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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 09 10 RFC 2136

   DNSIND Working Group                              Paul Vixie (Ed.) (ISC)
   INTERNET-DRAFT                                  Susan Thomson (Bellcore)
   <draft-ietf-dnsind-dynDNS-09.txt>                  Yakov Rekhter (Cisco)
                                                            Jim Bound (DEC)
   Amends: RFC 1035                                              March 1996
   
   
            Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE)
   
   
   Status of this Memo
   
      This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
      documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
      and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
      working documents as Internet-Drafts.
   
      Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
      and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
      time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
      material or to cite them other than as ``work in progress.''
   
      To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
      ``1id-abstracts.txt'' listing contained in the Internet-Drafts Shadow
      Directories on ftp.is.co.za (Africa), nic.nordu.net (Europe),
      munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim), ds.internic.net (US East Coast), or
      ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).
   
   
   Abstract
   
      The Domain Name System was originally designed to support queries of
      a statically configured database.  While the data was expected to
      change, the frequency of those changes was expected to be fairly low,
      and all updates were made as external edits to a zone's Master File.
   
      Using this specification of the UPDATE opcode, it is possible to add
      or delete RRs or RRsets from a specified zone.  Prerequisites are
      specified separately from update operations, and can specify a
      dependency upon either the previous existence or nonexistence of an
      RRset, or the existence of a single RR.
   
      UPDATE is atomic, i.e., all prerequisites must be satisfied or else
      no update operations will take place.  There are no data dependent
      error conditions defined after the prerequisites have been met.
   
   
   
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   1 - Definitions
   
   This document intentionally gives more definition to the roles of
   ``Master,'' ``Slave,'' and ``Primary Master'' servers, and their
   enumeration in NS RRs, and the SOA MNAME field.  In that sense, the
   following server type definitions can be considered an addendum to
   [RFC1035], and are intended to be consistent with [NOTIFY]:
   
      Slave           an authoritative server that uses AXFR or IXFR to
                      retrieve the zone and is named in the zone's NS
                      RRset.
   
      Master          an authoritative server configured to be the source
                      of AXFR or IXFR data for one or more slave servers.
   
      Primary Master  master server at the root of the AXFR/IXFR dependency
                      graph.  The primary master is named in the zone's SOA
                      MNAME field and optionally by an NS RR.  There is by
                      definition only one primary master server per zone.
   
   A domain name identifies a node within the domain name space tree
   structure.  Each node has a set (possibly empty) of Resource Records
   (RRs).  All RRs having the same NAME, CLASS and TYPE are called a
   Resource Record Set (RRset).
   
   The pseudocode used in this document is for example purposes only.  If
   it is found to disagree with the text, the text shall be considered
   authoritative.  If the text is found to be ambiguous, the pseudocode can
   be used to help resolve the ambiguity.
   
   1.1 - Comparison Rules
   
   1.1.1. Two RRs are considered equal if their NAME, CLASS, TYPE, RDLENGTH
   and RDATA fields are equal.  Note that the time-to-live (TTL) field is
   explicitly excluded from the comparison.
   
   1.1.2. The rules for comparison of character strings in names are
   specified in [RFC1035 2.3.3].
   
   1.1.3. Wildcarding is disabled.  That is, a wildcard (``*'') in an
   update only matches a wildcard (``*'') in the zone, and vice versa.
   
   1.1.4. Aliasing is disabled: A CNAME in the zone matches a CNAME in the
   update, and will not otherwise be followed.  All UPDATE operations are
   done on the basis of canonical names.
   
   
   
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   1.1.5. The following RR types cannot be appended to an RRset.  If the
   following comparison rules are met, then an attempt to add the new RR
   will result in the replacement of the previous RR:
   
      SOA    compare only NAME, CLASS and TYPE -- it is not possible to
             have more than one SOA per zone, even if any of the data
             fields differ.
   
      WKS    compare only NAME, CLASS, TYPE, ADDRESS, and PROTOCOL -- only
             one WKS RR is possible for this tuple, even if the services
             masks differ.
   
      CNAME  compare only NAME, CLASS, and TYPE -- it is not possible to
             have more than one CNAME RR, even if their data fields differ.
   
   1.2 - Glue RRs
   
   For the purpose of determining whether a domain name used in the UPDATE
   protocol is contained within a specified zone, a domain name is ``in'' a
   zone if it is owned by that zone's domain name.  See section 7.19 for
   details.
   
   1.3 - New Assigned Numbers
   
      CLASS = NONE (TBD: 254)
      RCODE = YXDOMAIN (TBD: 6)
      RCODE = YXRRSET (TBD: 7)
      RCODE = NXRRSET (TBD: 8)
      RCODE = NOTAUTH (TBD: 9)
      RCODE = NOTZONE (TBD: 10?)
      Opcode = UPDATE (5)
   
   
   2 - Update Message Format
   
   The DNS Message Format is defined by [RFC1035 4.1].  Some extensions are
   necessary (for example, more error codes are possible under UPDATE than
   under QUERY) and some fields must be overloaded (see description of
   CLASS fields below).
   
   The overall format of an UPDATE message is, following [ibid]:
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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      +---------------------+
      |        Header       |
      +---------------------+
      |         Zone        | specifies the zone to be updated
      +---------------------+
      |     Prerequisite    | RRs or RRsets which must (not) preexist
      +---------------------+
      |        Update       | RRs or RRsets to be added or deleted
      +---------------------+
      |   Additional Data   | additional data
      +---------------------+
   
   
   The Header Section specifies that this message is an UPDATE, and
   describes the size of the other sections.  The Zone Section names the
   zone that is to be updated by this message.  The Prerequisite Section
   specifies the starting invariants (in terms of zone content) required
   for this update.  The Update Section contains the edits to be made, and
   the Additional Data Section contains data which may be necessary to
   complete, but is not part of, this update.
   
