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Network Working Group                                          B. Laurie
Internet-Draft                                                   Nominet
Expires: March 24, 2005                                        R. Loomis
                                                                    SAIC
                                                      September 23, 2004



      Requirements related to DNSSEC Signed Proof of Non-Existence
         draft-ietf-dnsext-signed-nonexistence-requirements-00


Status of this Memo


   This document is an Internet-Draft and is subject to all provisions
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Copyright Notice


   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).


Abstract


   DNSSEC-bis uses the NSEC record to provide authenticated denial of
   existence of RRsets.  NSEC also has the side-effect of permitting
   zone enumeration, even if zone transfers have been forbidden.
   Because some see this as a problem, this document has been assembled
   to detail the possible requirements for denial of existence A/K/A
   signed proof of non-existence.




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Table of Contents


   1.   Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.   Non-purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.   Zone Enumeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.   Zone Enumeration II  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.   Zone Enumeration III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   6.   Exposure of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   7.   Zone Size  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   8.   Single Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   9.   Empty Non-terminals  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   10.  Prevention of Precomputed Dictionary Attacks . . . . . . . .   6
   11.  DNSSEC-Adoption and Zone-Growth Relationship . . . . . . . .   6
   12.  Non-overlap of denial records with possible zone records . .   7
   13.  Exposure of Private Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   14.  Minimisation of Zone Signing Cost  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   15.  Minimisation of Asymmetry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   16.  Minimisation of Client Complexity  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   17.  Completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   18.  Purity of Namespace  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   19.  Replay Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   20.  Compatibility with NSEC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   21.  Compatibility with NSEC II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   22.  Compatibility with NSEC III  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   23.  Coexistence with NSEC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   24.  Coexistence with NSEC II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   25.  Coexistence with NSEC III  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   26.  Allow Partially Signed Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   27.  Protocol Design  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   28.  Process  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   29.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   30.  Requirements notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   31.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   32.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   32.1   Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   32.2   Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
        Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
        Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . .  12














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1.  Introduction


   NSEC records allow trivial enumeration of zones - a situation that
   has existed for several years but which has recently been raised as a
   significant concern for DNSSECbis deployment in several zones.
   Alternate proposals have been made that make zone enumeration more
   difficult, and some previous proposals to modify DNSSEC had related
   requirements/desirements that are relevant to the discussion.  In
   addition the original designs for NSEC/NXT records were based on
   working group discussions and the choices made were not always
   documented with context and requirements-- so some of those choices
   may need to be restated as requirements.  Overall, the working group
   needs to better understand the requirements for denial of existence
   (and certain other requirements related to DNSSECbis deployment) in
   order to evaluate the proposals that may replace NSEC.


   In the remainder of this document, "NSEC++" is used as shorthand for
   "a denial of existence proof that will replace NSEC".  "NSECbis" has
   also been used as shorthand for this, but we avoid that usage since
   NSECbis will not be part of DNSSECbis and therefore there might be
   some confusion.


2.  Non-purposes


   This document does not currently document the reasons why zone
   enumeration might be "bad" from a privacy, security, business, or
   other perspective--except insofar as those reasons result in
   requirements.  Once the list of requirements is complete and vaguely
   coherent, the trade-offs (reducing zone enumeration will have X cost,
   while providing Y benefit) may be revisited.  The editors of this
   compendium received inputs on the potential reasons why zone
   enumeration is bad (and there was significant discussion on the
   DNSEXT WG mailing list) but that information fell outside the scope
   of this document.


   Note also that this document does not assume that NSEC *must* be
   replaced with NSEC++, if the requirements can be met through other
   methods (e.g., "white lies" with the current NSEC).  As is stated
   above, this document is focused on requirements collection and
   (ideally) prioritization rather than on the actual implementation.


3.  Zone Enumeration


   Authenticated denial should not permit trivial zone enumeration.


   Additional discussion:  NSEC (and NXT before it) provide a linked
   list that could be "walked" to trivially enumerate all the signed
   records in a zone.  This requirement is primarily (though not




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   exclusively) important for zones that either are delegation-only/
   -mostly or do not have reverse lookup (PTR) records configured, since
   enterprises that have PTR records for all A records have already
   provided a similar capability to enumerate the contents of DNS zones.


   Contributor: various


4.  Zone Enumeration II


   Zone enumeration should be at least as difficult as it would be to
   effect a dictionary attack using simple DNS queries to do the same in
   an unsecured zone.


   (Editor comment: it is not clear how to measure difficulty in this
   case.  Some examples could be monetary cost, bandwidth, processing
   power or some combination of these.  It has also been suggested that
   the requirement is that the graph of difficulty of enumeration vs.
   the fraction of the zone enumerated should be approximately the same
   shape in the two cases)


   Contributor: Nominet


5.  Zone Enumeration III


   Enumeration of a zone with random contents should computationally
   infeasible.


   Editor comment: this is proposed as a way of evaluating the
   effectiveness of a proposal rather than as a requirement anyone would
   actually have in practice.


   Contributor: Alex Bligh


6.  Exposure of Contents


   NSEC++ should not expose any of the contents of the zone (apart from
   the NSEC++ records themselves, of course).


