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Versions: (draft-srose-dnsext-dnssec-roadmap) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

DNS Extensions                                                   S. Rose
Internet-Draft                                                      NIST
Expires: August 5, 2003                                 February 4, 2003


                     DNS Security Document Roadmap
                  draft-ietf-dnsext-dnssec-roadmap-07

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at http://
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   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 5, 2003.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   DNS Security (DNSSEC) technology is composed of extensions to the
   Domain Name System (DNS) protocol that provide data integrity and
   authentication to security aware resolvers and applications through
   the use of cryptographic digital signatures.  Several documents exist
   to describe these extensions and the implementation-specific details
   regarding specific digital signing schemes.  The interrelationship
   between these different documents is discussed here.  A brief
   overview of what to find in which document and author guidelines for
   what to include in new DNS Security documents, or revisions to
   existing documents, is described.





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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Interrelationship of DNS Security Documents  . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Relationship of DNS Security Documents to other DNS
       Documents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.  Recommended Content for new DNS Security Documents . . . . . .  9
   4.1 Security Related Resource Records  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   4.2 Digital Signature Algorithm Implementations  . . . . . . . . .  9
   4.3 Refinement of Security Procedures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   4.4 The Use of DNS Security Extensions with Other Protocols  . . . 10
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   6.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16


































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1. Introduction

   This document is intended to provide guidelines for the development
   of supplemental documents describing security extensions to the
   Domain Name System (DNS).

   The main goal of the DNS Security (DNSSEC) extensions is to add data
   authentication and integrity services to the DNS protocol.  These
   protocol extensions should be differentiated from DNS operational
   security issues, which are beyond the scope of this effort.  DNS
   Security documents fall into one or possibly more of the following
   sub-categories: new DNS security resource records, implementation
   details of specific digital signing algorithms for use in DNS
   Security and DNS transaction authentication.  Since the goal of DNS
   Security extensions is to become part of the DNS protocol standard,
   additional documents that seek to refine a portion of the security
   extensions will be introduced as the specifications progress along
   the IETF standards track.

   There is a set of basic guidelines for each sub-category of documents
   that explains what should be included, what should be considered a
   protocol extension, and what should be considered an operational
   issue.  Currently, there are at least two documents that fall under
   operational security considerations that deal specifically with the
   DNS security extensions: the first is RFC 2541 [6] which deals with
   the operational side of implementing the security extensions; the
   other is the CAIRN DNSSEC testbed Internet draft [CAIRN].  These
   documents should be considered part of the operational side of DNS,
   but will be addressed as a supplemental part of the DNS Security
   roadmap.  That is not to say that these two documents are not
   important to securing a DNS zone, but they do not directly address
   the proposed DNS security extensions.  Authors of documents that seek
   to address the operational concerns of DNS security should be aware
   of the structure of DNS Security documentation.

   It is assumed the reader has some knowledge of the Domain Name System
   [2] and the Domain Name System Security Extensions.














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2. Interrelationship of DNS Security Documents

   The DNSSEC set of documents can be partitioned into five main groups
   as depicted in Figure 1.  All of these documents in turn are under
   the larger umbrella group of DNS base protocol documents.  It is
   possible that some documents fall into more than one of these
   categories, such as RFC 2535, and should follow the guidelines for
   the all of the document groups it falls into.  However, it is wise to
   limit the number of "uberdocuments" that try to be everything to
   everyone.  The documents listed in each category are current as to
   the time of writing.








































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   ---------------------------------------------------------------------



                    +--------------------------------+
                    |                                |
                    |    Base DNS Protocol Docs.     |
                    |   [RFC1035, RFC2181, etc.]     |
                    |                                |
                    +--------------------------------+
                                    |
                                    |
                                    |
      +------------+          +-----------+          +-------------+
      |  New       |          |  DNSSEC   |          |  New        |
      |  Security  |----------|  protocol |----------|  Security   |
      |  RRs       |          |           |          |  Uses       |
      +------------+          |           |          +-------------+
                              +-----------+
                                    |
                                    |
             +----------------------+***********************
             |                      *                      *
             |                      *                      *
       +------------+       +---------------+      +-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-+
       |  DS        |       |               |      | Implementation  |
       |  Algorithm |       |  Transactions |      * Notes           *
       |  Impl.     |       |               |      |                 |
       +------------+       +---------------+      +-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-+




