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Internet Engineering Task Force                                B. Halley
Internet-Draft                                                   Nominum
                                                                 E. Lewis

August 10, 2003                               Expires: February 10, 2004

                      Clarifying the Role of Wild Card Domains
                            in the Domain Name System

Status of this Memo

    This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all
    provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

    Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task
    Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that other
    groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

    Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
    and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
    time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
    material or to cite them other than as "work in progress".

    The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at

    The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at

    Comments on this document can be sent to the editors or the mailing
    list for the DNSEXT WG, namedroppers@ops.ietf.org.


The definition of wild cards is recast from the original in RFC 1034,
in words that are more specific and in line with RFC 2119.  This document
is meant to supplement the definition in RFC 1034 and to alter neither
the spirit nor intent of that definition.

1 Introduction

The first section of this document will give a crisp overview of what
is begin defined, as well as the motivation rewording of an original document
and making a change to bring the specification in line with implementations.
Examples are included to help orient the reader.

Wild card domain names are defined in Section 4.3.3. of RFC 1034 as
"instructions for synthesizing RRs." [RFC1034]  The meaning of this is
that a specific, special domain name is used to construct responses in
instances in which the query name is not otherwise represented in a zone.

A wild card domain name has a specific range of influence on query names
(QNAMEs) within a given class, which is rooted at the domain name
containing the wild card label, and is limited by explicit entries, zone
cuts and empty non-terminal domains (see section 1.3 of this document).

Note that a wild card domain name has no special impact on the search
for a query type (QTYPE).  If a domain name is found that matches the
QNAME (exact or a wild card) but the QTYPE is not found at that point,
the proper response is that there is no data available.  The search
does not continue on to seek other wild cards that might match the QTYPE.
To illustrate, a wild card owning an MX RR does not 'cover' other names
in the zone that own an A RR.  There are certain special case RR types
that will be singled out for discussion, the SOA RR, NS RR, CNAME RR,

Why is this document needed?  Empirical evidence suggests that the
words in RFC 1034 are not clear enough.  There exist a number of
implementations that have strayed (each differently) from that definition.
There also exists a misconception of operators that the wild card can be
used to add a specific RR type to all names, such as the MX RR example
cited above.  This document is also needed as input to efforts to extend
DNS, such as the DNS Security Extensions [RFC 2535].  Lack of a clear
base specification has proven to result in extension documents that
have unpredictable consequences.  (This is true in general, not just
for DNS.)

Another reason this clarification is needed is to answer questions
regarding authenticated denial of existence, a service introduced in the
DNS Security Extensions [RFC 2535].  Prior to the work leading up to this
document, it had been feared that a large number of proof records (NXTs)
might be needed in each reply because of the unknown number of potential
wild card domains that were thought to be applicable.  One outcome of this
fear is a now discontinued document solving a problem that is now known
not to exist.  I.e., this clarification has the impact of defending against
unwarranted protocol surgery.  It is not "yet another" effort to just
rewrite the early specifications for the sake of purity.

Although the effort to define the DNS Security Extensions has prompted this
document, the clarifications herein relate to basic DNS only.  No DNS
Security Extensions considerations are mentioned in the document.

1.1 Document Limits

This document limits itself to reinforcing the concepts in RFC 1034.  In
the effort to do this, a few issues have been discussed that change
parts of what is in RFC 1034.  The discussions have been held within the
DNS Extensions Working Group.

Briefly, the issues raised include:
   - The lack of clarity in the definition of domain name existence
   - Implications of a wild card domain name owning any of the following
     resource record sets: DNAME [RFC 2672], CNAME, NS, and SOA
   - Whether RFC 1034 meant to allow special processing of CNAME RR's
     owned by wild card domain names

1.2 Existence

The notion that a domain name 'exists' will arise numerous times in this
discussion.  RFC 1034 raises the issue of existence in a number of places,
usually in reference to non-existence and often in reference to processing
involving wild card domain names.  RFC 1034 contains algorithms that
describe how domain names impact the preparation of an answer and does
define wild cards as a means of synthesizing answers.  Because of this
a discussion on wild card domain names has to start with the issue of

To help clarify the topic of wild cards, a positive definition of existence
is needed.  Complicating matters, though, is the realization that existence
is relative.  To an authoritative server, a domain name exists if the
domain name plays a role following the algorithms of preparing a response.
To a resolver, a domain name exists if there is any data available
corresponding to the name.  The difference between the two is the synthesis
of records according to a wild card.

