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Versions: 00 01 02

Network Working Group                                       Andy Bennett
INTERNET-DRAFT                                               Bernie Volz
                                                        Process Software

                                                       Andrea Westerinen
                                                               Microsoft

                                                               June 1999
                                                   Expires December 1999


                          DHCP Schema for LDAP
                     <draft-ietf-dhc-schema-00.txt>

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999). All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document presents an LDAP schema to represent the configuration
   of the DHCP protocol within a TCP/IP network.  It can be used to
   represent the configuration(s) of an entire enterprise network, a
   subset of the network, or even a single server.






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1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   In places where different sets of terminology are commonly used to
   represent similar DHCP concepts, this schema uses the terminology of
   the Internet Software Consortium's DHCP server reference implementa-
   tion.  For more information see www.isc.org.

2.  Open Issues

   The following known issues are not (yet) resolved by this Internet-
   Draft.  These issues will be addressed in a future revision of this
   document.

   o This schema cannot represent a configuration where a DHCP server
     would use two (or more) pieces of information from the DHCPREQUEST
     packet to make decisions.  Examples of this include: (1) a lease-
     pool in a subnet that is class-specific (2) a client without a
     fixed address having different sets of options depending on which
     subnet it is booting on.  There are other examples like this.

   o This document does not thoroughly address the issue of how objects
     should be named.  Specifically, it does not identify the attribute
     on each object that should be used as a "relative distinguished
     name" (or "rdn") for generating a unique "distinguished name" (or
     "dn").

   o The attribute definitions need to be reviewed to make sure the syn-
     tax and datatypes are correct.  In some cases there are enumera-
     tions that may not be complete.

3.  Design Considerations

   Some of the design considerations for this schema were:

   o Heterogeneous server environment - This schema is not designed to
     represent the configuration of a specific DHCP server implementa-
     tion.  The intent of this schema is to provide a basic framework
     for the representation of the most common elements used in the con-
     figuration of DHCP.  This should allow other network services to
     obtain and use basic DHCP configuration information in a server-
     independent way.  Also note that it is highly unlikely that this
     schema will be able to represent every feature of every implementa-
     tion (and it is not intended to do so).  It is expected that some
     implementations may need to extend the schema objects in order to



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     fully implement all their features.

   o Relationship to DEN/DMTF - This document takes into consideration
     the object-oriented information model for representing Network
     information (including DHCP information) currently under develop-
     ment as part of the Common Information Model (CIM) activity in the
     Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF).  It should be noted that
     the CIM schema is still under development and subject to change.
     The DMTF efforts continue and draw upon the Directory-Enabled Net-
     works (DEN) specification.  The schema described in this Internet-
     Draft is intended to be an LDAP implementation of the appropriate
     objects in the DMTF model.  The DMTF schema was used as a source
     for defining certain terminology within this schema.  For more
     information see [DMTF] and [DEN].

   o Use of the schema - This draft does not define any "minimal compli-
     ance criteria" for using the schema.  It is recommended that you
     use the object classes defined in this draft if you are represent-
     ing DHCP configuration information in an LDAP directory.  Some
     implementations may choose not to support all of the objects
     defined here.  In particular, the following two decisions are
     explicitly left up to the implementation:

     - it is up to the implementation to determine whether or not the
       lease information will be stored in the directory.  Some imple-
       mentations may choose not to store this information.

     - it is up to the implementation to determine if the data in the
       directory is considered "authoritative", or if it is simply a
       copy of data from an authoritative source.

   o The schema is focused on the representation of configuration infor-
     mation.  It does not provide for the representation of statistical
     data, or historical lease data, only the current state of the DHC
     protocol's configuration.

   o The schema is designed to allow many of the dhcp configuration
     objects to be present anywhere in a directory hierarchy.  This was
     done to allow those objects to be placed in the directory for man-
     aging administrative control and access to the objects.  This
     includes objects like subnets, address ranges, services, clients,
     etc.  There are certain other objects which are assumed to be
     located under a "dhcpConfiguration" object (simply because it
     doesn't make sense for them to exist as a management object without
     being part of a dhcp configuration).






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4.  Object Class Descriptions

   This section of the document provides a high level description of the
   proposed object classes and how they relate to one another.  Also
   provided is a mapping to the CIM (Common Information Model) DHCP
   Schema defined by the DMTF.

4.1.  Configurations and Services

   The DHC working group is currently considering several proposals for
   failover and redundancy of DHCP servers.  These may require the shar-
   ing of configuration information between servers.  This schema pro-
   vides a generalized mechanism for supporting any of these proposals,
   by separating the definition of a server from the definition of the
   configuration being provided by the server.

   By separating these two concepts, a configuration may be provided by
   one or by several servers, and similarly, a server may provide one or
   more configurations. The schema does allow for a server to be config-
   ured as either a primary or secondary provider of a configuration.

   Configurations are also defined so that one configuration can include
   some of the objects that are defined in another configuration.  This
   allows for a hierarchy of related configuration items.

4.1.1.  dhcpConfiguration

   A "dhcpConfiguration" is the collection of configuration information
   that represents everything a server would need to know to provide DHC
   service to some set of clients.  From the perspective of an LDAP
   schema, it is basically a collection of objects.

   NAME                dhcpConfiguration
   DESCRIPTION         This represents a configuration, or a collection
                       of settings for related objects.  A single ser-
                       vice may have multiple configurations.  A config-
                       uration may be provided by multiple services, but
                       only one can be primary.
   TYPE                Structural
   DERIVED FROM        dhcpConfigurableObject
   POSSIBLE SUPERIORS  ( )
   MUST CONTAIN        ( dhcpConfigurationName )
   MAY CONTAIN         ( dhcpPrimaryService dhcpSecondaryService
                         dhcpParentConfiguration dhcpIncludeFromParent
                         dhcpLocator )






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4.1.1.1.  CIM Mapping

   The DMTF Schema defines a CIM_DHCPConfiguration object (derived from
   CIM_Configuration) that corresponds to dhcpConfiguration.  The CIM
   class has the following properties:
     - A Name string that is the object's key, and conceptually is a DN
     - Description and Caption strings
   The dhcpConfigurationName string is mapped into the CIM_DHCPConfigu-
   ration class' Name property, if it satisfies the uniqueness charac-
   teristics of CIM naming.  Otherwise, it should be mapped into the
   Caption property.

