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Versions: (draft-johnson-dhc-subnet-alloc) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 RFC 6656

Internet Engineering Task Force                               R. Johnson
Internet Draft                                            Jay Kumarasamy
Expiration: August 2003                                      Kim Kinnear
File: draft-ietf-dhc-subnet-alloc-00.txt                      Mark Stapp
                                                     Cisco Systems, Inc.



                      Subnet Allocation using DHCP
                  <draft-ietf-dhc-subnet-alloc-00.txt>

                           February 20, 2002


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress".

      The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
      http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

      The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
      http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2002).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document defines a new DHCP option which is passed between the
   DHCP Client to the DHCP Server to request dynamic allocation of a
   subnet, give specifications of subnet(s) allocated, and report usage
   statistics.






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1.0 Introduction

   There is a need for a DHCP Client to be able to allocate a subnet
   from a DHCP Server.  Alternate methods of allocation, such as AAA are
   not appropriate for various reasons and the most straight-forward way
   to accomplish this allocation is via DHCP.  A DHCP option to support
   this may be utilized by a simple Dialin Aggregation box, or even to
   implement a Hierarchical chain of DHCP Servers, each one in turn
   leasing one or more subnets to the next DHCP Server down the chain.

   This new DHCP option [2], the Subnet Allocation option is specified
   in such a way as to use one DHCP Option number, while using suboption
   numbers for each function.  The Subnet-Request suboption tells what
   types of subnets are needed and how many.  The "Subnet Information"
   suboption gives the actual subnet number(s) and allows for extra
   flags to convey additional information about each subnet.  The
   "Subnet Name" suboption allows a method of passing additional
   information about the requested subnet(s), such as department name,
   user name, customer number, etc.  The DHCP Server has the option of
   not supplying all subnets requested or even returning smaller subnets
   than was requested.  The "Subnet Usage Statistics" suboption is used
   to report usage information from the DHCP Client back to the DHCP
   Server.


1.1 Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY" and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [3].

   This document also uses the following terms:

      "DHCP Client"

         DHCP Client or "Client" is an Internet host using DHCP to
         obtain configuration parameters such as a network address.

      "DHCP Server"

         A DHCP Server or "Server" is an Internet host that returns
         configuration parameters to DHCP Clients.









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2.0 Option Formats:


   2.1 Subnet Allocation Option Format:

   0                   1                   2
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Code      |     Len       |     Flags     | Suboptions ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Code  = Subnet Allocation option code (1 octet) TBD (220 currently)

   Len   = length of the entire option including all sub-options and
           excluding the "Code" and "Len" fields above (1 octet)

   Flags = Various flags:  (None currently defined)



   One or more sub-options may be specified as described below.



2.2 Subnet Request suboption format:


   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       1       |     Len       |     Flags |i|h|    Prefix     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Len     = length of the suboption excluding the subcode and Len
             fields
                       (1 octet)

   Flags   = Flags field.  (all unused bits MBZ)
             "h" = "1" = Client will be allocating addresses from this
                         subnet.
                   "0" = Client will be relaying DHCP requests to the
                         Server from this subnet.
             "i" = "1" = Client is seeking information about previously
                         allocated subnets.
                   "0" = Client is seeking a new subnet allocation.




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   Prefix  = size of the subnet needed [4] (number of bits in subnet
             prefix)
                       (zero (0) means no suggested size is given)
                       (1 octet)


   The DHCP Server SHOULD NOT include the Subnet Request suboption in
   any replies to the DHCP Client.  Enough information will be present
   in the Subnet Information suboption, such that the Subnet Request
   suboption qis not needed in replies to the Client.

   The DHCP Server SHOULD allocate a subnet with prefix size less than
   or equal to the size P specified in the request.  In other words, a
   subnet at least the size requested and possibly bigger.

   A size P of zero (0) MAY be specified by the DHCP Client.  In this
   case, no suggested size is given and the Server is free to return
   subnet(s) of whatever size is deemed appropriate by the Server.