For the purposes of this document, the point of view of an authoritative
server is adopted.  A domain name is said to exist if it plays a role in
the execution of the algorithms in RFC 1034.

1.3 An Example

For example, consider this wild card domain name: *.example.  Any query
name under example. is a candidate to be matched (answered) by this wild
card, i.e., to have an response returned that is synthesized from the wild
card's RR sets.  Although any name is a candidate, not all queries will

To further illustrate this, consider this zone:

          $ORIGIN example.
          @       IN      SOA
          *               TXT "this is a wild card"
                          MX  10 mailhost.example.
          host1           A
          _ssh._tcp.host1 SRV
          _ssh._tcp.host2 SRV
          subdel          NS

The following queries would be synthesized from the wild card:
          QNAME=host3.example. QTYPE=MX, QCLASS=IN
                the answer will be a "host3.example. IN MX ..."
          QNAME=host3.example. QTYPE=A, QCLASS=IN
                the answer will reflect "no error, but no data"
                because there is no A RR set at '*'

The following queries would not be synthesized from the wild card:
          QNAME=host1.example., QTYPE=MX, QCLASS=IN
                because host1.example. exists
          QNAME=_telnet._tcp.host1.example., QTYPE=SRV, QCLASS=IN
                because _tcp.host1.example. exists (without data)
          QNAME=_telnet._tcp.host2.example., QTYPE=SRV, QCLASS=IN
                because host2.example. exists (without data)
          QNAME=host.subdel.example., QTYPE=A, QCLASS=IN
                because subdel.example. exists and is a zone cut

To the server, the following domains are considered to exist in the zone:
*, host1, _tcp.host1, _ssh._tcp.host1, host2, _tcp.host2, _ssh._tcp.host2,
and subdel.  To a resolver, many more domains appear to exist via the
synthesis of the wild card.

1.4 Empty Non-terminals

Empty non-terminals are domain names that own no data but have subdomains.
This is defined in section 3.1 of RFC 1034:

#    The domain name space is a tree structure.  Each node and leaf on the
#    tree corresponds to a resource set (which may be empty).  The domain
#    system makes no distinctions between the uses of the interior nodes and
#    leaves, and this memo uses the term "node" to refer to both.

The parenthesized "which may be empty" specifies that empty non-terminals
are explicitly recognized.  According to the definition of existence in
this document, empty non-terminals do exist at the server.

Carefully reading the above paragraph can lead to an interpretation that
all possible domains exist - up to the suggested limit of 255 octets for
a domain name [RFC 1035].  For example, www.example. may have an A RR, and
as far as is practically concerned, is a leaf of the domain tree.  But the
definition can be taken to mean that sub.www.example. also exists, albeit
with no data.  By extension, all possible domains exist, from the root on
down. As RFC 1034 also defines "an authoritative name error indicating
that the name does not exist" in section 4.3.1, this is not the intent
of the original document.

RFC1034's wording is to be clarified by adding the following paragraph:

       A node is considered to have an impact on the algorithms of 4.3.2
       if it is a leaf node with any resource sets or an interior node,
       with or without a resource set, that has a subdomain that is a leaf
       node with a resource set. A QNAME and QCLASS matching an existing
       node never results in a response return code of authoritative name

The terminology in the above paragraph is chosen to remain as close to
that in the original document.  The term "with" is a alternate form for
"owning" in this case, hence "a leaf node owning resources sets, or an
interior node, owning or not owning any resource set, that has a leaf
node owning a resource set as a subdomain," is the proper interpretation
of the middle sentence.

As an aside, an "authoritative name error" has been called NXDOMAIN in
some RFCs, such as RFC 2136 [RFC 2136].  NXDOMAIN is the mnemonic assigned
to such an error by at least one implementation of DNS.  As this
mnemonic is specific to implementations, it is avoided in the remainder
of this document.

1.5 Terminology

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
document are to be interpreted as described in the document entitled
"Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels." [RFC2119]

Requirements are denoted by paragraphs that begin with with the following
convention: 'R'<sect>.<count>.