   The remainder of the dhcpConfiguration properties are mapped to asso-
   ciations in the DMTF Schema.  The correspondence is as follows:
     - dhcpPrimaryService and dhcpSecondaryService map to the CIM_Ser-
       viceForDHCPConfiguration association.  This association ties
       together a CIM_DHCPConfiguration and a CIM_DHCPService, and
       includes a boolean property to identify the PrimaryService.
     - dhcpParentConfiguration (subsetted by the dhcpIncludeFromParent
       property) is defined by instantiating various CIM_DHCPConfigura-
       tion objects and then grouping them using the CIM_Configura-
       tionComponent relationship. The aggregation in CIM defines the
       parts or components of the parent, as opposed to the LDAP DHCP
       Schema which defines the parent and then subsets it.

   The dhcpLocator property is unique to the LDAP Schema and has no CIM
   correspondence.

4.1.2.  dhcpService

   A "dhcpService" is a single instance of DHC server software running
   on a computer system that provides the DHCP service defined by a
   "dhcpConfiguration".

   NAME                dhcpService
   DESCRIPTION         This represents a single dhcp server.
   TYPE                Structural
   DERIVED FROM        Top
   POSSIBLE SUPERIORS  ( <Computer> )
   MUST CONTAIN        ( dhcpServiceName )
   MAY CONTAIN         ( dhcpConfiguration dhcpImplementation )

4.1.2.1.  CIM Mapping

   The DMTF Schema specifies a CIM_DHCPService object (derived from
   CIM_Service) that corresponds to dhcpService.  In CIM, Services are
   defined and named relative to the System that hosts them.  Therefore,
   the keys of CIM_DHCPService are defined as:



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     - The hosting System's CreationClassName (for example, CIM_Uni-
       taryComputerSystem) and Name.
     - The Service's CreationClassName (= "CIM_DHCPService") and Name.
   These string properties taken together form the object's key and con-
   ceptually are a DN.

   That CIM_DHCPService is named and scoped by a CIM_System is consis-
   tent with the definition of a <Computer> as a "possible superior" of
   dhcpService. In CIM, this relationship is described using the
   CIM_HostedService association.

   CIM_DHCPService also contains the following properties:
     - Description and Caption strings (inherited from CIM_ManagedSys-
       temElement)
     - ImplementationMatchingStrings, an array of strings
     - Numerous other properties defining runtime characteristics of the
       DHCP Service.  For example, whether or not the Service provides
       ProxyDNSSupport (a boolean) or the BootPLeaseLength (a uint32)
       are properties of CIM_DHCPService.
   The dhcpServiceName string can be mapped into the CIM_DHCPService
   class' Name property, if the uniqueness characteristics of CIM naming
   are satisfied.  Otherwise, it should be mapped into the Caption
   string.  And, the dhcpImplementation multi-valued string can be
   mapped into the ImplementationMatchingStrings property.

   The dhcpConfiguration property is mapped to an association, CIM_Ser-
   viceForDCHPConfiguration, in the DMTF Schema.  This association was
   explained above.

4.2.  Addresses and Collections of Addresses

   The schema provides several object classes for representing configu-
   ration information based on IP address(es).

4.2.1.  dhcpAddress

   This class represents a DHCP leaseable IP address. It may exist even
   though a lease is not currently active.













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   NAME                dhcpAddress
   DESCRIPTION         This class represents an IP Address, which may or
                       may not have been leased.
   TYPE                Structural
   DERIVED FROM        dhcpConfigurableObject
   POSSIBLE SUPERIORS  ( dhcpSubnet )
   MUST CONTAIN        ( dhcpIpAddress dhcpAddressType dhcpAddressState)
   MAY CONTAIN         ( dhcpDomainName dhcpLastTransactionTime
                         dhcpExpirationTime dhcpStartTimeOfState
                         dhcpRequestedHostName dhcpBootpFlag
                         dhcpAssignedHostName dhcpDnsStatus
                         dhcpReservedForClient dhcpAssignedToClient
                         dhcpRelayAgentInfo )

4.2.1.1.  CIM Mapping

   The DMTF Schema defines a CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint (a subclass of
   CIM_ProtocolEndpoint) that corresponds to the dhcpAddress class.
   However, in CIM, to obtain all the data for an IP address, one must
   examine several classes.  These are:
     - CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint containing lease specific information
     - CIM_IPProtocolEndpoint containing address specific data, such as
       address type and IP version support
     - CIM_EndpointIdentity, an association instantiated between the
       CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint and CIM_IPProtocolEndpoint, to tie
       together these different aspects of the same address
     - CIM_DHCPAddressAssignment, an association relating a CIM_DHCPAl-
       locatedEndpoint with a DHCP client

   Mapping the dhcpAddress properties into the DMTF Schema results in
   the following list:
     - dhcpIPAddress = CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint.Address string
     - dhcpAddressType = CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint.DHCPAddressType enu-
       meration
     - dhcpAddressState = CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint.AddressState enumer-
       ation
     - dhcpDomainName = CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint.DomainName string
     - dhcpLastTransactionTime = CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint.LastTransac-
       tionTime datetime
     - dhcpExpirationTime = CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint.Expiration date-
       time
     - dhcpStartTimeOfState = CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint.TimeOfLastState-
       Change datetime
     - dhcpRequestedHostName = CIM_DHCPAllocatedEnd-
       point.RequestedDNSName string
     - dhcpBootpFlag = CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint.BootPAddress boolean
     - dhcpAssignedHostName = CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint.AssignedDNSName
       string



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     - dhcpDnsStatus = CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint.DNSStatus enumeration
     - dhcpReservedForClient = An instance of the CIM_DHCPAddressAssign-
       ment association with the Reserved boolean set to TRUE
     - dhcpAssignedToClient = An instance of the CIM_DHCPAddressAssign-
       ment association indicating the current lease assignment
     - dhcpRelayAgentInfo = CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint.RelayAgent octet
       string

   To identify CIM_IPProtocolEndpoint or CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint
   instances, key (naming) properties are needed. Names are defined rel-
   ative to the System that hosts the Endpoints. So, the keys of any
   CIM_ProtocolEndpoint are specified as:
     - The hosting System's CreationClassName (for example, CIM_Uni-
       taryComputerSystem) and Name.
     - The ProtocolEndpoint's CreationClassName (= "CIM_IPProtocolEnd-
       point" or "CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint") and Name.
   These string properties taken together form the object's key and con-
   ceptually are a DN.

