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Versions: (draft-manning-dnsext-mdns) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 RFC 4795

DNSEXT Working Group                                        Levon Esibov
INTERNET-DRAFT                                             Bernard Aboba
Category: Standards Track                                    Dave Thaler
<draft-ietf-dnsext-mdns-14.txt>                                Microsoft
22 March 2003


              Linklocal Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR)

This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all
provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that other groups
may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material
or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

Copyright Notice

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

Today, with the rise of home networking, there are an increasing number
of ad-hoc networks operating without a DNS server. In order to allow
name resolution in such environments, Link-Local Multicast Name
Resolution (LLMNR) is proposed. LLMNR supports all current and future
DNS formats, types and classes, while operating on a separate port from
DNS, and with a distinct resolver cache.












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Table of Contents

1.     Introduction ..........................................    3
   1.1       Requirements ....................................    4
   1.2       Terminology .....................................    4
2.     Name resolution using LLMNR ...........................    4
   2.1       Sender behavior .................................    5
   2.2       Responder behavior ..............................    5
   2.3       Unicast queries .................................    7
   2.4       Addressing ......................................    7
   2.5       TTL .............................................    7
   2.6       Retransmissions .................................    8
   2.7       DNS TTL .........................................    8
3.     Usage model ...........................................    8
   3.1       Unqualified names ...............................    9
   3.2       LLMNR configuration .............................    9
4.     Conflict resolution ...................................   11
   4.1       Considerations for multiple interfaces ..........   13
   4.2       API issues ......................................   14
5.     Security considerations ...............................   14
   5.1       Scope restriction ...............................   15
   5.2       Usage restriction ...............................   15
   5.3       Cache and port separation .......................   16
   5.4       Authentication ..................................   16
6.     IANA considerations ...................................   17
7.     Normative References ..................................   17
8.     Informative References ................................   17
Acknowledgments ..............................................   18
Authors' Addresses ...........................................   19
Intellectual Property Statement ..............................   19
Full Copyright Statement .....................................   20




















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1.  Introduction

This document discusses Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR),
which operates on a separate port from DNS, with a distinct resolver
cache, but does not change the format of DNS packets. LLMNR supports all
current and future DNS formats, types and classes. However, since LLMNR
only operates on the local link, it cannot be considered a substitute
for DNS.

The goal of LLMNR is to enable name resolution in scenarios in which
conventional DNS name resolution is not possible. These include
scenarios in which hosts are not configured with the address of a DNS
server, where configured DNS servers do not reply to a query, or where
they respond with errors, as described in Section 3.

LLMNR queries are sent to and received on port TBD using a LINKLOCAL
address as specified in "Administratively Scoped IP Multicast" [RFC2365]
for IPv4. The LLMNR LINKLOCAL address to be used for IPv4 is
224.0.0.251.  For IPv6, the "solicited name" LINKLOCAL multicast
addresses are used for A/AAAA queries, and a separate multicast address
TBD for all other queries.  LINKLOCAL multicast addresses are used to
prevent propagation of LLMNR traffic across routers, potentially
flooding the network; for details, see Section 2.4.  In circumstances
described in Section 2.3, LLMNR queries can also be sent to a unicast
address.

Propagation of LLMNR packets on the local link is considered sufficient
to enable name resolution in small networks. The assumption is that if a
network has a home gateway, then the network either has a DNS server or
the home gateway can function as a DNS proxy.  By implementing DHCPv4 as
well as a DNS proxy and dynamic DNS, home gateways can provide name
resolution for the names of hosts over IPv4 on the local network.

For small IPv6 networks, equivalent functionality can be provided by a
home gateway implementing DHCPv6 for DNS configuration [DHCPv6DNS], as
well as a DNS proxy supporting AAAA RRs and dynamic DNS, providing name
resolution for the names of hosts over IPv6 on the local network.

This should be adequate as long as home gateways implementing DNS
configuration also support dynamic DNS in some form.

In the future, LLMNR may be defined to support greater than LINKLOCAL
multicast scope.  This would occur if LLMNR deployment is successful,
the assumption that LLMNR is not needed on multiple links proves
incorrect, and multicast routing becomes ubiquitous.  For example, it is
not clear that this assumption will be valid in large adhoc networking
scenarios.




