  |      |  iN  |
           +------+------+------+------+------+------+--...-+------+


   No "pad" sub-option is defined, and the Information field shall NOT
   be terminated with a 255 sub-option.  The length N of the DHCP Agent
   Information Option shall include all bytes of the sub-option
   code/length/value tuples. Since at least one sub-option must be
   defined, the minimum Relay Agent Information length is two (2).  The
   length N of the sub-options shall be the number of octets in only
   that sub-option's value field.  A sub-option length may be zero.  The
   sub-options need not appear in sub-option code order.


   The initial assignment of DHCP Relay Agent Sub-options is as follows:


                   DHCP Agent              Sub-Option Descrption
                   Sub-option Code
                   ---------------         ----------------------
                       1                   Agent Circuit ID Sub-option
                       2                   Agent Remote ID Sub-option
                       3                   Agent Subnet Mask Sub-option



Expires April 1999                                              [Page 6]

<draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt>                  November 13, 1998


   New sub-option codes MUST be assigned by IANA according to the policy
   described in the "IANA Considerations" section of this document.

2.1 Agent Operation

   Overall adding of the DHCP relay agent option SHOULD be configurable,
   and SHOULD be disabled by default. Relay agents SHOULD have separate
   configurables for each sub-option to control whether it is added to
   client-to-server packets.

   A DHCP relay agent adding a Relay Agent Information field SHALL add
   it as the last DHCP agent option in the DHCP options field of any
   recognized DHCP packet forwarded from a client to a server.  Such
   additions shall be made for only those packets recognized as DHCP;
   BOOTP-only packets shall not be affected.

   Relay agents receiving a DHCP packet with giaddr set to zero
   (indicating that they are the first-hop router) but with a Relay
   Agent Information option already present in the packet SHALL discard
   the packet and increment an error count.

   Relay agents MAY have a configurable for the maximum size of the DHCP
   packet to be created after appending the Agent Information option.
   Packets which, after appending the Relay Agent Information option,
   would exceed this configured maximum size shall be forwarded WITHOUT
   adding the Agent Information option. An error counter SHOULD be
   incremented in this case.  In the absence of this configurable, the
   agent SHALL NOT increase a forwarded DHCP packet size to exceed the
   MTU of the interface on which it is forwarded.

   The Relay Agent Information option echoed by a server MUST be removed
   by the agent when forwarding a server-to-client response back to the
   client.

   The agent SHALL NOT add an "Option Overload" option to the packet or
   use the "file" or "sname" fields for adding Relay Agent Information
   option.  It SHALL NOT parse or remove Relay Agent Information options
   that may appear in the sname or file fields of a server-to-client
   packet forwarded through the agent.

   The operation of relay agents for specific sub-options is specified
   with that sub-option.

   Relay agents are NOT required to monitor or modify client-originated
   DHCP packets addressed to a server unicast address. This  includes
   the DHCP-REQUEST sent when entering the RENEWING state.





Expires April 1999                                              [Page 7]

<draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt>                  November 13, 1998


2.1.1 Reforwarded DHCP requests

   A DHCP relay agent may receive a client DHCP packet forwarded from a
   BOOTP/DHCP relay agent closer to the client. Such a packet will have
   giaddr as non-zero, and may or may not already have a DHCP Relay
   Agent option in it.

   Relay agents configured to add a Relay Agent option which receive a
   client DHCP packet with a nonzero giaddr SHALL discard the packet if
   the giaddr spoofs a giaddr address implemented by the local agent
   itself.

   Otherwise, the relay agent SHALL forward any received DHCP packet
   with a valid non-zero giaddr WITHOUT adding any relay agent options.
   Per RFC 2131, it shall also NOT modify the giaddr value.


2.2     Server Operation

   DHCP servers unaware of the Relay Agent Information option will
   ignore the option upon receive and will not echo it back on
   responses.  This is the specified server behavior for unknown
   options.

   DHCP servers claiming to support the Relay Agent Information option
   SHALL echo the entire contents of the Relay Agent Information option
   in all replies.  Servers SHOULD copy the Relay Agent Information
   option as the last DHCP option in the response.  Servers SHALL NOT
   place the echoed Relay Agent Information option in the overloaded
   sname or file fields.  If a server is unable to copy a full Relay
   Agent Information field into a response, it SHALL send the response
   without the Relay Information Field, and SHOULD increment an error
   counter for the situation.

