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Versions: (draft-tschofenig-dime-diameter-qos) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 RFC 5866

Network Working Group                                       G. Zorn, Ed.
Internet-Draft
Intended status: Standards Track                               P. McCann
Expires: May 22, 2008                                      Motorola Labs
                                                           H. Tschofenig
                                                  Nokia Siemens Networks
                                                                 T. Tsou
                                                                  Huawei
                                                                A. Doria
                                          Lulea University of Technology
                                                                  D. Sun
                                                Bell Labs/Alcatel-Lucent
                                                       November 19, 2007


          Protocol for Diameter Quality of Service Application
                  draft-ietf-dime-diameter-qos-02.txt

Status of this Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 22, 2008.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).





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Abstract

   This document describes the messages and procedures for the Diameter
   QoS application.  The QoS application allows network elements to
   interact with Diameter servers when allocating QoS resources in the
   network.  In particular, two modes of operation - Pull and Push are
   defined.












































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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Diameter QoS Authorization Session Establishment and
       Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.  Parties involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  Diameter QoS Authorization Session Establishment . . . . .  6
       3.2.1.  QoS authorization session establishment for pull
               mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.2.2.  QoS authorization session establishment for push
               mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       3.2.3.  Discovery and selection of peer Diameter QoS
               application node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     3.3.  QoS authorization session re-authorization . . . . . . . . 13
       3.3.1.  Client-Side Initiated Re-Authorization . . . . . . . . 14
       3.3.2.  Server-Side Initiated Re-Authorization . . . . . . . . 16
     3.4.  Session Termination  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       3.4.1.  Client-Side Initiated Session Termination  . . . . . . 18
       3.4.2.  Server-Side Initiated Session Termination  . . . . . . 19
   4.  Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   5.  Diameter QoS Authorization Application Messages  . . . . . . . 22
     5.1.  QoS-Authorization Request (QAR)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     5.2.  QoS-Authorization Answer (QAA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     5.3.  QoS-Install Request (QIR)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     5.4.  QoS-Install Answer (QIA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     5.5.  Re-Auth-Request (RAR)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     5.6.  Re-Auth-Answer (RAA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     5.7.  Accounting Request (ACR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     5.8.  Accounting Answer (ACA)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   6.  Diameter QoS Authorization Application AVPs  . . . . . . . . . 28
     6.1.  Diameter Base Protocol AVPs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     6.2.  Credit Control Application AVPs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     6.3.  Accounting AVPs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     6.4.  Diameter QoS Application Defined AVPs  . . . . . . . . . . 29
   7.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
     7.1.  Example call flow for pull mode  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
     7.2.  Example call flow for push mode  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
   10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
   11. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
   12. Open Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
   13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 46



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1.  Introduction

   This document describes the messages and procedures for the Diameter
   QoS Application.  The QoS Application allows network elements to
   interact with Diameter servers when allocating QoS resources in the
   network.

   In particular, two modes of operation are defined.  In the first,
   called "Pull Mode", the network element queries the Diameter
   infrastructure for authorization based on some trigger (such as a QoS
   signaling protocol) that arrives along the data path to be used for
   the session.  In the second, called "Push Mode", a Diameter server
   pro-actively sends a command to the network element(s) to install QoS
   authorization state.  This could be triggered, for instance, by off-
   path signaling such as SIP-based call control.

   A set of command codes pertinent to this QoS application are
   specified that allows a single Diameter application to support both
   Pull and Push modes based on the requirements of network
   technologies, deployment scenarios and end-host's capabilities.  In
   conjunction with parameters defined in other Diameter QoS documents,
   this document depicts basic call flow procedures to establish, modify
   and terminate a Diameter QoS application session.




























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2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   In addition to the terms defined in other relevant Diameter QoS
   documents (e.g., diameter-qos-framework), the following terms are
   used in this document:

   Diameter QoS Application Server

      A Diameter QoS application server is a logical Diameter node that
      supports the protocol interaction for QoS authorization.  The
      Diameter QoS server resides in the authorizing entity and is able
      to respond to a Diameter session received from a Diameter QoS
      client, or initiate a Diameter session to a Diameter QoS client
      triggered by application signaling or local events.

   Diameter QoS Application Client

      A Diameter QoS application client is a logical Diameter node that
      supports the protocol interaction for QoS enforcement.  The
      Diameter QoS client resides in the network element and is able to
      initiate a Diameter session triggered by a QoS signaling or other
      events, or respond to a Diameter session initiated by a Diameter
      QoS server.

   Resource Requesting Entity

      A resource requesting entity is a logical entity that supports the
      protocol interaction for QoS resources.  The resource requesting
      entity resides in the end-host and is able to communicate with
      peer logicial entities in Authorizing Entity or Network element to
      trigger the QoS authorization process.
















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3.  Diameter QoS Authorization Session Establishment and Management

3.1.  Parties involved

   Authorization models supported by this application include three
   parties:
   o  Resource requesting entity
   o  Network Elements (Diameter QoS application (DQA) client)
   o  Authorizing Entity (Diameter QoS application (DQA) server)

   Note that the QoS resource requesting entity is only indirectly
   involved in the message exchange.  This entity provides the trigger
   to initiate the Diameter QoS protocol interaction by transmitting QoS
   signaling messages.  The Diameter QoS application is only executed
   between the Network Element (i.e., DQA client) and the Authorizing
   Entity (i.e., DQA server).

   The QoS resource requesting entity may communicate with the
   Authorizing Entity using application layer signaling for negotiation
   of service parameters.  As part of this application layer protocol
   interaction, for example using SIP, authentication and authorization
   might take place.  This message exchange is, however, outside the
   scope of this document.  The protocol communication between the QoS
   resource requesting entity and the QoS Network Element might be
   accomplished using the NSIS protocol suite, RSVP or a link layer
   signaling protocol.  A description of these protocols is also outside
   the scope of this document and a tight coupling with these protocols
   is not desirable since this applications aims to be generic.

3.2.  Diameter QoS Authorization Session Establishment

   The Pull and Push modes use a different set of command codes for
   session establishment.  For other operations, such as session
   modification and termination, they use the same set of command codes.

   The Pull mode or Push mode operation is invoked based on the trigger
   of QoS Authorization session.  When a QAR with a new session ID is
   received, the Authorizing Entity operates in the pull mode; when
   other triggers are received, the Authorizing Entity operates in the
   push mode.  Similarly, when a QIR with new session ID is received,
   the Network Element operates in the push mode; when other triggers
   are recevied, the Network Element operation in the pull mode.

3.2.1.  QoS authorization session establishment for pull mode

   A request for a QoS reservation or local events received by a Network
   Element can trigger the initiation of a Diameter QoS authorization
   session.  The Network Element generates a QoS-Authorization-Request



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   (QAR) message in which it maps required objects from the QoS
   signaling message to Diameter payload objects.

   Figure 2 shows the protocol interaction between a resource requesting
   entity, a Network Element and the Authorizing Entity.

   The Authorizing Entity's identity, information about the application
   session and/or identity and credentials of the QoS resource
   requesting entity, requested QoS parameters, signaling session
   identifier and/or QoS enabled data flows identifiers MAY be
   encapsulated into respective Diameter AVPs and included into the
   Diameter message sent to the Authorizing Entity.  The QAR is sent to
   a Diameter server that can either be the home server of the QoS
   requesting entity or an application server.