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Once we have experience in LLMNR deployment in terms of administrative
issues, usability and impact on the network it will be possible
reevaluate which multicast scopes are appropriate for use with multicast
name resolution mechanisms.

Service discovery in general, as well as discovery of DNS servers using
LLMNR in particular is outside of the scope of this document, as is name
resolution over non-multicast capable media.

1.1.  Requirements

In this document, several words are used to signify the requirements of
the specification.  These words are often capitalized.  The key words
"MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD
NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be
interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

1.2.  Terminology

Responder      A host that listens to LLMNR queries, and responds to
               those for which it is authoritative.

Sender         A host that sends an LLMNR query. Typically a host is
               configured as both a sender and a responder. However, a
               host may be configured as a sender, but not a responder
               or as a responder, but not a sender.

Routable address
               An address other than a linklocal address. This includes
               site local and globally routable addresses, as well as
               private addresses.

2.  Name resolution using LLMNR

The sequence of events for LLMNR usage is as follows:

[1] If a sender needs to resolve a query for a name "host.example.com",
    then it sends a LLMNR query to the LINKLOCAL multicast address.

[2] A responder responds to this query only if it is authoritative
    for the domain name "host.example.com". The responder sends
    a response to the sender via unicast over UDP.

[3] Upon the reception of the response, the sender verifies that the Hop
    Limit field in IPv6 header or TTL field in IPv4 header (depending on
    the protocol used) of the response is set to 255. The sender then
    verifies compliance with the addressing requirements for IPv4,
    described in [IPV4Link], and IPv6, described in [RFC2373]. If these



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    conditions are met, then the sender uses and caches the returned
    response. If not, then the sender ignores the response and continues
    waiting for the response.

Further details of sender and responder behavior are provided in the
sections that follow.

2.1.  Sender behavior

A sender sends an LLMNR query for any legal Type of resource record
(e.g. A, PTR, etc.) to the LINKLOCAL multicast address.  An LLMNR sender
MAY send requests for any name.

Under conditions described in Section 2.3, a sender may also send a
unicast query. The RD (Recursion Desired) bit MUST NOT be set. If a
responder receives a query with the header containing RD set bit, the
responder MUST ignore the RD bit.

The sender MUST anticipate receiving no replies to some LLMNR queries,
in the event that no responders are available within the linklocal
multicast scope, or in the event that no positive non-null responses
exist for the transmitted query.  If no positive response is received, a
resolver treats it as a response that no records of the specified type
and class for the specified name exist (that is, it is treated the same
as a response with RCODE=0 and an empty answer section).

2.2.  Responder behavior

A responder listens on port TBD on the LINKLOCAL multicast address(es)
and on the unicast address(es) that could be set as the source
address(es) when the responder responds to the LLMNR query. The host
configured as a responder MUST act as a sender to verify the uniqueness
of names as described in Section 4.

Responders MUST NOT respond to LLMNR queries for names they are not
authoritative for.  Responders SHOULD respond to LLMNR queries for names
and addresses they are authoritative for. This applies to both forward
and reverse lookups.

As an example, a computer "host.example.com." configured to respond to
the LLMNR queries is authoritative for the name "host.example.com.".  On
receiving an LLMNR A/AAAA resource record query for the name
"host.example.com." the host authoritatively responds with A/AAAA
record(s) that contain IP address(es) in the RDATA of the resource
record.

If a responder is authoritative for a name, it MAY respond with RCODE=0
and an empty answer section, if the type of query does not match a RR



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owned by the responder.  For example, if the host has a AAAA RR, but no
A RR, and an A RR query is received, the host would respond with RCODE=0
and an empty answer section.

If a DNS server is running on a host that supports LLMNR, the DNS server
MUST respond to LLMNR queries only for the RRSets owned by the host on
which the server is running, but MUST NOT respond for other records for
which the server is authoritative.

In conventional DNS terminology a DNS server authoritative for a zone is
authoritative for all the domain names under the zone root except for
the branches delegated into separate zones. Contrary to conventional DNS
terminology, an LLMNR responder is authoritative only for the zone root.