   Multiple Subnet Request suboptions in a DHCP packet indicate that
   multiple sizes of subnets are being requested.

   Each Subnet Request suboption MUST result in no more than one (1)
   Subnet Information suboption in the DHCP OFFER message from the
   Server, and may result in zero (0) Subnet Information suboptions.

   The Client MAY also include the Subnet Information suboption
   (described below) in order to request a particular subnet.  In this
   case, the Client SHOULD only include one (1) Subnet Request
   suboption, since it would otherwise be unclear which Subnet
   Information suboption refered to which Subnet Request suboption.
   Multiple subnet requests can be made by sending multiple DHCP
   DISCOVER packets.

   Setting the "h" flag to "1" indicates the Client will be allocating
   addresses from the allocated subnet(s) itself.  This can be thought
   of as a "Hierarchial DHCP" design in that control of allocation for
   the subnet(s) will be passed to the Client.

   Setting the "h" flag to "0" indicates the Client wants the DHCP
   Server to retain control over allocation of addresses from the
   subnet(s).  In this case, the Server should simply mark the subnet(s)
   as "used" by this Client and not return the subnet(s) in any Subnet
   Information suboptions to any other client.  (Any address allocation
   requests on the subnet will be relayed back to the DHCP Server.)

   Setting the "i" flag to "1" indicates the Client is NOT seeking
   allocation of any subnets, but is simply seeking information from the



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   Server as to what subnet(s) have been allocated (or reserved) for
   this Client.  If the "i" flag is set to "1", then the "P" field
   SHOULD be set to "0" and MUST be ignored by the Server.
















































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2.3 Subnet Information suboption format:


   0                   1                   2
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       2       |     Len       | Flags     |c|s| SP1, SP2, ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Len     = length of the sub-option excluding the Subcode and Len
             fields (1 octet)

   Flags   = Various flags which apply to ALL Subnet Prefix Information
             fields specified in this suboption
             "c" = Client flag (explained below)
             "s" = Server flag (explained below)

   SP1,SP2 = Subnet Prefix information as specified below (variable
             sized)




   The "Client flag" ("c") is set to "1" if this Subnet Information
   suboption is in response to a Client request for information from the
   Server as to what subnet(s) have been allocated.  This flag is only
   used in response to a Subnet Request suboption with the "i" flag set
   and should be zero (0) otherwise.

   The "Server flag" ("s") is set to "1" if the Server has additional
   subnet information for the Client.



















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2.4 Subnet Prefix Information suboption Format:


   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Address                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Prefix     |     Flags |h|d|   Stat-len    |  Optional statistics...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Addr     = IPv4 address (4 octets)

   Prefix   = specifying number of prefix bits in the subnet (1 octet)

   Flags    = flags field  (Undefined bits must be zero) (1 octet)
              "d" = "1" = Deprecate this subnet
              "h" = "1" = Client will be allocating addresses from this
                          subnet.
                    "0" = Client will be relaying DHCP requests to the
                          Server from this subnet.

   Stat-len = length of the optional statistics information field



   Subnet Prefix suboption format:

   The "d" flag may only be returned by the Server to the Client.  It's
   presensce means that the Client should prepare to give up the subnet.
   For example, if the Client is assigning addresses from this subnet to
   other clients, it should cease doing so immediately and should not
   renew any leases when client's ask for renewal.  As soon as all
   addresses in the subnet are unallocated, the Client should send a
   DHCP RELEASE message to the Server, including a Subnet Prefix
   Information suboption for the subnet in order to release the Subnet.
   The format of this message is described below.

   The "h" flag tells the Client how the Server intends the Client to
   use the allocated subnet.  It is interpreted in the same manner as
   that in the Subnet Request suboption.  In response to a Subnet
   Request, the Server should normally specify the "h" flag in the same
   mannor was it was in the Subnet Request suboption from the Client.
   The Server MAY, however, change the "h" flag from that specified in
   the Subnet Request suboption if it has been configured to override
   the Client's request.