   2.1 - Transport Issues
   
   An update transaction may be carried in a UDP datagram, if the request
   fits, or in a TCP connection (at the discretion of the requestor).  When
   TCP is used, the message is in the format described in [RFC1035 4.2.2].
   
   2.2 - Message Header
   
   The header of the DNS Message Format is defined by [RFC 1035 4.1].  Not
   all opcodes define the same set of flag bits, though as a practical
   matter most of the bits defined for QUERY (in [ibid]) are identically
   defined by the other opcodes.  UPDATE uses only one flag bit (QR).
   
   The DNS Message Format specifies record counts for its four sections
   (Question, Answer, Authority, and Additional).  UPDATE uses the same
   fields, and the same section formats, but the naming and use of these
   sections differs as shown in the following modified header, after
   [RFC1035 4.1.1]:
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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                                      1  1  1  1  1  1
        0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0  1  2  3  4  5
      +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
      |                      ID                       |
      +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
      |QR|   Opcode  |          Z         |   RCODE   |
      +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
      |                    ZOCOUNT                    |
      +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
      |                    PRCOUNT                    |
      +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
      |                    UPCOUNT                    |
      +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
      |                    ADCOUNT                    |
      +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   
   These fields are used as follows:
   
      ID      A 16-bit identifier assigned by the entity that generates any
              kind of request.  This identifier is copied in the
              corresponding reply and can be used by the requestor to match
              replies to outstanding requests, or by the server to detect
              duplicated requests from some requestor.
   
      QR      A one bit field that specifies whether this message is a
              request (0), or a response (1).
   
      Opcode  A four bit field that specifies the kind of request in this
              message.  This value is set by the originator of a request
              and copied into the response.  The Opcode value that
              identifies an UPDATE message is five (5).
   
      Z       Reserved for future use.  Should be zero (0) in all requests
              and responses.  A non-zero Z field should be ignored by
              implementations of this specification.
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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      RCODE   Response code - this four bit field is undefined in requests
              and set in responses.  The values and meanings of this field
              within responses are as follows:
   
              Mneumonic   Value   Description
              ------------------------------------------------------------
              NOERROR     0       No error condition.
              FORMERR     1       The name server was unable to interpret
                                  the request due to a format error.
              SERVFAIL    2       The name server encountered an internal
                                  failure while processing this request,
                                  for example an operating system error
                                  or a forwarding timeout.
              NXDOMAIN    3       Some name that ought to exist,
                                  does not exist.
              NOTIMP      4       The name server does not support
                                  the specified Opcode.
              REFUSED     5       The name server refuses to perform the
                                  specified operation for policy or
                                  security reasons.
              YXDOMAIN    6?      Some name that ought not to exist,
                                  does exist.
              YXRRSET     7?      Some RRset that ought not to exist,
                                  does exist.
              NXRRSET     8?      Some RRset that ought to exist,
                                  does not exist.
              NOTAUTH     9?      The server is not authoritative for
                                  the zone named in the Zone Section.
              NOTZONE     10?     A name used in the Prerequisite or
                                  Update Section is not within the
                                  zone denoted by the Zone Section.
   
   
      ZOCOUNT The number of RRs in the Zone Section.
   
      PRCOUNT The number of RRs in the Prerequisite Section.
   
      UPCOUNT The number of RRs in the Update Section.
   
      ADCOUNT The number of RRs in the Additional Data Section.
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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   2.3 - Zone Section
   
   The Zone Section has the same format as that specified in [RFC1035
   4.1.2], with the fields redefined as follows:
   
                                      1  1  1  1  1  1
        0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0  1  2  3  4  5
      +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
      |                                               |
      /                     ZNAME                     /
      /                                               /
      +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
      |                     ZTYPE                     |
      +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
      |                     ZCLASS                    |
      +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   
   
   UPDATE uses this section to denote the zone of the records being
   updated.  All records to be updated must be in the same zone, and
   therefore the Zone Section is allowed to contain exactly one record.
   The ZNAME is the zone name, the ZTYPE must be SOA, and the ZCLASS is the
   zone's class.
   
   2.4 - Prerequisite Section
   
   This section contains a set of RRset prerequisites which must be
   satisfied at the time the UPDATE packet is received by the primary
   master server.  The format of this section is as specified by [RFC1035
   4.1.3].  There are five possible sets of semantics that can be expressed
   here, summarized as follows and then explained below.
   
      (1)  RRset exists (value independent).  At least one RR with a
           specified NAME and TYPE (in the zone and class specified by the
           Zone Section) must exist.
   
      (2)  RRset exists (value dependent).  A set of RRs with a specified
           NAME and TYPE exists and has the same members with the same
           RDATAs as the RRset specified here in this Section.
   
      (3)  RRset does not exist.  No RRs with a specified NAME and TYPE (in
           the zone and class denoted by the Zone Section) can exist.
   
   
   
   
   
   
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      (4)  Name is in use.  At least one RR with a specified NAME (in the
           zone and class specified by the Zone Section) must exist.  Note
           that this prerequisite is NOT satisfied by empty nonterminals.
   
      (5)  Name is not in use.  No RR of any type is owned by a specified
           NAME.  Note that this prerequisite IS satisfied by empty
           nonterminals.
   
   The syntax of these is as follows:
   
   2.4.1 - RRset Exists (Value Independent)
   
   At least one RR with a specified NAME and TYPE (in the zone and class
   specified in the Zone Section) must exist.
   
   For this prerequisite, a requestor adds to the section a single RR whose
   NAME and TYPE are equal to that of the zone RRset whose existence is
   required.  RDLENGTH is zero and RDATA is therefore empty.  CLASS must be
   specified as ANY to differentiate this condition from that of an actual
   RR whose RDLENGTH is naturally zero (0) (e.g., NULL).  TTL is specified
   as zero (0).
   
   2.4.2 - RRset Exists (Value Dependent)
   
   A set of RRs with a specified NAME and TYPE exists and has the same
   members with the same RDATAs as the RRset specified here in this
   section.  While RRset ordering is undefined and therefore not
   significant to this comparison, the sets be identical in their extent.
   
