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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 RFC 6304

Network Working Group                                           J. Abley
Internet-Draft                                            Afilias Canada
Intended status: Informational                                  W. Maton
Expires: May 19, 2008                                           NRC-CNRC
                                                       November 16, 2007


                      AS112 Nameserver Operations
                     draft-ietf-dnsop-as112-ops-01

Status of this Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 19, 2008.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).













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Abstract

   Many sites connected to the Internet make use of IPv4 addresses which
   are not globally unique.  Examples are the addresses designated in
   RFC1918 for private use within individual sites.

   Devices in such environments may occasionally originate reverse DNS
   queries corresponding to those private-use addresses.  Since the
   addresses concerned have only local significance, it is good practice
   for site administrators to ensure that they are answered locally.
   However, it is not uncommon for such queries to follow the normal
   delegation path in the public DNS instead of being answered within
   the site.

   It is not possible for public DNS servers to give useful answers to
   such queries.  In addition, due to the wide deployment of private-use
   addresses and the continuing growth of the Internet, the volume of
   such queries is large and growing.  The AS112 project aims to provide
   a distributed sink for such queries in order to reduce the load on
   the root and IN-ADDR.ARPA authority servers.

   This document describes the steps required to install a new AS112
   node, and offers advice relating to such a node's operation.




























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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  AS112 DNS Service  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.1.  Zones  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.2.  Nameservers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Installation of a New Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.  Useful Background Knowledge  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  Topological Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.3.  Operating System and Host Considerations . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.4.  Routing Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.5.  DNS Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.6.  Testing a Newly-Installed Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   4.  Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.1.  Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.2.  Downtime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.3.  Statistics and Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   5.  Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   6.  Future Usefulness of AS112 Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   Appendix A.  History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   Appendix B.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   Appendix C.  Change History  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 22























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1.  Introduction

   Many sites connected to the Internet make use of IPv4 addresses which
   are not globally unique.  Examples are the addresses designated in
   [RFC1918] for private use within individual sites.

   Devices in such environments may occasionally originate reverse DNS
   queries [RFC1034] corresponding to those private-use addresses.
   Since the addresses concerned have only local significance, it is
   good practice for site administrators to ensure that they are
   answered locally [I-D.andrews-full-service-resolvers].  However, it
   is not uncommon for such queries to follow the normal delegation path
   in the public DNS instead of being answered within the site.

   It is not possible for public DNS servers to give useful answers to
   such queries.  In addition, due to the wide deployment of private-use
   addresses and the continuing growth of the Internet, the volume of
   such queries is large and growing.  The AS112 project aims to provide
   a distributed sink for such queries in order to reduce the load on
   the root and IN-ADDR.ARPA authority servers.

   The AS112 project encompasses a loosely-coordinated collection of
   independently-operated nameservers.  Each nameserver functions as a
   single node in an AS112 anycast cloud [RFC4786], and is configured to
   answer authoritatively for a particular set of nominated zones.


























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2.  AS112 DNS Service

2.1.  Zones

   AS112 nameservers answer authoritatively for the following zones,
   corresponding to [RFC1918] private-use netblocks:

   o  10.IN-ADDR.ARPA

   o  16.172.IN-ADDR.ARPA, 17.172.IN-ADDR.ARPA, ..., 31.172.IN-ADDR.ARPA

   o  168.192.IN-ADDR.ARPA

   and the following zone, corresponding to the "link local" netblock
   169.254.0.0/16 listed in [RFC3330]:

   o  254.169.IN-ADDR.ARPA

   To aid identification of AS112 anycast nodes, each node also answers
   authoritatively for the zone HOSTNAME.AS112.NET.  See Section 3.5 for
   more details on the resource records contained within that zone.

   It is possible that the IANA might delegate other zones corresponding
   to private-use infrastructure to AS112 servers in the future.  A
   current list of zones for which AS112 servers answer authoritatively
   can be found at <http://www.as112.net/>.