   The operation of DHCP servers for specific sub-options is specified
   with that sub-option.

   Note that DHCP relay agents are not required to monitor unicast DHCP
   messages sent directly between the client and server (i.e, those that
   aren't sent via a relay agent). However, some relay agents MAY chose
   to do such monitoring and add relay agent options. Consequently,
   servers SHOULD be prepared to handle relay agent options in unicast
   messages, but MUST NOT expect them to always be there.








Expires April 1999                                              [Page 8]

<draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt>                  November 13, 1998


3.0 Relay Agent Information Sub-options

3.1 Agent Circuit ID Sub-option

   This sub-option MAY be added by DHCP relay agents which terminate
   switched or permanent circuits.  It encodes an agent-local identifier
   of the circuit from which a DHCP client-to-server packet was
   received.  It is intended for use by agents in relaying DHCP
   responses back to the proper circuit.  Possible uses of this field
   include
       - Router interface number
       - Switching Hub port number
       - Remote Access Server port number
       - Frame Relay DLCI
       - ATM virtual circuit number
       - Cable Data virtual circuit number

   Servers MAY use the Circuit ID for IP and other parameter assignment
   policies. The Circuit ID SHOULD be considered an opaque value, with
   policies based on exact string match only; that is, the Circuit ID
   SHOULD NOT be internally parsed by the server.

   The DHCP server SHOULD report the Agent Circuit ID value of current
   leases in statistical reports (including its MIB) and in logs.  Since
   the Circuit ID is local only to a particular relay agent, a circuit
   ID should be qualified with the giaddr value that identifies the
   relay agent.


            SubOpt   Len     Circuit ID
           +------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+--
           |  1   |   n  |  c1  |  c2  |  c3  |  c4  |  c5  |  c6  | ...
           +------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+--


















Expires April 1999                                              [Page 9]

<draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt>                  November 13, 1998


3.2 Agent Remote ID Sub-option

   This sub-option MAY be added by DHCP relay agents which terminate
   switched or permanent circuits and have mechanisms to identify the
   remote host end of the circuit.  The Remote ID field may be used to
   encode, for instance:
       -- a "caller ID" telephone number for dial-up connection
       -- a "user name" prompted for by a Remote Access Server
       -- a remote caller ATM address
       -- a "modem ID" of a cable data modem
       -- the remote IP address of a point-to-point link
       -- a remote X.25 address for X.25 connections

   The remote ID MUST be globally unique.

   DHCP servers MAY use this option to select parameters specific to
   particular users, hosts, or subscriber modems. The option SHOULD be
   considered an opaque value, with policies based on exact string match
   only; that is, the option SHOULD NOT be internally parsed by the
   server.

   The relay agent MAY use this field in addition to or instead of the
   Agent Circuit ID field to select the circuit on which to forward the
   DHCP reply (e.g. Offer, Ack, or Nak). DHCP servers SHOULD report this
   value in any reports or MIBs associated with a particular client.



            SubOpt   Len     Agent Remote ID
           +------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+--
           |  2   |   n  |  r1  |  r2  |  r3  |  r4  |  r5  |  r6  | ...
           +------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+--



















Expires April 1999                                             [Page 10]

<draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt>                  November 13, 1998


3.3 Agent Subnet Mask Sub-option

   This sub-option MAY be added by DHCP relay agents  to identify the
   subnet mask of the Logical IP Subnet (LIS) from which the client DHCP
   packet was received.  The LIS of the client is defined as the subnet
   formed by the giaddr ANDed with the  Agent Subnet Mask.

   Servers MAY use this mask field to automatically create scopes of
   assignable IP addresses.  Use of this field avoids the need to have
   identical configuration of the logical IP subnets on which clients
   reside in both the relaying routers and the DHCP server.  In this
   case, the router configuration defines the LISs, and the DHCP servers
   automatically discover the LISs from the relay agent options of
   forwarded client DHCP requests.



