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Internet Engineering Task Force                         Van Jacobson
Differentiated Services Working Group                   Kathleen Nichols
Internet Draft                                          Kedar Poduri
Expires Aug, 2000                                       Cisco Systems, Inc.
draft-ietf-diffserv-ba-vw-00.txt                        March, 2000



              The 'Virtual Wire' Behavior Aggregate
                <draft-ietf-diffserv-ba-vw-00.txt>

                      Status of this Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. Internet-Drafts are
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
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The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
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                            Abstract

This document describes an edge-to-edge behavior called 'Virtual
Wire'  (VW) that can be constructed in any domain supporting the
diffserv EF PHB plus appropriate domain ingress policers. The VW
behavior is essentially indistinquishable from a dedicated cir-
cuit and can be used anywhere it is desired to replace dedicated
circuits with IP transport.

A pdf version of this document is available at
ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/papers/vw_ba.pdf







1.0  Introduction

[RFC2598] describes a diffserv PHB called expedited forwarding
(EF) intended for use in building a scalable, low loss, low
latency, low jitter, assured bandwidth, end-to-end service that
appears to the endpoints like an unshared, point-to-point connec-
tion or 'virtual wire.' For scalability, a diffserv domain sup-
plying this service must be completely unaware of the individual

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endpoints using it and sees instead only the aggregate EF marked
traffic entering and transiting the domain. This document pro-
vides the specifications necessary on that aggregated traffic (in
diffserv terminology, a behavior aggregate or BA) in order to meet
these requirements and thus defines a new BA, the Virtual Wire
behavior aggregate or VW BA. Despite the lack of per-flow state,
if the aggregate input rates are appropriately policed and the EF
service rates on interior links are appropriately configured, the
edge-to-edge service supplied by the domain will be indistin-
guishable from that supplied by dedicated wires between the end-
points. This note gives a quantitative definition of what is meant
by 'appropriately policed and configured'.

Loss, latency and jitter are all due to the queues traffic experi-
ences while transiting the network. Therefore providing low loss,
latency and jitter for some traffic aggregate means ensuring that
the packets of the aggregate see no (or very small) queues. Queues
arise when short-term traffic arrival rate exceeds departure rate
at some node(s). Thus ensuring no queues for some aggregate is
equivalent to bounding rates such that, at every transit node, the
aggregate's maximum arrival rate is less than that aggregate's
minimum departure rate.

Creating the VW BA has two parts:

    1.      Configuring nodes so that the aggregate has a well-defined
minimum departure rate. (`Well-defined' means independent of
the dynamic state of the node. In particular, independent of
the intensity of other traffic at the node.)

    2.      Conditioning the aggregate (via policing and shaping) so that
it's arrival rate at any node is always less than that node's
configured minimum departure rate.

[RFC2598] provides the first part. This document describes how
one configures the EF PHBs in the collection of nodes that make up
a DS domain and the domain's boundary traffic conditioners
(described in [RFC2475]) to provide the second part. This
description results in a diffserv behavior aggregate, as
described in [BADEF].

The next sections describe the VW BA in detail and give examples
of how it might be implemented. The keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT",
"REQUIRED", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", and "MAY" that appear in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

2.0  Description of the Virtual Wire BA

2.1  Applicability

A Virtual Wire (VW) BA is intended to send "circuit replacement"
traffic across a diffserv network. That is, this BA is intended to
mimic, from the point of view of the originating and terminating

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nodes, the behavior of a hard-wired circuit of some fixed capac-
ity. It does this in a scalable (aggregatable) way that doesn't
require 'per-circuit' state to exist anywhere but the ingress
router adjacent to the originator. This BA should be suitable for
any packetizable traffic that currently uses fixed circuits
(e.g., telephony, telephone trunking, broadcast video distribu-
tion, leased data lines) and packet traffic that has similar
delivery requirements (e.g., IP telephony or video conferencing).

2.2  Rules

Each node in the domain MUST implement the EF PHB as described in
section 2 of [RFC2598] but with the SHOULDs of that section taken
as MUSTs. The bandwidth limit of each output interface SHOULD be
configured as described in Section 2.4 of this document. In addi-
tion, each domain boundary input interface that can be the ingress
for EF marked traffic MUST strictly police that traffic as
described in Section 2.4. Each domain boundary output interface
that can be the egress for EF marked traffic MUST strictly shape
that traffic as described in Section 2.4.