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   If any usage statistics information is to be included, then the
   "Stat-len" field specifies the number of bytes of statistics
   information which is included.  See below for more information.  If
   no statistics information is included, then this byte MUST be zero.



2.4.1 Subnet Usage Statistics


   The Subnet Information suboption may also include usage statistics
   information.  If this information is included, then the "Stat-len"
   (Statistics length) field MUST be set to the number of bytes of
   statistics information which is being included.  The statistics
   information MUST be in the following form and order:


   0                   1
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           High water          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Currently in use      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Unusable            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   "High water" refers the to "high water mark" of allocated addresses
   within the subnet.

   "Currently in use" refers to the number of addresses currently
   allocated in the subnet.

   "Unusable" refers to the number of addresses which are currently
   unusable for any reason (such as a client returning a DHCP DECLINE,
   or finding the address already in use).

   Additional statistics may be added to this option in the future.  If
   so, they MUST be appended to the end of the option.  All statistics
   fields MUST remain in the same order.  Use the all ones value
   (0xFFFF) in order to skip reporting a number for a particular field.
   Fewer fields may be included than what is specified in any current
   RFC, but all fields which are included MUST remain in order specifed
   here.






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2.5 Subnet Name suboption format:

   0                   1
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       3       |     Len       | Name ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Len   = length of the sub-option excluding the Subcode and Len fields
           (1 octet)



   The Subnet Name suboption may be used in order to pass a subnet name
   to the server for use during allocation.  This name may be used for
   any purpose but is intended to tell the server something extra about
   the needed subnet; for example, "sales department", "customer 1002",
   "address pool FOO", or some such.  The "name" should NOT be NULL
   terminated since the "len" field already specifies the length of the
   name.






























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2.6 Subnet Suggested Lease time suboption format:

   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       4       |     Len (4)   |       t1      |       t2      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       t3      |       t4      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Len   = length of the sub-option excluding the Subcode and Len fields
           (always 4 for this suboption) (1 octet)



   The Subnet Suggested Lease Time suboption MAY be included by the
   Server in order to suggest the lease time to be used by the Client
   when allocating addresses from the subnet allocated.  The four (4)
   octet value of the lease time is in the same format as that of the
   "IP Address Lease Time" option (option 51), as described in [2].

   If included, this suboption may appear only once.  (Multiple such
   suboptions would make things ambiguous as to which applied to which
   subnet.)  If different suggested lease times are needed, the Server
   SHOULD, instead, reply with only one offered subnet and should set
   the "Server flag" in the Subnet Information suboption to indicate to
   the Client that it should send another subnet request to gather the
   others.

   If this suboption is not included, the Client is free to use whatever
   lease time it wants for addresses allocated from this subnet.

   In all cases, the Client should, at each address allocation time, use
   a lease time which is the lesser of the remaining lease time of the
   subnet itself and the Server Suggested Lease Time suboption.




3.0 Requesting allocation of a subnet


   3.1 Client DISCOVER message

      The DHCP Client creates a DHCP DISCOVER message including the
      Subnet Allocation option, and its set of suboptions, to request
      allocation of a subnet.  The DHCP Client should include the Subnet



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      Request suboption, specifying the prefix size of the subnet
      requested.  The "h" bit should be set to "1" if the Client intends
      to control allocation of addresses within the subnet itself, or
      "0" if the Server should retain control of addresses within the
      subnet.  More than one Subnet Allocation option may appear in a
      DHCP DISCOVER message, however the client SHOULD limit the number
      of requests, noting that the DHCP replies will need to include the
      Subnet Information suboption, which takes up more space.

      If more than one subnet size is being requested, multiple Subnet
      Request suboptions MAY be included or multiple DHCP DISCOVER
      messages MAY be sent instead.  The prefix size field of each
      Subnet Request suboption MUST be either zero (0), or in the range
      of 1 to 30 inclusive.