   Editor comment: this is a weaker requirement than prevention of
   enumeration, but certainly any zone that satisfied this requirement
   would also satisfy the trivial prevention of enumeration requirement.


   Contributor: Ed Lewis


7.  Zone Size


   Requirement:  NSEC++ should make it possible to take precautions
   against trivial zone size estimates.  Since not all zone owners care




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   about others estimation of the size of a zone, it is not always
   necessary to prohibit trivial estimation of the size of the zone but
   NSEC++ should allow such measures.


   Additional Discussion: Even with proposals based on obfuscating names
   with hashes it is trivial to give very good estimates of the number
   of domains in a certain zone.  Just send 10 random queries and look
   at the range between the two hash values returned in each NSEC++.  As
   hash output can be assumed to follow a rectangular random
   distribution, using the mean difference between the two values, you
   can estimate the total number of records.  It is probably sufficient
   to look at even one NSEC++, since the two hash values should follow a
   (I believe) Poisson distribution.


   The concern is motivated by some wording remembered from NSEC, which
   stated that NSEC MUST only be present for existing owner names in the
   zone, and MUST NOT be present for non-existing owner names.  If
   similar wording were carried over to NSEC++, introducing bogus owner
   names in the hash chain (an otherwise simple solution to guard
   against trivial estimates of zone size) wouldn't be allowed.


   One simple attempt at solving this is to describe in the
   specifications how zone signer tools can add a number of random
   "junk" records.


   Editor's comment: it is interesting that obfuscating names might
   actually make it easier to estimate zone size.


   Contributor: Simon Josefsson.


8.  Single Method


   Requirement:  A single NSEC++ method must be able to carry both
   old-style denial (i.e.  plain labels) and whatever the new style
   looks like.  Having two separate denial methods could result in
   cornercases where one method can deny the other and vice versa.


   Additional discussion:  This requirement can help -bis folks to a
   smooth upgrade to -ter.  First they'd change the method while the
   content is the same, then they can change content of the method.


   Contributor: Roy Arends.


9.  Empty Non-terminals


   Requirement:  Empty-non-terminals (ENT) should remain empty.  In
   other words, adding NSEC++ records to an existing DNS structure
   should not cause the creation of NSEC++ records (or related records)




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   at points that are otherwise ENT.


   Additional discussion:  Currently NSEC complies with ENT requirement:
   b.example.com NSEC a.c.example.com implies the existence of an ENT
   with ownername c.example.com.  NSEC2 breaks that requirement, since
   the ownername is entirely hashed causing the structure to disappear.
   This is why EXIST was introduced.  But EXIST causes ENT to be
   non-empty-terminals.  Next to the dissappearance of ENT, it causes
   (some) overhead since an EXIST record needs a SIG, NSEC2 and
   SIG(NSEC2).  DNSNR honours this requirement by hashing individual
   labels instead of ownernames.  However this causes very long labels.
   Truncation is a measure against very long ownernames, but that is
   controversial.  There is a fair discussion of the validity of
   truncation in the DNSNR draft, but that hasn't got proper review yet.


   Contributor: Roy Arends.


   (Editor comment: it is not clear to us that an EXIST record needs an
   NSEC2 record, since it is a special purpose record only used for
   denial of existence)


10.  Prevention of Precomputed Dictionary Attacks


   Requirement:  NSEC++ needs to provide a method to reduce the
   effectiveness of precomputed dictionary attacks.


   Additional Discussion:  Salt is a measure against dictionary attacks.
   There are other possible measures (such as iterating hashes in
   NSEC2).  The salt needs to be communicated in every response, since
   it is needed in every verification.  Some have suggested to move the
   salt to a special record instead of the denial record.  I think this
   is not wise.  Response size has more priority over zone size.  An
   extra record causes a larger response than a larger existing record.


   Contributor: Roy Arends.


   (Editor comment: the current version of NSEC2 also has the salt in
   every NSEC2 record)


11.  DNSSEC-Adoption and Zone-Growth Relationship


   Background:  Currently with NSEC, when a delegation centric zone
   deploys DNSSEC, the zone-size multiplies by a non-trivial factor even
   when the DNSSEC-adoption rate of the subzones remains low--because
   each delegation point creates at least one NSEC record and
   corresponding signature in the parent even if the child is not
   signed.





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   Requirements:  A delegation-only (or delegation-mostly) zone that is
   signed but which has no signed child zones should initially need only
   to add SIG(SOA), DNSKEY, and SIG(DNSKEY) at the apex, along with some
   minimal set of NSEC++ records to cover zone contents.  Further,
   during the transition of a delegation-only zone from 0% signed
   children to 100% signed children, the growth in the delegation-only
   zone should be roughly proportional to the percentage of signed child
   zones.


   Additional Discussion: This is why DNSNR has the Authoritative Only
   bit.  This is similar to opt-in for delegations only.  This (bit) is
   currently the only method to help delegation-centric zone cope with
   zone-growth due to DNSSEC adoption.  As an example, A delegation only
   zone which deploys DNSSEC with the help of this bit, needs to add
   SIG(SOA), DNSKEY, SIG(DNSKEY), DNSNR, SIG(DNSNR) at the apex.  No
   more than that.