   For this prerequisite, a requestor adds to the section an entire RRset
   whose preexistence is required.  NAME and TYPE are that of the RRset
   being denoted.  CLASS is that of the zone.  TTL must be specified as
   zero (0) and is ignored when comparing RRsets for identity.
   
   2.4.3 - RRset Does Not Exist
   
   No RRs with a specified NAME and TYPE (in the zone and class denoted by
   the Zone Section) can exist.
   
   For this prerequisite, a requestor adds to the section a single RR whose
   NAME and TYPE are equal to that of the RRset whose nonexistence is
   required.  The RDLENGTH of this record is zero (0), and RDATA field is
   therefore empty.  CLASS must be specified as NONE in order to
   distinguish this condition from a valid RR whose RDLENGTH is naturally
   zero (0) (for example, the NULL RR).  TTL must be specified as zero (0).
   
   
   
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   2.4.4 - Name Is In Use
   
   Name is in use.  At least one RR with a specified NAME (in the zone and
   class specified by the Zone Section) must exist.  Note that this
   prerequisite is NOT satisfied by empty nonterminals.
   
   For this prerequisite, a requestor adds to the section a single RR whose
   NAME is equal to that of the name whose ownership of an RR is required.
   RDLENGTH is zero and RDATA is therefore empty.  CLASS must be specified
   as ANY to differentiate this condition from that of an actual RR whose
   RDLENGTH is naturally zero (0) (e.g., NULL).  TYPE must be specified as
   ANY to differentiate this case from that of an RRset existence test.
   TTL is specified as zero (0).
   
   2.4.5 - Name Is Not In Use
   
   Name is not in use.  No RR of any type is owned by a specified NAME.
   Note that this prerequisite IS satisfied by empty nonterminals.
   
   For this prerequisite, a requestor adds to the section a single RR whose
   NAME is equal to that of the name whose nonownership of any RRs is
   required.  RDLENGTH is zero and RDATA is therefore empty.  CLASS must be
   specified as NONE.  TYPE must be specified as ANY.  TTL must be
   specified as zero (0).
   
   2.5 - Update Section
   
   This section contains RRs to be added to or deleted from the zone.  The
   format of this section is as specified by [RFC1035 4.1.3].  There are
   four possible sets of semantics, summarized below and with details to
   follow.
   
      (1) Add RRs to an RRset.
      (2) Delete an RRset.
      (3) Delete all RRsets from a name.
      (4) Delete an RR from an RRset.
   
   
   The syntax of these is as follows:
   
   2.5.1 - Add To An RRset
   
   RRs are added to the Update Section whose NAME, TYPE, TTL, RDLENGTH and
   RDATA are those being added, and CLASS is the same as the zone class.
   Any duplicate RRs will be silently ignored by the primary master.
   
   
   
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   2.5.2 - Delete An RRset
   
   One RR is added to the Update Section whose NAME and TYPE are those of
   the RRset to be deleted.  TTL must be specified as zero (0) and is
   otherwise not used by the primary master.  CLASS must be specified as
   ANY.  RDLENGTH must be zero (0) and RDATA must therefore be empty.  If
   no such RRset exists, then this Update RR will be silently ignored by
   the primary master.
   
   2.5.3 - Delete All RRsets From A Name
   
   One RR is added to the Update Section whose NAME is that of the name to
   be cleansed of RRsets.  TYPE must be specified as ANY.  TTL must be
   specified as zero (0) and is otherwise not used by the primary master.
   CLASS must be specified as ANY.  RDLENGTH must be zero (0) and RDATA
   must therefore be empty.  If no such RRsets exist, then this Update RR
   will be silently ignored by the primary master.
   
   2.5.4 - Delete An RR From An RRset
   
   RRs to be deleted are added to the Update Section.  The NAME, TYPE,
   RDLENGTH and RDATA must match the RR being deleted.  TTL must be
   specified as zero (0) and will otherwise be ignored by the primary
   master.  CLASS must be specified as NONE to distinguish this from an RR
   addition.  If no such RRs exist, then this Update RR will be silently
   ignored by the primary master.
   
   2.6 - Additional Data Section
   
   This section contains RRs which are related to the update itself, or to
   new RRs being added by the update.  For example, out of zone glue (A RRs
   referred to by new NS RRs) should be presented here.  The server can use
   or ignore out of zone glue, at the discretion of the server implementor.
   The format of this section is as specified by [RFC1035 4.1.3].
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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   3 - Server Behavior
   
   A server, upon receiving an UPDATE request, will signal NOTIMP to the
   requestor if the UPDATE opcode is not recognized or if it is recognized
   but has not been implemented.  Otherwise, processing continues as
   follows.
   
   3.1 - Process Zone Section
   
   3.1.1. The Zone Section is checked to see that there is exactly one RR
   therein and that the RR's ZTYPE is SOA, else signal FORMERR to the
   requestor.  Next, the ZNAME and ZCLASS are checked to see if the zone so
   named is one of this server's authority zones, else signal NOTAUTH to
   the requestor.  If the server is a zone slave, the request will be
   forwarded toward the primary master.
   
   3.1.2 - Pseudocode For Zone Section Processing
   
      if (zcount != 1 || ztype != SOA)
           return (FORMERR)
      if (zone_type(zname, zclass) == SLAVE)
           return forward()
      if (zone_type(zname, zclass) == MASTER)
           return update()
      return (NOTAUTH)
   
   Sections 3.2 through 3.8 describe the primary master's behaviour,
   whereas Section 6 describes a forwarder's behaviour.
   
   3.2 - Process Prerequisite Section
   
   Next, the Prerequisite Section is checked to see that all prerequisites
   are satisfied by the current state of the zone.  Using the definitions
   expressed in Section 1.2, if any RR's NAME is not within the zone
   specified in the Zone Section, signal NOTZONE to the requestor.
   