   +----------------------------------+-------------------------------+
   | QoS specific Input Data          | Diameter QoS AVPs             |
   +----------------------------------+-------------------------------+
   | Authorizing entity ID (e.g.,     | Destination-Host              |
   | taken from authorization token   | Destination-Realm             |
   | or derived based on Network      |                               |
   | Access ID (NAI) [RFC2486]        |                               |
   | of the QoS requesting entity)    |                               |
   +----------------------------------+-------------------------------+
   | Authorization Token              | QoS-Authz-Data                |
   | Credentials of                   | User-Name                     |
   | the QoS requesting entity        |                               |
   +----------------------------------+-------------------------------+
   | QoS parameters                   | QoS-Resources                 |
   +----------------------------------+-------------------------------+

   Authorization processing starts at the Diameter QoS server when it
   receives the QAR.  Based on the information in the QoS-
   Authentication-Data, User-Name and QoS-Resources AVPs the server
   determines the authorized QoS resources and flow state (enabled/
   disabled) from locally available information (e.g., policy
   information that may be previously established as part of an
   application layer signaling exchange, or the user's subscription
   profile).  The QoS-Resources AVP is defined in
   [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-attributes].  The authorization decision is then
   reflected in the response returned to the Diameter client with the
   QoS-Authorization-Answer message (QAA).








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                                               Authorizing
     End-Host         Network Element             Entity
   requesting QoS      ( Diameter              ( Diameter
                        QoS Client)             QoS Server)
       |                   |                         |
       +---QoS-Reserve---->|                         |
       |                   +- - - - - QAR - - - - - >|
       |                   |(QoS-Resources,Cost,     |
       |                   |   QoS-Auth-Data,User-ID)|
       |                   |                +--------+--------------+
       |                   |                |  Authorize request    |
       |                   |                |  Keep session data    |
       |                   |                |/Authz-time,Session-Id/|
       |                   |                +--------+--------------+
       |                   |< - - - - QAA - - - - - -+
       |                   |(Result-Code,CC-Time,Cost|
       |                   |QoS-Resources,Authz-time)|
       |           +-------+---------+
       |           |Install QoS state|
       |           |       +         |
       |           | Authz. session  |
       |           | /Authz-time,    |                QoS Responder
       |           |  CC-Time,Cost/  |                    Node
       |           +-------+---------+                      |
       |                   +----------QoS-Reserve---....--->|
       |                   |                                |
       |                   |<---------QoS-Response--....----|
       |<--QoS-Response----+                                |
       |                   |                                |
       |=====================Data Flow==============....===>|
       |                   |
       |                   +- - - - - ACR - - - - - >|
       |                   |(START,QoS-Resources,Cost|
       |                   |CC-Time,Acc-Multisess-id)|
       |                   |                +--------+--------------+
       |                   |                | Report for successful |
       |                   |                |   QoS reservation     |
       |                   |                |Update of reserved QoS |
       |                   |                |      resources        |
       |                   |                +--------+--------------+
       |                   |< - - - - ACA - - - - - -+
       |                   |                         |

           Figure 2: Initial QoS Request Authorization for pull

   The Authorizing Entity keeps authorization session state and SHOULD
   save additional information for management of the session (e.g., Acc-
   Multi-Session-Id, Signaling-Session-Id, authentication data) as part



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   of the session state information.  A Signaling-session-Id (if
   present) SHOULD be used together with the generated Acc-Multi-
   Session-Id AVP (see Section 6.3) for binding the authorization and
   the accounting session information in case of end host mobility
   (i.e., to correlate the Diameter sessions that are initiated for the
   same signaling session from different QoS NE).

   The final result of the authorization request is provided in the
   Result-Code AVP of the QAA message sent by the Authorizing Entity.
   In case of successful authorization (i.e., Result-Code =
   DIAMETER_LIMITED_SUCCESS, (see Section 6.1)), information about the
   authorized QoS resources and the status of the authorized flow
   (enabled/disabled) is provided in the QoS-Resources AVP of the QAA
   message.  The QoS information provided via the QAA is installed by
   the QoS Traffic Control function of the Network Element.  The value
   DIAMETER_LIMITED_SUCCESS indicates that the Authorizing entity
   expects confirmation via an accounting message for successful QoS
   resource reservation and for final reserved QoS resources (see
   below).

   One important piece of information returned from the Authorizing
   Entity is the authorization lifetime (carried inside the QAA).  The
   authorization lifetime allows the Network Element to determine how
   long the authorization decision is valid for this particular QoS
   reservation.  A number of factors may influence the authorized
   session duration, such as the user's subscription plan or currently
   available credits at the user's account (see Section 4).  The
   authorization duration is time-based as specified in [RFC3588].  For
   an extension of the authorization period, a new QoS-Authorization-
   Request/Answer message exchange SHOULD be initiated.  Further aspects
   of QoS authorization session maintenance is discussed in Section 3.3,
   Section 3.4 and Section 4.

   The indication of a successful QoS reservation and activation of the
   data flow is provided by the transmission of an Accounting Request
   (ACR) message, which reports the parameters of the established QoS
   state: reserved resources, duration of the reservation,
   identification of the QoS enabled flow/QoS signaling session and
   accounting parameters.  The Diameter QoS server acknowledges the
   reserved QoS resources with the Accounting Answer (ACA) message where
   the Result-Code is set to 'DIAMETER_SUCCESS'.  Note that the reserved
   QoS resources reported in the ACR message MAY be different than those
   initially authorized with the QAA message, due to the QoS signaling
   specific behavior (e.g., receiver-initiated reservations with One-
   Path-With-Advertisements) or specific process of QoS negotiation
   along the data path.





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3.2.2.  QoS authorization session establishment for push mode

   The Diameter QoS server in the Authorizing Entity initiates a
   Diameter QoS authorization session upon the request for QoS
   reservation triggered by application layer signaling or by local
   events, and generates a QoS-Install-Request (QIR) message to Diameter
   QoS client in the NE in which it maps required objects to Diameter
   payload objects.

   Figure 4 shows the protocol interaction between the Authorizing
   Entity, a Network Element and a resource requesting entity.

   The Network Element's identity, information about the application
   session and/or identity and credentials of the QoS resource
   requesting entity, requested QoS parameters, signaling session
   identifier and/or QoS enabled data flows identifiers MAY be
   encapsulated into respective Diameter AVPs and included into the
   Diameter message sent from a Diameter QoS server in the Authorizing
   Entity to a Diameter QoS client in the NE.  This requires that the
   Authorizing Entity has knowledge of specific information for
   allocating and identifying the Network Element that should be
   contacted and the data flow for which the QoS reservation should be
   established.  This information can be statically configured or
   dynamically discovered, see section 3.2.3 for details.


   +----------------------------------+-------------------------------+
   | QoS specific Input Data          | Diameter QoS AVPs             |
   +----------------------------------+-------------------------------+
   | Network Element ID (e.g., from   | Destination-Host              |
   | static configuration             | Destination-Realm             |
   | or dynamically discovered, see   |                               |
   | section 3.2.3 for details)       |                               |
   +----------------------------------+-------------------------------+
   | Authorization Token              | QoS-Authz-Data                |
   | Credentials of                   | User-Name                     |
   | the QoS requesting entity        |                               |
   +----------------------------------+-------------------------------+
   | QoS parameters                   | QoS-Resources                 |
   +----------------------------------+-------------------------------+

   Authorization processing starts at the Diameter QoS server when it
   receives the request from a resource requesting entity through
   application server (e.g.  SIP Invite) or the trigger by local events
   (e.g. pre-configured timer).  Based on the received information the
   server determines the authorized QoS resources and flow state
   (enabled/disabled) from locally available information (e.g., policy
   information that may be previously established as part of an



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   application layer signaling exchange, or the user's subscription
   profile).  The authorization decision is then reflected in the QoS-
   Install-Request message (QIR) to the Diameter QoS client.