2.3  Characteristics

"The same as a wire." As long as packets are sourced at a rate <=
the virtual wire's configured rate, they will be delivered with a
high degree of assurance and with almost no distortion of the
interpacket timing imposed by the source. However, any packets
sourced at a rate greater than the VW configured rate, measured
over any time scale longer than a packet time at that rate, will
be unconditionally discarded.

2.4  Parameters

Figure 1: Time structure of packets of a CBR stream at a high to
low bandwidth transition

Figure 1 shows a CBR stream of size S packets being sourced at
rate R. At the domain egress border router, the packets arrive on
a link of bandwidth B (= nR) and depart to their destination on a
link of bandwidth R.

Figure 2: Details of arrival / departure relationships

Figure 2 shows the detailed timing of events at the router. At
time T0 the last bit of packet 0 arrives so output is started on
the egress link. It will take until time  for packet 0
to be completely output. As long as the last bit of packet 1
arrives at the border router before , the destination node will
find the traffic indistinguishable from a stream carried the
entire way on a dedicated wire of bandwidth R. This means that
packets can be jittered or displaced in time (due to queue waits)
as they cross the domain and that there is a jitter window at the
border router of duration

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(EQ 1)

that bounds the sum of all the queue waits seen be a packet as it
transits the domain. As long as this sum is less than , the des-
tination will see service identical to a dedicated wire.

Figure 3: Packet timing structure edge-to-edge

Figure 3 shows the edge-to-edge path from the source to the desti-
nation. The links from S to I and E to D run at the virtual wire
rate R (or the traffic is shaped to rate R if the links run at a
higher rate). The solid rectangles on these links indicate the
packet time S/R. The dotted lines carry the packet times across
the domain since the time boundaries of these virtual packets form
the jitter window boundaries of the actual packets (whose dura-
tion and spacing are shown by the solid rectangles below the
intra-domain link). Note that each packet's jitter is indepen-
dent. E.g., even though the two packets about to arrive at E have
been displaced in opposite directions so that the total time
between them is almost , neither has gone out of its jitter win-
dow so the output from E to D will be smooth and continuous.

Figure 4: Three VW customers forming an aggregate

This jitter independence is what allows multiple 'virtual wires'
to be transparently aggregated into a single VW BA. Figure 4 shows
three independent VW customers, blue, yellow and red, entering
the domain at I. Assume that their traffic has worst-case phasing,
i.e., that one packet from each stream arrives simultaneously at
I. Even if the output link scheduler makes a random choice of
which packet to send from its EF queue, no packet will get pushed
outside its jitter window. For example, in Figure 4 node I ships a
different perturbation of the 3 customer aggregate in every win-
dow yet this has no effect on the edge-to-edge VW properties).

The jitter independence means that we only have to compare the
jitter bound of Equation 1 to the worst case of the total queue
wait that can be seen by a single VW packet as it crosses the
domain. There are three potential sources of queue wait for a VW
packet:

    1.      it can queue behind non-EF packets (if any)

    2.      it can queue behind another VW packet from the same customer

    3.      it can queue behind VW packet(s) from other customers

For case (1), the EF 'priority queuing' model says that the VW
traffic will never wait while a non-EF queue is serviced so the
only delay it can experience from non-EF traffic is if it has to
wait for the finish of a packet that was being sent at the time it
arrived. For an output link of bandwidth B, this can impose a

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worst-case delay of S/B. Note that this implies that if the (low
bandwidth) links of a network are carrying both VW and other traf-
fic, then n in Equation 1 must be at least 2 (i.e., the EF bound
can be at most half the link bandwidth) in order to make the jit-
ter window large enough to absorb this delay.

Case (2) can only happen if the previous packet hasn't completely
departed at the time the next packet arrives. Since the incoming
VW stream is strictly shaped to a rate R, any two packets will be
separated by at least time S/R so having leftovers is equivalent
to saying the departure rate on some link is <R over this time
scale. But the EF property is precisely that the departure rate
MUST be >R over any time scale of S/R or longer so this can't hap-
pen for any legal VW/EF configuration. Or, to put it another way,
if case (2) happens, either the VW policer is set too loosely or
some link's EF bound is set too tight.

Case (3) is a simple generalization of (2). If there are a total
of n customers, the worst possible queue occurs if all n arrive
simultaneously at some output link. Since each customer is indi-
vidually shaped to rate R, when this happens then no new packets
from any stream can arrive for at least time S/R so having left-
overs is equivalent to a departure rate < nR over this time scale.
But the EF property for any link capable of handling the aggregate
traffic is that the departure rate be > nR over any time scale
longer than S/(nR) so, again, this can't happen in any legal VW/EF
configuration.