Quotations of RFC 1034 (as has already been done once above) are denoted by
a '#' in the leftmost column.

2 Defining the Wild Card Domain Name

A wild card domain name is defined by having the initial label be:

        0000 0001 0010 1010 (binary) = 0x01 0x2a (hexadecimal)

This defines domain names that may play a role in being a wild card, that
is, being a source for synthesized answers.  Domain names conforming to
this definition that appear in queries and RDATA sections do not have
any special role.  These cases will be described in more detail in
following sections.

R2.1 A domain name that is to be interpreted as a wild card MUST begin
       with a label of '0000 0001 0010 1010' in binary.

The first octet is the normal label type and length for a 1 octet long
label, the second octet is the ASCII representation [RFC 20] for the
'*' character.  In RFC 1034, ASCII encoding is assumed to be the character

In the master file formats used in RFCs, a "*" is a legal representation
for the wild card label.  Even if the "*" is escaped, it is still
interpreted as the wild card when it is the only character in the label.

R2.2. A server MUST treat a wild card domain name as the basis of
        synthesized answers regardless of any "escape" sequences in
        the input format.

RFC 1034 and RFC 1035 ignore the case in which a domain name might be
"the*.example.com."  The interpretation is that this domain name in a
zone would only match queries for "the*.example.com" and not have any
other role.

Note: By virtue of this definition, a wild card domain name may have a
subdomain.  The subdomain (or sub-subdomain) itself may also be a wild
card.  E.g., *.*.example. is a wild card, so is *.sub.*.example.
More discussion on this is given in Appendix A.

3 Defining Existence

As described in the Introduction, a precise definition of existence is

R3.1 An authoritative server MUST treat a domain name as existing during
       the execution of the algorithms in RFC 1034 when the domain name
       conforms to the following definition.  A domain name is defined
       to exist if the domain name owns data and/or has a subdomain that

Note that at a zone boundary, the domain name owns data, including the
NS RR set.  At the delegating server, the NS RR set is not authoritative,
but that is of no consequence here.  The domain name owns data, therefore,
it exists.

R3.2 An authoritative server MUST treat a domain name that has neither
       a resource record set nor an existing subdomain as non-existent when
       executing the algorithm in section 4.3.2. of RFC 1034.

A note on terminology.  A domain transcends zones, i.e., all DNS data is
in the root domain but segmented into zones of control.  In this document,
there are references to a "domain name" in the context of existing "in a
zone."  In this usage, a domain name is the root of a domain, not the entire
domain.  The domain's root point is said to "exist in a zone" if the zone
is authoritative for the name.  RR sets existing in a domain need not be
owned by the domain's root domain name, but are owned by other domain
names in the domain.

4 Impact of a Wild Card Domain In a Query Message or in an RDATA field

When a wild card domain name appears in a question, e.g., the query name
is "*.example.", the response in no way differs from any other query.
In other words, the wild card label in a QNAME has no special meaning,
and query processing will proceed using '*' as a literal query name.

R4.1 A wild card domain name acting as a QNAME MUST be treated as any
       other QNAME, there MUST be no special processing accorded it.

If a wild card domain name appears in the RDATA of a CNAME RR or any
other RR that has a domain name in it, the same rule applies.  In the
instance of a CNAME RR, the wild card domain name is used in the same
manner of as being the original QNAME.  For other RR's, rules vary
regarding what is done with the domain name(s) appearing in them,
in no case does the wild card hold special meaning.

R4.2 A wild card domain name appearing in any RR's RDATA MUST be treated
       as any other domain name in that situation, there MUST be no special
       processing accorded it.

5 Impact of a Wild Card Domain On a Response

The description of how wild cards impact response generation is in RFC
1034, section 4.3.2.  That passage contains the algorithm followed by a
server in constructing a response.  Within that algorithm, step 3, part
'c' defines the behavior of the wild card.  The algorithm is directly
quoted in lines that begin with a '#' sign.  Commentary is interleaved.

There is a documentation issue deserving some explanation.  The algorithm
in RFC 1034, section 4.3.2. is not intended to be pseudo code, i.e., it's
steps are not intended to be followed in strict order.  The "algorithm"
is a suggestion.  As such, in step 3, parts a, b, and c, do not have to
be implemented in that order.