   Any instances of CIM_ProtocolEndpoints (or instances of its sub-
   classes) can be members of CIM_LogicalNetworks.  This is specified
   using the CIM_InLogicalNetwork association.  Using this association,
   one can relate  CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoints and CIM_IPProtocolEnd-
   points to a CIM_IPSubnet. The InLogicalNetwork association becomes
   the mapping for the dhcpSubnet "possible superior" relationship to
   dhcpAddress.

4.2.2.  dhcpRangeGroup

   A "dhcpRangeGroup" represents information about a group of addresses
   specified by one or more ranges of addresses.  If there are multiple
   ranges specified, they do not need to be contiguous, and it is not
   required that all the addresses be contained on the same IP subnet.

   NAME                dhcpRangeGroup
   DESCRIPTION         This stores configuration information about one
                       (or more) ranges of  addresses.
   TYPE                Structural
   DERIVED FROM        dhcpConfigurableObject
   POSSIBLE SUPERIORS  ( dhcpSubnet )
   MUST CONTAIN        ( dhcpAddressRange )
   MAY CONTAIN         ( )

4.2.2.1.  CIM Mapping

   Different than the LDAP schema, the DMTF Schema defines a CIM_IPAd-
   dressRange entity to uniquely identify and manipulate ranges.  The
   key properties of the class are its start and end addresses.



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   CIM_IPAddressRanges can be aggregated into CIM_RangeGroups using the
   CIM_CollectionOfRanges association.

   Regarding dhcpSubnet being a "possible superior" of dhcpRangeGroup,
   this is mapped in the DMTF Schema using the CIM_RangeGroupInSubnet
   aggregation association.

4.2.3.  dhcpSubnet

   A "dhcpSubnet" represents an IP subnet.

   NAME                dhcpSubnet
   DESCRIPTION         This class defines a subnet.
   TYPE                Structural
   DERIVED FROM        dhcpConfigurableObject
   POSSIBLE SUPERIORS  ( dhcpSubnet )
   MUST CONTAIN        ( dhcpIpAddress dhcpSubnetMaskLength)
   MAY CONTAIN         ( dhcpSubnetName dhcpSharedNetwork )

4.2.3.1.  CIM Mapping

   The DMTF Schema specifies a CIM_IPSubnet object (derived from
   CIM_LogicalNetwork) that corresponds to the dhcpSubnet class.  The
   property correspondence is as follows:
     - dhcpIpAddress = CIM_IPSubnet.SubnetNumber
     - dhcpSubnetMaskLength = (mapping is not 1 to 1 in that CIM_IPSub-
       net specifies the complete mask, as the SubnetMask property)
     - dhcpSubnetName = CIM_IPSubnet.Name, inherited from CIM_Logical-
       Network and part of the key structure for the class

   The dhcpSubnetName string can be mapped into the CIM_DHCPService
   class' Name  property, only if the uniqueness characteristics of CIM
   naming are satisfied.  Otherwise, it should be mapped into the Cap-
   tion property.

   Participation in a SharedNetwork (indicated by the dhcpSharedNetwork
   attribute in the LDAP Schema) is indicated by the CIM_SubnetInShared-
   Network aggregation.  This association would relate an instance of
   CIM_IPSubnet and an instance of CIM_SharedNetwork.

   Regarding dhcpSubnet being a "possible superior" of another Subnet,
   this is mapped in the DMTF Schema using the CIM_SubnetInSubnet aggre-
   gation association.

4.2.4.  dhcpSharedNetwork

   A "dhcpSharedNetwork" represents multiple subnets on the same physi-
   cal cabling.



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   NAME                dhcpSharedNetwork
   DESCRIPTION         A class represents multiple subnets on the same
                       physical cabling.
   TYPE                Structural
   DERIVED FROM        dhcpConfigurableObject
   POSSIBLE SUPERIORS  ( )
   MUST CONTAIN        ( )
   MAY CONTAIN         ( dhcpSharedNetworkName )

4.2.4.1.  CIM Mapping

   CIM_SharedNetwork (subclassed from CIM_CollectionOfMSEs) is defined
   in the DMTF Schema to correspond to the dhcpSharedNetwork class.  A
   property of the CIM_SharedNetwork class, Name (its key), maps the
   dhcpSharedNetworkName information. This mapping is allowed if the
   dhcpSharedNetworkName satisfies the uniqueness characteristics of CIM
   naming.  Otherwise, the Name data should be mapped into the
   CIM_SharedNetwork.Caption property, inherited from CIM_CollectionOfM-
   SEs.

4.3.  dhcpClass

   A "dhcpClass" represents information about a collection of clients.
   The DHC protocol provides 2 mechanisms for managing this information
   (User Class and Vendor Class).  The schema also provides 2 additional
   mechanisms for configuring groups of clients that are supported by
   some servers.  A "Client Group" is simply a list of clients that are
   in the specified class.  A "Client Class" is more dynamic - the class
   is defined by listing a set of "characteristics" that must be matched
   by a client in order to be associated with the class.  Each client
   has a list of its own characteristics and the members of the class
   are those clients whose characteristics match the class's selection
   criteria.