For case (1), a packet could be displaced by non-EF traffic once
per hop so the edge-to-edge jitter is a function of the path
length. But this isn't true for case (3): The strict ingress
policing implies that a packet from any given VW stream can meet
any other VW stream in a queue at most once. This means the worst
case jitter caused by aggregating VW customers is a linear func-
tion of the number of customers in the aggregate but completely
independent of topology.

2.5  Assumptions

The topology independence of VW service actually holds only while
routing is relatively stable. Since packets can be duplicated
while routing is converging, and since path lengths can be shorter
after a routing change, it is possible to violate the VW traffic
bounds and thus jitter stream(s) more than their jitter window for
a small time during and just after a routing change.

2.6  Example uses

Say an ISP wants to carry RTP encapsulated telephony traffic in
addition to data traffic. Assume that want to retain all the
robustness of IP (re-)routing which is equivalent to saying that
all traffic can show up on any link. This implies that the lowest
bandwidth backbone link constrains the total number of calls that

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can be carried. If the smallest backbone link is OC-3 and each
call generates at most a 200 byte packet every 20ms, then the
total number of VW customers that can be admitted into the back-
bone must be less than



(For comparison, an OC-3 TDM telco trunk could admit 2421 custom-
ers so there is a 25% bandwidth penalty paid for the ability to
efficiently mix voice and data.) Since this limit does not depend
on the topology, these call slots can be assigned to customers,
either statically or dynamically, in any way that doesn't violate
the VW/EF bound on the customer tail circuits.

Note that each call looks like two 'customers', one each direc-
tion, so this overly simple bound is actually less than half the
capacity of an equivalent telco system. If one adds the topologi-
cal assumption that none of the simplex traffic streams between
two endpoints will ever travel both directions over the same link,
then the number VW customers becomes 1938 each direction so the
domain has roughly the same telephony capacity as an equivalent
telco system.

2.7  Environmental concerns

Routing instability will generally translate directly into VW
service degradation.

The analysis in Section 2.4 would hold in a world where traffic
policers and link schedulers are perfect and mathematically
exact. When computing parameters for our world, 5-10% fudge fac-
tors should be used.

3.0  Security Considerations

There are no security considerations for the VW BA other than
those associated with the EF PHB which are described in [RFC2598].

4.0  References

[RFC2119]   "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Lev-
els", S.Bradner, www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119

[RFC2474]   "Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6
Headers", K.Nichols, S. Blake, F. Baker, D. Black, www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2474.txt

[RFC2475]   "An Architecture for Differentiated Services", S. Blake, D. Black, M.Carl-
son,E.Davies,Z.Wang,W.Weiss, www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2475.txt

[RFC2597]   "Assured Forwarding PHB Group", F. Baker, J. Heinanen, W. Weiss, J. Wroclawski,
ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2597.txt

[RFC2598]   "An Expedited Forwarding PHB", V.Jacobson, K.Nichols, K.Poduri, ftp://ftp.isi.edu/

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in-notes/rfc2598.txt

[RFC2638]   "A Two-bit Differentiated Services Architecture for the
Internet", K. Nichols, V. Jacobson, and L. Zhang,
www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2638.{txt,ps}

[BADEF] "Definition of Differentiated Services Behavior Aggregates and Rules for their Speci-
fication", K.Nichols, B.Carpenter, draft-ietf-diffserv-ba-def-00.[txt, pdf]

[CAIDA] The nature of the beast: recent traffic measurements from an Internet backbone. K
Claffy, Greg Miller and Kevin Thompson. http://www.caida.org/Papers/Inet98/
index.html

[NS2]   The simulator ns-2, available at: http://www-mash.cs.berkeley.edu/ns/.

[FBK]   K. Nichols, "Improving Network Simulation with Feedback", Proceedings of
LCN'98, October, 1998.

[RFC2415]   RFC 2415, K. Poduri and K. Nichols, "Simulation Studies of Increased Initial TCP
Window Size", September, 1998.