                                               Authorizing
     End-Host         Network Element             Entity
   requesting QoS      ( Diameter              ( Diameter
                        QoS Client)             QoS Server)
       |                   |                          |
       |                   |                          |<-- Trigger --
       |                   |                 +--------+--------------+
       |                   |                 |  Authorize request    |
       |                   |                 |  Keep session data    |
       |                   |                 |/Authz-time,Session-Id/|
       |                   |                 +--------+--------------+
       |                   |                          |
       |                   |<-- - -- - QIR - - - - - -+
       |                   |(Initial Request,Decision |
       |                   |(QoS-Resources,Authz-time)|
       |           +-------+---------+
       |           |Install QoS state|
       |           |       +         |
       |           | Authz. session  |
       |           | /Authz-time,    |
       |           |  CC-Time,Cost/  |
       |           +-------+---------+
       |                   + - - - - QIA - - - - - ->|
       |                   |    (Result-Code,        |
       |                   |     QoS-Resources)      |
       |                   |                +--------+--------------+
       |                   |                | Report for successful |
       |                   |                |   QoS reservation     |
       |                   |                |Update of reserved QoS |
       |                   |                |      resources        |
       |                   |                +--------+--------------+
       |                   |                         QoS Responder
       |                   |                               Node
       |                   |                                |
       |=====================Data Flow==============....===>|
       |                   |
       |                   +- - - - - ACR - - - - - >|
       |                   |(START,QoS-Resources,Cost|
       |                   |CC-Time,Acc-Multisess-id)|
       |                   |< - - - - ACA - - - - - -+
       |                   |                         |

           Figure 4: Initial QoS Request Authorization for push



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   The Authorizing Entity keeps authorization session state and SHOULD
   save additional information for management of the session (e.g., Acc-
   Multi-Session-Id, Signaling-Session-Id, authentication data) as part
   of the session state information.  A Signaling-session-Id (if
   present) SHOULD be used together with the generated Acc-Multi-
   Session-Id AVP (see Section 6.3) for binding the authorization and
   the accounting session information in case of end host mobility
   (i.e., to correlate the Diameter sessions that are initiated for the
   same signaling session from different QoS NE).

   The final result of the authorization decision is provided in the
   QoS-Resources AVP of the QIR message sent by the Authorizing Entity.
   The QoS information provided via the QIR is installed by the QoS
   Traffic Control function of the Network Element.  In the case of
   successful enforcement, the Result-Code (= DIAMETER_SUCCESS, (see
   Section 6.1)) information is provided in the QIA message.

   One important piece of information from the Authorizing Entity is the
   authorization lifetime (carried inside the QIR).  The authorization
   lifetime allows the Network Element to determine how long the
   authorization decision is valid for this particular QoS reservation.
   A number of factors may influence the authorized session duration,
   such as the user's subscription plan or currently available credits
   at the user's account (see Section 4).  The authorization duration is
   time-based as specified in [RFC3588].  For an extension of the
   authorization period, a new QoS-Install-Request/Answer message or
   QoS-Authorization-Request/Answer message exchange SHOULD be
   initiated.  Further aspects of QoS authorization session maintenance
   is discussed in Section 3.3, Section 3.4 and Section 4.

   The indication of a successful QoS reservation and activation of the
   data flow, is provided by the QoS-Install-Answer message.  Note that
   the reserved QoS resources reported in the QIA message MAY be
   different than those initially authorized with the QIR message, due
   to the QoS signaling specific behavior (e.g., receiver-initiated
   reservations with One-Path-With-Advertisements) or specific process
   of QoS negotiation along the data path.

   In case of xxx = Acounting_Info in the QIR, it indicates the
   confirmation to an accounting server for successful QoS resource
   reservation and for final reserved QoS resources (see below).  An ACR
   message reports the parameters of the established QoS state: reserved
   resources, duration of the reservation, identification of the QoS
   enabled flow/QoS signaling session and accounting parameters to
   accounting server.  The accounting server acknowledges the reserved
   QoS resources with the Accounting Answer (ACA) message where the
   Result-Code is set to 'DIAMETER_SUCCESS'.




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3.2.3.  Discovery and selection of peer Diameter QoS application node

   The Diameter QoS application node may obtain the location information
   of its peer nodes (i.e.  FQDN or IP address) through static
   configuration or dynamic discovery as described in [RFC3588].  In
   particular, the Network Element shall perform the relevant operation
   for Pull mode; the Authorizing Entity shall perform the relevant
   operations for Push mode.

   Upon receipt of a trigger to initiate a new Diameter QoS
   authorization session, the Diameter QoS application node selects and
   retrieves the location information of the peer node and based on some
   index information provided by the resource requesting entity.  For
   instance, it can be the Authorization Entity's ID stored in the
   authorization token, the end-host's identity (e.g.  NAI [RFC2486]) or
   globally routable IP address.

3.3.  QoS authorization session re-authorization

   Client and server-side initiated re-authorizations are considered in
   the design of the Diameter QoS application.  Whether the re-
   authorization events are transparent for the resource requesting
   entity or result in specific actions in the QoS signaling protocol is
   outside the scope of the Diameter QoS application.  It is directly
   dependent on the capabilities of the QoS signaling protocol.

   There are a number of options for policy rules according to which the
   NE (AAA client) contacts the Authorizing Entity for re-authorization.
   These rules depend on the semantics and contents of the QAA message
   sent by the Authorizing Entity:

   a.  The QAA message contains the authorized parameters of the flow
       and its QoS and sets their limits (presumably upper).  With these
       parameters the Authorizing Entity specifies the services that the
       NE can provide and will be financially compensated for.
       Therefore, any change or request for change of the parameters of
       the flow and its QoS that do not conform to the authorized limits
       requires contacting the Authorizing Entity for authorization.
   b.  The QAA message contains authorized parameters of the flow and
       its QoS.  The rules that determine whether parameters' changes
       require re-authorization are agreed out of band, based on a
       Service Level Agreement (SLA) between the domains of the NE and
       the Authorizing Entity.
   c.  The QAA message contains the authorized parameters of the flow
       and its QoS.  Any change or request for change of these
       parameters requires contacting the Authorizing entity for re-
       authorization.




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   d.  In addition to the authorized parameters of the flow and its QoS,
       the QAA message contains policy rules that determine the NEs
       actions in case of change or request for change in authorized
       parameters.

   Provided options are not exhaustive.  Elaborating on any of the
   listed approaches is deployment /solution specific and is not
   considered in the current document.

   In addition, the Authorizing Entity may use RAR to perform re-
   authorization with the authorized parameters directly when the re-
   authorization is triggered by service request or local events/policy
   rules.

3.3.1.  Client-Side Initiated Re-Authorization

   The Authorizing Entity provides the duration of the authorization
   session as part of the QoS-Authorization-Answer message (QAA).  At
   any time before expiration of this period, a new QoS-Authorization-
   Request message (QAR) MAY be sent to the Authorizing Entity.  The
   transmission of the QAR MAY be triggered when the Network Element
   receives a QoS signaling message that requires modification of the
   authorized parameters of an ongoing QoS session, when authorization
   lifetime expires or by an accounting event, see Section 4 and
   Figure 5).


























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                                               Authorizing
     End-Host         Network Element             Entity
   requesting QoS      ( Diameter              ( Diameter
                        QoS Client)             QoS Server)
       |                   |                         |
       |=====================Data Flow==========================>
       |                   |                         |
       |           +-------+----------+              |
       |           |Authz-time/CC-Time|              |
       |           |    expires       |              |
       |           +-------+----------+              |
       |                   +- - - - - QAR - - - - - >|
       |                   |(QoS-Resources,Cost,     |
       |                   | QoS-Authz-Data,User-ID)|
                           |                +--------+--------------+
    NOTE:                  |                |  Authorize request    |
    Re-authorization       |                | Update session data   |
    is transparent to      |                |/Authz-time,Session-Id/|
    the End-Host           |                +--------+--------------+
                           |< - - - - QAA - - - - - -+
       |                   |(Result-Code,CC-Time,Cost|
       |                   |QoS-Resources,Authz-time)|
       |           +-------+---------+               |
       |           |Update QoS state |               |
       |           |       +         |               |
       |           | Authz. session  |               |
       |           | /Authz-time,    |               |
       |           |  CC-Time,Cost/  |               |
       |           +-------+---------+               |
       |                   |                         |
       |                   +- - - - - ACR - - - - - >|
       |                   |(INTRM,QoS-Resources,Cost|
       |                   |CC-Time,Acc-Multisess-id)|
       |                   |                +--------+--------------+
       |                   |                |Update of QoS resources|
       |                   |                |/CC-Time,Cost/ used    |
       |                   |                +--------+--------------+
       |                   |< - - - - ACA - - - - - -+
       |                   |                         |
       |=====================Data Flow==========================>
       |                   |

           Figure 5: Client-side initiated QoS re-authorization








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3.3.2.  Server-Side Initiated Re-Authorization

   The Authorizing Entity MAY initiate a QoS re-authorization by issuing
   a Re-Auth-Request message (RAR) as defined in the Diameter base
   protocol [RFC3588], which may include the parameters of the re-
   authorized QoS state: reserved resources, duration of the
   reservation, identification of the QoS enabled flow/QoS signaling
   session for re-installation of the resource state by the QoS Traffic
   Control function of the Network Element.