For example the host "host.example.com." is not authoritative for the
name "child.host.example.com." unless the host is configured with
multiple names, including "host.example.com."  and
"child.host.example.com.".  As a result, "host" cannot reply to a query
for "child" with NXDOMAIN.  The purpose of limiting the name authority
scope of a responder is to prevent complications that could be caused by
coexistence of two or more hosts with the names representing child and
parent (or grandparent) nodes in the DNS tree, for example,
"host.example.com." and "child.host.example.com.".

In this example (unless this limitation is introduced) an LLMNR query
for an A record for the name "child.host.example.com." would result in
two authoritative responses: a name error received from
"host.example.com.", and a requested A record - from
"child.host.example.com.". To prevent this ambiguity, LLMNR enabled
hosts could perform a dynamic update of the parent (or grandparent) zone
with a delegation to a child zone. In this example a host
"child.host.example.com." would send a dynamic update for the NS and
glue A record to "host.example.com.", but this approach significantly
complicates implementation of LLMNR and would not be acceptable for
lightweight hosts.

A response to a LLMNR query is composed in exactly the same manner as a
response to the unicast DNS query as specified in [RFC1035].  Responders
MUST NOT respond using cached data, and the AA (Authoritative Answer)
bit MUST be set. The response is sent to the sender via unicast.  A
response to an LLMNR query MUST have RCODE set to zero. Responses with
RCODE set to zero are referred to in this document as "positively
resolved". LLMNR responders may respond only to queries which they can
resolve positively.







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2.3.  Unicast queries

A sender MUST NOT send a unicast LLMNR query except when:

  a. A sender repeats a query after it received a response
     to the previous LLMNR query with the TC bit set, or

  b. The sender's LLMNR cache contains an NS resource record that
     enables the sender to send a query directly to the hosts
     authoritative for the name in the query.

If a TC (truncation) bit is set in the response, then the sender MAY use
the response if it contains all necessary information, or the sender MAY
discard the response and resend the query over TCP or using EDNS0 with
larger window using the unicast address of the responder. The RA
(Recursion Available) bit in the header of the response MUST NOT be set.
If the RA bit is set in the response header, the sender MUST ignore it.

2.4.  Addressing

The IPv4 LINKLOCAL multicast address a given responder listens to, and
to which a sender sends all queries, is 224.0.0.251.  The IPv6 LINKLOCAL
multicast address a given responder  listens to, and to which a sender
sends A/AAAA queries, is formed as follows: The name of the resource
record in question is expressed in its canonical form (see [RFC2535],
section 8.1), which is uncompressed with all alphabetic characters in
lower case.

The first label of the FQDN in the query is then hashed using the MD5
algorithm, described in [RFC1321].  The first 32 bits of the resultant
128-bit hash is then appended to the prefix FF02:0:0:0:0:2::/96 to yield
the 128-bit "solicited name multicast address".  (Note: this procedure
is intended to be the same as that specified in section 3 of "IPv6 Node
Information Queries" [NodeInfo]).  A responder that listens for queries
for multiple names with different first labels will necessarily listen
to multiple of these solicited name multicast addresses.

For IPv4 LINKLOCAL addressing, section 2.4 of "Dynamic Configuration of
IPv4 Link-Local Addresses" [IPV4Link] lays out the rules with respect to
source address selection, TTL settings, and acceptable
source/destination address combinations. IPv6 is described in [RFC2460];
IPv6 LINKLOCAL addressing is described in [RFC2373]. LLMNR queries and
responses MUST obey the rules laid out in these documents.

2.5.  TTL

In composing an LLMNR response, the responder MUST set the Hop Limit
field in the IPv6 header and the TTL field in IPv4 header of the LLMNR



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response to 255. The sender MUST verify that the Hop Limit field in IPv6
header and TTL field in IPv4 header of each response to the LLMNR query
is set to 255. If it is not, then sender MUST ignore the response.

   Implementation note:

   In the sockets API for IPv4, the IP_TTL and IP_MULTICAST_TTL socket
   options are used to set the TTL of outgoing unicast and multicast
   packets. The IP_RECVTTL socket option is available on some platforms
   to retrieve the IPv4 TTL of received packets with recvmsg().
   [RFC2292] specifies similar options for setting and retrieving the
   IPv6 Hop Limit.

2.6.  Retransmissions

In order to avoid synchronization, LLMNR queries and responses are
delayed by a time uniformly distributed between 0 and 200 ms.

