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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 RFC 3396

Network Working Group                                          Ted Lemon
Internet Draft                                             Nominum, Inc.
Obsoletes: draft-ietf-dhc-concat-03.txt                  Stuart Cheshire
Category: Standards Track                           Apple Computer, Inc.

                                                              July, 2002
                                                   Expires January, 2003

                   Encoding Long Options in DHCPv4
                    <draft-ietf-dhc-concat-04.txt>

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is subject to all provisions
   of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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Abstract

     This document specifies the processing rules for DHCPv4 options
     that appear multiple times in the same message.  Multiple
     instances of the same option are generated when an option exceeds
     255 octets in size (the maximum size of a single option) or when
     an option needs to be split apart in order to take advantage of
     DHCP option overloading.  When multiple instances of the same
     option appear in the options, file and/or sname fields in a DHCP
     packet, the contents of these options are concatenated together
     to form a single option prior to processing.

Introduction

     This document updates RFC2131 [1] by clarifying the rules for
     option concatenation specified in section 4.1.   It is expected
     that the reader will be familiar with this portion of RFC2131.
     The text in section 4.1 that reads "Options may appear only
     once, unless otherwise specified in the options document."
     should considered to be deleted.

     The DHCP protocol [1] specifies objects called "options" that
     are encoded in the DHCPv4 packet to pass information between

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     DHCP protocol agents.  These options are encoded as a one-byte
     type code, a one-byte length, and a buffer consisting of the
     number of bytes specified in the length, from zero to 255.

     In some cases it may be useful to send options that are
     longer than 255 bytes, however.  RFC2131 [1] specifies that when
     more than one option with a given type code appears in the DHCP
     packet, all such options should be concatenated together.   It
     does not, however, specify the order in which this concatenation
     should occur.

     We specify here the ordering that MUST be used by DHCP protocol
     agents when sending options with more than 255 bytes.  This
     method also MUST be used for splitting options that are shorter
     than 255 bytes, if for some reason the encoding agent needs to do
     so.  DHCP protocol agents MUST use this method whenever they
     receive a DHCP packet containing more than one of a certain type
     of option.

Terminology

     DHCP
        Throughout this document, the acronym "DHCP" is used to refer
        to the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol as specified in
        RFC2131 [1] and RFC2132 [2].
     DHCPv4
        We have used the term "DHCPv4" in the abstract for this
        document to distinguish between the DHCP protocol for IPv4 as
        defined in RFC2131 and RFC2132 and the DHCP protocol for IPv6,
        which, at the time that this document is being written, is
        still under development.
     DHCP protocol agents
        This refers to any device on the network that sends or
        receives DHCP packets - any DHCP client, server or relay
        agent.   The nature of these devices is not important to this
        specification.
     Encoding agent
        The DHCP protocol agent that is composing a DHCP packet to
        send.
     Decoding agent
        The DHCP protocol agent that is processing a DHCP packet it
        has received.
     Options
        DHCP options are collections of data with type codes that
        indicate how the options should be used.   Options can specify
        information that is required for the DHCP protocol,
        IP stack configuration parameters for the client, information
        allowing the client to rendezvous with DHCP servers, and so
        on.
     Option overload
        The DHCP packet format is based on the BOOTP packet format
        defined in RFC951 [4].   When used by DHCP protocol agents,
        BOOTP packets have three fields that can contain options.
        These are the optional parameters field, the sname field,

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        and the filename field.   The DHCP options specification [2]
        defines the DHCP Overload option, which specifies which of
        these three fields is actually being used in any given DHCP
        message to store DHCP options.

Requirements language

     In this document, the key words "MAY", "MUST, "MUST NOT",
     "OPTIONAL", "RECOMMENDED", "SHOULD", and "SHOULD NOT", are to be
     interpreted as described in RFC2119 [3].

Applicability

     This specification applies when a DHCP agent is encoding a
     packet containing options, and some of those options must be
     broken into parts.  This need can occur for two reasons.
     First, it can occur because the value of an option that needs
     to be sent is longer than 255 bytes.   In this case, the
     encoding agent MUST follow the algorithm specified here.
     It can also occur because there is not suff- icient space in
     the current output buffer to store the option, but there is
     space for part of the option, and there is space in another
     output buffer for the rest.   In this case, the encoding agent
     MUST either use this algorithm or not send the option at all.

     This specification also applies in any case where a DHCP
     protocol agent has received a DHCP packet that contains more
     than one instance of an option of a given type.   In this
     case, the agent MUST concatenate these separate instances of
     the same option in the way that we specify here.

     This option updates the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol [1]
     and DHCP Options and BOOTP vendor extensions [2] documents.
     However, because many currently-deployed DHCP protocol agents
     do not implement option concatenation, DHCP protocol agents
     should be careful not to transmit split options unless either
     it will not matter if the recipient cannot correctly reassemble
     the options, or it is certain that the recipient implements
     concatenation.

     Let us divide all DHCP options into two categories - those
     that, by definition, require implementation of the mechanisms
     defined in this document, and those that do not.   We will
     refer to the former as concatenation-requiring options, and
     the latter as non-concatenation-requiring options.   In order
     for an option to be a concatenation-requiring option, the
     protocol specification that defines that option must require
     implementation of option splitting and option concatenation
     as described in this document, by specifically referencing
     this document.

     A DHCP protocol agent SHOULD NOT split an option as described
     in this document unless at least one of these apply:

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        - The option is a concatenation-requiring option.
        - The message being generated is in response to a message
          containing a concatenation-requiring option.
        - The message being generated is in response to a message
          that requests a concatenation-requiring option.
        - The administrator of the agent generating the option has
          specifically configured it to assume that the recipient
          can correctly concatenate options split as described in
          this document.