2.2.  Nameservers

   The zones listed in Section 2.1 are delegated to the two nameservers
   BLACKHOLE-1.IANA.ORG (192.175.48.6) and BLACKHOLE-2.IANA.ORG
   (192.175.48.6).

   Additionally, the server PRISONER.IANA.ORG (192.175.48.1) is listed
   in the SOA RDATA of zones served by AS112 nameservers, and receives
   mainly dynamic update queries.

   It should be noted that the addresses of all these nameservers are
   covered by the single prefix 192.175.48.0/24.












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3.  Installation of a New Node

3.1.  Useful Background Knowledge

   Installation of an AS112 node is relatively straightforward.
   However, prior knowledge of or experience in the following general
   areas may prove useful:

   o  Inter-domain routing with BGP [RFC4271];

   o  DNS authority server operations;

   o  Anycast distribution of DNS services ([ISC-TN-2003-1], [RFC4786]).

3.2.  Topological Location

   AS112 nodes may be located anywhere on the Internet.  For nodes which
   are intended to provide a public service to the Internet community
   (as opposed to private use), it may well be advantageous to choose a
   location that is easily (and cheaply) reachable by multiple
   providers, such as an Internet exchange point.

   AS112 nodes may advertise their service prefix to BGP peers for local
   use (analogous to a conventional peering relationship between two
   providers) or for global use (analogous to a customer relationship
   with one or more providers).

   It is good operational practice to notify the community of users
   which may fall within the reach of a new AS112 node before it is
   installed.  At an Internet Exchange, local mailing lists usually
   exist to facilitate such announcements.  For nodes which are intended
   to be globally reachable, coordination with other AS112 operators is
   highly recommended.  See also Section 5.

3.3.  Operating System and Host Considerations

   The use of a UNIX or UNIX-like operating system (e.g.  FreeBSD, GNU
   Linux) is recommended for the construction of AS112 nodes, primarily
   due to the cumulative experience of using such platforms for this
   purpose.  Examples in this document will assume use of such an
   operating system.

   The chosen platform should include support for either cloned loopback
   interfaces, or the capability to bind multiple addresses to a single
   loopback interface.  The addresses of the nameservers listed in
   Section 2.2 will be configured on these interfaces in order that the
   DNS software can respond to queries properly.




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   A host which is configured to act as an AS112 anycast node should be
   dedicated to that purpose, and should not be used to simultaneously
   provide other services.

   System startup scripts should be arranged such that the various
   AS112-related components start automatically following a system
   reboot.  The order in which interfaces are configured and software
   components started should be arranged such that routing software
   startup follows DNS software startup, and DNS software startup
   follows loopback interface configuration.

   Wrapper scripts or other arrangements should be employed to ensure
   that the anycast service prefix for AS112 is not advertised while
   either the anycast addresses are unconfigured, or while the DNS
   software is not running.

3.4.  Routing Software

   AS112 nodes signal the availability of AS112 nameservers to the
   Internet using BGP [RFC4271]: each AS112 node is a BGP speaker, and
   announces the prefix 192.175.48.0/24 to the Internet with origin AS
   112 (see also Section 2.2).

   Suitable choices of free software to allow hosts to act as BGP
   speakers include, but are not limited to:

   o  OpenBGPD [1]

   o  The Quagga Routing Suite [2]

   o  GNU Zebra [3]

   The examples in this document are based on Quagga.

   The "bgpd.conf" file is used by Quagga's bgpd daemon, which provides
   BGP protocol support.  The router id in this case is 198.32.149.123;
   the AS112 node peers with external peers 198.32.149.1 and
   198.32.149.2, which are route servers at an exchange point.  Note the
   local AS number 112, and the origination of the prefix
   192.175.48.0/24.











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   ! bgpd.conf
   !
   hostname as112-bgpd
   password <something>
   enable password <supersomething>
   !
   router bgp 112
    bgp router-id 198.32.149.123
    network 192.175.48.0
    neighbor 198.32.149.1 remote-as 2884
    neighbor 198.32.149.1 next-hop-self
    neighbor 198.32.149.2 remote-as 2884
    neighbor 198.32.149.2 next-hop-self

   The "zebra.conf" file is required to provide integration between
   protocol daemons (bgpd, in this case) and the kernel.