   NAME                dhcpClass
   DESCRIPTION         Represents information about a collection of
                       related clients.
   TYPE                Structural
   DERIVED FROM        dhcpConfigurableObject
   POSSIBLE SUPERIORS  ( dhcpConfiguration )
   MUST CONTAIN        ( dhcpClassName dhcpClassType )
   MAY CONTAIN         ( dhcpClassCharacteristics dhcpUserClass
                         dhcpVendorClass )

4.3.1.  CIM Mapping

   The DMTF Schema defines CIM_DHCPClientCollection (derived from
   CIM_CollectionOfMSEs) to correspond to dhcpClass. In the



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   CIM_DHCPClientCollection object, UserClass and VendorClass informa-
   tion is individually called out (addressing the DHC protocol mecha-
   nisms for determining a collection of clients).  Also, it is permis-
   sible to define other membership Characteristics, as well as to spec-
   ify explicit membership.  In CIM, properties can be left unde-
   fined/unspecified.  Therefore, if the UserClass, VendorClass or other
   Characteristics are not applicable, they can be left NULL (unde-
   fined).

   The mapping of properties from dhcpClass to CIM_DHCPClientCollection
   is straightforward.
     - dhcpClassName corresponds to the CIM_DHCPClientCollection's Name
       property ( if CIM naming requirements for uniqueness are met).
       Otherwise, dhcpClassName should be mapped into the Caption prop-
       erty, inherited from CIM_CollectionOfMSEs.
     - dhcpClassType is mapped to the CollectionType enumeration.
     - dhcpClassCharacteristics corresponds to the Characteristics
       string array property.
     - dhcpUserClass and dhcpVendorClass map to the UserClass and Ven-
       dorClass string arrays, respectively.

   Explicit membership by a client in a particular instance of CIM_DHCP-
   ClientCollection is specified using the CIM_DHCPEndpointCollection
   aggregation association.  (In the LDAP Schema, this is defined by
   placing the DN of the dhcpClass in the client's dhcpMemberOfGroup
   attribute.)  CIM_DHCPEndpointCollection is also useful when enumerat-
   ing the client members of a Collection, after evaluation of the User-
   Class, VendorClass and Characteristics requirements.

   Regarding dhcpConfiguration as a "possible superior" for dhcpClass,
   this is mapped in the DMTF Schema as an instance of the CIM_Collec-
   tionConfiguration association.  The association would be instantiated
   to reference the CIM_DHCPClientCollection and the appropriate
   CIM_DHCPConfiguration.

4.4.  dhcpNamedOptionSet

   A "dhcpNamedOptionSet" is an object class for associating a name with
   a collection of option settings.  The entire set of options can be
   associated with a dhcp object by referring to the name.  This allows
   a common set of option settings to be re-used without repeating the
   option settings on each configured object.









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   NAME                dhcpNamedOptionSet
   DESCRIPTION         This is a named collection of settings for
                       options and/or server parameters.
   TYPE                Structural
   DERIVED FROM        dhcpConfigurableObject
   POSSIBLE SUPERIORS  ( dhcpConfiguration )
   MUST CONTAIN        ( dhcpConfiguration dhcpOptionSetName )
   MAY CONTAIN         ( )

4.4.1.  CIM Mapping

   In the DMTF Schema, the CIM_DHCPOptionConfiguration object corre-
   sponds to the dhcpNamedOptionSet class. dhcpOptionSetName is mapped
   into the Name property (a key property) of the CIM class.  This is
   acceptable if dhcpOptionSetName meets CIM's requirements for unique-
   ness.  Otherwise, its data should be placed into the Caption prop-
   erty, inherited from CIM_Configuration.

   If the instance of CIM_DHCPOptionConfiguration is part of a higher
   level CIM_DHCPConfiguration, this is indicated by instantiating the
   CIM_ConfigurationComponent association and referencing both Configu-
   rations.

4.5.  dhcpClient

   The "dhcpClient" object class is used to store configuration informa-
   tion related to a specific host.  This is defined as an auxiliary
   class since it is assumed that many clients may also be defined in
   the directory as a Computer object (or some similar object class).
   These objects can be created to manage the configuration or they may
   also be created by a DHCP server in order to track lease information
   in conjunction with the dhcpAddress object.

   NAME                dhcpClient
   DESCRIPTION         This is an auxiliary class for indicating that an
                       object is a dhcp client.
   TYPE                Auxiliary
   DERIVED FROM        dhcpConfigurableObject
   POSSIBLE SUPERIORS  ( )
   MUST CONTAIN        ( dhcpClientIdentifier )
   MAY CONTAIN         ( dhcpUserClass dhcpVendorClass
                         dhcpAssignedAddress dhcpMemberOfGroup
                         dhcpCharacteristics dhcpCreatedByServer )

4.5.1.  CIM Mapping

   The DMTF Schema defines a CIM_DHCPClientEndpoint object (derived from
   CIM_ProtocolEndpoint) that corresponds to dhcpClient.  The CIM class



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   maps the LDAP Schema properties as follows:
     - dhcpClientIdentifier = DHCPClientID string
     - dhcpUserClass = UserClass string array
     - dhcpVendorClass = VendorClass string
     - dhcpCharacteristics = Characteristics string array
     - dhcpCreatedByServer = CreatedForUnlistedClient boolean

   The remainder of the dhcpClient properties are mapped to associations
   in the DMTF Schema.  The correspondence is as follows:
     - Information in dhcpAssignedAddress is mapped to the CIM_DHCPAd-
       dressAssignment association,  relating CIM_DHCPClientEndpoint and
       CIM_DHCPAllocatedEndpoint (as discussed in Section 3.2.1)
     - Information in dhcpMemberOfGroup is mapped to the CIM_DHCPEnd-
       pointCollection association, relating CIM_DHCPClientEndpoint and
       CIM_DHCPClientCollection (as discussed in Section 3.3

   To identify instances of CIM_DHCPClientEndpoint, key (naming) proper-
   ties are needed. Names are defined relative to the System that hosts
   the Endpoints. So, the keys of any CIM_ProtocolEndpoint are specified
   as:
     - The hosting System's CreationClassName (for example, CIM_Uni-
       taryComputerSystem) and Name,
     - The ProtocolEndpoint's CreationClassName (= "CIM_DHCPClientEnd-
       point") and Name.
   These string properties taken together form the object's key and con-
   ceptually are a DN.

4.6.  Dictionary Objects

   The schema provides several object classes which are used to define
   site-specific or implementation-specific customizations without
   requiring schema extensions.  This is done by defining a "dictionary"
   of the types of Options and Parameters.