If the LLMNR query is not resolved within the timeout interval
(LLMNR_TIMEOUT), then a sender MAY repeat the transmission of a query in
order to assure themselves that the query has been received by a host
capable of responding to the query. Since a sender cannot know
beforehand whether it will receive no response, one response, or more
than one response to a query, it SHOULD wait for LLMNR_TIMEOUT in order
to collect all possible responses, rather than considering the query
answered after the first response is received.

LLMNR implementations SHOULD dynamically estimate the timeout value
(LLMNR_TIMEOUT) on a per-interface basis, using the algorithms described
in [RFC2988], with a minimum timeout value of 300 ms.

Repetition SHOULD NOT be attempted more than 3 times and SHOULD NOT be
repeated more often than once per second to reduce unnecessary network
traffic.

2.7.  DNS TTL

The responder should use a pre-configured TTL value in the records
returned in the LLMNR query response. Due to the TTL minimalization
necessary when caching an RRset, all TTLs in an RRset MUST be set to the
same value.  In the additional and authority section of the response the
responder includes the same records as a DNS server would insert in the
response to the unicast DNS query.

3.  Usage model

LLMNR is a peer-to-peer name resolution protocol that is not intended as
a replacement for DNS. By default, LLMNR requests SHOULD be sent only



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when no manual or automatic DNS configuration has been performed, when
DNS servers do not respond, or when they respond to a query with RCODE=3
(Authoritative Name Error) or RCODE=0, and an empty answer section.

As noted in [DNSPerf], even when DNS servers are configured, a
significant fraction of DNS queries do not receive a response, or result
in a negative responses due to missing inverse mappings or NS records
that point to nonexistent or inappropriate hosts.  Given this, support
for LLMNR as a secondary name resolution mechanism has the potential to
result in a large number of inappropriate queries without the following
additional restrictions:

[1] If a DNS query does not receive a response, prior to falling
    back to LLMNR, a DNS query SHOULD be retransmitted at least
    once.

[2] A sender SHOULD send LLMNR queries only for names that are
    either unqualified or exist within the default domain.

[3] A responder with both linklocal and routable addresses
    MUST respond to LLMNR queries for A/AAAA RRs only with
    routable address(es). This encourages use of routable
    address(es) for establishment of new connections.

3.1.  Unqualified names

The same host MAY use LLMNR queries for the resolution of unqualified
host names, and conventional DNS queries for resolution of other DNS
names.

If a name is not qualified and does not end in a trailing dot, for the
purposes of LLMNR, the implicit search order is as follows:

[1]  Request the name with the current domain appended.
[2]  Request just the name.

This is the behavior suggested by [RFC1536].  LLMNR uses this technique
to resolve unqualified host names.

3.2.  LLMNR configuration

LLMNR usage MAY be configured manually or automatically on a per
interface basis.  By default, LLMNR responders SHOULD be enabled on all
interfaces, at all times.

Since IPv4 and IPv6 utilize distinct configuration mechanisms, it is
possible for a dual stack host to be configured with the address of a
DNS server over IPv4, while remaining unconfigured with a DNS server



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suitable for use over IPv6. In these situations, a dual stack host will
send AAAA queries to the configured DNS server over IPv4.

However, an IPv6-only host unconfigured with a DNS server suitable for
use over IPv6 will be unable to resolve names using DNS.  Since
automatic IPv6 DNS configuration mechanisms such as [DHCPv6DNS] and
[DNSDisc] are not yet widely deployed, and not all DNS servers support
IPv6, lack of IPv6 DNS configuration may be a common problem in the
short term, and LLMNR may prove useful in enabling linklocal name
resolution over IPv6.

For example, a home gateway may implement a DNS proxy and DHCPv4, but
not DHCPv6 for DNS configuration [DHCPv6DNS] or [DNSDisc].  In such a
circumstance, IPv6-only hosts will not be configured with a DNS server.
Where the DNS proxy does not support dynamic client update over IPv6 or
DHCPv6-based dynamic update of the DNS proxy, the home gateway will not
be able to dynamically register the names of IPv6  hosts.  As a result,
the DNS proxy will respond to AAAA RR queries sent over IPv4 or IPv6
with an authoritative name error (RCODE=3).  This prevents hosts from
resolving the names of  IPv6-only hosts on the local link. In this
situation, LLMNR over IPv6 can be used for resolution of dynamic names.