   3.2.1. For RRs in this section whose CLASS is ANY, test to see that TTL
   and RDLENGTH are both zero (0), else signal FORMERR to the requestor.
   If TYPE is ANY, test to see that there is at least one RR in the zone
   whose NAME is the same as that of the Prerequisite RR, else signal
   NXDOMAIN to the requestor.  If TYPE is not ANY, test to see that there
   is at least one RR in the zone whose NAME and TYPE are the same as that
   of the Prerequisite RR, else signal NXRRSET to the requestor.
   
   
   
   
   
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   3.2.2. For RRs in this section whose CLASS is NONE, test to see that the
   TTL and RDLENGTH are both zero (0), else signal FORMERR to the
   requestor.  If the TYPE is ANY, test to see that there are no RRs in the
   zone whose NAME is the same as that of the Prerequisite RR, else signal
   YXDOMAIN to the requestor.  If the TYPE is not ANY, test to see that
   there are no RRs in the zone whose NAME and TYPE are the same as that of
   the Prerequisite RR, else signal YXRRSET to the requestor.
   
   3.2.3. For RRs in this section whose CLASS is the same as the ZCLASS,
   test to see that the TTL is zero (0), else signal FORMERR to the
   requestor.  Then, build an RRset for each unique <NAME,TYPE> and compare
   each resulting RRset for set equality (same members, no more, no less)
   with RRsets in the zone.  If any Prerequisite RRset is not entirely and
   exactly matched by a zone RRset, signal NXRRSET to the requestor.  If
   any RR in this section has a CLASS other than ZCLASS or NONE or ANY,
   signal FORMERR to the requestor.
   
   3.2.4 - Table Of Metavalues Used In Prerequisite Section
   
   CLASS    TYPE     RDATA    Meaning
   ------------------------------------------------------------
   ANY      ANY      empty    Name is in use
   ANY      rrset    empty    RRset exists (value independent)
   NONE     ANY      empty    Name is not in use
   NONE     rrset    empty    RRset does not exist
   zone     rrset    rr       RRset exists (value dependent)
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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   3.2.5 - Pseudocode for Prerequisite Section Processing
   
      for rr in prerequisites
           if (rr.ttl != 0)
                return (FORMERR)
           if (zone_of(rr.name) != ZNAME)
                return (NOTZONE);
           if (rr.class == ANY)
                if (rr.rdlength != 0)
                     return (FORMERR)
                if (rr.type == ANY)
                     if (!zone_name<rr.name>)
                          return (NXDOMAIN)
                else
                     if (!zone_rrset<rr.name, rr.type>)
                          return (NXRRSET)
           if (rr.class == NONE)
                if (rr.rdlength != 0)
                     return (FORMERR)
                if (rr.type == ANY)
                     if (zone_name<rr.name>)
                          return (YXDOMAIN)
                else
                     if (zone_rrset<rr.name, rr.type>)
                          return (YXRRSET)
           if (rr.class == zclass)
                temp<rr.name, rr.type> += rr
           else
                return (FORMERR)
   
      for rrset in temp
           if (zone_rrset<rrset.name, rrset.type> != rrset)
                return (NXDOMAIN)
   
   
   3.3 - Check Requestor's Permissions
   
   3.3.1. Next, the requestor's permission to update the RRs named in the
   Update Section may be tested in an implementation dependent fashion or
   using mechanisms specified in a subsequent Secure DNS Update protocol.
   If the requestor does not have permission to perform these updates, the
   server may write a warning message in its operations log, and may either
   signal REFUSED to the requestor, or ignore the permission problem and
   proceed with the update.
   
   
   
   
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   3.3.2. While the exact processing is implementation defined, if these
   verification activities are to be performed, this is the point in the
   server's processing where such performance should take place, since if a
   REFUSED condition is encountered after an update has been partially
   applied, it will be necessary to undo the partial update and restore the
   zone to its original state before answering the requestor.
   
   3.3.3 - Pseudocode for Permission Checking
   
      if (security policy exists)
           if (this update is not permitted)
                if (local option)
                     log a message about permission problem
                if (local option)
                     return (REFUSED)
   
   
   3.4 - Process Update Section
   
   Next, the Update Section is processed as follows.
   
   3.4.1 - Prescan
   
   The Update Section is parsed into RRs and each RR's CLASS is checked to
   see if it is ANY, NONE, or the same as the Zone Class, else signal a
   FORMERR to the requestor.  Using the definitions in Section 1.2, each
   RR's NAME must be in the zone specified by the Zone Section, else signal
   NOTZONE to the requestor.
   
   3.4.1.2. For RRs whose CLASS is not ANY, check the TYPE and if it is
   ANY, AXFR, MAILA, MAILB, or any other QUERY metatype, or any
   unrecognized type, then signal FORMERR to the requestor.  For RRs whose
   CLASS is ANY or NONE, check the TTL to see that it is zero (0), else
   signal a FORMERR to the requestor.  For any RR whose CLASS is ANY, check
   the RDLENGTH to make sure that it is zero (0) (that is, the RDATA field
   is empty), and that the TYPE is not AXFR, MAILA, MAILB, or any other
   QUERY metatype besides ANY, or any unrecognized type, else signal
   FORMERR to the requestor.
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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   3.4.1.3 - Pseudocode For Update Section Prescan
   
      [rr] for rr in updates
           if (zone_of(rr.name) != ZNAME)
                return (NOTZONE);
           if (rr.class == zclass)
                if (rr.type & ANY|AXFR|MAILA|MAILB)
                     return (FORMERR)
           elsif (rr.class == ANY)
                if (rr.ttl != 0 || rr.rdlength != 0
                    || rr.type & AXFR|MAILA|MAILB)
                     return (FORMERR)
           elsif (rr.class == NONE)
                if (rr.ttl != 0 || rr.type & ANY|AXFR|MAILA|MAILB)
                     return (FORMERR)
           else
                return (FORMERR)
   
   
   3.4.2 - Update
   
   The Update Section is parsed into RRs and these RRs are processed in
   order.
   