   A Network Element that receives such a RAR message with Session-Id
   matching a currently active QoS session acknowledges the request by
   sending the Re-Auth-Answer (RAA) message towards the Authorizing
   entity.

   If RAR does not include any parameters of the re-authorized QoS
   state, the Network Element MUST initiate a QoS re-authorization by
   sending a QoS-Authorization-Request (QAR) message towards the
   Authorizing entity.
































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                                               Authorizing
     End-Host         Network Element             Entity
   requesting QoS      ( Diameter              ( Diameter
                        QoS Client)             QoS Server)
       |                   |                          |
       |                   |                          |<-- Trigger --
       |                   |                 +--------+--------------+
       |                   |                 |  Authorize request    |
       |                   |                 |  Keep session data    |
       |                   |                 |/Authz-time,Session-Id/|
       |                   |                 +--------+--------------+
       |                   |                          |
       |                   |<-- - -- - RAR - - - - - -+
       |                   |(Request,Decision |
       |                   |(QoS-Resources,Authz-time)|
       |           +-------+---------+
       |           |Install QoS state|
       |           |       +         |
       |           | Authz. session  |
       |           | /Authz-time,    |
       |           |  CC-Time,Cost/  |
       |           +-------+---------+
       |                   + - - - - RAA - - - - - ->|
       |                   |    (Result-Code,        |
       |                   |     QoS-Resources)      |
       |                   |                +--------+--------------+
       |                   |                | Report for successful |
       |                   |                |   QoS reservation     |
       |                   |                |Update of reserved QoS |
       |                   |                |      resources        |
       |                   |                +--------+--------------+
       |                   |                         |
       |                   +- - - - - ACR - - - - - >|
       |                   |(INTRM,QoS-Resources,Cost|
       |                   |CC-Time,Acc-Multisess-id)|
       |                   |                +--------+--------------+
       |                   |                |Update of QoS resources|
       |                   |                |/CC-Time,Cost/ used    |
       |                   |                +--------+--------------+
       |                   |< - - - - ACA - - - - - -+
       |                   |                         |

           Figure 6: Server-side Initiated QoS re-authorization








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3.4.  Session Termination

3.4.1.  Client-Side Initiated Session Termination

   The authorization session for an installed QoS reservation state MAY
   be terminated by the Diameter client by sending a Session-
   Termination-Request message (STR) to the Diameter server.  This is a
   Diameter base protocol function and it is defined in [RFC3588].
   Session termination can be caused by a QoS signaling messaging
   requesting deletion of the existing QoS reservation state or it can
   be caused as a result of a soft-state expiration of the QoS
   reservation state.  After a successful termination of the
   authorization session, final accounting messages MUST be exchanged
   (see Figure 7).  It should be noted that the two sessions
   (authorization and accounting) have independent management by the
   Diameter base protocol, which allows for finalizing the accounting
   session after the end of the authorization session.


































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                                               Authorizing
     End-Host         Network Element             Entity
   requesting QoS      ( Diameter              ( Diameter
                        QoS Client)             QoS Server)
       |                   |                         |
       |==Data Flow==>X /Stop of the data flow/      |
       |                   |                         |
       +---QoS-Reserve---->|                         |
       |  (Delete QoS      +- - - - - STR - - - - - >|
       |   reservation)    |                +--------+--------------+
       |                   |                | Remove authorization  |
       |<--QoS-Response----+                | session state         |
       |                   |                +--------+--------------+
                           |< - - - - STA - - - - - -+
                   +-------+--------+                |
                   |Delete QoS state|
                   |  Report final  |
                   | accounting data|                   QoS Responder
                   +-------+--------+                       Node
                           +----------QoS-Reserve-----....--->|
                           |         (Delete QoS              |
                           |          reservation)
                           |
                           +- - - - - ACR - - - - - >|
                           |(FINAL,QoS-Resources,Cost|
                           |CC-Time,Acc-Multisess-id)|
                           |                +--------+--------------+
                           |                | Report for successful |
                           |                |  end of QoS session   |
                           |                +--------+--------------+
                           |< - - - - ACA - - - - - -+
                           |
                           |                            QoS Responder
                           |                                Node
                           |<---------QoS-Response----....----+
                           |                                  |

            Figure 7: Client-Side Initiated Session Termination

3.4.2.  Server-Side Initiated Session Termination

   At anytime during a session the Authorizing Entity MAY send an Abort-
   Session-Request message (ASR) to the Network Element.  This is a
   Diameter base protocol function and it is defined in [RFC3588].
   Possible reasons for initiating the ASR message to the Network
   Element are insufficient credits or session termination at the
   application layer.  The ASR message results in termination of the
   authorized session, release of the reserved resources at the Network



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   Element and transmission of an appropriate QoS signaling message
   indicating a notification to other Network Elements aware of the
   signaling session.  A final accounting message exchange MUST be
   triggered as a result of this ASR message exchange (see Figure 8).


                                               Authorizing
     End-Host         Network Element             Entity
   requesting QoS      ( Diameter              ( Diameter
                        QoS Client)             QoS Server)
       |                   |                         |
       |=====================Data Flow==========================>
       |                   |
       |                   |< - - - - ASR - - - - - -+
       |                   |                         |
       |====Data Flow=====>X                         |  QoS Responder
       |                   |                         |      Node
       |<--QoS-Notify------+----------QoS-Reserve-----....--->|
       |                   |         (Delete QoS     |        |
                           |          reservation)   |
                   +-------+--------+                |
                   |Delete QoS state|                |
                   |  Report final  |                |
                   | accounting data|                |
                   +-------+--------+                |
                           +- - - - - ASA - - - - - >|
                           |                +--------+--------------+
                           |                | Remove authorization  |
                           |                |     session state     |
                           |                +--------+--------------+
                           +- - - - - ACR - - - - - >|
                           |(FINAL,QoS-Resources,Cost|
                           |CC-Time,Acc-Multisess-id)|
                           |                +--------+--------------+
                           |                | Report for successful |
                           |                |  end of QoS session   |
                           |                +--------+--------------+
                           |< - - - - ACA - - - - - -+
                           |                            QoS Responder
                           |                                Node
                           |<---------QoS-Response----....----+
                           |                                  |

            Figure 8: Server-Side Initiated Session Termination







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4.  Accounting

   The Diameter QoS application provides accounting for usage of
   reserved QoS resources.  Diameter QoS accounting has built-in support
   for online, duration based accounting.  This accounting is based on
   the notion that the Diameter QoS clients are in the best position to
   determine the cost of those resources.

   In the Diameter QoS application, the router MAY send a Cost-
   Information AVP (see [RFC4006]) in the QAR.  If the Cost-Information
   AVP includes a Cost-Unit AVP (see [RFC4006]) then the Cost-Unit
   SHOULD be "minute".  The Cost-Information AVPs represent the cost to
   allocate the resources requested in the QoS-Resources AVP included in
   the same QAR message.  The QAR MAY optionally contain a Tariff-Time-
   Change AVP (see [RFC4006]) which is the time at which the cost will
   change, a second Cost-Information AVP, which is the cost of the
   reserved resources after the tariff time change, and a second Tariff-
   Time-Change, which is the time at which the tariff would change
   again.  Either all three or none of these AVPs MUST be present in the
   QAR.