4.6.1.  dhcpOptionDictionary

   "dhcpOptionDictionary" objects define the options that can be set
   when configuring various DHCP entities.













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   NAME                dhcpOptionDictionary
   DESCRIPTION         This class defines an option that can have a
                       value.
   TYPE                Structural
   DERIVED FROM        Top
   POSSIBLE SUPERIORS  ( dhcpConfiguration )
   MUST CONTAIN        ( dhcpConfigurationName dhcpOptionName
                         dhcpOptionTag dhcpDataType )
   MAY CONTAIN         ( dhcpMultiValued dhcpDefault dhcpVendorClass
                         dhcpDescription dhcpLegalValues
                         dhcpTypeRestriction )

4.6.1.1.  CIM Mapping

   The DMTF Schema defines a CIM_DHCPOptionDictionary object (derived
   from CIM_Setting) that corresponds to dhcpOptionDictionary.
   Instances of CIM_DHCPOptionDictionary may be grouped by CIM_DHCPCon-
   figurations using the CIM_SettingContext association.  This associa-
   tion aggregates one or more Settings into a Configuration, and corre-
   sponds to the definition of dhcpConfiguration as a "possible supe-
   rior" of dhcpOptionDictionary.  It also is the mapping for the dhcp-
   ConfigurationName string attribute.

   The property values of the CIM_DHCPOptionDictionary class map one-to-
   one to those of dhcpOptionDictionary. The explicit mapping is:
     - dhcpOptionName = OptionName string
     - dhcpOptionTag = OptionTag uint32
     - dhcpDataType = DataType enumeration
     - dhcpMultiValued = MultiValued boolean
     - dhcpDefault = DefaultValue octet string
     - dhcpVendorClass = VendorClass string
     - dhcpDescription = Description string, inherited from CIM_Setting
     - dhcpLegalValues = LegalValues octet string
     - dhcpTypeRestriction = RestrictedTo enumerated integer array

   To identify instances of CIM_DHCPOptionDictionary, one or more key
   (naming) properties are needed. The key of CIM_DHCPOptionDictionary
   is specified as its SettingID (a string). This property conceptually
   is a DN.

4.6.2.  dhcpParameterDictionary

   "dhcpParameterDictionary" objects define server parameters that can
   be defined to customize a server's behavior.







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   NAME                dhcpParameterDictionary
   DESCRIPTION         This class defines server parameters that can be
                       set to control the server behavior.
   TYPE                Structural
   DERIVED FROM        Top
   POSSIBLE SUPERIORS  ( dhcpConfiguration )
   MUST CONTAIN        ( dhcpConfigurationName dhcpParameterName
                         dhcpDataType )
   MAY CONTAIN         ( dhcpMultiValued dhcpDefault dhcpImplementation
                         dhcpDescription dhcpLegalValues
                         dhcpTypeRestriction )

4.6.2.1.  CIM Mapping

   The DMTF Schema defines a CIM_DHCPParameterDictionary object (derived
   from CIM_Setting) that corresponds to dhcpParameterDictionary.
   Instances of CIM_DHCPParameterDictionary may be grouped by CIM_DHCP-
   Configurations using the CIM_SettingContext association.  This asso-
   ciation aggregates one or more Settings into a Configuration, and
   corresponds to the definition of dhcpConfiguration as a "possible
   superior" of dhcpParameterDictionary.  It also is the mapping for the
   dhcpConfigurationName string attribute.

   The property values of the CIM_DHCPParameterDictionary class map one-
   to-one to those of dhcpParameterDictionary. The explicit mapping is:
     - dhcpParameterName = ParameterName string
     - dhcpDataType = DataType enumeration
     - dhcpMultiValued = MultiValued boolean
     - dhcpDefault = DefaultValue octet string
     - dhcpImplementation = ImplementationMatchingStrings string array
     - dhcpDescription = Description string, inherited from CIM_Setting
     - dhcpLegalValues = LegalValues octet string
     - dhcpTypeRestriction = RestrictedTo enumerated integer array

   To identify instances of CIM_DHCPParameterDictionary, one or more key
   (naming) properties are needed. The key of CIM_DHCParameterDictionary
   is specified as its SettingID (a string). This property conceptually
   is a DN.

4.7.  dhcpConfigurableObject

   Many of the object classes represent objects that are configurable
   within DHCP, and therefore have a common set of attributes.  Instead
   of repeating these throughout the schema on each class, we have
   defined an abstract class "dhcpConfigurableObject" where we define
   the basic, common set of attributes for configuring dhcp objects.
   Most of the other DHCP object classes are derived from this class.




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   NAME                dhcpConfigurableObject
   DESCRIPTION         An abstract class that provides attributes for
                       configuring options and server parameters for
                       various DHCP object classes.
   TYPE                Abstract
   DERIVED FROM        Top
   POSSIBLE SUPERIORS  ( )
   MUST CONTAIN        ( )
   MAY CONTAIN         ( dhcpOptionSetting dhcpParameterSetting
                         dhcpFieldSetting dhcpIncludeOptionSet
                         dhcpConfiguration dhcpForcedOptions )

4.7.1.  CIM Mapping

   The DMTF Schema maps the setting and parameter data in the dhcpCon-
   figurableObject class using instances of CIM_Setting classes and
   associations.

   The individual dhcpOption, Parameter and Field Settings are instances
   of the CIM_DHCPSetting class (derived from CIM_Setting).  The
   CIM_DHCPSetting class defines key properties and an octet string to
   hold the OptionData. The CIM_DHCPSetting instances are associated
   with the various subclasses of dhcpConfigurableObject using the
   CIM_ElementSetting, CIM_SettingContext or CIM_CollectionSetting rela-
   tionships. (Which association is used depends on the derivation of
   the dhcpConfigurableObject in the CIM class hierarchy.)