      The DHCP "IP address lease time" option (code 51) MAY be included
      in the DHCP DISCOVER message to specify the lease time the Client
      is requesting.  If not present, no suggested lease time is given.

      The DHCP "Client ID" option (code 61) MAY be included in the DHCP
      DISCOVER message as it may be used by the Server in performing the
      subnet allocation.


   3.2 Server OFFER message

      Upon receiving a DHCP DISCOVER containing the Subnet Allocation
      option, the DHCP Server should respond with a DHCP OFFER message
      including the Subnet Information suboption in order to specify the
      subnet(s) which it is willing to allocate to the Client in order
      to fill the request(s).

      The Server need not reserve the subnets which are being OFFERed,
      but SHOULD strive to not OFFER the same subnets to another DHCP
      Client until a reasonable time period (implementation independent)
      has passed.

      The Server MUST NOT include the Subnet Request suboption in the
      OFFER.  The same information is already present in the Subnet
      Information suboption(s) which SHOULD be included in the OFFER.

      The Server SHOULD also include the IP address lease time option
      (option 51) in the DHCP OFFER message.  This gives the lease time
      for all subnets given in all Subnet Request suboptions contained
      in the DHCP OFFER message.  The Server MAY also include the
      Renewal and/or Rebinding options in order to further control the
      "T1" and "T2" lease timers of the client.  There MUST be only one
      IP address lease time, rebind, and/or renew option in the DHCP



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      OFFER message.  If different lease times are required for some of
      the allocated subnets, then the server should only return Subnet
      Information suboption(s) for those subnets with the same lease
      time.  If the Client requires more subnets, another DHCP DISCOVER
      message will need to be issued to collect the other needed
      subnets.  Also see the "s" flag described below.

      The Server MAY set the "Server flag" ("s") to "1" to indicate that
      it would like to allocate one or more additional subnet(s) to the
      Client.  This indicates that the Client should send another
      DISCOVER message specifying a zero prefix size field, P, in order
      to request the additional subnet allocation(s) information.  This
      may be necessary if the subnets are to be allocated with different
      lease times, for example.

      The "Client flag" ("c") MUST be set to zero (0) to indicate this
      is a response to a client request for a new subnet allocation and
      not a request for information about already allocated subnets.

      The Server SHOULD set the DHCP yiaddr value to all zeros (0.0.0.0)
      and the Client MUST ignore fields having to do with address
      assignment if the packet contains a Subnet Allocation option.  In
      other words, a DHCP packet exchange can not provide subnet
      allocation and address assignment simultaneously.

   3.3 Client DHCP REQUEST message

      When sending a DHCP REQUEST, the Client MUST NOT modify any fields
      of all Subnet Information suboptions received from the Server.
      However, the Client MAY choose to not include some Subnet
      Information suboptions when issuing the DHCP REQUEST.  Subnet
      Request suboptions MUST NOT be included in the DHCP REQUEST
      message, only the Subnet Information suboption(s) should be
      included.


   3.4 Server DHCP ACK message

      The DHCP Server, upon receipt of the Client's REQUEST message, MAY
      refuse allocation of any subnets (for example, if they have been
      allocated elsewhere in the meantime), however since the Server
      should have set aside the subnets offered for a short period of
      time, and since the Client should have requested the subnets
      within a short period of time after receiving the offer(s) from
      the server(s), this last minute rejection should be rare.  The
      DHCP Server MAY NOT change the subnet address(es) or prefix
      size(s), however it MAY remove some Subnet Information suboptions
      from the list.



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      The Server SHOULD include the IP address lease time option
      specifying the lease period for all subnet(s) in the ACK.  All
      subnets allocated in one DHCP message will have the same lease
      time and only one IP address lease time option must appear in the
      DHCP message.

      If the Server has internal information which states that the
      Client should be allocated more subnets than were requested, the
      Server MAY set the "s" bit in the Subnet Information suboption to
      indicate that the Client needs to request more subnets (as
      described above).

