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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 RFC 3736

Network Working Group                                           R. Droms
Internet-Draft                                             Cisco Systems
Expires: May 25, 2004                                  November 25, 2003


            A Guide to Implementing Stateless DHCPv6 Service
                 draft-ietf-dhc-dhcpv6-stateless-02.txt

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 25, 2004.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   Stateless DHCPv6 service is used by nodes to obtain configuration
   information such as the addresses of DNS recursive name servers that
   does not require the maintenance of any dynamic state for individual
   clients. A node that uses stateless DHCP must have obtained its IPv6
   addresses through some other mechanism, typically stateless address
   autoconfiguration. This document is a guide to the protocol messages
   and options that must be implemented to provide stateless DHCPv6
   service.

1. Introduction

   Nodes that have obtained IPv6 addresses through some other mechanism
   such as stateless address autoconfiguration [6] or manual



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   configuration can use stateless DHCPv6 to obtain other configuration
   information such as a list of DNS recursive name servers or SIP
   servers.  A stateless DHCPv6 server provides only configuration
   information to nodes and does not perform any address assignment.
   Such a server is called "stateless" because it need not maintain any
   dynamic state for individual clients.

   While the DHCPv6 specification [1] defines more than 10 protocol
   messages and 20 options, only a subset of those messages and options
   are required for stateless DHCPv6 service. This document gives
   guidelines about which messages and options are required for
   stateless DHCPv6 service. The intended use of the document is to
   guide the efficient and complete implementation of clients and
   servers that use stateless DHCPv6 service.

   The operation of relay agents is the same for stateless and stateful
   DHCPv6 service.  The operation of relay agents is described in the
   DHCPv6 specification.

   Section 4 of this document lists the sections of the DHCPv6 document
   that an implementor should read for an overview of the DHCPv6
   specification and the basic requirements of a DHCPv6 service. Section
   5 lists the specific messages and options that are specifically
   required for stateless DHCPv6 service.  Section 6 describes how
   stateless and stateful DHCPv6 servers interact to provide service to
   clients that require address assignment and clients that require only
   stateless service.

2. Terminology

   Throughout this document, "DHCP" refers to DHCP for IPv6.

   This document uses the terminology defined in RFC2460 [2], the DHCP
   specification [1] and the DHCP DNS configuration options
   specification [3].

   "Stateless DHCP" refers to the use of DHCP to provide configuration
   information to clients that does not require the server to maintain
   dynamic state about the DHCP clients.

3. Overview

   This document assumes that a node using stateless DHCP configuration
   is not using DHCP for address assignment, and that a node has
   determined at least a link-local address as described in section 5.3
   of RFC2461 [4]

   To obtain configuration parameters through stateless DHCP, a node



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   uses the DHCP Information-request message. DHCP servers respond to
   the node's message with a Reply message that carries configuration
   parameters for the node.  The Reply message from the server can carry
   configuration information such as a list of DNS recursive name
   servers [3] and SIP servers [5].

   This document does not apply to the function of DHCPv6 relay agents
   as described in RFC 3315. A network element can provide both DHCPv6
   server and DHCPv6 relay service.  For example, a network element can
   provide stateless DHCPv6 service to hosts requesting stateless DHCP
   service, while relaying messages from hosts requesting address
   assignment through DHCPv6 to another DHCPv6 server.

4. Basic Requirements for Implementation of DHCP

   Several sections of the DHCP specification provide background
   information or define parts of the specification that are common to
   all implementations:

   1-4:   give an introduction to DHCPv6 and an overview of DHCP message
      flows

   5:     defines constants used throughout the protocol specification

   6, 7:  illustrates the format of DHCP messages

   8:     describes the representation of Domain Names

   9:     defines the "DHCP unique identifier" (DUID)

   13-16: describe DHCP message transmission, retransmission and
      validation

   21:    describes authentication for DHCP


5. Implementation of Stateless DHCP

   The client indicates that it is requesting configuration information
   by sending an Information-request message that includes an Option
   Request option specifying the options that it wishes to receive from
   the DHCP server.  For example, if the client is attempting to obtain
   a list of DNS recursive name servers, it identifier the DNS Recursive
   Name Server option in the Information-request message. The server
   determines the appropriate configuration parameters for the client
   based on its configuration policies and responds with a Reply message
   containing the requested parameters.  In this example, the server
   would respond with DNS configuration parameters.



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   A node uses the Client Identifier option to identify itself to a
   server, because the server administrator may want to customize the
   server's response to each node, based on the node's identity.

   Whenever a client may have moved to a new link, the configuration
   parameters obtained for the interfaces on that link may no longer be
   appropriate for the link to which the client is attached.  Examples
   of times when a client may have moved to a new link include:

   o  The client reboots.

   o  The client is physically connected to a wired connection.

   o  The client returns from sleep mode.

   o  The client using a wireless technology changes access points.

   In any situation when a client may have moved to a new link, the
   client initiates an Information-request/Reply message exchange.