   The individual dhcpConfigurations and dhcpIncludeOptionSets are
   instances of the CIM_DHCPConfiguration class or of its subclass,
   CIM_DHCPOptionConfiguration (both classes were discussed earlier in
   this document).  The  CIM_DHCPConfiguration instances are associated
   with the various subclasses of dhcpConfigurableObject using the
   CIM_ElementConfiguration, CIM_ConfigurationComponent or CIM_Collec-
   tionConfiguration relationships. (As above, the association that to
   be used depends on the derivation of the dhcpConfigurableObject in
   the CIM class hierarchy.)

   dhcpForcedOptions is mapped to the CIM_DHCPForcedOptions class
   (derived from CIM_Setting).  CIM_DHCPForcedOptions defines key prop-
   erties and an integer array to hold the option tags being "forced".
   It is associated with the various subclasses of dhcpConfigurableOb-
   ject using the CIM_ElementSetting, CIM_SettingContext or CIM_Collec-
   tionSetting relationships. (As above, the association that is used
   depends on the derivation of the dhcpConfigurableObject in the CIM
   class hierarchy.)

   Since the CIM_DHCPSetting and CIM_DHCPForcedOptions classes were not
   discussed previously, a brief overview of their properties is needed.



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   Both classes contain only key properties for identification, plus one
   additional property in each object.  The CIM_DHCPSetting class has an
   octet string to hold the option, parameter or field data.  The
   CIM_DHCPForcedOptions class has an integer array holding option tags.

   The key properties of CIM_DHCPSetting and CIM_DHCPForcedOptions are:
     - ConfiguredObject, a string identifying the entity to which the
       Setting or ForcedOptions applies
     - SettingID, a string identifier for the instance
     - For CIM_DHCPSetting only, a SettingType enumerated integer defin-
       ing whether an option, parameter or field setting is specified.
   These string properties taken together form the objects' key and con-
   ceptually are a DN.

4.8.  Object Classes not defined in this schema

   There are some object classes which are not defined in this schema
   but we have assumed they exist in the directory.  A few in particular
   are worth mentioning: <Administrative Containers> is a general refer-
   ence to object classes that are present in most directories that are
   used for creating an administrative hierarchy to manage objects.
   Examples include Organization (O), OrganizationalUnit (OU), Country
   (C), etc.  Also, it is assumed that some type of object class is pre-
   sent for representing a computer, or computer system - this is
   referred to as <Computer> in some places in this document.

5.  Object Containment

   These diagrams depict the containment hierarchy of the objects:

   <Administrative-Container>
      |
      +---dhcpConfiguration
             |
             +---dhcpOptionDictionary
             |
             +---dhcpParameterDictionary
             |
             +---dhcpNamedOptionSet
             |
             +---dhcpClass










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   <Administrative-Container>
      |
      +---dhcpRangeGroup
      |
      +---dhcpSubnet
             |
             +---dhcpAddress


   <Computer>
      |
      +---dhcpService


6.  Object Class Inheritance

   The following diagram shows the inheritance hierarchy of the classes:

   Top
      |
      +---dhcpOptionDictionary
      |
      +---dhcpParameterDictionary
      |
      +---dhcpService
      |
      +---dhcpConfigurableObject
             |
             +---dhcpAddress
             |
             +---dhcpClass
             |
             +---dhcpClient
             |
             +---dhcpConfiguration
             |
             +---dhcpNamedOptionSet
             |
             +---dhcpRangeGroup
             |
             +---dhcpSharedNetwork
             |
             +---dhcpSubnet








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7.  Attribute Definitions

   These are the definitions of the attributes:

   NAME         dhcpAddressRange
   DESCRIPTION  The starting & ending IP Addresses in a range, separated
                by a hyphen.  Each range is defined as an independent
                string.
   SYNTAX       String MULTI-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpAddressState
   DESCRIPTION  This stores information about the current binding-status
                of an address, using the states defined in the safe-
                failover draft.  For more information see [FAILOVR].
   SYNTAX       Integer SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpAddressType
   DESCRIPTION  This describes how an address is to be assigned to a
                client.  There will be a limited set of values for this
                attribute.  For example: Unknown, Dynamic, Fixed, Unas-
                signed, Should Not Be Assigned.
   SYNTAX       Integer SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpAssignedAddress
   DESCRIPTION  The distinguished name of the dhcpAddress object which
                has been assigned to a client.
   SYNTAX       DN MULTI-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpAssignedHostName
   DESCRIPTION  This is the actual hostname that was assigned to a
                client. It may not be the name that was requested by the
                client.  The fully qualified domain name can be deter-
                mined by appending the value of "dhcpDomainName" (with a
                dot separator) to this name.
   SYNTAX       String SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpAssignedToClient
   DESCRIPTION  This is the distinguished name of a "dhcpClient" that an
                address is currently assigned to.  This only has a value
                when the address is leased.
   SYNTAX       DN SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpBootpFlag
   DESCRIPTION  This indicates whether an address is assigned via BOOTP
   SYNTAX       Boolean SINGLE-VALUE






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   NAME         dhcpCharacteristics
   DESCRIPTION  This is a list of characteristics for a client that can
                be used to determine if the client is a member of any of
                the defined dhcpClass(es) of type "ClientClass".  Mem-
                bership is defined by comparison of the client's
                dhcpCharacteristics attribute with the dhcpClassCharac-
                teristics attribute of dhcpClass.
   SYNTAX       String MULTI-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpClassCharacteristics
   DESCRIPTION  This is a set of characteristics for a dhcpClass object
                that should be matched by a client in order to be con-
                sidered a member of the class. If there is more than one
                characteristic specified then they must all be matched.
                A client's dhcpCharacteristics are found in the dhcp-
                Client class.
   SYNTAX       String MULTI-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpClassName
   DESCRIPTION  The name of a dhcpClass.
   SYNTAX       String SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpClassType
   DESCRIPTION  This is the type of a dhcpClass.  One of: VendorClass,
                UserClass, ClientGroup, ClientClass, Combination.  A
                ClientGroup is an enumerated list of clients (see the
                dhcpMemberOfGroup attribute in dhcpClient class).  A
                ClientClass is dynamic - membership in the class is
                determined by matching dhcpCharacteristics of a client
                with match criteria specified by the class (using the
                dhcpClassCharacteristics attribute).
   SYNTAX       Integer SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpClientIdentifier
   DESCRIPTION  The DHCP client identifier used by the configuration to
                identify a client.  This is either the MAC address (pre-
                fixed with the media type) or the DHCP client identifier
                for the client.
   SYNTAX       String SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpConfiguration
   DESCRIPTION  The distinguished name(s) of the configurations provided
                by a server.
   SYNTAX       DN MULTI-VALUE