Another issue needing explanation is that RFC 1034 is a full standard.
There is another RFC, RFC 2672, which makes, or proposes an adjustment
to RFC 1034's section 4.3.2 for the sake of the DNAME RR.  RFC 2672 is
a proposed standard.  The dilemma in writing these clarifications is
knowing which document is the one being clarified.  Fortunately, the
difference between RFC 1034 and RFC 2672 is not significant with respect
to wild card synthesis, so this document will continue to state that
it is clarifying RFC 1034.  If RFC 2672 progresses along the standards
track, it will need to refer to modifying RFC 1034's algorithm as
amended here.

The context of part 'c' is that the search is progressing label by label
through the QNAME.  (Note that the data being searched is the authoritative
data in the server, the cache is searched in step 4.)  Step 3's part 'a'
covers the case that the QNAME has been matched in full, regardless of the
presence of a CNAME RR.  Step 'b' covers crossing a cut point, resulting
in a referral.  All that is left is to look for the wild card.

Step 3 of the algorithm also assumes that the search is looking in the
zone closest to the answer, i.e., in the same class as QCLASS and as
close to the authority as possible on this server.  If the zone is not
the authority, then a referral is given, possibly one indicating lameness.

#         c. If at some label, a match is impossible (i.e., the
#            corresponding label does not exist), look to see if a
#            the "*" label exists.

The above paragraph refers to finding the domain name that exists in the
zone and that most encloses the QNAME.  Such a domain name will mark the
boundary of candidate wild card domain names that might be used to
synthesize an answer.  (Remember that at this point, if the most enclosing
name is the same as the QNAME, part 'a' would have recorded an exact
match.)  The existence of the enclosing name means that no wild card name
higher in the tree is a candidate to answer the query.

Once the closest enclosing node is identified, there's the matter of what
exists below it.  It may have subdomains, but none will be closer to the
QNAME.  One of the subdomains just might be a wild card.  If it exists,
this is the only wild card eligible to be used to synthesize an answer
for the query.  Even if the closest enclosing node conforms to the syntax
rule in section 2 for being a wild card domain name, the closest enclosing
node is not eligible to be a source of a synthesized answer.

The only wild card domain name that is a candidate to synthesize an answer
will be the "*" subdomain of the closest enclosing domain name.  Three
possibilities can happen.  The "*" subdomain does not exist, the "*"
subdomain does but does not have an RR set of the same type as the QTYPE,
or it exists and has the desired RR set.

For the sake of brevity, the closest enclosing node can be referred to as
the "closest encloser." The closest encloser is the most important concept
in this clarification.  Describing the closest encloser is a bit tricky,
but it is an easy concept.

To find the closest encloser, you have to first locate the zone that is
the authority for the query name.  This eliminates the need to be concerned
that the closest encloser is a cut point.  In addition, we can assume too
that the query name does not exist, hence the closest encloser is not equal
to the query name.  We can assume away these two cases because they are
handled in steps 2, 3a and 3b of section 4.3.2.'s algorithm.

What is left is to identify the existing domain name that would have been
up the tree (closer to the root) from the query name.  Knowing that an
exact match is impossible, if there is a "*" label descending from the
unique closest encloser, this is the one and only wild card from which
an answer can be synthesized for the query.

To illustrate, using the example in section 1.2 of this document, the
following chart shows QNAMEs and the closest enclosers.  In Appendix A
there is another chart showing unusual cases.

     QNAME                        Closest Encloser     Wild Card Source
     host3.example.               example.             *.example.
     _telnet._tcp.host1.example.  _tcp.host1.example.  no wild card
     _telnet._tcp.host2.example.  host2.example.       no wild card
     _telnet._tcp.host3.example.  example.             *.example.
     _chat._udp.host3.example.    example.             *.example.

Note that host1.subdel.example. is in a subzone, so the search for it ends
in a referral in part 'b', thus does not enter into finding a closest

The fact that a closest encloser will be the only superdomain that
can have a candidate wild card will have an impact when it comes to
designing authenticated denial of existence proofs.

#            If the "*" label does not exist, check whether the name
#            we are looking for is the original QNAME in the query
#            or a name we have followed due to a CNAME.  If the name
#            is original, set an authoritative name error in the
#            response and exit.  Otherwise just exit.