      The allocatable unit is the tuple (subnet address, prefix size).
      Multiple subnets may be allocated in one DHCP ACK, however since
      there can be only one Lease-time option, each subnet allocated is
      assigned the same lease time.  Each subnet lease MAY be RENEWed or
      RELEASEd individually.



4.0 Client renewal of subnet lease


   4.1 Client RENEW REQUEST message

      The Client MUST renew all subnets allocated with a lease time in
      much the same manner as renewing an allocated IP address.  Renewal
      timers need not be set in exactly the same manner, however.  If
      Renewal and/or Rebinding options were included in the ACK of the
      subnet allocation, then these "T1" and "T2" timers should be used
      just as they would be in the case of address allocation timers.

      The REQUEST message MUST include a Subnet Information suboption
      for which the Client is seeking renewal of the lease.  This Subnet
      Information suboption may optionally include subnet usage
      statistics, as described above w.r.t. the Subnet Information
      suboption format.

      The subnet IP address field (Address) and subnet prefix field
      (Prefix) MUST agree with the values as they were originally
      allocated to the Client by the Server.  In any of the statistics
      fields (High, Current, Ususable), a value of all ones (0xffff)
      SHOULD be used if the Client has no information to report for a
      statistic.


   4.2 Server RENEW response




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      The Server MAY respond to a subnet RENEW request with either an
      ACK or NAK response.  If a NAK response is given the Client MUST
      immediately stop using the subnet(s) specified and, if possible,
      notify all Clients with addresses allocated from this subnet that
      their addresses are no longer valid.  The Client MAY, of course,
      send a DHCP DISCOVER message containing the Subnet Allocation
      option and the Subnet Request suboption in order to acquire
      another subnet for use.  In general, the Server should ask the
      Client to "free" subnets by using the "Deprecate" bit of the
      Subnet Information suboption in an ACK message (see below).

      If an ACK response is given, the "Deprecate" ("d") bit of the
      flags field in the Subnet Information suboption may also be set.
      This indicates the DHCP Client should "prepare to stop using this
      subnet".  If the Client is allocating IP addresses for other
      clients out of this subnet (probably via DHCP), the Client SHOULD
      immediately stop allocating such addresses.  Once all allocated
      addresses in the subnet have been released, the Client SHOULD send
      a DHCP RELEASE message, including the Subnet Information suboption
      (with optional usage statistics) in order to release the subnet(s)
      back to the Server.



   4.3 Client RELEASE message

      The DHCP Client should send a DHCP RELEASE message in order to
      release allocated subnet(s) back to the Server when it is finished
      using them.  This message MUST NOT include the Subnet Request
      suboption, but MUST include one or more Subnet Information
      suboptions, and optionally including usage statistics.

      The Client MUST release the same subnet(s) of the same prefix size
      (Prefix), as was originally allocated.  The Client MAY release a
      subset of the subnets which were allocated originally.  In other
      words, the allocatable unit is the tuple (subnet address, prefix
      size).  Multiple subnets may be allocated in one DHCP ACK, however
      each subnet MAY be released individually.


   4.4 Server RECONFIGURE message

      The DHCP Server may issue a DHCP RECONFIGURE message containing
      the Subnet Allocation option and the Subnet Information suboption.
      This message effectively immediately times out the Client's
      lease(s) for the allocated subnet(s).  Upon receiving this
      message, the DHCP Client MUST issue a DHCP REQUEST message to the
      DHCP Server in order to renew the lease on the subnet mentioned.



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      No other subnets allocated to the Client are effected.  As is the
      case with all DHCP Renewal messages, the Client may include subnet
      usage information in the Subnet Information suboption in order to
      report subnet usage statistics, or set the "Stat-len" field to
      zero (0) if no statistics are to be reported.