5.0  Authors' Addresses



Van Jacobson
Cisco Systems, Inc.
170 W. Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134-1706
van@cisco.com

Kathleen Nichols
Cisco Systems, Inc.
170 W. Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134-1706
kmn@cisco.com

Kedar Poduri
Cisco Systems, Inc.
170 W. Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134-1706
kmn@cisco.com

6.0  Appendix: On Jitter for the VW BA

The VW BA's bounded jitter translates into the generally useful
properties of network bandwidth limits and buffer resource lim-
its. These properties make VW useful for a variety of statically
and dynamically provisioned services, many of which have no
intrinsic need for jitter bounds. IP telephony is an important
application for the VW BA where expected and worst-case jitter for
rate-controlled streams of packets is of interes; thus this
appendix is primarily focused on voice jitter. The appendix

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focuses on jitter for individual flows aggregated in a VW BA,
derives worst-case bounds on the jitter, and gives simulation
results for jitter.

6.1  Jitter and Delay

The VW BA is sufficiently restrictive in its rules to preserve the
required EF per-hop behavior under aggregation. These properties
also make it useful as a basis for Internet telephony, to get low
jitter and delay. Since a VW BA will have link arrival rates that
do not exceed departure rates over fairly small time scales, end-
to-end delay is based on the transmission time of a packet on a
wire and the handling time of individual network elements and thus
is a function of the number of hops in a path, the bandwidth of
the links, and the properties of the particular piece of equipment
used. Unless the end-to-end delay is excessive due to very slow
links or very slow equipment, it is usually the jitter, or varia-
tion of delay, of a voice stream that is more critical than the
delay.

We derive the worst case jitter for a a VW BA in a DS domain using
it to carry a number of rate-controlled flows. Jitter is defined
as the absolute value of the difference between the arrival time
difference of two adjacent packets and their departure time dif-
ference, that is:

(EQ 2)jitter = |(ak-aj) - (dk-dj)|

The maximum jitter will occur if one packet waits for no other
packets at any hop of its path and the adjacent packet waits for
the maximum amount of packets possible. There are two sources of
jitter, one from waiting for other EF packets that may have accu-
mulated in a queue due to simultaneous arrivals of EF packets on
several input lines feeding the same queue and another from wait-
ing for non-EF packets to complete. The first type is strictly
bounded by the properties of the VW BA and the EF PHB. The second
type is minimized by using a Priority Queuing mechanism to sched-
ule the output link and giving priority to EF packets and this
value can be approached by using a non-bursty weighted round-
robin packet scheduler and giving the EF queue a large weight. The
total jitter is the sum of these two.

Maximum jitter will be given across the domain in terms of T, the
virtual packet time or cyle time. It is important to recall the
analysis of section 3.0 showing that this jitter across the DS
domain is completely invisible to the end-to-end flow using the VW
BA if it is within the jitter window at the egress router.

6.1.1  Jitter from other VW packets

The jitter from meeting other packets of the VW aggregate comes
from (near) simultaneous arrival of packets at different input
ports all destined for the same output queue that can be com-

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pletely rearranged at the next packet arrival to that queue. This
jitter has a strict bound which we will show here.

It will be helpful to remember that, from RFC 2598, a BA using the
EF PHB will get its configured share of each link at all times-
cales above the time to send an MTU at the rate corresponding to
that share of that link.

Focus on the DS domain of figure 5. Unless otherwise stated, in
this section assume M Boundary Routers, each having N inputs and
outputs. We assume that each of the BR's ingress ports receives a
flow of EF-marked packets that are being policed to a peak rate R.
If each flow sends a fixed size packet, then it's possible to cal-
culate the fixed time, T, between packets of each of these MxN
flows that enters the DS domain, a quite reasonable assumption for
packets carrying voice. For example, assume a domain traversed by
MxN flows of 68 byte voice packets sent at 20 ms time intervals.
Note we assume all ingress links have some packets that will be
marked for the VW aggregate. Thus the total number of ingress EF-
marked streams to the VW aggregate is I = MxN.

To construct a network where the maximum jitter can occur, a sin-
gle flow traversing the network must be able to meet packets from
all the other flows marked for the EF PHB and it should be possi-
ble to meet them in the worst possible way.

Figure 5: A DS domain

Unless otherwise stated, assume that all the routers of the domain
have N inputs and outputs and that all links have the same band-
width B. Although there are a number of ways that the individual
streams from different egress ports might combine in the interior
of the network, in a properly configured network, the arrival rate
of the VW BA must not exceed the departure rate at any network
node. Consider a particular flow from A to Z and how to ensure
that packets entering the VW BA at A meet every other flow enter-
ing the domain from all egress points as they traverse the domain
to Z. Consider three cases: the first is a single bottleneck, the
second makes no assumptions about routing in the network and the
third assumes that the paths of individual flows can be completely
specified.