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   NAME         dhcpConfigurationName
   DESCRIPTION  The name of the configuration that contains this object.
   SYNTAX       String SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpCreatedByServer
   DESCRIPTION  This attribute indicates if an object was created by the
                DHCP server (and can therefore be removed by the server
                when it is no longer needed).  This can be applied to
                dhcpClient objects that are created for the life of a
                lease to record additional information beyond what is
                recorded in the dhcpAddress object.  If the attribute
                has no value it is assumed to be FALSE.
   SYNTAX       Boolean SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpDataType
   DESCRIPTION  The data type for values of this option.  The set of
                valid data types are defined by the DHCP protocol.  For
                more information see [RFC2131].
   SYNTAX       Integer SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpDefault
   DESCRIPTION  Indicates the default value of a parameter or option
                definition in a dictionary object.  This is encoded the
                same way as the parameter or option value would be set
                in the dhcpConfigurableObject object class.
   SYNTAX       OctetString SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpDescription
   DESCRIPTION  A textual description of an object.
   SYNTAX       String SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpDnsStatus
   DESCRIPTION  This indicates which resource records were added to the
                domain on behalf of the client by the dhcp server.  The
                allowed values are: "No DNS Activity", "Update A
                Records", "Update PTR Records", and "Update Both A and
                PTR Records"
   SYNTAX       Integer SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpDomainName
   DESCRIPTION  This is the name of the domain assigned to a client by
                the server.
   SYNTAX       String SINGLE-VALUE








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   NAME         dhcpExpirationTime
   DESCRIPTION  This is the time the current lease for an address
                expires.
   SYNTAX       DateTime SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpFieldSetting
   DESCRIPTION  Encoded settings of fields (such as siaddr, file) in the
                DHCP message whose values may be configurable for send-
                ing back to a client.  For more information see
                [RFC951].  Encoded in the form (FieldName, FieldValue).
   SYNTAX       OctetString MULTI-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpForcedOptions
   DESCRIPTION  This is a list of dhcp option tags that MUST be sent to
                clients.  If not specified, the server only sends the
                options back to the client which were requested.
   SYNTAX       Integer MULTI-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpImplementation
   DESCRIPTION  If this is a dictionary object that only applies to cer-
                tain server implementations these are the implementa-
                tion(s) that it applies to.
   SYNTAX       String MULTI-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpIncludeFromParent
   DESCRIPTION  This attribute defines the type of objects that should
                be included from the parent configuration.  It is lim-
                ited to the following values: OptionDictionary, Parame-
                terDictionary, GlobalOptions, NamedOptionSets, Classes,
                Characteristics.
   SYNTAX       Integer MULTI-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpIncludeOptionSet
   DESCRIPTION  The name(s) of dhcpNamedOptionSet objects whose settings
                should be included for this object.  If there are multi-
                ple values the order in which the option sets are
                checked is important so each value is preceded by it's
                precedence, followed by a colon as in "1:name1",
                "2:name2", etc.  Any optionSettings defined locally on
                this object take precedence over any settings found in a
                named option set.
   SYNTAX       String MULTI-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpIpAddress
   DESCRIPTION  A DHCP leasable IP address.
   SYNTAX       String SINGLE-VALUE





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   NAME         dhcpLastTransactionTime
   DESCRIPTION  This is the last time a valid DHCP packet was received
                from a client.
   SYNTAX       DateTime SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpLegalValues
   DESCRIPTION  The list of allowed values for a dictionary entry (such
                as an option definition or parameter definition).
   SYNTAX       OctetString MULTI-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpLocator
   DESCRIPTION  This attribute defines the objects that are included in
                a configuration.  Each value is an LdapURL [RFC2255]
                (specifying search criteria) that is evaluated to find
                other objects that are included in this configuration.
                Note that in addition to these objects, all objects
                located "under" the configuration object in the direc-
                tory are also automatically include in the configura-
                tion.
   SYNTAX       String MULTI-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpMemberOfGroup
   DESCRIPTION  This is a list of distinguished names for any dhcp-
                Class(es) to which a client belongs.
   SYNTAX       DN MULTI-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpMultiValued
   DESCRIPTION  Indicates whether a parameter or option can have more
                than one value.
   SYNTAX       Boolean SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpOptionName
   DESCRIPTION  The name of a option.
   SYNTAX       String SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpOptionSetName
   DESCRIPTION  This is the name of a "Named Option Set" (see dhcpName-
                dOptionSet class).
   SYNTAX       String SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpOptionSetting
   DESCRIPTION  Encoded option values to be sent to clients.  Each value
                represents a single option and contains (OptionTag,
                Length, OptionValue) stored in the 16-bit format used by
                the dhcp protocol.  For more information see [DHCPOPT].
   SYNTAX       OctetString MULTI-VALUE





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   NAME         dhcpOptionTag
   DESCRIPTION  The numeric tag that identifies an option.
   SYNTAX       Integer SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpParameterName
   DESCRIPTION  The name of a parameter.
   SYNTAX       String SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpParameterSetting
   DESCRIPTION  Encoded values of parameters that control server behav-
                ior.  Each value represents a single parameter setting
                in the form (ParameterName, ParameterValue).
   SYNTAX       OctetString MULTI-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpParentConfiguration
   DESCRIPTION  This is the distininguished name of a "dhcpConfigura-
                tion" object.  When this is set some of the parent con-
                figuration's objects may be referenced in this configu-
                ration.  This allows for an administrative hierarchy of
                related configurations.
   SYNTAX       DN SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpPrimaryService
   DESCRIPTION  The "dhcpService" which is the primary for a configura-
                tion.
   SYNTAX       DN SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpRelayAgentInfo
   DESCRIPTION  If the client request was received via a relay agent,
                this attribute contains information about the relay
                agent that was available from the DHCP request.  This is
                a hex-encoded option value.  For more information see
                [RELAY].
   SYNTAX       OctetString SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpRequestedHostName
   DESCRIPTION  This is the hostname that was requested by a client.
   SYNTAX       String SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpReservedForClient
   DESCRIPTION  This is the distinguished name of a "dhcpClient" that an
                address is reserved for.  This may not be the same as
                the "dhcpAssignedToClient" attribute if the address is
                being reassigned but the current lease has not yet
                expired.
   SYNTAX       DN SINGLE-VALUE