   3.4.2.1. If any system failure (such as an out of memory condition, or a
   hardware error in persistent storage) occurs during the processing of
   this section, signal SERVFAIL to the requestor and undo all updates
   applied to the zone during this transaction.
   
   3.4.2.2. Any Update RR whose CLASS is the same as ZCLASS is added to the
   zone.  In case of duplicate RDATAs (which for SOA RRs is always the
   case, and for WKS RRs is the case if the ADDRESS and PROTOCOL fields
   both match), the Zone RR is replaced by Update RR.  If the TYPE is SOA
   and there is no Zone SOA RR, or the new SOA.SERIAL is lower (according
   to [KRE1996]) than the current Zone SOA RR's SOA.SERIAL, the Update RR
   is ignored.  In the case of a CNAME Update RR and a non-CNAME Zone RRset
   or vice versa, ignore the CNAME Update RR, otherwise replace the CNAME
   Zone RR with the CNAME Update RR.
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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   3.4.2.3. For any Update RR whose CLASS is ANY and whose TYPE is ANY, all
   Zone RRs with the same NAME are deleted, unless the NAME is the same as
   ZNAME in which case only those RRs whose TYPE is other than SOA or NS
   are deleted.  For any Update RR whose CLASS is ANY and whose TYPE is not
   ANY all Zone RRs with the same NAME and TYPE are deleted, unless the
   NAME is the same as ZNAME in which case neither SOA or NS RRs will be
   deleted.
   
   3.4.2.4. For any Update RR whose class is NONE, any Zone RR whose NAME,
   TYPE, RDATA and RDLENGTH are equal to the Update RR is deleted, unless
   the NAME is the same as ZNAME and either the TYPE is SOA or the TYPE is
   NS and the matching Zone RR is the only NS remaining in the RRset, in
   which case this Update RR is ignored.
   
   3.4.2.5. Signal NOERROR to the requestor.
   
   3.4.2.6 - Table Of Metavalues Used In Update Section
   
   CLASS    TYPE     RDATA    Meaning
   ---------------------------------------------------------
   ANY      ANY      empty    Delete all RRsets from a name
   ANY      rrset    empty    Delete an RRset
   NONE     rrset    rr       Delete an RR from an RRset
   zone     rrset    rr       Add to an RRset
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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   3.4.2.7 - Pseudocode For Update Section Processing
   
      [rr] for rr in updates
           if (rr.class == zclass)
                if (rr.type == CNAME)
                     if (zone_rrset<rr.name, ~CNAME>)
                          next [rr]
                elsif (zone_rrset<rr.name, CNAME>)
                     next [rr]
                if (rr.type == SOA)
                     if (!zone_rrset<rr.name, SOA> ||
                         zone_rr<rr.name, SOA>.serial > rr.soa.serial)
                          next [rr]
                for zrr in zone_rrset<rr.name, rr.type>
                     if (rr.type == CNAME || rr.type == SOA ||
                         (rr.type == WKS && rr.proto == zrr.proto &&
                          rr.address == zrr.address) ||
                         rr.rdata == zrr.rdata)
                          zrr = rr
                          next [rr]
                zone_rrset<rr.name, rr.type> += rr
           elsif (rr.class == ANY)
                if (rr.type == ANY)
                     if (rr.name == zname)
                          zone_rrset<rr.name, ~(SOA|NS)> = Nil
                     else
                          zone_rrset<rr.name, *> = Nil
                elsif (rr.name == zname &&
                       (rr.type == SOA || rr.type == NS))
                     next [rr]
                else
                     zone_rrset<rr.name, rr.type> = Nil
           elsif (rr.class == NONE)
                if (rr.type == SOA)
                     next [rr]
                if (rr.type == NS && zone_rrset<rr.name, NS> == rr)
                     next [rr]
                zone_rr<rr.name, rr.type, rr.data> = Nil
      return (NOERROR)
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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   3.5 - Stability
   
   When a zone is modified by an UPDATE operation, the server must commit
   the change to nonvolatile storage before sending a response to the
   requestor or answering any queries or transfers for the modified zone.
   It is reasonable for a server to store only the update records as long
   as a system reboot or power failure will cause these update records to
   be incorporated into the zone the next time the server is started.  It
   is also reasonable for the server to copy the entire modified zone to
   nonvolatile storage after each update operation, though this would have
   suboptimal performance for large zones.
   
   3.6 - Zone Identity
   
   If the zone's SOA SERIAL is changed by an update operation, that change
   must be in a positive direction (using modulo 2**32 arithmetic as
   specified by [KRE1996]).  Attempts to replace an SOA with one whose
   SERIAL is less than the current one will be silently ignored by the
   primary master server.
   
   If the zone's SOA's SERIAL is not changed as a result of an update
   operation, then the server shall increment it automatically before the
   SOA or any changed name or RR or RRset is included in any response or
   transfer.  The primary master server's implementor might choose to
   autoincrement the SOA SERIAL if any of the following events occurs:
   
   (1)  Each update operation.
   
   (2)  A name, RR or RRset in the zone has changed and has subsequently
        been visible to a DNS client since the unincremented SOA was
        visible to a DNS client, and the SOA is about to become visible to
        a DNS client.
   
   (3)  A configurable period of time has elapsed since the last update
        operation.  This period shall be less than or equal to one third of
        the zone refresh time, and the default shall be the lesser of that
        maximum and 300 seconds.
   
   (4)  A configurable number of updates has been applied since the last
        SOA change.  The default value for this configuration parameter
        shall be one hundred (100).
   
   It is imperative that the zone's contents and the SOA's SERIAL be
   tightly synchronized.  If the zone appears to change, the SOA must
   appear to change as well.
   