                        DNSSEC Document Roadmap

   ---------------------------------------------------------------------

   The "DNSSEC protocol" document set refers to the document that makes
   up the groundwork for adding security to the DNS protocol [1]and
   updates to this document.  RFC 2535 laid out the goals and
   expectations of DNS Security and the new security-related Resource
   Records KEY, SIG, DS, and NXT [23].  Expanding from this document,
   related document groups include the implementation documents of
   various digital signature algorithms with DNSSEC, and documents
   further refining the transaction of messages.  It is expected that
   RFC 2535 will be obsoleted by one or more documents that refine the
   set of security extensions [22], [23], [24].  Documents that seek to
   modify or clarify the base protocol documents should state so clearly



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   in the introduction of the document (as well as proscribe to the IETF
   guidelines of RFC/Internet Draft author guidelines).  Also, the
   portions of the specification to be modified should be synopsized in
   the new document for the benefit of the reader.  The "DNSSEC
   protocol" set includes the documents [1], [11], [12], [9], [14],
   [15], [21], [16], [OPTIN], [17] and their derivative documents.

   The "New Security RRs" set refers to the group of documents that seek
   to add additional Resource Records to the set of base DNS Record
   types.  These new records can be related to securing the DNS protocol
   [1], [8], or using DNS security for other purposes such as storing
   certificates [5].  Another related document is [26].  While not
   detailing a new RR type, it defines a flag bit in the existing KEY
   RR.  This flag bit does not affect the protocol interpretation of the
   RR, only a possible operational difference.  Therefore, this draft is
   place here and not with the protocol document set.

   The "DS Algorithm Impl" document set refers to the group of documents
   that describe how a specific digital signature algorithm is
   implemented to fit the DNSSEC Resource Record format.  Each one of
   these documents deals with one specific digital signature algorithm.
   Examples of this set include [4], [5], [25], [19][18] and [13].

   The "Transactions" document set refers to the group of documents that
   deal with the message transaction sequence of security-related DNS
   operations.  The contents and sequence for operations such as dynamic
   update [3], [11] and transaction signatures [10] are described in
   this document category.  Additional message transaction schemes to
   support DNSSEC operation would also fall under this group, including
   secret key establishment [7], [RENEW], and verification.

   The final document set, "New Security Uses", refers to documents that
   seek to use proposed DNS Security extensions for other security
   related purposes.  Documents that fall in this category include the
   use of DNS in the storage and distribution of certificates and
   individual user public keys (PGP, e-mail, etc.)  Some documents in
   this group may fall beyond the DNSEXT WG scope, but they are included
   because of their use of the security extensions.  The documents in
   this group should not propose any changes to the DNS protocol to
   support other protocols; only how existing DNS security records and
   transactions can be used to support other protocols.  Such documents
   include [SSH-DNS] and [IPSEC-DNS] which deals with storing SSH and
   IPSec keying information the DNS using new records and utilizing
   DNSSEC to provide authentication and integrity checking.

   Lastly, there is a set of documents that should be classified as
   "Implementation Notes".  Because the DNS security extensions are
   still in the developmental stage, there is an audience for documents



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   that detail the transition and implementation of the security
   extensions.  These have more to do with the practical side of DNS
   operations, but can also point to places in the protocol
   specifications that need improvement.  An example of this type is the
   report on the CAIRN DNSSEC testbed [CAIRN] This document was
   submitted through the DNSOP Working Group at the time of this
   writing, however the main concern of this document is the
   implementation and limitations of the DNS security extensions, hence
   their interest to the DNS security community.  The CAIRN draft deals
   with the implementation of a secure DNS.  Authors of documents that
   deal with the implementation and operational side of the DNSSEC
   specifications would be advised/encouraged to submit their documents
   to any other relevant DNS related WG meeting in the problem space.






































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3.  Relationship of DNS Security Documents to other DNS Documents

   The DNS security-related extensions should be considered a subset of
   the DNS protocol.  Therefore, all DNS security-related documents
   should be seen as a subset of the main DNS architecture documents.
   It is a good idea for authors of future DNS security documents to be
   familiar with the contents of these base protocol documents.












































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4.  Recommended Content for new DNS Security Documents

   Documents that seek to make additions or revisions to the DNS
   protocol to add security should follow common guidelines as to
   minimum required content and structure.  It is the purpose of this
   document roadmap to establish criteria for content that any new DNS
   security protocol specifications document should contain.  These
   criteria should be interpreted as a minimum set of information
   required/needed in a document, any additional information regarding
   the specific extension should also be included in the document.
   These criteria are not officially part of the IETF guidelines
   regarding RFC/Internet Drafts, but should be considered as guidance
   to promote uniformity to Working Group documents.