   The Resource Authorizing Entity returns a CC-Time AVP (see [RFC4006])
   in the QAA message which is the total authorized gate-on time for the
   service.  If the QAR included two Tariff-Time-Change AVPs, the
   current time plus the CC-Time AVP returned in the QAA MUST NOT exceed
   the second Tariff-Time-Change AVP from the QAR.  Based on information
   in the Cost-Information AVPs, the Resource Authorizing Entity can use
   the CC-Time AVP to guarantee that the total cost of the session will
   not exceed a certain threshold, which allows, for example, support of
   prepaid users.

   Each ACR message contains a triplet of QoS-Resources AVP, Cost-
   Information AVP, and CC-Time AVP.  This represents the total time
   consumed at the given cost for the given resources.  Note that an ACR
   message MUST be sent separately for each interval defined by the
   Tariff-Time-Change AVPs and the expiration of the CC-Time returned in
   the QAA (see Figure 5).

   The Network Element starts an accounting session by sending an
   Accounting-Request message (ACR) after successful QoS reservation and
   activation of the data flow (see Figure 2).  After every successful
   re-authorization procedure the Network element MUST initiate an
   interim accounting message exchange (see Figure 5).  After successful
   session termination the Network element MUST initiate a final
   exchange of accounting messages for terminating of the accounting
   session and reporting final records for the usage of the QoS
   resources reserved (see Figure 7).




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5.  Diameter QoS Authorization Application Messages

   The Diameter QoS Application requires the definition of new mandatory
   AVPs and Command-codes (see Section 3 of [RFC3588]).  Four new
   Diameter messages are defined along with Command-Codes whose values
   MUST be supported by all Diameter implementations that conform to
   this specification.


   Command-Name                  Abbrev.        Code      Reference
   QoS-Authz-Request              QAR           [TBD]     Section 5.1
   QoS-Authz-Answer               QAA           [TBD]     Section 5.2
   QoS-Install-Request            QIR           [TBD]     Section 5.3
   QoS-Install-Answer             QIA           [TBD]     Section 5.4

   In addition, the following Diameter Base protocol messages are used
   in the Diameter QoS application:


   Command-Name                  Abbrev.        Code      Reference
   Accounting-Request             ACR            271       RFC 3588
   Accounting-Request             ACR            271       RFC 3588
   Accounting-Answer              ACA            271       RFC 3588
   Re-Auth-Request                RAR            258       RFC 3588
   Re-Auth-Answer                 RAA            258       RFC 3588
   Abort-Session-Request          ASR            274       RFC 3588
   Abort-Session-Answer           ASA            274       RFC 3588
   Session-Term-Request           STR            275       RFC 3588
   Session-Term-Answer            STA            275       RFC 3588

   Diameter nodes conforming to this specification MAY advertise support
   by including the value of TBD in the Auth-Application-Id or the Acct-
   Application-Id AVP of the Capabilities-Exchange-Request and
   Capabilities-Exchange-Answer commands, see [RFC3588].

   The value of TBD MUST be used as the Application-Id in all QAR/QAA
   and QIR/QIA commands.

   The value of TBD MUST be used as the Application-Id in all ACR/ACA
   commands, because this application defines new, mandatory AVPs for
   accounting.

   The value of zero (0) SHOULD be used as the Application-Id in all
   STR/STA, ASR/ASA, and RAR/RAA commands, because these commands are
   defined in the Diameter base protocol and no additional mandatory
   AVPs for those commands are defined in this document.





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5.1.  QoS-Authorization Request (QAR)

   The QoS-Authorization-Request message (QAR) indicated by the Command-
   Code field (see Section 3 of [RFC3588]) set to TBD and 'R' bit set in
   the Command Flags field is used by Network elements to request
   quality of service related resource authorization for a given flow.

   The QAR message MUST carry information for signaling session
   identification, Authorizing Entity identification, information about
   the requested QoS, and the identity of the QoS requesting entity.  In
   addition, depending on the deployment scenario, an authorization
   token and credentials of the QoS requesting entity SHOULD be
   included.

   The message format, presented in ABNF form [RFC2234], is defined as
   follows:


    <QoS-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: XXX, REQ, PXY >
                         < Session-Id >
                         { Auth-Application-Id }
                         { Origin-Host }
                         { Origin-Realm }
                         { Destination-Realm }
                         { Auth-Request-Type }
                         [ Destination-Host ]
                         [ User-Name ]
                      *  [ QoS-Resources ]
                         [ QoS-Authz-Data ]
                         [ Cost-Information ]
                         [ Acc-Multisession-Id ]
                         [ Bound-Auth-Session-Id ]
                      *  [ AVP ]

5.2.  QoS-Authorization Answer (QAA)

   The QoS-Authorization-Answer message (QAA), indicated by the Command-
   Code field set to TBD and 'R' bit cleared in the Command Flags field
   is sent in response to the QoS-Authorization-Request message (QAR).
   If the QoS authorization request is successfully authorized, the
   response will include the AVPs to allow authorization of the QoS
   resources as well as accounting and transport plane gating
   information.

   The message format is defined as follows:






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    <QoS-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: XXX, PXY >
                     < Session-Id >
                     { Auth-Application-Id }
                     { Auth-Request-Type }
                     { Result-Code }
                     { Origin-Host }
                     { Origin-Realm }
                  *  [ QoS-Resources ]
                     [ CC-Time ]
                     [ Acc-Multisession-Id ]
                     [ Session-Timeout ]
                     [ Authz-Session-Lifetime ]
                     [ Authz-Grace-Period ]
                  *  [ AVP ]

5.3.  QoS-Install Request (QIR)

   The QoS-Install Request message (QIR), indicated by the Command-Code
   field set to TDB and 'R' bit set in the Command Flags field is used
   by Authorizing entity to install or update the QoS parameters and the
   flow state of an authorized flow at the transport plane element.

   The message MUST carry information for signaling session
   identification or identification of the flow to which the provided
   QoS rules apply, identity of the transport plane element, description
   of provided QoS parameters, flow state and duration of the provided
   authorization.

   The message format is defined as follows:


    <QoS-Install-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: XXX, REQ, PXY >
                              < Session-Id >
                              { Auth-Application-Id }
                              { Origin-Host }
                              { Origin-Realm }
                              { Destination-Realm }
                              { Auth-Request-Type }
                              [ Destination-Host ]
                           *  [ QoS-Resources ]
                              [ Session-Timeout ]
                              [ Authz-Session-Lifetime ]
                              [ Authz-Grace-Period ]
                              [ Authz-Session-Volume ]
                           *  [ AVP ]






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5.4.  QoS-Install Answer (QIA)

   The QoS-Install Answer message (QIA), indicated by the Command-Code
   field set to TBD and 'R' bit cleared in the Command Flags field is
   sent in response to the QoS-Install Request message (QIR) for
   confirmation of the result of the installation of the provided QoS
   reservation instructions.

   The message format is defined as follows:


     <QoS-Install-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: XXX, PXY >
                              < Session-Id >
                              { Auth-Application-Id }
                              { Origin-Host }
                              { Origin-Realm }
                              { Result-Code }
                           *  [ QoS-Resources ]
                           *  [ AVP ]

5.5.  Re-Auth-Request (RAR)

   The Re-Auth-Request message (RAR), indicated by the Command-Code
   field set to 258 and the 'R' bit set in the Command Flags field, is
   sent by the Authorizing Entity to the Network Element in order to
   initiate the QoS re-authorization from DQA server side.

   If the RAR command is received by the Network Element without any
   parameters of the re-authorized QoS state, the Network Element MUST
   initiate a QoS re-authorization by sending a QoS-Authorization-
   Request (QAR) message towards the Authorizing entity.