   
   
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   3.7 - Atomicity
   
   During the processing of an UPDATE transaction, the server must ensure
   atomicity with respect to other (concurrent) UPDATE or QUERY
   transactions.  No two transactions can be processed concurrently if
   either depends on the final results of the other; in particular, a QUERY
   should not be able to retrieve RRsets which have been partially modified
   by a concurrent UPDATE, and an UPDATE should not be able to start from
   prerequisites that might not still hold at the completion of some other
   concurrent UPDATE.  Finally, if two UPDATE transactions would modify the
   same names, RRs or RRsets, then such UPDATE transactions must be
   serialized.
   
   3.8 - Response
   
   At the end of UPDATE processing, a response code will be known.  A
   response message is generated by copying the ID and Opcode fields from
   the request, and either copying the ZOCOUNT, PRCOUNT, UPCOUNT, and
   ADCOUNT fields and associated sections, or placing zeros (0) in the
   these ``count'' fields and not including any part of the original
   update.  The QR bit is set to one (1), and the response is sent back to
   the requestor.  If the requestor used UDP, then the response will be
   sent to the requestor's source UDP port.  If the requestor used TCP,
   then the response will be sent back on the requestor's open TCP
   connection.
   
   4 - Requestor Behaviour
   
   4.1. From a requestor's point of view, any authoritative server for the
   zone can appear to be able to process update requests, even though only
   the primary master server is actually able to modify the zone's master
   file.  Requestors are expected to know the name of the zone they intend
   to update and to know or be able to determine the name servers for that
   zone.
   
   4.2. If update ordering is desired, the requestor will need to know the
   value of the existing SOA RR.  Requestors who update the SOA RR must
   update the SOA SERIAL field in a positive direction (as defined by
   [KRE1996]) and to preserve the other SOA fields unless the requestor's
   explicit intent is to change them.  The SOA SERIAL field must never be
   set to zero (0).
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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   4.3. If the requestor has reasonable cause to believe that all of a
   zone's servers will be equally reachable, then it should arrange to try
   the primary master server (as given by the SOA MNAME field if matched by
   some NS NSDNAME) first to avoid unnecessary forwarding inside the slave
   servers.  (Note that the primary master will in some cases not be
   reachable by all requestors, due to firewalls or network partitioning.)
   
   4.4. Once the zone's name servers been found and possibly sorted so that
   the ones more likely to be reachable and/or support the UPDATE opcode
   are listed first, the requestor composes an UPDATE message of the
   following form and sends it to the first name server on its list:
   
      ID:                        (new)
      Opcode:                    UPDATE
      Zone zcount:               1
      Zone zname:                (zone name)
      Zone zclass:               (zone class)
      Zone ztype:                T_SOA
      Prerequisite Section:      (see previous text)
      Update Section:            (see previous text)
      Additional Data Section:   (empty)
   
   
   4.5. If the requestor receives a response, and the response has an RCODE
   other than SERVFAIL or NOTIMP, then the requestor returns an appropriate
   response to its caller.
   
   4.6. If a response is received whose RCODE is SERVFAIL or NOTIMP, or if
   no response is received within an implementation dependent timeout
   period, or if an ICMP error is received indicating that the server's
   port is unreachable, then the requestor will delete the unusable server
   from its internal name server list and try the next one, repeating until
   the name server list is empty.  If the requestor runs out of servers to
   try, an appropriate error will be returned to the requestor's caller.
   
   5 - Duplicate Detection, Ordering and Mutual Exclusion
   
   5.1. For correct operation, mechanisms may be needed to ensure
   idempotence, order UPDATE requests and provide mutual exclusion.  An
   UPDATE message or response might be delivered zero times, one time, or
   multiple times.  Datagram duplication is of particular interest since it
   covers the case of the so-called ``replay attack'' where a correct
   request is duplicated maliciously by an intruder.
   
   
   
   
   
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   5.2. Multiple UPDATE requests or responses in transit might be delivered
   in any order, due to network topology changes or load balancing, or to
   multipath forwarding graphs wherein several slave servers all forward to
   the primary master.  In some cases, it might be required that the
   earlier update not be applied after the later update, where ``earlier''
   and ``later'' are defined by an external time base visible to some set
   of requestors, rather than by the order of request receipt at the
   primary master.
   
   5.3. A requestor can ensure transaction idempotence by explicitly
   deleting some ``marker RR'' (rather than deleting the RRset of which it
   is a part) and then adding a new ``marker RR'' with a different RDATA
   field.  The Prerequisite Section should specify that the original
   ``marker RR'' must be present in order for this UPDATE message to be
   accepted by the server.
   
   5.4. If the request is duplicated by a network error, all duplicate
   requests will fail since only the first will find the original ``marker
   RR'' present and having its known previous value.  The decisions of
   whether to use such a ``marker RR'' and what RR to use are left up to
   the application programmer, though one obvious choice is the zone's SOA
   RR as described below.
   
   5.5. Requestors can ensure update ordering by externally synchronizing
   their use of successive values of the ``marker RR.''  Mutual exclusion
   can be addressed as a degenerate case, in that a single succession of
   the ``marker RR'' is all that is needed.
   
   5.6. A special case where update ordering and datagram duplication
   intersect is when an RR validly changes to some new value and then back
   to its previous value.  Without a ``marker RR'' as described above, this
   sequence of updates can leave the zone in an undefined state if
   datagrams are duplicated.
   
   5.7. To achieve an atomic multitransaction ``read-modify-write'' cycle,
   a requestor could first retrieve the SOA RR, and build an UPDATE message
   one of whose prerequisites was the old SOA RR.  It would then specify
   updates that would delete this SOA RR and add a new one with an
   incremented SOA SERIAL, along with whatever actual prerequisites and
   updates were the object of the transaction.  If the transaction
   succeeds, the requestor knows that the RRs being changed were not
   otherwise altered by any other requestor.
   
   
   
   
   
   
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   6 - Forwarding
   
   When a zone slave forwards an UPDATE message upward toward the zone's
   primary master server, it must allocate a new ID and prepare to enter
   the role of ``forwarding server,'' which is a requestor with respect to
   the forward server.
   