Assume there are H hops from A to Z and that delay is the minimum
time it takes for a packet to go from A to Z in the absence of
queuing. Both packets experience delay and thus it subtracts in
the jitter calculation. Recall that the packets of the flow are
separated in time by T, then (normalizing to a start time of 0):

(EQ 3)dj = 0

(EQ 4)dk = T

(EQ 5)aj = delay

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(EQ 6)ak = time spent waiting behind all other packets +delay+T

Then we can use:

(EQ 7)jitter = time spent waiting behind all other packets

as we explore calculating worst case jitter for different topolo-
gies.

The next step is to establish some useful relationships between
parameters. First, assume that some fraction, f, of a link's
capacity is allocated to EF-marked packets. Since we are assuming
that all the flows that are admitted into this DS domain's VW
aggregate generate packets at a spacing of T, this can be
expressed in time as fxT. Then the amount of time to send an EF
packet on each link can be written as fxT/(total number of EF-
marked flow crossing the link). Note that f should be less than
0.5 in order that an MTU-sized non-EF packet will not cause the EF
condition to be violated.

6.1.1.1  Worst case jitter in a network with a dumbbell bottleneck

Consider a DS domain topology shown in figure 6.  In order for a
packet of the (A,Z) flow to arrive behind packets of all the other
flows, a packet from each ingress must arrive at each of the M
border routers at the same time and must be transmitted to the
interior router's queue for the bottleneck link B at the same
time. Further the links between the border routers and the bottle-
neck router must be enough larger than B that the packets are
still sitting in B's queue when our (A,Z) packet arrives at the
end of a burst of N packets, that is L > NxB.  Then the

(EQ 8)jitterworst case = MxNx(time to send an EF packet on B)

Since we expressed the EF aggregate's allocation on B as fxB, the
time to send an EF packet on B is fxT/(MxN), so

(EQ 9)jitterworst case = fxT



Figure 6: A dumbbell bottleneck

This result shows that the worst case jitter will be less than
half a packet time for any VW-compliant allocation on this topol-
ogy. For the worst case to occur, all N packets must arrive simul-
taneously at all M border routers. By assuming independence, an
interested person should be able to get some insight on the like-
lihood of this happening. Simulation results in a later section
will show this.

6.1.1.2  Worst case jitter in an arbitrary network

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Consider the network of figure 5 and in this case, one packet of
the (A,Z) flow must arrive at the same time, but be queued behind
a packet from each of the other flows as it passes through the
network. This can happen at any link of the network and even at
the same link. In this case, assume all links have bandwidth B but
we don't know the path the individual EF packets or flows of the
aggregate will follow. Then the worst case jitter is

(EQ 10)jitterworst case = Ix(fxT/I) = fxT

the same as the bottleneck case. Note that, in allocation, if it
is possible to know that not all flows of the aggregate will take
the same path, then one could allocate each link to a smaller num-
ber of flows, but this would also imply that the number of flows
that it's possible to meet and be jittered by is smaller. Alloca-
tion can be kept to under 0.5 times the bandwidth of a core link,
while the existence of multiple paths offers both fault tolerance
and an expectation that the actual load on any link will be less
than 0.5.

How likely is this case to happen? One packet of the (A,Z) flow
must encounter and queue behind every other individual shaped
flow that makes up the domain's VW aggregate as it crosses the
domain.

6.1.1.3  Maximal jitter in a network with "pinned" paths per flow

Then at each hop the (A,Z) packet has to arrive at the same time
as an EF packet from the (N-1) other inputs and the (A,Z) packet
has to be able to end up anywhere within that burst of N packets.
In particular, for two adjacent packets of the (A,Z) flow, one
must arrive at the front of every hop's burst and the other at the
end of every hop's burst. This clearly requires an unrealistic
form of path pinning or route selection by every individual EF-
marked flow entering the DS domain. This unidirectional path is
shown in figure 7 where all routers have N inputs and at each of
the H routers on the path from A to Z, N-1 flows are sent to other
output queues, while N-1 of the shaped input flows that have not
yet crossed the A to Z path enter the router at the other input
ports.