Where DHCPv4 or DHCPv6 is implemented, DHCP options can be used to
configure LLMNR on an interface. The LLMNR Enable Option, described in
[LLMNREnable], can be used to explicitly enable or disable use of LLMNR
on an interface. The LLMNR Enable Option does not determine whether or
in which order DNS itself is used for name resolution.  The order in
which various name resolution mechanisms should be used can be specified
using the Name Service Search Option for DHCP [RFC2937].

3.2.1.  Configuration consistency

It is possible that DNS configuration mechanisms will go in and out of
service. In these circumstances, it is possible for hosts within an
administrative domain to be inconsistent in their DNS configuration.

For example, where DHCP is used for configuring DNS servers, one or more
DHCP servers can go down. As a result, hosts configured prior to the
outage will be configured with a DNS server, while hosts configured
after the outage will not.  Alternatively, it is possible for the DNS
configuration mechanism to continue functioning while configured DNS
servers fail.

Unless unconfigured hosts periodically retry configuration, an outage in
the DNS configuration mechanism will result in hosts continuing to
prefer LLMNR even once the outage is repaired.  Since LLMNR only enables
linklocal name resolution, this represents an unnecessary degradation in
capabilities.  As a result, it is recommended that hosts without a



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configured DNS server periodically attempt to obtain DNS configuration.
A default retry interval of two (2) minutes is recommended.

4.  Conflict resolution

The sender MUST anticipate receiving multiple replies to the same LLMNR
query, in the event that several LLMNR enabled computers receive the
query and respond with valid answers. When this occurs, the responses
MAY first be concatenated, and then treated in the same manner that
multiple RRs received from the same DNS server would, ordinarily.

There are some scenarios when multiple responders MAY respond to the
same query. There are other scenarios when only one responder may
respond to a query. Resource records for which the latter queries are
submitted are referred as UNIQUE throughout this document. The
uniqueness of a resource record depends on a nature of the name in the
query and type of the query. For example it is expected that:

   - multiple hosts may respond to a query for an SRV type record
   - multiple hosts may respond to a query for an A or AAAA type record for a
     cluster name (assigned to multiple hosts in the cluster)
   - only a single host may respond to a query for an A or AAAA type record for
     a hostname.

Every responder that responds to a LLMNR query and/or dynamic update
request AND includes a UNIQUE record in the response:

   1. MUST verify that there is no other host within the scope of the
      LLMNR query propagation that can return a resource record
      for the same name, type and class.
   2. MUST NOT include a UNIQUE resource record in the
      response without having verified its uniqueness.

Where a host is configured to respond to LLMNR queries on more than one
interface, each interface should have its own independent LLMNR cache.
For each UNIQUE resource record in a given interface's cache, the host
MUST verify resource record uniqueness on that interface.  To accomplish
this, the host MUST send a dynamic LLMNR update request for each new
UNIQUE resource record. The format of the dynamic LLMNR update request
is identical that specified in [RFC2136].  By default, a host SHOULD be
configured to behave as though all RRs are UNIQUE.  Uniqueness
verification is carried out when the host:

  - starts up or
  - is configured to respond to the LLMNR queries on an interface or
  - is configured to respond to the LLMNR queries using additional
    UNIQUE resource records.




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The data to be specified in the dynamic update request is as follows:

Header section
     contains values according to [RFC2136].

Zone section
     The zone name in the zone section MUST be set to the name of the
     UNIQUE record. The zone type in the zone section MUST be set to
     SOA. The zone class in the zone section MUST be set to the class of
     the UNIQUE record.

Prerequisite section
     This section MUST contain a record set whose semantics are
     described in [RFC2136], Section 2.4.3 "RRset Does Not Exist"
     (NXRRSET), requesting that RRs with the NAME and TYPE of the UNIQUE
     record do not exist.

Update section
     This section MUST be left empty.

Additional section
     This section is set according to [RFC2136].

When a host that owns a UNIQUE record receives a dynamic update request
that requests that the UNIQUE resource record set does not exist, the
host MUST respond via unicast with the YXRRSET error, according to the
rules described in Section 3 of [RFC2136].