     Some implementors may find it easiest to only split concatena-
     tion-requiring options, and never split non-concatenation-
     requiring options.  This is permissible.  However, an implement-
     ation which supports any concatenation-requiring option MUST be
     capable of concatenating received options for both concatena-
     tion-requiring and non-concatenation-requiring options.

     No restrictions apply to option concatenation when a DHCP agent
     receives a DHCP message.  Any DHCP protocol agent that implements
     the mechanisms described in this document can assume that when it
     receives two options of the same type, it should concatenate
     them.

The aggregate option buffer

     DHCP options can be stored in the DHCP packet in three separate
     portions of the packet.  These are the optional parameters field,
     the sname field, and the file field, as described in RFC2131 [1].
     This complicates the description of the option splitting
     mechanism because there are three separate fields into which
     split options may be placed.

     To further complicate matters, an option that doesn't fit into
     one field can't overlap the boundary into another field - the
     encoding agent must instead break the option into two parts and
     store one part in each buffer.

     To simplify this discussion, we will talk about an aggregate
     option buffer, which will be the aggregate of the three buffers.
     This is a logical aggregation - the buffers MUST appear in the
     locations in the DHCP packet described in RFC2131 [1].

     The aggregate option buffer is made up of the optional parameters
     field, the file field, and the sname field, in that order.
     WARNING: This is not the physical ordering of these fields in the
     DHCP packet.

     Options MUST NOT be stored in the aggregate option buffer in such
     in such a way that they cross either boundary between the three
     fields in the aggregate buffer.

     The encoding agent is free to choose to use either or both of the
     sname field and file field.   If the encoding agent does not choose
     to use either or both of these two fields, then they MUST NOT be

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     considered part of the aggregate option buffer in that case.

Encoding agent behavior

     Encoding agents decide to split options based on the reasons we
     have described in the preceding section entitled "applicability."

     Options can be split on any octet boundary.  No split portion of
     an option that has been split can contain more than 255 octets.
     The split portions of the option MUST be stored in the aggregate
     option buffer in sequential order - the first split portion MUST
     be stored first in the aggregate option buffer, then the second
     portion, and so on.  The encoding agent MUST NOT attempt to
     specify any semantic information based on how the option is
     split.

     Note that because the aggregate option buffer does not represent
     the physical ordering of the DHCP packet, if an option were split
     into three parts and each part went into one of the possible
     option fields, the first part would go into the optional
     parameters field, the second part would go into the file field,
     and the third part would go into the sname field.   This
     maintains consistency with section 4.1 of RFC2131 [1].

     Each split portion of an option MUST be stored in the aggregate
     option buffer as if it were a normal variable-length option as
     described in RFC2132 [2].   The length fields of each split portion
     of the option MUST add up to the total length of the option data.
     For any given option being split, the option code field in each
     split portion MUST be the same.

Decoding agent behavior

     When a decoding agent is scanning an incoming DHCP packet's
     option buffer and finds two or more options with the same option
     code, it MUST consider them to be split portions of an option as
     described in the preceding section.

     In the case that a decoding agent finds a split option, it MUST
     treat the contents of that option as a single option, and the
     contents MUST be reassembled in the order that was described above
     under encoding agent behavior.

     The decoding agent should ensure that when the option's
     value is used, any alignment issues that are particular to the
     machine architecture on which the decoding agent is running are
     accounted for - there is no requirement that the encoding agent
     align the options in any particular way.

     There is no semantic meaning to where an option is split - the
     encoding agent is free to split the option at any point, and the
     decoding agent MUST reassemble the split option parts into a
     single object, and MUST NOT treat each split portion of the option
     as a separate object.

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Example

     Consider an option, Bootfile name (option code 67), with a value
     of "/diskless/foo".  Normally, this would be encoded as a single
     option, as follows:

       +----+----+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
       | 67 | 13 | / | d | i | s | k | l | e | s | s | / | f | o | o |
       +----+----+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

     If an encoding agent needed to split the option in order to fit
     it into the option buffer, it could encode it as two separate
     options, as follows, and store it in the aggregate option buffer
     in the following sequence:

       +----+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
       | 67 | 7 | / | d | i | s | k | l | e |
       +----+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

       +----+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
       | 67 | 6 | s | s | / | f | o | o |
       +----+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

Security Considerations

     This document raises no new security issues.  Potential exposures
     to attack in the DHCP protocol are discussed in section 7 of the
     DHCP protocol specification [1] and in Authentication for DHCP
     Messages [5].

     Note that the authentication option itself can be split; in such
     cases implementations must be careful when setting the authenti-
     cation field to zero (prior to generation or verification of the
     MAC) as it may be split across multiple options.

References

 [1] Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol", RFC 2131,
     Bucknell University, March 1997.
 [2] Alexander, S. and Droms, R., "DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor
     Extensions", RFC 2132, Silicon Graphics, Inc., Bucknell
     University, March 1997.
 [3] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to indicate requirement
     levels", RFC 2119, Harvard University, March 1997.
 [4] Croft, W., Gilmore, J., "BOOTSTRAP PROTOCOL (BOOTP)", RFC951,
     Stanford University, Sun Microsystems, September 1985.
 [5] R. Droms, W. Arbaugh, "Authentication for DHCP Messages",
     RFC3118, Cisco Systems, University of Maryland, June 2001.

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Author Information

Ted Lemon
Nominum, Inc.
2385 Bay Road
Redwood City, CA 94043
USA
email: mellon@nominum.com

Stuart Cheshire
Apple Computer, Inc.
1 Infinite Loop
Cupertino
California 95014
USA
Phone: +1 408 974 3207
EMail: rfc@stuartcheshire.org

Expiration

   This document will expire on December 31, 2002.

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