The above passage says that if there is not even a wild card domain name
to match at this point (failing to find an explicit answer elsewhere),
we are to return an authoritative name error at this point.  If we were
following a CNAME, the specification is unclear, but seems to imply that
a no error return code is appropriate, with just the CNAME RR (or sequence
of CNAME RRs) in the answer section.

#            If the "*" label does exist, match RRs at that node
#            against QTYPE.  If any match, copy them into the answer
#            section, but set the owner of the RR to be QNAME, and
#            not the node with the "*" label.  Go to step 6.

This final paragraph covers the role of the QTYPE in the process.  Note
that if no resource record set matches the QTYPE the result is that no data
is copied, but the search still ceases ("Go to step 6.").  In the following
section, a suggested change is made to this, under the heading "CNAME RRs
at a Wild Card Domain Name."

6 Considerations with Special Types

For the purposes of this section, "special" means that a record induces
processing at the server beyond simple lookup.  The special types in this
section are SOA, NS, CNAME, and DNAME.  SOA is special because it is used
as a zone marker and has an impact on step 2 of the algorithm in 4.3.2.
NS denotes a cut point and has an impact on step 3b.  CNAME redirects the
query and is mentioned in steps 3a and 3b.  DNAME is a "CNAME generator."

6.1 SOA RR's at a Wild Card Domain Name

If the owner of an SOA record conforms to the basic rules of owning an
SOA RR (meaning it is the apex of a zone) the impact on the search algorithm
is not in section 3c (where records are synthesized) as would be expected.
The impact is really in step 2 of the algorithm, the choice of zone.

We are no longer talking about whether or not an SOA RR can be synthesized
in a response because we are shifting attention to step 2.  We are now talking
about what it means for a name server to synthesize a zone for a response.
To date, no implementation has done this.  Thinking ahead though, anyone
choosing to pursue this would have to be aware that a server would have to
be able to distinguish between queries for data it will have to synthesize and
queries that ought to be treated as if they were prompted by a lame delegation.

It is not a protocol error to have an SOA RR owned by a wild card domain name,
just as it is not an error to have zone name be syntactically equivalent to a
domain name.  However, this situation requires careful consideration of how
a server chooses the appropriate zone for an answer.  And an SOA RR is
not able to be synthesized as in step 3c.

6.2 NS RR's at a Wild Card Domain Name

Complimentary to the issue of an SOA RR owned by a wild card domain name is
the issue of NS RR's owned by a wild card domain name.  In this instance,
each machine being referred to in the RDATA of the NS RR has to be able to
understand the impact of this on step 2, the choosing of the authoritative

Referring to the same machine in such a NS RR will probably not work well.
This is because the server may become confused as to whether the query name
ought to be answered by the zone owning the NS RR in question or a synthesized
zone.  (It isn't known in advance that the query name will invoke the wild
card synthesis.)

The status of other RR's owned by a wild card domain name is the same as
if the owner name was not a wild card domain name.  I.e., when there is a
NS RR at a wild card domain name, other records are treated as being below
the zone cut.

Is it not a protocol error to have a NS RR owned by a wild card domian name,
complimentary to the case of a SOA RR.  However, for this to work, an
implementation has to know how to synthesize a zone.

6.3 CNAME RR's at a Wild Card Domain Name

The issue of CNAME RR's owned by wild card domain names has prompted a
suggested change to the last paragraph of step 3c of the algorithm in 4.3.2.
The changed text is this:

             If the "*" label does exist and if the data at the node is
             a CNAME and QTYPE doesn't match CNAME, copy the CNAME RR
             into the answer section of the response, set the owner
             of the CNAME RR to be QNAME, and then change QNAME to the
             canonical name in the CNAME RR, and go back to step 1.

             If the "*" label does exist and either QTYPE is CNAME or the
             data at the node is not a CNAME, then match RRs at that node
             against QTYPE.  If any match, copy them into the answer
             section, but set the owner of the RR to be QNAME, and
             not the node with the "*" label.  Go to step 6.

Apologies if the above isn't clear, but an attempt was made to stitch
together the passage using just the phrases in section 3a and 3c of the
algorithm so as to preserve the original flavor.