After the client receives an YXRRSET response to its dynamic update
request stating that a UNIQUE resource record does not exist, the host
MUST check whether the response arrived on another interface. If this is
the case, then the client can use the UNIQUE resource record in response
to LLMNR queries and dynamic update requests. If not, then it MUST NOT
use the UNIQUE resource record in response to LLMNR queries and dynamic
update requests.

Note that this name conflict detection mechanism doesn't prevent name
conflicts when previously partitioned segments are connected by a
bridge.  In such a situation, name conflicts are detected when a sender
receives more than one response to its LLMNR query.

In this case, the sender sends the first response that it received to
all responders that responded to this query except the first one, using
unicast. A host that receives a query response containing a UNIQUE
resource record that it owns, even if it didn't send such a query, MUST
verify that no other host within the LLMNR scope is authoritative for
the same name, using the dynamic LLMNR update request mechanism
described above.  Based on the result, the host detects whether there is



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a name conflict and acts as described above.

4.1.  Considerations for Multiple Interfaces

A multi-homed host may elect to configure LLMNR on only one of its
active interfaces. In many situations this will be adequate.  However,
should a host wish to configure LLMNR on more than one of its active
interfaces, there are some additional precautions it MUST take.
Implementers who are not planning to support LLMNR on multiple
interfaces simultaneously may skip this section.

A multi-homed host checks the uniqueness of UNIQUE records as described
in Section 4. The situation is illustrated in figure 1.

     ----------  ----------
      |      |    |      |
     [A]    [myhost]   [myhost]

   Figure 1. LINKLOCAL name conflict

In this situation, the multi-homed myhost will probe for, and defend,
its host name on both interfaces. A conflict will be detected on one
interface, but not the other. The multi-homed myhost will not be able to
respond with a host RR for "myhost" on the interface on the right (see
Figure 1). The multi-homed host may, however, be configured to use the
"myhost" name on the interface on the left.

Since names are only unique per-link, hosts on different links could be
using the same name.  If an LLMNR client sends requests over multiple
interfaces, and receives replies from more than one, the result returned
to the client is defined by the implementation.  The situation is
illustrated in figure 2.

     ----------  ----------
      |      |    |     |
     [A]    [myhost]   [A]


   Figure 2. Off-segment name conflict

If host myhost is configured to use LLMNR on both interfaces, it will
send LLMNR queries on both interfaces.  When host myhost sends a query
for the host RR for name "A" it will receive a response from hosts on
both interfaces.

Host myhost will then forward a response from the first responder to the
second responder, who will attempt to verify the uniqueness of host RR
for its name, but will not discover a conflict, since the conflicting



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host resides on a different link.  Therefore it will continue using its
name.

Indeed, host myhost cannot distinguish between the situation shown in
Figure 2, and that shown in Figure 3 where no conflict exists.

             [A]
            |   |
        -----   -----
            |   |
           [myhost]

   Figure 3. Multiple paths to same host

This illustrates that the proposed name conflict resolution mechanism
does not support detection or resolution of conflicts between hosts on
different links.  This problem can also occur with unicast DNS when a
multi-homed host is connected to two different networks with separated
name spaces. It is not the intent of this document to address the issue
of uniqueness of names within DNS.

4.2.  API issues

[RFC2553] provides an API which can partially solve the name ambiguity
problem for applications written to use this API, since the sockaddr_in6
structure exposes the scope within which each scoped address exists, and
this structure can be used for both IPv4 (using v4-mapped IPv6
addresses) and IPv6 addresses.

Following the example in Figure 2, an application on 'myhost' issues the
request getaddrinfo("A", ...) with ai_family=AF_INET6 and
ai_flags=AI_ALL|AI_V4MAPPED.  LLMNR requests will be sent from both
interfaces and the resolver library will return a list containing
multiple addrinfo structures, each with an associated sockaddr_in6
structure.  This list will thus contain the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses of
both hosts responding to the name 'A'.  Link-local addresses will have a
sin6_scope_id value that disambiguates which interface is used to reach
the address.  Of course, to the application, Figures 2 and 3 are still
indistinguishable, but this API allows the application to communicate
successfully with any address in the list.