   Since the addition of security to the DNS protocol is now considered
   a general extension to the DNS protocol, any guideline for the
   contents of a DNS Security document could be taken as a framework
   suggestion for the contents of any DNS extension document.  The
   development process of the DNS security extensions could be used as a
   model framework for any, more general DNS extensions.

4.1 Security Related Resource Records

   Documents describing a new type of DNS Security Resource Record (RR)
   should contain information describing the structure and use of the
   new RR type.  It is a good idea to only discuss one new type in a
   document, unless the set of new resource records are closely related
   or a protocol extension requires the use of more than one new record
   type.  Specifically, each document detailing a new security-related
   RR type should include the following information:

   o  The format of the new RR type, both "on the wire" (bit format) and
      ASCII representation (for text zone files), if appropriate;

   o  when and in what section of a DNS query/response this new RR type
      is to be included;

   o  at which level of the DNS hierarchy this new RR type is to be
      considered authoritative (i.e.  in a zone, in a zone's superzone)
      and who is authoritative to sign the new RR;


4.2 Digital Signature Algorithm Implementations

   Documents describing the implementation details of a specific digital
   signature algorithm such as [4] ,[13] (and others as new digital
   signatures schemes are introduced) for use with DNS Security should
   include the following information:



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   o  The format/encoding of the algorithm's public key for use in a KEY
      Resource Record;

   o  the acceptable key size for use with the algorithm;

   o  the current known status of the algorithm (as one of REQUIRED,
      RECOMMENDED, or OPTIONAL).

   In addition, authors are encouraged to include any necessary
   description of the algorithm itself, as well as any know/suspected
   weaknesses as an appendix to the document.  This is for reference
   only, as the goals of the DNSEXT working group is to propose
   extensions to the DNS protocol, not cryptographic research.

4.3 Refinement of Security Procedures

   This set of documents includes DNS protocol operations that
   specifically relate to DNS Security, such as DNS secret key
   establishment [7]  and security extensions to pre-existing or
   proposed DNS operations such as dynamic update [3].  Documents that
   describe a new set of DNS message transactions, or seek to refine a
   current series of transactions that make up a DNS operation should
   include the following information:

   o  The order in which the DNS messages are sent by the operation
      initiator and target;

   o  the format of these DNS messages;

   o  any required authentication mechanisms for each stage of the
      operation and the required authority for that mechanism (i.e.
      zone, host, or some other trusted authority such as a DNS
      administrator or certificate authority);


4.4 The Use of DNS Security Extensions with Other Protocols

   Because of the flexibility and ubiquity of the DNS, there may exist
   other Internet protocols and applications that could make use of, or
   extend, the DNS security protocols.  Examples of this type of
   document include the use of DNS to support IPSEC [IPSEC-DNS], SSH
   [SSH-DNS] the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).  It is beyond the
   scope of this roadmap to describe the contents of this class of
   documents.  However, if uses or extensions require the addition or
   modification of a DNS Resource Record type or DNS query/response
   transactions, then the guidelines laid out in the previous sections
   of this document should be adhered to.




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5. Security Considerations

   This document provides a roadmap and guidelines for writing DNS
   Security related documents.  This document does not discuss the
   aspects of the DNS security extensions.  The reader should refer to
   the documents outlined here for the details of the services and
   shortcomings of DNS security.












































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6. Acknowledgements

   In addition to the RFCs mentioned in this document, there are also
   numerous Internet drafts that fall in one or more of the categories
   of DNS Security documents mentioned above.  Depending on where (and
   if) these documents are on the IETF standards track, the reader may
   not be able to access these documents through the RFC repositories.
   All of these documents are "Work in Progress" and are subject to
   change; therefore a version number is not supplied for the current
   revision.  Some Internet Drafts are in the RFC editor's queue or
   nearing WG Last Call at the time of writing.  These Drafts have been
   placed in the References section.  The drafts below are still subject
   to agreement in the IETF.