   ! zebra.conf
   !
   hostname as112
   password <something>
   enable password <supersomething>
   !
   interface lo
   !
   interface eth0
   !

3.5.  DNS Software

   Although the queries received by AS112 nodes are definitively
   misdirected, it is important that they be answered in a manner which
   is accurate and consistent.  For this reason AS112 nodes operate as
   fully-functional and standards-compliant DNS authority servers
   [RFC1034], and hence require DNS software.

   Suitable choices of free DNS software for AS112 nodes include, but
   are not limited to:

   o  ISC BIND9 [4]

   o  NLnet Labs' NSD [5]

   Examples in this document are based on ISC BIND9.

   The following is a sample BIND9 "named.conf" file for a dedicated
   AS112 server.  Note that the nameserver is configured to act as an
   authority-only server (i.e. recursion is disabled).  The nameserver



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   is also configured to listen on the various AS112 anycast nameserver
   addresses, as well as its local addresses.

   // named.conf

   // global options

   options {
     listen-on {
       127.0.0.1;         // localhost
       198.32.149.252;    // local address (globally-unique, unicast)
       192.175.48.1;      // prisoner.iana.org (anycast)
       192.175.48.6;      // blackhole-1.iana.org (anycast)
       192.175.48.42;     // blackhole-2.iana.org (anycast)
     };
     directory "/var/named";
     recursion no;        // authority-only server
     query-source address *;
   };

   // log queries,  so that when people call us about unexpected
   // answers to queries they didn't realise they had sent, we
   // have something to talk about.  Note that activating this
   // has the potential to create high CPU and take enormous
   // amounts of disk space.

   logging {
     channel "querylog" {
       file "/var/log/query.log" versions 2 size 500m;
       print-time yes;
     };
     category queries { querylog; };
   };

   // RFC 1918

   zone "10.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "16.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "17.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "18.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "19.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "20.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "21.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "22.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "23.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "24.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "25.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "26.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };



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   zone "27.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "28.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "29.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "30.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "31.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "254.169.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };
   zone "168.192.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.empty"; };

   // also answer authoritatively for the HOSTNAME.AS112.NET zone,
   // which contains data of operational relevance

   zone "hostname.as112.net" { type master;
     file "db.hostname.as112.net"; };

   The "db.empty" file follows, below.  This is the source data used to
   populate all the zones listed in Section 2.1.

   ; db.empty
   ;
   ; Empty zone for AS112 server.
   ;
   $TTL    1W
   @  IN  SOA  prisoner.iana.org. hostmaster.root-servers.org. (
                                  1       ; serial number
                                  1W      ; refresh
                                  1M      ; retry
                                  1W      ; expire
                                  1W )    ; negative caching TTL
   ;
          NS     blackhole-1.iana.org.
          NS     blackhole-2.iana.org.
   ;
   ; There should be no other resource records included in this zone.
   ;
   ; Records which relate to RFC1918-numbered resources within the
   ; site hosting this AS112 node should not be hosted on this
   ; nameserver.

   The "db.hostname.as112.net" file follows, below.  This zone contains
   various resource records which provide operational data to users for
   troubleshooting or measurement purposes, and should be edited to suit
   local circumstances.  Note that the response to the query
   "HOSTNAME.AS112.NET IN TXT" should fit within a 512 octet DNS/UDP
   datagram: i.e. it should be available over UDP transport without
   requiring EDNS0 support.

   The LOC record [RFC1876] included in the zone apex provides
   information about the geospacial location of the node.