   The message format is defined as follows:


    <Re-Auth-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: 258, REQ, PXY >
                              < Session-Id >
                              { Auth-Application-Id }
                              { Origin-Host }
                              { Origin-Realm }
                              { Destination-Realm }
                              { Auth-Request-Type }
                              [ Destination-Host ]
                           *  [ QoS-Resources ]
                              [ Session-Timeout ]
                              [ Authz-Session-Lifetime ]
                              [ Authz-Grace-Period ]
                              [ Authz-Session-Volume ]



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                           *  [ AVP ]

5.6.  Re-Auth-Answer (RAA)

   The Re-Auth-Answer message (RAA), indicated by the Command-Code field
   set to 258 and the 'R' bit cleared in the Command Flags field, is
   sent by the Network Element to the Authorizing Entity in response to
   the RAR command..

   The message format is defined as follows:


     <Re-Auth-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 258, PXY >
                              < Session-Id >
                              { Auth-Application-Id }
                              { Origin-Host }
                              { Origin-Realm }
                              { Result-Code }
                           *  [ QoS-Resources ]
                           *  [ AVP ]

5.7.  Accounting Request (ACR)

   The Accounting Request message (ACR), indicated by the Command-Code
   field set to 271 and 'R' bit set in the Command Flags field is used
   by Network Element to report parameters of the authorized and
   established QoS reservation.

   The message MUST carry accounting information authorized QoS
   resources and its usage, e.g., QoS-Resources, CC-Time, CC-Cost, Acc-
   Multi-Session-Id.

   The message format is defined as follows:


     <Accounting-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: XXX, REQ, PXY >
                              < Session-Id >
                              { Acct-Application-Id }
                              { Destination-Realm }
                              [ Destination-Host ]
                              [ Accounting-Record-Type ]
                              [ Accounting-Record-Number ]
                            * [ QoS-Resources ]
                              [ Cost-Information ]
                              [ CC-Time ]
                              [ Acc-Multi-Session-Id ]
                            * [ AVP ]




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5.8.  Accounting Answer (ACA)

   The Accounting Answer message (ACA), indicated by the Command-Code
   field set to 271 and 'R' bit cleared in the Command Flags field is
   sent in response to the Accounting Request message (ACR) as an
   acknowledgment of the ACR message and MAY carry additional management
   information for the accounting session, e.g.  Acc-Interim-Interval
   AVP.

   The message format is defined as follows:


      <Accounting-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: XXX, PXY >
                              < Session-Id >
                              { Acct-Application-Id }
                              [ Result-Code ]
                              [ Accounting-Record-Type ]
                              [ Accounting-Record-Number ]
                              [ Acc-Multi-Session-Id ]
                            * [ AVP ]































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6.  Diameter QoS Authorization Application AVPs

   Each of the AVPs identified in the QoS-Authorization-Request/Answer
   and QoS-Install-Request/Answer messages and the assignment of their
   value(s) is given in this section.

6.1.  Diameter Base Protocol AVPs

   The Diameter QoS application uses a number of session management
   AVPs, defined in the Base Protocol ([RFC3588]).


   Attribute Name                AVP Code     Reference [RFC3588]
   Origin-Host                   264             Section 6.3
   Origin-Realm                  296             Section 6.4
   Destination-Host              293             Section 6.5
   Destination-Realm             283             Section 6.6
   Auth-Application-Id           258             Section 6.8
   Result-Code                   268             Section 7.1
   Auth-Request-Type             274             Section 8.7
   Session-Id                    263             Section 8.8
   Authz-Lifetime                291             Section 8.9
   Authz-Grace-Period            276             Section 8.10
   Session-Timeout                27             Section 8.13
   User-Name                       1             Section 8.14

   The Auth-Application-Id AVP (AVP Code 258) is assigned by IANA to
   Diameter applications.  The value of the Auth-Application-Id for the
   Diameter QoS application is TBD.

6.2.  Credit Control Application AVPs

   The Diameter QoS application provides accounting for usage of
   reserved QoS resources.  Diameter QoS accounting has built-in support
   for online, duration based accounting.  For this purpose it re-uses a
   number of AVPs defined in Diameter Credit Control application.
   [RFC4006].


   Attribute Name                AVP Code     Reference [RFC4006]
   Cost-Information AVP          423             Section 8.7
   Unit-Value AVP                445             Section 8.8
   Currency-Code AVP             425             Section 8.11
   Cost-Unit AVP                 424             Section 8.12
   CC-Time AVP                   420             Section 8.21
   Tariff-Time-Change AVP        451             Section 6.20

   Usage of the listed AVPs is described in Section 4



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   Diameter QoS application is designed to independently provide credit
   control over the controlled QoS resources.  However, deployment
   scenarios, where Diameter QoS application is collocated with Diameter
   Credit Control application, are not excluded.  In such scenarios the
   credit control over the QoS resources might be managed by the Credit
   control application.  Possible interworking approach might be a usage
   of Credit-Control AVP (AVP Code 426) with a newly defined value.  It
   will indicate to the Diameter QoS entities that the credit control
   over the QoS resources would be handled in separate session by Credit
   Control application.  An active cooperation of both applications
   would be required but it is not elaborated further in this document.

6.3.  Accounting AVPs

   The Diameter QoS application uses Diameter Accounting and accounting
   AVPs as defined in Section 9 of [RFC3588].  Additional description of
   the usage of some of them in the QoS authorization context is
   provided:


   Attribute Name                AVP Code     Reference [RFC3588]
   Acct-Application-Id           259             Section 6.9
   Accounting-Record-Type        480             Section 9.8.1
   Accounting-Interim-Interval    85             Section 9.8.2
   Accounting-Record-Number      485             Section 9.8.3
   Accounting-Realtime-Required  483             Section 9.8.7
   Acc-Multi-Session-ID           50             Section 9.8.5

   The following AVPs need further explanation:

   Acct-Application-Id AVP

      The Acct-Application-Id AVP (AVP Code 259)is assigned by IANA to
      Diameter applications.  The value of the Acct-Application-Id for
      the Diameter QoS application is TBD (TBD).

   Acc-Multisession-ID

      Acc-Multi-Session-ID AVP (AVP Code 50) SHOULD be used to link
      multiple accounting sessions together, allowing the correlation of
      accounting information.  This AVP MAY be returned by the Diameter
      server in a QoS-Authorization-Answer message (QAA), and MUST be
      used in all accounting messages for the given session.

6.4.  Diameter QoS Application Defined AVPs

   This document reuses the AVPs defined in Section 4 of
   [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-attributes].



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   This section lists the AVPs that are introduced specifically for the
   Diameter QoS application.  The followig new AVPs are defined: Bound-
   Auth-Session-Id and the QoS-Authz-Data AVP.

   The following table describes the Diameter AVPs newly defined in this
   document for usage with the QoS Application, their AVP code values,
   types, possible flag values, and whether the AVP may be encrypted.


                                                  +-------------------+
                                                  |    AVP Flag rules |
   +----------------------------------------------|----+---+----+-----+
   |                       AVP  Section           |    |   |SHLD| MUST|
   | Attribute Name        Code Defined Data Type |MUST|MAY| NOT|  NOT|
   +----------------------------------------------+----+---+----+-----+
   |QoS-Authz-Data         TBD    6.4  Grouped    | M  | P |    |  V  |
   |Bound-Auth-Session-Id  TBD    6.4  UTF8String | M  | P |    |  V  |
   +----------------------------------------------+----+---+----+-----+
   |M - Mandatory bit. An AVP with "M" bit set and its value MUST be  |
   |    supported and recognized by a Diameter entity in order the    |
   |    message, which carries this AVP, to be accepted.              |
   |P - Indicates the need for encryption for end-to-end security.    |
   |V - Vendor specific bit that indicates whether the AVP belongs to |
   |    a address space.                                              |
   +------------------------------------------------------------------+

   QoS-Authz-Data

      The QoS-Authz-Data AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type OctetString.  It
      is a container that carries application session or user specific
      data that has to be supplied to the Authorizing entity as input to
      the computation of the authorization decision.