   6.1. The set of forward servers will be same as the set of servers this
   zone slave would use as the source of AXFR or IXFR data.  So, while the
   original requestor might have used the zone's NS RRset to locate its
   update server, a forwarder always forwards toward its designated zone
   master servers.
   
   6.2. If the original requestor used TCP, then the TCP connection from
   the requestor is still open and the forwarder must use TCP to forward
   the message.  If the original requestor used UDP, the forwarder may use
   either UDP or TCP to forward the message, at the whim of the
   implementor.
   
   6.3. It is reasonable for forward servers to be forwarders themselves,
   if the AXFR dependency graph being followed is a deep one involving
   firewalls and multiple connectivity realms.  In most cases the AXFR
   dependency graph will be shallow and the forward server will be the
   primary master server.
   
   6.4. The forwarder will not respond to its requestor until it receives a
   response from its forward server.  UPDATE transactions involving
   forwarders are therefore time synchronized with respect to the original
   requestor and the primary master server.
   
   6.5. When there are multiple possible sources of AXFR data and therefore
   multiple possible forward servers, a forwarder will use the same
   fallback strategy with respect to connectivity or timeout errors that it
   would use when performing an AXFR.  This is implementation dependent.
   
   6.6. When a forwarder receives a response from a forward server, it
   copies this response into a new response message, assigns its
   requestor's ID to that message, and sends the response back to the
   requestor.
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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   7 - Design, Implementation, Operation, and Protocol Notes
   
   Some of the principles which guided the design of this UPDATE
   specification are as follows.  Note that these are not part of the
   formal specification and any disagreement between this section and any
   other section of this document should be resolved in favour of the other
   section.
   
   7.1. Using metavalues for CLASS is possible only because all RRs in the
   packet are assumed to be in the same zone, and CLASS is an attribute of
   a zone rather than of an RRset.  (It is for this reason that the Zone
   Section is not optional.)
   
   7.2. Since there are no data-present or data-absent errors possible from
   processing the Update Section, it is necessary to state data-present and
   data-absent dependencies in the Prerequisite Section.
   
   7.3. The Additional Data Section can be used to supply a server with out
   of zone glue that will be needed in referrals.  For example, if adding a
   new NS RR to HOME.VIX.COM specifying a nameserver called NS.AU.OZ, the A
   RR for NS.AU.OZ can be included in the Additional Data Section.  Servers
   can use this information or ignore it, at the discretion of the
   implementor.
   
   7.4. The Additional Data Section might be used if some of the RRs later
   needed for Secure DNS Update are not actually zone updates, but rather
   ancillary keys or signatures not intended to be stored in the zone (as
   an update would be), yet necessary for validating the update operation.
   
   7.5. It is expected that in the absence of Secure DNS Update, a server
   will only accept updates if they come from a source address that has
   been statically configured in the server's description of a primary
   master zone.  DHCP servers would be likely candidates for inclusion in
   this statically configured list.
   
   7.6. It is not possible to create a zone using this protocol, since
   there is no provision for a slave server to be told who its master
   servers are.  It is expected that this protocol will be extended in the
   future to cover this case.  Therefore, at this time, the addition of SOA
   RRs is unsupported.  For similar reasons, deletion of SOA RRs is also
   unsupported.
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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   7.7. The prerequisite for specifying that a name own at least one RR
   differs semantically from QUERY, in that QUERY would return
   <NOERROR,ANCOUNT=0> rather than NXDOMAIN if queried for an RRset at this
   name, while UPDATE's prerequisite condition [Section 2.4.4] would NOT be
   satisfied.
   
   7.8. It is possible for a UDP response to be lost in transit and for a
   request to be retried due to a timeout condition.  In this case an
   UPDATE that was successful the first time it was received by the primary
   master might ultimately appear to have failed when the response to a
   duplicate request is finally received by the requestor.  (This is
   because the original prerequisites may no longer be satisfied after the
   update has been applied.)  For this reason, requestors who require an
   accurate response code must use TCP.
   
   7.9. Because a requestor who requires an accurate response code will
   initiate their UPDATE transaction using TCP, a forwarder who receives a
   request via TCP must forward it using TCP.
   
   7.10. Deferral of SOA SERIAL autoincrements is made possible so that
   serial numbers can be conserved and wraparound at 2**32 can be made an
   infrequent occurance.  Visible (to DNS clients) SOA SERIALs need to
   differ if the zone differs.  Note that the Authority Section SOA in a
   QUERY response is a form of visibility, for the purposes of this
   prerequisite.
   
   7.11. A zone's SOA SERIAL should never be set to zero (0) due to
   interoperability problems with some older but widely installed
   implementations of DNS.  When incrementing an SOA SERIAL, if the result
   of the increment is zero (0) (as will be true when wrapping around
   2**32), it is necessary to increment it again or set it to one (1).  See
   [KRE1996] for more detail on this subject.
   
   7.12. Due to the TTL minimalization necessary when caching an RRset, it
   is recommended that all TTLs in an RRset be set to the same value.
   While the DNS Message Format permits variant TTLs to exist in the same
   RRset, and this variance can exist inside a zone, such variance will
   have counterintuitive results and its use is discouraged.
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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   7.13. Zone cut management presents some obscure corner cases to the add
   and delete operations in the Update Section.  It is possible to delete
   an NS RR as long as it's not the last RR in the RRset.  If deleting all
   RRs from a name, SOA and NS RRs at the top of a zone are unaffected.  If
   deleting RRsets, it is not possible to delete either SOA or NS RRsets at
   the top of a zone.  An attempt to add an SOA will be treated as a
   replace operation.
   
   7.14. No semantic checking is required in the primary master server when
   adding new RRs.  Therefore a requestor can cause CNAME or NS or any
   other kind of RR to be added even if their target name does not exist or
   does not have the proper RRsets to make the original RR useful.  Primary
   master servers which implement this kind of checking should take great
   care to avoid out-of-zone dependencies (whose veracity cannot be
   authoritatively checked) or signals to the requestor during processing
   of the Update Section after the prescan.
   