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   ; db.hostname.as112.net
   ;
   $TTL    1W
   @       SOA     flo.gigafed.net. dns.ryouko.imsb.nrc.ca. (
                           1               ; serial number
                           1W              ; refresh
                           1M              ; retry
                           1W              ; expire
                           1W )            ; negative caching TTL
   ;
           NS      blackhole-2.iana.org.
           NS      blackhole-1.iana.org.
   ;
           TXT     "Federal GigaPOP" "Ottawa, Canada"
           TXT     "See http://as112.net/ for more information."
   ;
           LOC     45 25 0.000 N 75 42 0.000 W 80.00m 1m 10000m 10m

3.6.  Testing a Newly-Installed Node

   The BIND9 tool "dig" can be used to retrieve the TXT resource records
   associated with the domain "HOSTNAME.AS112.NET", directed at one of
   the AS112 anycast nameserver addresses.  Continuing the example from
   above, the response received should indicate the identity of the
   AS112 node which responded to the query.  See Section 3.5 for more
   details about the resource records associated with
   "HOSTNAME.AS112.NET".

       % dig @prisoner.iana.org hostname.as112.net txt +short +norec
       "Federal GigaPOP" "Ottawa, Canada"
       "See http://www.as112.net/ for more information."
       %

   If the response received indicates a different node is being used,
   then there is probably a routing problem to solve.  If there is no
   response received at all, there might be host or nameserver problem.
   Judicious use of tools such as traceroute, and consultation of BGP
   looking glasses might be useful in troubleshooting.

   Note that an appropriate set of tests for a new server will include
   queries sent from many different places within the expected service
   area of the node, using both UDP and TCP transport, and exercising
   all three AS112 anycast nameserver addresses.








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4.  Operations

4.1.  Monitoring

   AS112 nodes should be monitored to ensure they are functioning
   correctly, just as with any other production service.  An AS112 node
   which stops answering queries correctly can cause failures and
   timeouts in unexpected places, and can lead to failures in dependent
   systems which can be difficult to troubleshoot.

4.2.  Downtime

   An AS112 node which needs to go off-line (e.g. for planned
   maintenance, or as part of the diagnosis of some problem) should stop
   advertising the AS112 service prefix to its BGP peers.  This can be
   done by shutting down the routing software on the node altogether, or
   by causing the routing system to withdraw the route.

   Withdrawing the service prefix is important in order to avoid
   blackholing query traffic in the event that the DNS software on the
   node is not functioning normally.

4.3.  Statistics and Measurement

   Use of the AS112 node should be measured in order to track long-term
   trends, identify anomalous conditions and to ensure that the
   configuration of the AS112 node is sufficient to handle the query
   load.

   Examples of free monitoring tools which might be useful to operators
   of AS112 nodes include, but are not limited to:

   o  bindgraph [6]

   o  dnstop [7]

   o  DSC [8]














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5.  Communications

   It is good operational practice to notify the community of users
   which may fall within the reach of a new AS112 node before it is
   installed.  At Internet Exchanges, local mailing lists usually exist
   to facilitate such announcements.

   For nodes which are intended to be globally reachable, coordination
   with other AS112 operators is especially recommended.

   Operational notices relating to all AS112 nodes may be sent to
   <mailto:112@root-servers.org>.  Information pertinent to AS112
   operations is maintained at <http://www.as112.net/>.

   Information about an AS112 node should also be published within the
   DNS, within the "HOSTNAME.AS112.NET" zone.  See Section 3.5 for more
   details.


































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6.  Future Usefulness of AS112 Nodes

   It is recommended practice for the operators of recursive nameservers
   to answer queries for zones served by AS112 nodes locally, such that
   queries never have an opportunity to reach AS112 servers
   [I-D.andrews-full-service-resolvers].  Operational experience with
   AS112 nodes does not currently indicate an observable trend towards
   compliance with those recommendations, however.

   It is expected that some DNS software vendors will include default
   configuration which will implement measures such as those described
   in [I-D.andrews-full-service-resolvers].  If such software is widely
   deployed, it is reasonable to assume that the query load received by
   AS112 nodes will decrease; however, it is safe to assume that the
   query load will not decrease to zero, and consequently that AS112
   nodes will continue to provide a useful service for the foreseeable
   future.

   There may be a requirement in the future for AS112 nodes to answer
   for their current set of zones over IPv6 transport.  Such a
   requirement would necessitate the assignment of a corresponding IPv6
   netblock for use as an anycast service prefix.