   Contributor: Roy Arends.


12.  Non-overlap of denial records with possible zone records


   Requirement:  NSEC++ records should in some way be differentiated
   from regular zone records, so that there is no possibility that a
   record in the zone could be duplicated by a non-existence proof
   (NSEC++) record.


   Additional discussion:  This requirement is derived from a discussion
   on the DNSEXT mailing list related to copyrights and domain names.
   As was outlined there, one solution is to put NSEC++ records in a
   separate namespace, e.g.: $ORIGIN co.uk.
   873bcdba87401b485022b8dcd4190e3e IN NS jim.rfc1035.com ; your
   delegation 873bcdba87401b485022b8dcd4190e3e._no IN NSEC++ 881345...
   ; for amazon.co.uk.


   Contributor: various


   (Editor comment:  One of us still does not see why a conflict
   matters.  Even if there is an apparent conflict or overlap, the
   "conflicting" NSEC2 name _only_ appears in NSEC2 records, and the
   other name _never_ appears in NSEC2 records.)


13.  Exposure of Private Keys


   Private keys associated with the public keys in the DNS should be
   exposed as little as possible.  It is highly undesirable for private
   keys to be distributed to nameservers, or to otherwise be available
   in the run-time environment of nameservers.





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   Contributors: Nominet, Olaf Kolkman, Ed Lewis


14.  Minimisation of Zone Signing Cost


   The additional cost of creating an NSEC++ signed zone should not
   significantly exceed the cost of creating an ordinary signed zone.


   Contributor: Nominet


15.  Minimisation of Asymmetry


   Nameservers should have to do as little additional work as necessary.
   More precisely, it is desirable for any increase in cost incurred by
   the nameservers to be offset by a proportionate increase in cost to
   DNS `clients', e.g.  stub and/or `full-service' resolvers.


   Contributor: Nominet


16.  Minimisation of Client Complexity


   Caching, wildcards, CNAMEs, DNAMEs should continue to work without
   adding too much complexity at the client side.


   Contributor: Olaf Kolkman


17.  Completeness


   A proof of nonexistence should be possible for all nonexistent data
   in the zone.


   Contributor: Olaf Kolkman


18.  Purity of Namespace


   The name space should not be muddied with fake names or data sets.


   Contributor: Ed Lewis


19.  Replay Attacks


   NSEC++ should not allow a replay to be used to deny existence of an
   RR that actually exists.


   Contributor: Ed Lewis


20.  Compatibility with NSEC


   NSEC++ should not introduce changes incompatible with NSEC.




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   Contributor: Ed Lewis


21.  Compatibility with NSEC II


   NSEC++ should differ from NSEC in a way that is transparent to the
   resolver or validator.


   Contributor: Ed Lewis


22.  Compatibility with NSEC III


   NSEC++ should differ from NSEC as little as possible whilst achieving
   other requirements.


   Contributor: Alex Bligh


23.  Coexistence with NSEC


   NSEC++ should be designed to coexist with NSEC.


   Contributor: Ed Lewis


24.  Coexistence with NSEC II


   NSEC++ should be optional, allowing NSEC to be used instead.


   Contributor: Alex Bligh


25.  Coexistence with NSEC III


   NSEC++ should not impose extra work on those content with NSEC.


   Contributor: Ed Lewis


26.  Allow Partially Signed Zones


   NSEC++ should allow partially signed zones.


   Contributor: Alex Bligh


27.  Protocol Design


   A good security protocol would allow signing the nonexistence of some
   selected names without revealing anything about other names.


   Contributor: Dan Bernstein






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28.  Process


   Clearly not all of these requirements can be met.  Therefore the next
   phase of this document will be to either prioritise them or narrow
   them down to a non-contradictory set, which should then allow us to
   judge proposals on the basis of their fit.


29.  Acknowledgements


30.  Requirements notation


   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as            described in [RFC2119].


31.  Security Considerations


   There are currently no security considerations called out in this
   draft.  There will be security considerations in the choice of which
   requirements will be implemented, but there are no specific security
   requirements during the requirements collection process.


32.  References


32.1  Normative References


   [dnssecbis-protocol]
              "DNSSECbis Protocol Definitions", BCP XX, RFC XXXX, Some
              Month 2004.


32.2  Informative References


   [RFC2026]  Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision
              3", BCP 9, RFC 2026, October 1996.


   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.


   [RFC2418]  Bradner, S., "IETF Working Group Guidelines and
              Procedures", BCP 25, RFC 2418, September 1998.












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Authors' Addresses


   Ben Laurie
   Nominet
   17 Perryn Road
   London  W3 7LR
   England


   Phone: +44 (20) 8735 0686
   EMail: ben@algroup.co.uk



   Rip Loomis
   Science Applications International Corporation
   7125 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 300
   Columbia, MD  21046
   US


   EMail: gilbert.r.loomis@saic.com

































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Acknowledgment


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   Internet Society.





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