Figure 7: Example path for maximal jitter across DS domain from A to Z

It should be noted that if the number of hops from A to Z is not
large enough, it won't be possible for one of its packets to meet
all the other shaped flows and if the number of hops is larger
than what's required there won't be any other shaped flows to meet
there. For the flow from A to B to meet every other ingress stream
as it traverses a path of H hops:

(EQ 11) Hx(N-1) = MxN - 1


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then compute the maximum jitter as:

(EQ 12)jitter = Hx(N-1)x(time to send an EF packet on each link)

If the total number of ingress streams exceeds Hx(N-1) + 1, then
it's not possible to meet all the other streams and the maximum
jitter is

(EQ 13)jitterworst case = H x (N-1) x fT/(number of ingress-shaped EF flows on each link)

Otherwise the max jitter is

(EQ 14)jitterworst case = (MxN - 1) x fT/(number of ingress-shaped EF flows on each link)

Then the maximum jitter depends on the number of hops or the num-
ber of border routers. In this construction, the number of
ingress-shaped EF flows on each link is N, thus:

(EQ 15)jitterworst case < smaller of (HxfT, MxfxT)

 Dividing out T gives jitter in terms of the number of ingress
flow cycle times (or virtual packet times). Then, for the jitter
to exceed the cycle time (or 20 ms for our VoIP example),

(EQ 16)fxH > 1 and fxM > 1

If f were at its maximum of 0.5, then it appears to be easy to
exceed a cycle time of jitter across a domain. However, it's use-
ful to examine what f might typically be. Note that for this con-
struction:

(EQ 17)f= NxR/B

For our example voice flows, a reasonable R is 28-32 Kbps. Then,
for a link of 128 Kbps, f = 0.25xN; for 1.5 Mbps, f = 0.02xN; for
10 Mbps, f = 0.003xN; for 45 Mbps, f = 0.0007xN; and for 100 Mbps,
f = 0.0003xN. Then such a network of DS3 links can handle almost
1500 individual shaped flows at this rate.  Another way to look at
this is that the hop count times the number of ingress ports of
each router must exceed the link bandwidth divided by the VoIP
rate in order to have a maximum jitter of a packet time at the
VoIP rate.

(EQ 18)HxN > B/R

For a network of all T1 links, this becomes HxN > 50 and for
larger bandwidth links, it increases.

Suppose that the ingress flows are not the same rate. If the allo-
cation, f, is at its maximum, then this means the number of
ingress flows must decrease. For example, if the A to Z flow is
10xR, then it will meet 9 fewer packets as it traverses the net-
work. Even though the assumptions behind this case are not realis-

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tic, we can see that the jitter can be kept to a reasonable
amount. The rules of the EF PHB and the VW BA should make it easy
to compute the worst case jitter for any topology and allocation.

6.1.1.4  Achievablility of the maximum

Now that we've examined how to compute the worst case jitter, we
look at how likely it is that this worst case happens and how it
relates to the jitter window.

In addition to the topological and allocation assumptions that
were made in order to allow a flow to have the opportunity of
meeting every other flow, events must align so that the meeting
actually happens at each hop. If we could assume independence of
the timing of each flow's arrival within an interval of T, then
that probability is on the order of (fT/N)N For this to happen at
every hop we need the joint probability of this happening at all H
nodes. Further we need the joint probability of that event in com-
bination with an adjacent packet not meeting any other packets.
For each additional hop, the number of ways the packets can com-
bine increases exponentially, thus the probability of that par-
ticular worst case combination decreases.

6.1.1.5  Jitter from non-VW packets

The worst case occurs when one packet of a flow waits for no other
packets to complete and the adjacent packet arrives at every hop
just as an MTU-sized non-EF packet has begun transmission. That
worst case jitter is the sum of the times to send MTU-sized pack-
ets at the link bandwidth of all the hops in the path or, for
equal bandwidth paths,

(EQ 19)jitter = HxMTU/B

Note that if one link has a bandwidth much smaller than the oth-
ers, that term will dominate the jitter.

If we assume that the MTU is on the order of 10-20 times the voice
packet size in our example, then the time to send an MTU on a link
is  10 or 20 times fxT/N so that our jitter bound becomes 20 x H x
fxT/N.

What has to happen in order to achieve the worst case? For jitter
against the default traffic, one packet waits for no default traf-
fic and the adjacent packet arrives just as an MTU of the default
type begins transmission on the link.

The worst case is linear in the number of hops, but since the
joint probability of an EF packet arriving at each queue precisely
at the start of a non-EF packet on the link decreases in hop
count, measured or simulated jitter will be seen to grow as a neg-
ative exponential of the number of hops in a path, even at very
high percentiles of probability. The reason for this is that the

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number of ways that the packets can arrive at the EF queue grows
as pH so the probability is on the order of p-H. When the link
bandwidth is small, it may be necessary to fragment non-EF packet
to control jitter.