   Bound-Authentication-Session-Id

      The Bound-Authentication-Session AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type
      UTF8String.  It carries the id of the Diameter authentication
      session that is used for the network access authentication (NASREQ
      authentication session).  It is used to tie the QoS authorization
      request to a prior authentication of the end host done by a co-
      located application for network access authentication (Diameter
      NASREQ) at the QoS NE.









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7.  Examples

7.1.  Example call flow for pull mode

   This section presents an example of the interaction between the end
   host and Diameter QoS application entities using Pull mode.  The
   application layer signaling is, in this example, provided using SIP.
   Signaling for a QoS resource reservation is done using the QoS NSLP.
   The authorization of the QoS reservation request is done by the
   Diameter QoS application (DQA).

     End-Host                                 SIP Server  Correspondent
   requesting QoS                            (DQA Server)        Node

         |                                          |              |
       ..|....Application layer SIP signaling.......|..............|..
       . |  Invite (SDP)                            |              | .
       . +.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.->              | .
       . |  100 Trying                              |              | .
       . <.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-+  Invite (SDP)| .
       . |                                          +-.-.-.....-.-.> .
       . |                                          |  180 SDP'    | .
       . |                                          <-.-.-.....-.-.+ .
       . |                                 +--------+--------+     | .
       . |                                 |Authorize session|     | .
       . |                                 |   parameters    |     | .
       . | 180 (Session parameters)        +--------+--------+     | .
       . <.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-+              | .
       ..|..........................................|... ..........|..
         |                                          |              |
         |           +------------+                 |              |
         |           |     NE     |                 |              |
         |           |(DQA Client)|                 |              |
         |           +------+-----+                 |              |
         |                  |                       |              |
         |QoS NSLP Reserve  |                       |              |
         +------------------> QAR                   |              |
         | (POLICY_DATA>v   +- - - - -<<AAA>>- - - ->              |
         |  QSPEC)  v   >===>(Destination-Host,     |              |
         |      v   >=======>QoS-Authz-Data        ++------------+ |
         |      >===========>QoS-Resources,        |Authorize    | |
         |                  |Cost-Info)            |QoS resources| |
         |                  |                      ++------------+ |
         |                  | QAA                   |              |
         |                  <- - - - -<<AAA>>- - - -+              |
         |                  |(Result-Code,          |              |
         |                  |QoS-Resources,         |              |
         |                  |CC-Time,               |              |



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         |                  |Authz-Lifetime)        |              |
         |        +---------+--------+              |              |
         |        |Install QoS state1|              |              |
         |        |+ Authz. session  |              |              |
         |        +---------+--------+              |              |
         |                  |QoS NSLP Reserve                      |
         |                  +---------------..............--------->
         |                  |                                      |
         |                  |                     QoS NSLP Response|
         |QoS NSLP Response <---------------..............---------+
         <------------------+                                      |
         |                  |                        QoS NSLP Query|
         |QoS NSLP Query    <---------------..............---------+
         <------------------+                                      |
         |QoS NSLP Reserve  |                                      |
         +------------------> QAR                   |              |
         |                  +- - - - -<<AAA>>- - - ->              |
         |                  |                   +---+---------+    |
         |                  |                   |Authorize    |    |
         |                  |                   |QoS resources|    |
         |                  | QAA               +---+---------+    |
         |                  <- - - - -<<AAA>>- - - -+              |
         |        +---------+--------+              |              |
         |        |Install QoS state2|                             |
         |        |+ Authz. session  |                             |
         |        +---------+--------+                             |
         |                  |  QoS NSLP Reserve                    |
         |                  +---------------..............--------->
         |                  |                     QoS NSLP Response|
         |QoS NSLP Response <---------------..............---------+
         <------------------+                                      |
         |                  |                                      |
         /------------------+--Data Flow---------------------------\
         \------------------+--------------------------------------/
         |                  |                                      |


         .-.-.-.-.  SIP signaling
         ---------  QoS NSLP signaling
         - - - - -  Diameter QoS Application messages
         =========  Mapping of objects between QoS and AAA protocol

             Figure 23: QoS Authorization Example - Pull Mode

   The communication starts with SIP signaling between the two end
   points and the SIP server for negotiation and authorization of the
   requested service and its parameters (see Figure 23).  As a part of
   the process, the SIP server verifies whether the user at Host A is



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   authorized to use the requested service (and potentially the ability
   to be charged for the service usage).  Negotiated session parameters
   are provided to the end host.

   Subsequently, Host A initiates a QoS signaling message towards Host
   B. It sends a QoS NSLP Reserve message, in which it includes
   description of the required QoS (QSPEC object) and authorization data
   for negotiated service session (part of the POLICY_DATA object).
   Authorization data includes, as a minimum, the identity of the
   authorizing entity (e.g., the SIP server) and an identifier of the
   application service session for which QoS resources are requested.

   A QoS NSLP Reserve message is intercepted and processed by the first
   QoS aware Network Element.  The NE uses the Diameter QoS application
   to request authorization for the received QoS reservation request.
   The identity of the Authorizing Entity (in this case the SIP server
   that is co-located with a Diameter server) is put into the
   Destination-Host AVP, any additional session authorization data is
   encapsulated into the QoS-Authz-Data AVP and the description of the
   QoS resources is included into QoS-Resources AVP.  In addition, the
   NE rates the requested QoS resources and announces the charging rate
   into the Cost-Information AVP.  These AVPs are included into a QoS
   Authorization Request message, which is sent to the Authorizing
   entity.

   A Diameter QAR message will be routed through the AAA network to the
   Authorizing Entity.  The Authorizing Entity verifies the requested
   QoS against the QoS resources negotiated for the service session and
   replies with QoS-Authorization answer (QAA) message.  It carries the
   authorization result (Result-Code AVP) and the description of the
   authorized QoS parameters (QoS-Resources AVP), as well as duration of
   the authorization session (Authorization-Lifetime AVP) and duration
   of the time (CC-Time) for which the end-user should be charged with
   the rate announced in the QAR message.  The NE interacts with the
   traffic control function and installs the authorized QoS resources
   and forwards the QoS NSLP Reserve message further along the data
   path.

7.2.  Example call flow for push mode

   This section presents an example of the interaction between the end-
   host and Diameter QoS application entities using Push Mode.  The
   application layer signaling is, in this example, provided using SIP.
   Signaling for a QoS resource reservation is done using the QoS NSLP.
   The authorization of the QoS reservation request is done by the
   Diameter QoS application (DQA).