   7.15. Nonterminal or wildcard CNAMEs are not well specified by RFC 1035
   and their use will probably lead to unpredictable results.  Their use is
   discouraged.
   
   7.16. Before adding a delegation to a zone, all RRsets at or below the
   new zone cut should be removed, except for ``glue'' which are A RRs
   below the zone cut which are targets of NS RRs at the zone cut.
   
   7.17. A primary server implementation may choose to perform part of its
   permission checking during the Update Section processing.  This may be
   needed if the permissions won't be known until the final form of an
   RRset is known.  In this case, a primary server can signal REFUSED to
   the requestor as long as it also undoes all partial updates and restores
   the zone to its original state.
   
   7.18. In a deep AXFR dependency graph, it has not historically been an
   error for slaves to depend mutually upon each other.  This configuration
   has been used to enable a zone to flow from the primary master to all
   slaves even though not all slaves have continuous connectivity to the
   primary master.  UPDATE's use of the AXFR dependency graph for
   forwarding prohibits this kind of dependency loop, since UPDATE
   forwarding has no loop detection analagous to the SOA SERIAL pretest
   used by AXFR.
   
   7.19. For UPDATE's purposes, a zone is said to own all names at or below
   the zone's root.  This allows an UPDATE message to add or delete names
   below a zone cut so as to create and maintain ``glue'' records needed
   for delegation when a name server is within the zone being delegated.
   
   
   
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   7.20. Previously existing names which are occluded by a new zone cut are
   still considered part of the parent zone, for the purposes of zone
   transfers, even though queries for such names will be referred to the
   new subzone's servers.  If a zone cut is removed, all parent zone names
   that were occluded by it will again become visible to queries.  (This is
   a clarification of RFC 1034.)
   
   7.21. If a node contains any name server delegations (NS RRs), this node
   is said to be owned by the child zone, and the parent will answer only
   with a nonauthoritative referral to the child zone's servers if queried
   for a name at or below the child zone's root, except in the case of an
   QTYPE=NS query at the zone cut itself, for which the parent zone's
   servers would answer authoritatively.  (This is a clarification of RFC
   1034.)
   
   7.22. If a server is authoritative for both a zone and its child, then
   queries for names at the zone cut between them will be answered
   authoritatively using only data from the child zone.  (This is a
   clarification of RFC 1034.)
   
   7.23. Update ordering using the SOA RR is problematic since there is no
   way to know which of a zone's NS RRs represents the primary master, and
   the zone slaves can be out of date if their SOA.REFRESH timers have not
   elapsed since the last time the zone was changed on the primary master.
   We recommend that a zone needing ordered updates use only servers which
   implement NOTIFY (see [NOTIFY]) and IXFR (see [IXFR]), and that a client
   receiving a prerequisite error while attempting an ordered update simply
   retry after a random delay period to allow the zone to settle.
   
   8 - Security Considerations
   
   In the absence of DNS Security, the protocol described by this document
   makes it possible for anyone who can reach an authoritative name server
   to alter the contents of a zone.  This strongly indicates a need for out
   of band access control such as static access control lists enforced by
   the server combined with the strongest possible firewall techniques.
   
   At the time of this writing, work is progressing (see [DNSSEC]) on the
   general problem of DNS Security, and for Secure DNS Updates (see
   [SECUPD]).  No updates should be accepted from hosts outside an
   enterprise network's security perimeter until and unless Secure DNS
   Updates have been implemented.  For the purpose of this recommendation,
   a slave server acting as a forwarder, or the primary master itself, is
   outside the security perimeter if it is allowed to exchange DNS messages
   with hosts outside that perimeter.
   
   
   
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   Acknowledgements
   
   We would like to thank the IETF DNSIND working group for their input and
   assistance, in particular, Rob Austein, Randy Bush, Donald Eastlake,
   Masataka Ohta, Mark Andrews, and Robert Elz.  Special thanks to Bill
   Simpson and Ken Wallich for reviewing this document.
   
   References
   
   [RFC1035]
      P. Mockapetris, ``Domain Names - Implementation and Specification,''
      RFC 1035, USC/Information Sciences Institute, November 1987.
   
   [IXFR]
      M. Ohta, ``Incremental Zone Transfer,'' Internet Draft, February
      1996, <draft-ietf-dnsind-ixfr-06.txt>.
   
   [NOTIFY]
      P. Vixie, ``A Mechanism for Prompt Notification of Zone Changes (DNS
      NOTIFY),'' Internet Draft, March 1996, <draft-ietf-dnsind-
      notify-07.txt>.
   
   [KRE1996]
      R. Elz, ``Serial Number Arithmetic,'' Internet Draft, February 1996,
      <draft-ietf-dnsind-serial-00.txt>.
   
   [DNSSEC]
      Donald E. Eastlake and Charles W. Kaufman, ``Domain Name System
      Protocol Security Extensions,'' Internet Draft, January 1996, <draft-
      ietf-dnssec-secext-09.txt>.
   
   [SECUPD]
       Donald E. Eastlake, ``Secure Domain Name System Dynamic Update,''
      Internet Draft, February 1996, <draft-ietf-dnssec-update-00.txt>
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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   Authors' Addresses
   
         Yakov Rekhter                   Susan Thomson
            Cisco Systems                   Bellcore
            170 West Tasman Drive           445 South Street
            San Jose, CA 95134-1706         Morristown, NJ 07960
            +1 914 528 0090                 +1 201 829 4514
            <yakov@cisco.com>               <set@thumper.bellcore.com>
   
         Jim Bound                       Paul Vixie
            Digital Equipment Corp.         Internet Software Consortium
            110 Spitbrook Rd ZK3-3/U14      Star Route Box 159A
            Nashua, NH 03062-2698           Woodside, CA 94062
            +1 603 881 0400                 +1 415 747 0204
            <bound@zk3.dec.com>             <paul@vix.com>
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   Expires October 1996                                          [Page 28]
   

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