How should we relate jitter in terms of source cycle times or vir-
tual packet times to the jitter window defined in section 3.0?
Note that we can write

(EQ 20)jitter window = Sx(1/R - 1/((nxR)/f) )

and noting that T = S/R, we get:

(EQ 21)jitter window = Tx(n-f/n)

So that, in many cases, the jitter window can be approximated by
T.

6.2  Quantifying Jitter through Simulation

Section 1 derived and discussed the worst-case jitter for indi-
vidual flows of a diffserv behavior aggregate (BA) based on the EF
PHB. We showed that the worst case jitter can be bounded and cal-
culated these theoretical bounds. The worst case bounds represent
possible, but not likely, values. Thus, to get a better feel for
the likely worst jitter values, we used simulation.

We use the ns-2 network simulator; our use of this simulator has
been described in a number of documents [NS2,FBK,RFC2415]. The
following subsections describe the simulation set-up for these
particular experiments.

6.2.1  Topology

Figure 8 shows the  topology we used in the simulations. A and Z
are edge routers through which traffic from various customers
enters and exits the Diffserv cloud. We vary the topology within
the Diffserv cloud to explore the worst-case jitter for EF traffic
in various  scenarios. Jitter is measured on a flow or set of
flows that transit the network from A to Z. To avoid per hop syn-
chronizations, half the DE traffic at each hop is new to the path
while half of the DE traffic exits the path. For the mixed EF and
DE simulations, half the EF flows go from A to Z while, at each
hop, the other half of the 10% rate only crosses the path at that
hop. As discussed in section 1, this is an unlikely construction
but we undertake it to give a more pessimistic jitter For the EF-
only simulations, we emulate the case analyzed in section 1.1.3 by
measuring jitter on one end to end flow and having (N-1) new EF
flows meet that flow at every hop.  Note that N is determined by
the maximum number of 28 kbps flows that can fit in the EF share
of each link, so N=share x bandwidth/28 kbps.



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Figure 8: Simulated topology

6.2.2  Traffic

Traffic is generated to emulate G.729 voice flows with packet size
(B) of 68 Bytes and a 20 ms packetization rate. The resultant
flows have a rate of 27 Kbps.  As previously discussed, jitter
experienced by the voice flows has two main components; jitter
caused by meeting others flows in the EF queue, and jitter due to
traffic in other low prioirity classes. To analyze the first com-
ponent, we vary the multiplexing level of voice flows that are
admitted into the DS domain and for the second, we generate data
traffic for the default or DE PHB. Since we are interested in
exploring the worst case jitter, data traffic is generated as
long-lived TCP connections with 1500 Byte MTU segments. Current
measurements show real Internet traffic consists of a mixture of
packet sizes, over 50% of which are minimum-sized packets of 40
bytes and over 80% of which are much smaller than 1500 Bytes
[CAIDA]. Thus a realistic traffic mix would only improve the jit-
ter that we see in the simulations.

6.2.3  Schedulers and Queues

All the nodes(routers) in the network have the same configura-
tion: a simple Priority Queue (PQ) scheduler with two queues.
Voice traffic is queued in the high priority queue while the data
traffic is queued in the queue with the lower priority. The sched-
uler empties all the packets in the high priority queue before
servicing the data packets in a lower priority queue. However, if
the scheduler is busy servicing a data packet at the time  of
arrival of a voice packet, the voice packet is served only after
the data packet is serviced completely, i.e., the scheduler is
non-preemptive. For priority queuing where the low priority queue
is kept congested, simulating two queues is adequate.

Figure 9: Link scheduling in the simulations

6.2.4  Results

In the following simulations, three bandwidth values were used
for the DS domain links: 1.5 Mbps, 10 Mbps, and 45 Mbps. Unless
otherwise stated, the aggregate of EF traffic was allocated 10% of
the link bandwidth. The hops per path was varied from 1 to 24.
Then, the 1.5 Mbps links can carry about 5 voice flows, the 10
Mbps about 36 voice flows, and 45 Mbps about 160.

6.2.4.1  Jitter due to other voice traffic only

To see the jitter that comes only from meeting other EF-marked
packets, we simulated voice traffic only. Figure 10 shows results
from 10 Mbps links with 10% of the link share assigned to the
voice flows. For a single bottleneck link in a dumbbell, the worst

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case jitter possible for this scenario is 2 ms. Note that the val-
ues in Figure 10 are far less than that. This source of jitter is
quite small, particularly compared to the jitter from traffic in
other queue(s) as we will see in the next section. (Note: Figure
10's results are quite preliminary. Further simulations will be
performed that jitter the individual sources slightly.)