    End-Host              NE                  SIP Server  Correspondent



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  requesting QoS      (DQA Client)           (DQA Server)        Node

        |                  |                          |              |
      ..|....Application layer SIP signaling..........|..............|..
      . | Invite(SDP offer)|                          |              | .
      . +.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.>              | .
      . |  100 Trying      |                          |              | .
      . <.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.+              | .
      . |.............................................|..............| .
        |                  |                +---------+-------------+|
        |                  |                |  Authorize request    ||
        |                  |                |  Keep session data    ||
        |                  |                |/Authz-time,Session-Id/||
        |                  |                +---------+-------------+|
        |                  |                          |              |
        |                  |<-- - -- - QIR - -- - -- -+              |
        |                  |(Initial Request,Decision |              |
        |                  |(QoS-Resources,Authz-time)|              |
        |          +-------+---------+                |              |
        |          |Install QoS state|                |              |
        |          |       +         |                |              |
        |          | Authz. session  |                |              |
        |          | /Authz-time,    |                |              |
        |          |  CC-Time,Cost/  |                |              |
        |          +-------+---------+                |              |
        |                  + - - -- - QIA - - - - - ->|              |
        |                  |     (Result-Code,        |              |
        |                  |      QoS-Resources)      |              |
        |                  |               +----------+------------+ |
        |                  |               | Report for successful | |
        |                  |               |   QoS reservation     | |
        |                  |               |Update of reserved QoS | |
        |                  |               |      resources        | |
        |                  |               +----------+------------+ |
      . |                  |                          | Invite (SDP) | .
      . |                  |                          +-.-.-.....-.-.> .
      . | 180 (Ringing)                               |              | .
      . <.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.<.-.-.-.-.-.-.-+ .
      . |                  |                          |  200 OK (SDP)| .
      . |                  |                          <-.-.-.....-.-.+ .
        |                  |                 +--------+-----------+  |
        |                  |                 |re-Authorize session|  |
        |                  |                 |   parameters       |  |
        |                  |                 +--------+-----------+  |
        |                  <- - - - - - RAR - - - - - +              |
        |        +---------+--------+                 |              |
        |        |Activate QoS state|                 |              |
        |        +---------+--------+                 |              |



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        |                  +- - - - - - RAA - - - - - >              |
      . | 200 (SDP answer) |                          |              | .
      . <.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.+              | .
        |                  |                                         |
        /------------------+-----Data Flow---------------------------\
        \------------------+-----------------------------------------/
        |                  |                                         |

        .-.-.-.-.  SIP signaling
        - - - - -  Diameter QoS Application messages

             Figure 24: QoS Authorization Example - Push Mode

   The communication starts with SIP signaling between the two end
   points and the SIP server for negotiation and authorization of the
   requested service and its parameters (see Figure 24).  As a part of
   the process, the SIP server verifies whether the user at Host A is
   authorized to use the requested service (and potentially the ability
   to be charged for the service usage).  The DQA server is triggered to
   authorize the QoS request based on session parameters (i.e.  SDP
   offer), initiate a Diameter QoS authorization session and install
   authorized QoS state to the Network Element via QIR message.

   The DQA server may obtain the info of peer DQA client from pre-
   configured information or query the DNS based on Host A's identity or
   IP address (In this case a DQA server is co-located with a SIP server
   and a DQA client is co-located with a Network element).  The identity
   of Network Element is put into the Destination-Host AVP, the
   description of the QoS resources is included into QoS-Resources AVP,
   as well as duration of the authorization session (Authorization-
   Lifetime AVP) and duration of the time (CC-Time) for which the end-
   user should be charged with the rate announced in the QIR message.
   The NE interacts with the traffic control function and reserves the
   authorized QoS resources accordingly.

   With successful QoS authorization, the SDP offer in SIP Invite is
   forwared to Host B. Host B sends back a 18x (ringing) message towards
   Host A and processes the SDP.  Once Host B accepts the call, it sends
   back a 200 OK, in which it includes description of the accepted
   session parameters (i.e.  SDP answer).

   The DQA server may verifies the accepted QoS against the pre-
   authorized QoS resources, and sends a Diameter RAR message to the DQA
   client in the network element for activating the installed policies
   and commit the resource allocation.  With successful QoS enforcement,
   the 200 OK is forwarded towards Host A.

   Note that the examples above show a sender-initiated reservation from



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   the End-Host towards the corresponding node and a receiver-initiated
   reservation from the correspondent node towards the End-Host.

















































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8.  IANA Considerations

   TBD
















































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9.  Security Considerations

   TBD
















































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10.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank John Loughney and Allison Mankin for
   their input to this document.  In September 2005 Robert Hancock,
   Jukka Manner, Cornelia Kappler, Xiaoming Fu, Georgios Karagiannis and
   Elwyn Davies provided a detailed review.  Robert also provided us
   with good feedback earlier in 2005.  Jerry Ash provided us review
   comments late 2005/early 2006.  Rajith R provided some inputs to the
   document early 2007

   [Editor's Note: Acknowledgements need to be updated.]








































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11.  Contributors

   The authors would like to thank Tseno Tsenov (tseno.tsenov@gmail.com)
   and Frank Alfano (falfano@lucent.com) for starting the Diameter
   Quality of Service work within the IETF, for your significant draft
   contributions and for being the driving force for the first few draft
   versions.

   [Editor's Note: A bit of history needs to be included here.]










































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12.  Open Issues

   Open issues related to this draft are listed at the issue tracker
   available at: http://www.tschofenig.com:8080/diameter-qos/















































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13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-attributes]
              Korhonen, J., Tschofenig, H., Arumaithurai, M., and M.
              Jones, "Quality of Service Attributes for Diameter",
              draft-ietf-dime-qos-attributes-03 (work in progress),
              November 2007.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.

   [RFC3588]  Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., and J.
              Arkko, "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588, September 2003.

   [RFC4005]  Calhoun, P., Zorn, G., Spence, D., and D. Mitton,
              "Diameter Network Access Server Application", RFC 4005,
              August 2005.

   [RFC4006]  Hakala, H., Mattila, L., Koskinen, J-P., Stura, M., and J.
              Loughney, "Diameter Credit-Control Application", RFC 4006,
              August 2005.

13.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-nsis-ntlp]
              Schulzrinne, H. and R. Hancock, "GIST: General Internet
              Signalling Transport", draft-ietf-nsis-ntlp-14 (work in
              progress), July 2007.

   [I-D.ietf-nsis-qos-nslp]
              Manner, J., "NSLP for Quality-of-Service Signaling",
              draft-ietf-nsis-qos-nslp-15 (work in progress), July 2007.

   [RFC2210]  Wroclawski, J., "The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated
              Services", RFC 2210, September 1997.

   [RFC2486]  Aboba, B. and M. Beadles, "The Network Access Identifier",
              RFC 2486, January 1999.

   [RFC2749]  Herzog, S., Boyle, J., Cohen, R., Durham, D., Rajan, R.,
              and A. Sastry, "COPS usage for RSVP", RFC 2749,
              January 2000.




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   [RFC2753]  Yavatkar, R., Pendarakis, D., and R. Guerin, "A Framework
              for Policy-based Admission Control", RFC 2753,
              January 2000.

   [RFC2865]  Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson,
              "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)",
              RFC 2865, June 2000.

   [RFC3313]  Marshall, W., "Private Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
              Extensions for Media Authorization", RFC 3313,
              January 2003.

   [RFC3520]  Hamer, L-N., Gage, B., Kosinski, B., and H. Shieh,
              "Session Authorization Policy Element", RFC 3520,
              April 2003.

   [RFC3521]  Hamer, L-N., Gage, B., and H. Shieh, "Framework for
              Session Set-up with Media Authorization", RFC 3521,
              April 2003.

   [RFC4027]  Josefsson, S., "Domain Name System Media Types", RFC 4027,
              April 2005.

   [RFC4566]  Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
              Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.


























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Authors' Addresses

   Glen Zorn (editor)


   Phone:
   Email: glenzorn@comcast.net


   Peter J. McCann
   Motorola Labs
   1301 E. Algonquin Rd
   Schaumburg, IL  60196
   USA

   Phone: +1 847 576 3440
   Email: pete.mccann@motorola.com


   Hannes Tschofenig
   Nokia Siemens Networks
   Otto-Hahn-Ring 6
   Munich, Bavaria  81739
   Germany

   Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@nsn.com
   URI:   http://www.tschofenig.com


   Tina Tsou
   Huawei
   Shenzhen,
   P.R.C

   Email: tena@huawei.com


   Avri Doria
   Lulea University of Technology
   Arbetsvetenskap
   Lulea,   SE-97187
   Sweden

   Email: avri@ltu.se







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   Dong Sun
   Bell Labs/Alcatel-Lucent
   101 Crawfords Corner Rd
   Holmdel, NJ  07733
   USA

   Email: dongsun@alcatel-lucent.com












































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Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE IETF TRUST AND
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   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
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Acknowledgment

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is provided by the IETF
   Administrative Support Activity (IASA).





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