5.  Security Considerations

LLMNR is by nature a peer to peer name resolution protocol.  It is
therefore inherently more vulnerable than DNS, since existing DNS
security mechanisms are difficult to apply to LLMNR and an attacker only
needs to be misconfigured to answer an LLMNR query with incorrect
information.



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In order to address the security vulnerabilities, the following
mechanisms are contemplated:

[1]  Scope restrictions.

[2]  Usage restrictions.

[3]  Cache and port separation.

[4]  Authentication.

These techniques are described in the following sections.

5.1.  Scope restriction

With LLMNR it is possible that hosts will allocate conflicting names for
a period of time, or that attackers will attempt to deny service to
other hosts by allocating the same name.  Such attacks also allow hosts
to receive packets destined for other hosts.

In the absence of authentication, LLMNR reduces the exposure to such
threats by ignoring LLMNR query response packets received from off-link
senders.  In all received responses, the Hop Limit field in IPv6 and the
TTL field in IPv4 are verified to contain 255, the maximum legal value.
Since routers decrement the Hop Limit on all packets they forward,
received packets containing a Hop Limit of 255 must have originated from
a neighbor.

While restricting ignoring packets received from off-link senders
reduces the level of vulnerability, it does not eliminate it. There are
scenarios such as public "hotspots" where attackers can be present on
the same link.  These threats are most serious in wireless networks such
as 802.11, since attackers on a wired network will require physical
access to the home network, while wireless attackers may reside outside
the home.  Link-layer security can be of assistance against these
threats if it is available.

5.2.  Usage restriction

As noted in Section 3, LLMNR is intended for usage in a limited set of
scenarios.

If an interface has been configured via any automatic configuration
mechanism which is able to supply DNS configuration information, then
LLMNR SHOULD NOT be used as the primary name resolution mechanism on
that interface, although it MAY be used as a secondary mechanism.





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Note: enabling LLMNR for use in situations where a DNS server has been
configured will result in upgraded hosts changing their default behavior
without a simultaneous update to configuration information.  Where this
is considered undesirable, LLMNR SHOULD NOT be enabled by default, so
that hosts will neither listen on the LINKLOCAL multicast address, nor
will it send queries to that address.

Use of LLMNR as a secondary name resolution mechanism increases security
vulnerabilities.  For example, if an LLMNR query is sent whenever a DNS
server does not respond in a timely way, then an attacker can execute a
denial of service attack on the DNS server(s) and then poison the LLMNR
cache by responding to the resulting LLMNR queries with incorrect
information.

The vulnerability is more serious if LLMNR is given higher priority than
DNS among the enabled name resolution mechanisms. In such a
configuration, a denial of service attack on the DNS server would not be
necessary in order to poison the LLMNR cache, since LLMNR queries would
be sent even when the DNS server is available. In addition, the LLMNR
cache, once poisoned, would take precedence over the DNS cache,
eliminating the benefits of cache separation. As a result, LLMNR is best
thought of as a secondary name resolution mechanism.

5.3.  Cache and port separation

In order to prevent responses to LLMNR queries from polluting the DNS
cache, LLMNR implementations MUST use a distinct, isolated cache for
LLMNR on each interface. The use of separate caches is most effective
when LLMNR is used as a name resolution mechanism of last resort, since
the this minimizes the opportunities for poisoning the LLMNR cache, and
decreases reliance on it.

LLMNR operates on a separate port from DNS, reducing the likelihood that
a DNS server will unintentionally respond to an LLMNR query.

5.4.  Authentication

LLMNR does not require use of DNSSEC, and as a result, responses to
LLMNR queries MAY NOT be authenticated.  If authentication is desired,
and a pre-arranged security configuration is possible, then IPsec ESP
with a null-transform MAY be used to authenticate LLMNR responses. In a
small network without a certificate authority, this can be most easily
accomplished through configuration of a group pre-shared key for trusted
hosts.







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6.  IANA Considerations

This specification does not create any new name spaces for IANA
administration.  LLMNR requires allocation of a port for both TCP and
UDP. LLMNR utilizes a link scope multicast IPv4 address (224.0.0.251)
that has been previously allocated to LLMNR by IANA. It also requires
allocation of a link scope multicast IPv6 address, for use with queries
of types other than A/AAAA.

7.  Normative References

[RFC1035]      Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names - Implementation and
               Specification", RFC 1035, November 1987.