Figure 10: Jitter from meeting other EF-marked traffic

6.2.4.2  Jitter in a voice flow where there is a congested default class

Our traffic model for the DE queue keeps it full with mostly 1500
byte packets. From section 1, the worst case jitter is equal to
the number of hops times the time to transmit a packet at the link
rate. The likelihood of this worst case occuring goes down expo-
nentially in hop count, and the simulations confirm this. Figure
11 shows several percentiles of the jitter for 10 Mbps links where
the time to transmit an MTU at link speed is 1.2 ms.

Figure 11: Various percentile jitter values for 10 Mbps links and 10% allocation

Recall that the period of the voice streams is 20 ms and note
that, the jitter does not even reach half a period. The median
jitter gets quite flat with number of hops. Although the higher
percentile values increase at a somewhat higher rate with number
of hops, it still does not approach the calculated worst case. The
data is also shown normalized by the MTU transmission time at 10
Mbps. Now the vertical axis value is the number of MTU sized pack-
ets of jitter that the flow experiences. This normalization is
presented to make it easier to relate the results to the analysis,
though it obscures the impact (or lack thereof) of the jitter on
the 20 ms flows.

Figure 12 shows the same results for 1.5 Mbps links and Figure 13
for 45 Mbps links.

Figure 12: Various percentiles of jitter for 1.5 Mbps links and 10% share

Notice that the worst case jitter for the 1.5 Mbps link is on the
order of two cycle times while, for 45 Mbps, it is less than 10%
of the cycle time. However, the behavior in terms of number of
MTUs is similar.

Figure 13: Various percentiles of jitter for 45 Mbps links and 10% share

The jitter in time and thus as a fraction of the virtual packet
time of the flow being measured clearly increases with decreasing
bandwidth. Even the smallest bandwidth, 1.5 Mbps can handle
nearly all jitter with a jitter buffer of 2 packets. The two
higher bandwidths don't even jiter by one virutal packet time,
thus staying within the jitter window. Figures 14, 15, and 16 com-
pare the median, 99th percentile and 99.97th percentile (essen-
tially the worst case). It's also interesting to normalize the

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results of each experiment by the MTU transmission time at that
link bandwidth. The normalized values show that all scenarios
experience the same behavior relative to the MTU transmission
time.



Figure 14:   Median jitter for all three bandwidths by time and normalized

Figure 15: 99th percentile of jitter for the three bandwidths; absolute time and normalized

Figure 16: 99.97th percentile of jitter; absolute time and normalized by MTU transmission times

The simulation experiments are not yet complete, but they clearly
show the probability of acheiveing the worst case jitter decreas-
ing with hop count and show that jitter can be controlled. The
normalization shows that the jitter behavior is the same regard-
less of bandwidth. The absolute times differ by scale factors that
depend on the bandwith.

6.2.4.3  Jitter with an increased allocation

In the following, the experiments of the last section are
repeated, but using a 20% link share, rather than a 10% link share
Figure 17 shows the jitter percentiles for 10 Mbps links and a 20%
share. The values are also plotted with the 10% share results (on
the right hand side) to show how similar they are..

Figure 17: Jitter percentiles for 10 Mbps links and 20% EF share

Using the previous section, we would believe that the results for
other bandwidths would have the same shape, but be scaled by the
bandwidth difference. Figure 18 shows this to indeed be the case.
Thus it is sufficient to simulated only a single bandwidth.

Figure 18: Jitter for 1.5 Mbps links (on left) and 45 Mbps links (on right)

In all the experiments, it can be clearly seen that the shape of
the jitter vs. hops curve flattens because the probability of the
worst case occuring at each hop decreases exponentially in hops.
To see if there is an allocation level at which the jitter behav-
ior diverges, we simulated and show results for allocations of 10,
20, 30, 40, and 50 percent, all for 10 Mbps links in figure 19.

Figure 19: Median and 99th percentile jitter for various allocations and 10 Mbps links

What may not be obvious from figure 19 is that the similarity
between the five allocation levels shows that jitter from other EF
traffic is negligible compared to the jitter from waiting for DE
packets to complete. Clearly, the probability of jitter from
other EF traffic goes up with increasing allocation level, but it
is so small compared to the DE-induced jitter that it isn't visi-
ble except for the highest percentiles and the largest hop count.

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