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   NAME         dhcpSecondaryService
   DESCRIPTION  The "dhcpService(s)" which provide backup for a configu-
                ration.
   SYNTAX       DN MULTI-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpServiceName
   DESCRIPTION  The name of a server (aka dhcpService).
   SYNTAX       String SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpSharedNetwork
   DESCRIPTION  A unique identifier for a shcpSharedNetwork that this
                subnet may be part of.  This is the distinguished name
                of an object which represents the shared-network.
   SYNTAX       DN SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpSharedNetworkName
   DESCRIPTION  The name of a shared network.
   SYNTAX       String SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpStartTimeOfState
   DESCRIPTION  This is the time of the last state change for a leased
                address.
   SYNTAX       DateTime SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpSubnetMaskLength
   DESCRIPTION  The subnet mask length for a subnet.  The actual mask
                can be easily computed from this length.
   SYNTAX       Integer SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpSubnetName
   DESCRIPTION  A descriptive name of a subnet.
   SYNTAX       String SINGLE-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpTypeRestriction
   DESCRIPTION  This attribute is used to specify that an option or
                parameter (see dictionary objects) should only be used
                with specific types of objects.  If not defined, the
                option/parameter can be used on any object.  Values
                should be one of: Any, Other, Address, Class, Client,
                Configuration, RangeGroup, SharedNetwork, Subnet.
   SYNTAX       Integer MULTI-VALUE

   NAME         dhcpUserClass
   DESCRIPTION  The DHCP user class associated with a client.
   SYNTAX       String MULTI-VALUE






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   NAME         dhcpVendorClass
   DESCRIPTION  The DHCP vendor class associated with a client.
   SYNTAX       String SINGLE-VALUE

8.  References

   [RFC2131] Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol", RFC 2131,
             March 1997.

   [RFC2132] Alexander, S., Droms, R., "DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor
             Extensions", RFC 2132, March 1997.

   [DMTF]    Distributed Management Task Force, "Common Information
             Model (CIM) Specification", Version 2.0, Mar 1998.

   [DEN]     Strassner, J., "Directory-Enabled Networks, Information
             Model and Base Schema", DEN Specification v3.0c, July 1998.

   [MSDHCP]  Gu, Y., Vyaghrapuri, R., "An LDAP Schema for Dynamic Host
             Configuration Protocol Service", Internet Draft
             <draft-gu-dhcp-ldap-schema-00.txt>, August 1998.

   [NOVDHCP] Miller, T., Patel, A., Rao, P., "Lightweight Directory
             Access Protocol (v3): Schema for Dynamic Host Configuration
             Protocol (DHCP)", Internet Draft
             <draft-miller-dhcp-ldap-schema-00.txt>, June 1998.

   [FAILOVR] Droms, R., Rabil, G., Dooley, M., Kapur, A., Gonczi, S.,
             Volz, B., "DHCP Failover Protocol", Internet Draft
             <draft-ietf-dhc-failover-03.txt>, November 1998.

   [RELAY]   Patrick, M., "DHCP Relay Agent Information Option", Inter-
             net Draft <draft-ietf-dhc-agent-options-05.txt>, November
             1998.

   [DHCPOPT] Carney, M., "New Option Review Guidelines and Additional
             Option Namespace", Internet Draft
             <draft-ietf-dhc-option_review_and_namespace-00.txt>, June
             1999.

   [RFC2251] Wahl, M., Howes, T., Kille, S., "Lightweight Directory
             Access Protocol (v3)", RFC 2251, December 1997.

   [RFC2255] Howes, T., Smith, M., "The LDAP URL Format", RFC 2255,
             December 1997.

   [RFC951]  Croft, B., Gilmore, J., "Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)", RFC
             951, September 1985.



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   [RFC2119] Bradner, S. "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Require-
             ment Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.

9.  Acknowledgements

      This document is closely aligned with the work being done in the
      Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) Networks working group.

      Design ideas included in this document are primarily based on dis-
      cussions during two meetings with some members of the IETF DHC
      Working Group and the DMTF Networks working group.  The contribu-
      tions of these individuals is gratefully acknowledged.

      Special thanks to Lee Rafalow, Steve Gonczi, Steve Chirokas, Kim
      Kinnear, Ellen Stokes, Tom Miller, Ye Gu, Glenn Waters, Mike Car-
      ney, Ralph Droms, Greg Rabil and Steve Bazyl for their contribu-
      tions.

      Thanks also to Ester Burwell, Andy Sudduth, Fred Hunter, Paul Rai-
      son, Josh Littlefield, Peter Heitman, Neil Russell and Linda Scobo
      for their participation in these meetings.

10.  Author information

      Andy Bennett
      Bernie Volz
      Process Software Corporation
      959 Concord St.
      Framingham, MA 01701
      Phone: (508) 879-6994
      Email: bennett@process.com
      Email: volz@process.com

      Andrea Westerinen
      Microsoft Corporation
      One Microsoft Way
      Redmond, WA  98052
      Phone:  +1 425-705-2553
      Email:  andreawe@microsoft.com

11.  Full Copyright Statement

      Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999). All Rights Reserved.

      This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished
      to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise
      explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared,
      copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without



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      restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice
      and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative
      works.  However, this document itself may not be modified in any
      way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references to the
      Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed
      for the  purpose of developing Internet standards in which case
      the procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards
      process must be followed, or as required to translate it into lan-
      guages other than English.

      The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not
      be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

      This document and the information contained herein is provided on
      an "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGI-
      NEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
      INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
      INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
      WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
































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