   o  CAIRN:  D.  Massey, T.  Lehman, and E.  Lewis.  "DNSSEC
      Implementation in the CAIRN Testbed".  draft-ietf-dnsop-
      dnsseccairn-NN.txt

   o  OPTIN:  M.  Kosters.  "DNSSEC Opt-in for Large Zones"  draft-
      kosters-dnsext-dnssec-opt-in-NN.txt

   o  SSH-DNS:  W.  Griffin, J.  Schlyter.  "Using DNS to securely
      publish SSH key fingerprints"  draft-ietf-secsh-dns-NN.txt

   o  IPSEC-DNS:  M.  Richardson.  "A method for storing IPsec keying
      material in DNS".  draft-richardson-ipsec-rr-NN.txt

   o  RENEW:  Y.  Kamite, M.  Nakayama.  "TKEY Secret Key Renewal Mode".
      draft-ietf-dnsext-tkey-renewal-mode-NN.txt






















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Normative References

   [1]   Eastlake, D., "Domain Name System Security Extensions", RFC
         2535, March 1999.

   [2]   Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
         specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [3]   Eastlake, D., "Secure Domain Name System Dynamic Update", RFC
         2137, April 1997.

   [4]   Eastlake, D., "DSA KEYs and SIGs in the Domain Name System
         (DNS)", RFC 2536, March 1999.

   [5]   Eastlake, D. and O. Gudmundsson, "Storing Certificates in the
         Domain Name System (DNS)", RFC 2538, March 1999.

   [6]   Eastlake, D., "DNS Security Operational Considerations", RFC
         2541, March 1999.

   [7]   Eastlake, D., "Secret Key Establishment for DNS (TKEY RR)", RFC
         2930, September 2000.

   [8]   Eastlake, D., "DNS Request and Transaction Signatures (
         SIG(0)s)", RFC 2931, September 2000.

   [9]   Lewis, E., "DNS Security Extension Clarification on Zone
         Status", RFC 3090, March 2001.

   [10]  Vixie, P., Gudmundsson, O., Eastlake, D. and B. Wellington,
         "Secret Key Transaction Authentication for DNS (TSIG)", RFC
         2845, May 2000.

   [11]  Wellington, B., "Secure Domain Name System (DNS) Dynamic
         Update", RFC 3007, November 2000.

   [12]  Wellington, B., "Domain Name System Security (DNSSEC) Signing
         Authority", RFC 3008, April 2000.

   [13]  Eastlake, D., "RSA/SHA-1 SIGs and RSA KEYs in the Domain Name
         System (DNS)", RFC 3110, May 2001.

   [14]  Conrad, D., "Indicating Resolver Support of DNSSEC", RFC 3225,
         December 2001.

   [15]  Gudmundsson, O., "DNSSEC and IPv6 A6 aware server/resolver
         message size requirements", RFC 3226, December 2001.




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   [16]  Massey, D. and S. Rose, "Limiting the Scope of the KEY Resource
         Record (RR)", RFC 3445, December 2002.

















































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Informative References

   [17]  Austein, R. and D. Atkins, "Threat Analysis of the Domain Name
         System (Work in Progress)", RFC XXXX.

   [18]  Eastlake, R., "Storage of Diffie-Hellman Keys in the Domain
         Name System (DNS) (Work in Progress)", RFC XXXX.

   [19]  Eastlake, D. and R. Schroeppel, "Elliptic Curve KEYs in the DNS
         (Work in Progress)", RFC XXXX.

   [20]  Gundmundsson, O., "Delegation Signer Record in Parent (Work in
         Progress)", RFC XXXX.

   [21]  Wellington, B., "Redefinition of the DNS AD bit (Work in
         Progress)", RFC XXXX.

   [22]  Arends, R., Larson, M., Massey, D. and S. Rose, "DNS Security
         Introduction and Requirements (Work in Progress)", RFC XXXX.

   [23]  Arends, R., Larson, M., Massey, D. and S. Rose, "Resource
         Records for DNS Security Extensions (Work in Progress)", RFC
         XXXX.

   [24]  Arends, R., Larson, M., Massey, D. and S. Rose, "Protocol
         Modifications for the DNS Security Extensions (Work in
         Progress)", RFC XXXX.

   [25]  Kwan, S., Garg, P., Gilroy, J. and L. Esibov, "GSS Algorithm
         for TSIG (Work in Progress)", RFC XXXX.

   [26]  Kolkman, O. and J. Schlyter, "KEY RR Key-Signing-Key (KSK) Flag
         (Work in Progress)", RFC XXXX.


Author's Address

   Scott Rose
   National Institute for Standards and Technology
   100 Bureau Drive
   Gaithersburg, MD  20899-3460
   USA

   EMail: scott.rose@nist.gov







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Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
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   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
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Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.



















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