            SubOpt   Len     Agent Subnet Mask
           +------+------+------+------+------+------+
           |  3   |   4  |  m1  |  m2  |  m3  |  m4  |
           +------+------+------+------+------+------+




4.0 Issues Resolved

   Broadcast Forwarding

      The circuit access equipment forwards the normally broadcasted
      DHCP response only on the circuit indicated in the Agent Circuit
      ID.

   DHCP Address Exhaustion

      In general, the DHCP server may be extended to maintain a database
      with the "triplet" of


                  (client IP address,  client MAC address,  client remote ID)


      The DHCP server SHOULD implement policies that restrict the number
      of IP addresses to be assigned to a single remote ID.







Expires April 1999                                             [Page 11]

<draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt>                  November 13, 1998


   Static Assignment

      The DHCP server may use the remote ID to select the IP address to
      be assigned.  It may permit static assignment of IP addresses to
      particular remote IDs, and disallow an address request from an
      unauthorized remote ID.


   IP Spoofing

      The circuit access device may associate the IP address assigned by
      a DHCP server in a forwarded DHCP Ack packet with the circuit to
      which it was forwarded. The circuit access device MAY prevent
      forwarding of IP packets with source IP addresses -other than-
      those it has associated with the receiving circuit.  This prevents
      simple IP spoofing attacks on the Central LAN, and IP spoofing of
      other hosts.

   Client Identifer Spoofing

      By using the agent-supplied Agent Remote ID option, the untrusted
      and as-yet unstandardized client identifer field need not be used
      by the DHCP server.

   MAC Address Spoofing

      By associating a MAC address with an Agent Remote ID, the DHCP
      server can prevent offering an IP address to an attacker spoofing
      the same MAC address on a different remote ID.

5.0 Security Considerations

   DHCP as currently defined provides no authentication or security
   mechanisms.  Potential exposures to attack are discussed in section 7
   of the DHCP protocol specification in RFC 2131 [1].

   This document introduces mechanisms to address several security
   attacks on the operation of IP address assignment, including IP
   spoofing, Client ID spoofing, MAC address spoofing, and DHCP server
   address exhaustion. It relies on an implied trusted relationship
   between the DHCP Relay Agent and the DHCP server, with an assumed
   untrusted DHCP client.  It introduces a new identifer, the "Remote
   ID", that is also assumed to be trusted. The Remote ID is provided by
   the access network or modem and not by client premise equipment.
   Cryptographic or other techniques to authenticate the remote ID are
   certainly possible and encouraged, but are beyond the scope of this
   document.




Expires April 1999                                             [Page 12]

<draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt>                  November 13, 1998


   Note that any future mechanisms for authenticating DHCP client to
   server communications must take care to omit the DHCP Relay Agent
   option from server authentication calculations. This was the
   principal reason for organizing the DHCP Relay Agent Option as a
   single option with sub-options, and for requiring the relay agent to
   remove the option before forwarding to the client.

6.0 IANA Considerations

   IANA is required to maintain a new number space of "DHCP Relay Agent
   Sub-options", with the initial sub-options as described in this
   document.

   IANA MUST assign future DHCP Relay Agent Sub-options with a "IETF
   Consensus" policy as described in RFC 2434 [3].  Future proposed
   sub-options MUST be referenced symbolically in the internet-drafts
   that describe them, and shall be assigned numeric codes by IANA when
   and if the draft is approved by IESG for Proposed Standard RFC
   status.


7.0 References

        [1]     Droms, R. "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol", RFC 2131,
                Bucknell University, March 1997.

        [2]     Alexander,S. and Droms, R., "DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor
                Extension"  RFC 2132.

        [3]     Narten,T. and Alvestrand, H. "Guidelines for Writing an
                IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 2434.

        [4]     Bradner, S. "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
                Levels", RFC 2119.


8.0 Glossary


           IANA    Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
           LIS     Logical IP Subnet
           MAC     Message Authentication Code
           RAS     Remote Access Server








Expires April 1999                                             [Page 13]

<draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt>                  November 13, 1998









9.0 Author's Address

               Michael Patrick
               Motorola Information Systems Group
               20 Cabot Blvd., MS M4-30
               Mansfield, MA 02048

               Phone: (508) 261-5707
               Email: mpatrick@dma.isg.mot.com



































Expires April 1999                                             [Page 14]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.111, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/