      If the Server responds to this REQUEST with a DHCP NAK message,
      then the Client MUST immediately stop using the subnet(s) and, if
      possible, notify all Clients with addresses allocated from
      this/these subnet(s) that their addresses are no longer valid.
      The Client MAY, of course, send a DHCP DISCOVER message containing
      the Subnet Allocation option and the Subnet Request suboption in
      order to acquire another subnet for use.



5.0 Client requesting subnet allocation information:

   The DHCP Client may request from the DHCP Server a list of what
   subnets are currently allocated to Client.  This may be used to
   recover from a restart if the Client does not have local storage in
   order to retain the information itself.



5.1 Client DISCOVER message

   The DHCP Client DISCOVER message, in order to discover already
   allocated subnet information, should contain a Subnet Request
   suboption, with the "Prefix" field set to zero (0) and with the "i"
   flag set to "1" to indicate that the Client is seeking already
   allocated subnet information from the Server.  No Subnet Information
   suboptions should be included in this message.

   This DISCOVER message MAY be unicast to a particular DHCP Server, or
   broadcast in the normal fashion.


5.2 Server OFFER response

   Any DHCP Server which has allocated subnets to the Client should
   respond to the DISCOVER message with a DHCP OFFER message The OFFER
   message should contain one or more Subnet Information suboption(s)
   telling the subnet address(es) and prefix(es) of the subnet(s)
   allocated to the Client.

   The Server SHOULD, internally, retain an ordered list of subnets
   which are allocated to each Client.  The subnet(s) information



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   returned in the OFFER message are the first subnet(s) from this list.
   If the end of the list has been reached, then the "s" bit should be
   set to "0".  If there are more subnets in the list, the "s" bit
   should be set to "1".  to indicate to the Client that more
   information is available.  If this is the initial OFFER to the
   client, the "c" flag should be set to "1".


5.3 Client additional DISCOVER messages

   The Client, upon receiving any Server OFFER messages containing
   Subnet Information suboption information with the "c" ("Client") bit
   set, should gather the subnet address and prefix information from the
   message.

   If the "s" bit is set in the Subnet Information suboption, then the
   client MUST construct a new DHCP DISCOVER message containing the
   Subnet Allocation option and the Subnet Information suboption, and
   send this message back to the same DHCP Server originating the OFFER
   message.  The "c" and "s" bits MUST retain the same settings they had
   in the Server's OFFER message and the subnet address ("A") and prefix
   size ("P") fields MUST be unaltered as well.

   If the "s" bit in the Subnet Information suboption from the Server
   was "0", then it indicates the Server has no more information about
   subnets allocated to the Client.  In this case, the Client MUST NOT
   send a REQUEST response to the Server.


5.4 Server additional OFFER messages

   The Server, upon receiving a DISCOVER message from a Client
   containing a Subnet Information suboption with the "c" and the "s"
   bits set, MUST use the subnet address ("A") and prefix size ("P")
   fields in order to locate the position in the internal table of
   allocated subnets for this Client, and then return an OFFER message
   containing a Subnet Information suboption giving information about
   the next set of subnets allocated to this Client.  If this finishes
   the list in the table for this Client, then the "s" bit MUST be set
   to "0" to indicate there is no more information.



6.0  DHCP Server Subnet Allocation method

   The actual method of allocating subnets on the DHCP Server, as well
   as the configuration of what networks may be subnetted and how, is
   left up to the implementation.



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7.0 Examples

   Only the Subnet Allocation option and accompanying suboptions are
   displayed in these examples.  All other fields in the DHCP messages
   are described in [1].  For the purposes of these examples, "SAC"
   stands for the actual code number allocated for the "Subnet
   Allocation option Code".