[RFC1321]      Rivest, R., "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm", RFC 1321,
               April 1992.

[RFC2119]      Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
               Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

[RFC2136]      Vixie, P., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y., Bound, J., "Dynamic
               Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE)", RFC
               2136, April 1997.

[RFC2365]      Meyer, D., "Administratively Scoped IP Multicast", BCP
               23, RFC 2365, July 1998.

[RFC2373]      Hinden, R., Deering, S., "IP Version 6 Addressing
               Architecture", RFC 2373, July 1998.

[RFC2460]      Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
               (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

[RFC2535]      Eastlake, D., "Domain Name System Security Extensions",
               RFC 2535, March 1999.

[RFC2988]      Paxson, V., Allman, M., "Computing TCP's Retransmission
               Timer", RFC 2988, November 2000.

[IPV4Link]     Cheshire, S., Aboba, B.,Guttman, E., "Dynamic
               Configuration of IPv4 Link-Local Addresses", Internet
               draft (work in progress), draft-ietf-zeroconf-
               ipv4-linklocal-07.txt, August 2002.

8.  Informative References

[RFC1536]      Kumar, A., et. al. "DNS Implementation Errors and
               Suggested Fixes", RFC 1536, October 1993.



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INTERNET-DRAFT                    LLMNR                    22 March 2003


[RFC2292]      Stevens, W., Thomas, M., "Advanced Sockets API for IPv6",
               RFC 2292, February 1998.

[RFC2434]      Alvestrand, H. and T. Narten, "Guidelines for Writing an
               IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434,
               October 1998.

[RFC2553]      Gilligan, R., Thomson, S., Bound, J., Stevens, W., "Basic
               Socket Interface Extensions for IPv6", RFC 2553, March
               1999.

[RFC2937]      Smith, C., "The Name Service Search Option for DHCP", RFC
               2937, September 2000.

[DHCPv6DNS]    Droms, R., "A Guide to Implementing Stateless DHCPv6
               Service", Internet draft (work in progress), draft-droms-
               dhcpv6-stateless-guide-01.txt, October 2002.

[DNSPerf]      Jung, J., et al., "DNS Performance and the Effectiveness
               of Caching", IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Volume
               10, Number 5, pp. 589, October 2002.

[DNSDisc]      Durand, A., Hagino, I., Thaler, D., "Well known site
               local unicast addresses to communicate with recursive DNS
               servers", Internet draft (work in progress), draft-ietf-
               ipv6-dns-discovery-07.txt, October 2002.

[LLMNREnable]  Guttman, E., "DHCP LLMNR Enable Option", Internet draft
               (work in progress), draft-guttman-mdns-enable-02.txt,
               April 2002.

[NodeInfo]     Crawford, M., "IPv6 Node Information Queries", Internet
               draft (work in progress), draft-ietf-ipn-gwg-icmp-name-
               lookups-09.txt, May 2002.

Acknowledgments

This work builds upon original work done on multicast DNS by Bill
Manning and Bill Woodcock. Bill Manning's work was funded under DARPA
grant #F30602-99-1-0523. The authors gratefully acknowledge their
contribution to the current specification.  Constructive input has also
been received from Mark Andrews, Stuart Cheshire, Robert Elz, Rob
Austein, James Gilroy, Olafur Gudmundsson, Erik Guttman, Myron Hattig,
Thomas Narten, Erik Nordmark, Sander Van-Valkenburg, Tomohide Nagashima,
Brian Zill, Keith Moore and Markku Savela.






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Authors' Addresses

Levon Esibov
Microsoft Corporation
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052

EMail: levone@microsoft.com

Bernard Aboba
Microsoft Corporation
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052

Phone: +1 425 706 6605
EMail: bernarda@microsoft.com

Dave Thaler
Microsoft Corporation
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052

Phone: +1 425 703 8835
EMail: dthaler@microsoft.com

Intellectual Property Statement

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The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary rights
which may cover technology that may be required to practice this
standard.  Please address the information to the IETF Executive
Director.





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Full Copyright Statement

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved.
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
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assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and
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INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
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Expiration Date

This memo is filed as <draft-ietf-dnsext-mdns-14.txt>,  and  expires
October 22, 2003.
























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