5.1 Messages Required for Stateless DHCP Service

   Clients and servers implement the following messages for stateless
   DHCP service; the section numbers in this list refer to the DHCPv6
   specification:

   Information-request: sent by a DHCP client to a server to request
      configuration parameters (sections 18.1.5 and 18.2.5)

   Reply:               sent by a DHCP server to a client containing
      configuration parameters (sections 18.2.6 and 18.2.8)

   In addition, servers and relay agents implement the following
   messages for stateless DHCP service; the section numbers in this list
   refer to the DHCPv6 specification:

   Relay-forward: Sent by a DHCP relay agent to carry the client message
      to a server (section 15.13)

   Relay-reply:   Sent by a DHCP server to carry a response message to
      the relay agent (section 15.14)


5.2 Options Required for Stateless DHCP Service

   Clients and servers implement the following options for stateless
   DHCP service; the section numbers in this list refer to the DHCPv6
   specification:



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   Option Request:    specifies the configuration information that the
      client is requesting from the server (section 22.7)

   Status Code:       used to indicate completion status or other status
      information (section 22.13)

   Server Identifier: used to identify the server responding to a client
      request (section 22.3)

   Servers and relay agents implement the following options for
   stateless DHCP service; the section numbers in this list refer to the
   DHCPv6 specification:

   Client message: Sent by a DHCP relay agent in a Relay-forward message
      to carry the client message to a server (section 20)

   Server message: Sent by a DHCP server in a Relay-reply message to
      carry a response message to the relay agent (section 20)

   Interface-ID:   Sent by the DHCP relay agent and returned by the
      server to identify the interface to use to forward a message to
      the client (section 22.18)


5.3 Options Used for Configuration Information

   Clients and servers use the following options to pass configuration
   information to clients; note that other options for configuration
   information may be specified in future Internet Standards:

   DNS Recursive Name Servers: specifies the DNS recursive name servers
      [7] the client uses for name resolution; see "DNS Configuration
      options for DHCPv6" [3]

   DNS search list:            specifies the domain names to be searched
      during name resolution; see "DNS Configuration options for DHCPv6"
      [3]

   SIP Servers:                specifies the SIP servers the client uses
      to obtain a list of domain names of IPv6 addresses that can be
      mapped to one or more SIP outbound proxy servers [5]


5.4 Other Options Used in Stateless DHCP

   Clients and servers may implement the following options for stateless
   DHCP service; the section numbers in this list refer to the DHCPv6
   specification:



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   Preference:     Sent by a DHCP server to indicate the preference
      level for the server (section 22.8)

   Elapsed time:   Sent by a DHCP client to indicate the time since the
      client began the DHCP configuration process (section 22.9)

   User Class:     Sent by a DHCP client to give additional information
      to the server for selecting configuration parameters for the
      client (section 22.15)

   Vendor Class:   Sent by a DHCP client to give additional information
      about the client vendor and hardware to the server for selecting
      configuration parameters for the client (section 22.16)

   Vendor-specific Information: Used to pass information to clients in
      options defined by vendors (section 22.17)

   Client Identifier: Sent by a DHCP client to identify itself (section
      22.2).  Clients are not required to send this option; servers send
      the option back if included in a message from a client

   Authentication: Used to provide authentication of DHCP messages
      (section 21)


6. Interaction with DHCP for Address Assignment

   In some networks, there may be both clients that are using stateless
   address autoconfiguration and DHCP for DNS configuration and clients
   that are using DHCP for stateful address configuration.  Depending on
   the deployment and configuration of relay agents, DHCP servers that
   are intended only for stateless configuration may receive messages
   from clients that are performing stateful address configuration.

   A DHCP server that is only able to provide stateless configuration
   information through an Information-request/Reply message exchange
   discards any other DHCP messages it receives. Specifically, the
   server discards any messages other than Information-Request or
   Relay-forward it receives, and the server does not participate in any
   stateful address configuration messages exchanges.  If there are
   other DHCP servers that are configured to provide stateful address
   assignment, one of those servers will provide the address assignment.

7. Security Considerations

   Stateless DHCPv6 service is a proper subset of the DHCPv6 service
   described in the DHCPv6 specification, RFC 3315. Therefore, stateless
   DHCPv6 service introduces no additional security considerations



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   beyond those discussed in sections 21, 22.11 and 23 of the DHCPv6
   specification.

   Configuration information provided to a node through stateless DHCPv6
   service may be used to mount spoofing, man-in-the-middle,
   denial-of-service and other attacks. These attacks are described in
   more detail in the specifications for each of the options that carry
   configuration information. Authenticated DHCPv6, as described in
   sections 21 and 22.11 of the DHCPv6 specification, can be used to
   avoid attacks mounted through the stateless DHCPv6 service.

8. Acknowledgments

   Jim Bound, Ted Lemon and Bernie Volz reviewed this document and
   contributed editorial suggestions.  Thanks to Peter Barany, Tim
   Chown, Christian Huitema, Tatuya Jinmei, Ted Lemon, Pekka Savola and
   Juha Wiljakka for their review and comments.

Normative References

   [1]  Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C. and M.
        Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)",
        RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [2]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6)
        Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

Informative References

   [3]  Droms, R., "DNS Configuration Options for DHCPv6",
        draft-ietf-dhc-dhcpv6-opt-dnsconfig-04 (work in progress),
        August 2003.

   [4]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E. and W. Simpson, "Neighbor Discovery for
        IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 2461, December 1998.

   [5]  Schulzrinne, H. and B. Volz, "Dynamic Host Configuration
        Protocol (DHCPv6) Options for Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
        Servers", RFC 3319, July 2003.

   [6]  Thomson, S. and T. Narten, "IPv6 Stateless Address
        Autoconfiguration", RFC 2462, December 1998.

   [7]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", STD
        13, RFC 1034, November 1987.






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Author's Address

   Ralph Droms
   Cisco Systems
   1414 Massachusetts Avenue
   Boxborough, MA  01719
   USA

   Phone: +1 978 497 4733
   EMail: rdroms@cisco.com









































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