   7.1 Example 1:

   DHCP Client requesting a subnet with prefix size 24 from which the
   Client will allocate addresses to other clients.  The Server responds
   with allocation of exactly the size requested:

      Client sends DHCP DISCOVER including the Subnet Allocation option
      with the Subnet-Request suboption:


      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   SAC         |       5       |       0       |       1       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       2       |     0     |0|0|       24      |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      Server responds with DHCP OFFER including Subnet Allocation option
      with a Subnet Information suboption:


      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      SAC      |      11       |       0       |       2       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       8       |     0     |0|0|      10       |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       1       |       0       |      24       |           |0|0|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+












Johnson, et. al.                                               [Page 17]


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      Client sends DHCP REQUEST including Subnet Allocation option with
      Subnet Information suboption:


      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      SAC      |      11       |       0       |       2       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       8       |     0     |0|0|      10       |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       1       |       0       |      24       |           |0|0|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      Server responds with DHCP ACK including Subnet Allocation option
      with Subnet-Info suboption:


      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      SAC      |      11       |       0       |       2       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       8       |     0     |0|0|      10       |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       1       |       0       |      24       |           |0|0|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      Later Client sends DHCP RELEASE including Subnet Allocation option
      with Subnet Information suboption:


      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      SAC      |      11       |       0       |       2       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       8       |     0     |0|0|      10       |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       1       |       0       |      24       |           |0|0|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+








Johnson, et. al.                                               [Page 18]


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   7.2 Example 2:

   DHCP Client requesting a subnet with prefix size 24 and a subnet with
   prefix size 30:


      Client sends DHCP DISCOVER including the Subnet Allocation option
      with the Subnet-Request suboption:


      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     SAC       |       9       |       0       |       1       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       2       |     0     |0|0|       24      |       1       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       2       |     0     |0|0|       30      |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      Server responds with DHCP OFFER including Subnet Allocation option
      with Subnet Information suboption:

      Offer includes 1 subnet of size 24 and 1 subnet of size 28.


      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     SAC       |      18       |       0       |       2       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      15       |           |0|0|      10       |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       2       |      0        |      24       |           |0|0|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       0       |     10        |       0       |       3       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       0       |     28        |           |0|0|       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      Client sends DHCP REQUEST including Subnet Allocation option with
      Subnet Information suboption:











Johnson, et. al.                                               [Page 19]


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      Client decides that the subnet of size 28 is not sufficient so
      doesn't include it into the request message.


      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     SAC       |      11       |       0       |       2       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       8       |           |0|0|      10       |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       2       |      0        |      24       |           |0|0|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      Server responds with DHCP ACK including Subnet Allocation option
      with Subnet Information suboption:


      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     SAC       |      11       |       0       |       2       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       8       |           |0|0|      10       |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       2       |      0        |      24       |           |0|0|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      Later Client sends DHCP REQUEST message in order to renew the
      lease on the one subnet, including subnet usage information.  It
      reports that a maximum of 10 addresses were allocated from the
      subnet since the last report, 7 addresses are currently allocated,
      and 2 addresses were found to be unusable.


      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     SAC       |      17       |       0       |       2       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      14       |           |0|0|      10       |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       2       |      0        |      24       |           |0|0|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       6       |       0       |      10       |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       7       |       0       |       2       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



Johnson, et. al.                                               [Page 20]


Internet Draft        Subnet Allocation using DHCP         February 2003


      Server responds with ACK, however signals Client that the subnet
      should be deprecated.


      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     SAC       |      11       |       0       |       2       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       8       |           |0|0|      10       |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       2       |      0        |      24       |           |0|1|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      Client crashes at this point and upon recovery sends a DISCOVER
      asking for information about all subnets which were allocated to
      it.


      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     SAC       |       5       |       0       |       1       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       2       |           |1|0|       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      Server responds with an OFFER, giving the subnet information of
      the one subnet which is allocated to the Client.  Also the Server
      specifies that the one allocated subnet should be immediately
      deprecated.  Note that the "s" ("Server") bit is zero (0) thus
      indicating that there is no more information available for this
      Client.