In case the passage as suggested isn't clear enough, the intent is to make
"landing" at a wild card name and finding a CNAME the same as if this happened
as a result of a direct match.  I.e., Finding a CNAME at the name matched
in step 3c is supposed to have the same impact as finding the CNAME in step

6.4 DNAME RR's at a Wild Card Domain Name

The specification of the DNAME RR, which is at the proposed level of
standardization, is not as mature as the full standard in RFC 1034.  Because
of this, or the reason for this is, there appears to be a host of issues
with that definition and it's rewrite of the algorithm in 4.3.2.  For the
time being, when it comes to wild card processing issues, a DNAME can
be considered to be a CNAME synthesizer.  A DNAME at a wild card domain name
is effectively the same as a CNAME at a wild card domain name.

7 Security Considerations

This document is refining the specifications to make it more likely that
security can be added to DNS.  No functional additions are being made, just
refining what is considered proper to allow the DNS, security of the DNS, and
extending the DNS to be more predictable.

8 References

Normative References

[RFC 20] ASCII Format for Network Interchange, V.G. Cerf, Oct-16-1969
[RFC 1034] Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities, P.V. Mockapetris,
[RFC 1035] Domain Names - Implementation and Specification, P.V
             Mockapetris, Nov-01-1987
[RFC 2119] Key Words for Use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels, S
             Bradner, March 1997

Informative References

[RFC 2136] Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE), P. Vixie,
             Ed., S. Thomson, Y. Rekhter, J. Bound, April 1997
[RFC 2535] Domain Name System Security Extensions, D. Eastlake, March 1999
[RFC 2672] Non-Terminal DNS Name Redirection, M. Crawford, August 1999

9 Others Contributing to This Document

Others who have directly caused text to appear in the document: Paul Vixie
and Olaf Kolkman.  Many others have indirect influences on the content.

10 Editors

Name:        Bob Halley
Affiliation: Nominum, Inc.
Address:     2385 Bay Road, Redwood City, CA 94063 USA
Phone:       +1-650-381-6016
EMail:       Bob.Halley@nominum.com

Name:        Edward Lewis
Affiliation: ARIN
Address:     3635 Concorde Pkwy, Suite 200, Chantilly, VA 20151 USA
Phone:       +1-703-227-9854
Email:       edlewis@arin.net

Appendix A: Subdomains of Wild Card Domain Names

In reading the definition of section 2 carefully, it is possible to
rationalize unusual names as legal.  In the example given, *.example.
could have subdomains of *.sub.*.example. and even the more direct
*.*.example.  (The implication here is that these domain names own
explicit resource records sets.)  Although defining these names is not
easy to justify, it is important that implementions account for the
possibility.  This section will give some further guidence on handling
these names.

The first thing to realize is that by all definitions, subdomains of
wild card domain names are legal.  In analyzing them, one realizes
that they cause no harm by their existence.  Because of this, they are
allowed to exist, i.e., there are no special case rules made to disallow
them.  The reason for not preventing these names is that the prevention
would just introduce more code paths to put into implementations.

The concept of "closest enclosing" existing names is important to keep in
mind.  It is also important to realize that a wild card domain name can
be a closest encloser of a query name.  For example, if *.*.example. is
defined in a zone, and the query name is a.*.example., then the closest
enclosing domain name is *.example.  Keep in mind that the closest
encloser is not eligible to be a source of synthesized answers, just the
subdomain of it that has the first label "*".

To illustrate this, the following chart shows some matches.  Assume that
the names *.example., *.*.example., and *.sub.*.example. are defined
in the zone.

        QNAME                Closest Encloser   Wild Card Source
        a.example.           example.           *.example.
        b.a.example.         example.           *.example.
        a.*.example.         *.example.         *.*.example.
        b.a.*.example.       *.example.         *.*.example.
        b.a.*.*.example.     *.*.example.       no wild card
        a.sub.*.example.     sub.*.example.     *.sub.*.example.
        b.a.sub.*.example.   sub.*.example.     *.sub.*.example.
        a.*.sub.*.example.   *.sub.*.example.   no wild card
        *.a.example.         example.           *.example.
        a.sub.b.example.     example.           *.example.

Recall that the closest encloser itself cannot be the wild card.  Therefore
the match for b.a.*.*.example. has no applicable wild card.

Finally, if a query name is sub.*.example., any answer available will come
from an exact name match for sub.*.example.  No wild card synthesis is
performed in this case.

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