      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     SAC       |       11      |       0       |       2       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       8       |           |1|0|       10      |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       2       |      0        |       24      |           |0|1|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+







Johnson, et. al.                                               [Page 21]


Internet Draft        Subnet Allocation using DHCP         February 2003


      Client responds with RELEASE message after having deprecated the
      subnet:


      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     SAC       |       11      |       0       |     SIS       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       8       |           |0|0|       10      |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       2       |      0        |       24      |           |0|0|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       0       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


8.0 Differences with DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation

   The following differences may be noticed between Subnet Allocation as
   described in this document and DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation as described
   in [6]:

   * This option does not use anything like an "IA_PD" as is used in
   DHCPv6.

   * If the Server can not allocate a subnet, it remains silent, instead
   of returning a special saying nothing is available.

   * DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation has no mechanism for returning
   subnet/prefix usage statistics.

   * DHCPv6 has no equivalent to the "subnet deprecation" flag as
   described here.

   * DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation makes no mention of what Client actions
   should result from receiving a NAK during a RENEW of a delegation.

   * DHCPv6 has no equivalent of the subnet allocation "Network name"
   suboption, which may be used by the Server for various purposes, such
   as to specify a pool to use when allocating a subnet.

   * DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation corresponds to "Hierarchical Subnet
   Allocation" (setting the "h" flag in the Prefix Information
   suboption).  There is no V6 equivalent of clearing the "h" flag, in
   which the Server retains authority over allocation of addresses from
   the subnet.

   * DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation has nothing to correspond to the Suggested
   Lease Time suboption.



Johnson, et. al.                                               [Page 22]


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9.0 Security Considerations


   Potential exposures to attack are discussed in section 7 of the DHCP
   protocol specification [1]. The Subnet Allocation option can be used
   to hoard all allocatable subnets on a network.

   It is suggested that DHCP Authentication be used with this option.
   Message authentication in DHCP for intradomain use where the out-of-
   band exchange of a shared secret is feasible is defined in RFC 3118
   [5].  Potential exposures to attack are discussed in section 7 of the
   DHCP protocol specification in RFC 2131 [1].

10.0 IANA Considerations

   IANA has assigned a value of TBD for the DHCP option code described
   in this document.  No assignment of values for the suboption codes
   need be made at this time.  New values may only be defined by IETF
   Consensus, as described in [6].  Basically, this means that they are
   defined by RFCs approved by the IESG.

11.0 Intellectual Property Rights

   The IETF has been notified of intellectual property rights claimed in
   regard to some or all of the specification contained in this
   document.  For more information consult the online list of claimed
   rights.



References

   [1] Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol", RFC 2131,
       Bucknell University, March 1997.

   [2] Alexander, S. and Droms, R., "DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor
       Extensions", RFC 2132, Silicon Graphics, Inc., Bucknell
       University, March 1997.

   [3] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to indicate requirement
       levels", RFC 2119, Harvard University, March 1997.

   [4] Pummill, T., Manning, B., "Variable Length Subnet Table For
       IPv4", RFC1878, Alantec, USC/Information Sciences Institute,
       December, 1995

   [5] Droms, R., "Authentication for DHCP Messages",
       RFC 3118, June 2001



Johnson, et. al.                                               [Page 23]


Internet Draft        Subnet Allocation using DHCP         February 2003


   [6] Troan, O., Droms, R., "IPv6 Prefix Options for DHCPv6",
       draft-ietf-dhc-dhcpv6-opt-prefix-delegation-02.txt,
       February, 2003



Author Information:

Richard Johnson
Cisco Systems, Inc.
San Jose, Ca.
email: raj@cisco.com


Jay Kumarasamy
Cisco Systems, Inc.
San Jose, Ca.
email: jayk@cisco.com


Kim Kinnear
Cisco Systems, Inc.
San Jose, Ca.
email: kkinnear@cisco.com


Mark Stapp
Cisco Systems, Inc.
San Jose, Ca.
email: mjs@cisco.com





















Johnson, et. al.                                               [Page 24]


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