   There may be a requirement in the future for AS112 nodes to serve
   additional zones, or to stop serving particular zones that are
   currently served.  Such changes would be widely announced in
   operational forums, and published at <http://www.as112.net/>.
























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7.  Security Considerations

   Hosts should never normally send queries to AS112 servers; queries
   relating to private-use addresses should be answered locally within a
   site.  Hosts which send queries to AS112 servers may well leak
   information relating to private infrastructure to the public network,
   which could represent a security risk.  This risk is orthogonal to
   the presence or absence of authority servers for these zones in the
   public DNS infrastructure, however.

   Requests which are answered by AS112 servers are usually
   unintentional; it follows that the responses from AS112 servers are
   usually unexpected.  Unexpected inbound traffic can trigger intrusion
   detection systems or alerts by firewalls.  Operators of AS112 servers
   should be prepared to be contacted by operators of remote
   infrastructure who believe their security has been violated.

   The deployment of AS112 nodes are very loosely coordinated, compared
   to other services distributed using anycast.  The compromise of an
   AS112 node and subversion of the data served by the node is hence
   more difficult to detect due to the lack of central management.
   Since it is conceivable that changing the responses to queries
   received by AS112 nodes might influence the behaviour of the hosts
   sending the queries, such a compromise might be used as an attack
   vector against private infrastructure.

   Operators of AS112 should take appropriate measures to ensure that
   AS112 nodes are appropriately protected from compromise, such as
   would normally be employed for production nameserver or network
   infrastructure.  The guidance provided for root nameservers in
   [RFC2870] may be instructive.




















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8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1034]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
              STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987.

   [RFC1918]  Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and
              E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets",
              BCP 5, RFC 1918, February 1996.

   [RFC2870]  Bush, R., Karrenberg, D., Kosters, M., and R. Plzak, "Root
              Name Server Operational Requirements", BCP 40, RFC 2870,
              June 2000.

   [RFC4271]  Rekhter, Y., Li, T., and S. Hares, "A Border Gateway
              Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January 2006.

   [RFC4786]  Abley, J. and K. Lindqvist, "Operation of Anycast
              Services", BCP 126, RFC 4786, December 2006.

8.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.andrews-full-service-resolvers]
              Andrews, M., "Configuration Issues Facing Full Service DNS
              Resolvers In The Presence of  Private Network Addressing",
              draft-andrews-full-service-resolvers-02 (work in
              progress), February 2006.

   [ISC-TN-2003-1]
              Abley, J., "Hierarchical Anycast for Global Service
              Distribution",
              <http://www.isc.org/pubs/tn/isc-tn-2003-1.html>.

   [RFC1876]  Davis, C., Vixie, P., Goodwin, T., and I. Dickinson, "A
              Means for Expressing Location Information in the Domain
              Name System", RFC 1876, January 1996.

   [RFC3330]  IANA, "Special-Use IPv4 Addresses", RFC 3330,
              September 2002.











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URIs

   [1]  <http://www.openbgpd.org/>

   [2]  <http://www.quagga.net/>

   [3]  <http://www.zebra.org/>

   [4]  <http://www.isc.org/products/BIND/>

   [5]  <http://www.nlnetlabs.nl/nsd/>

   [6]  <http://www.linux.it/~md/software/>

   [7]  <http://dns.measurement-factory.com/tools/dnstop/>

   [8]  <http://dns.measurement-factory.com/tools/dsc/>


































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Appendix A.  History

   Widespread use of the private address blocks listed in [RFC1918]
   followed that document's publication in 1996.

   The idea of off-loading IN-ADDR.ARPA queries relating to [RFC1918]
   addresses from the root nameservers was first proposed by Bill
   Manning and John Brown.

   The use of anycast for distributing authority service for [RFC1918]
   IN-ADDR.ARPA zones was subsequently proposed at a private meeting of
   root server operators.

   ARIN provided an IPv4 prefix for the anycast service, and also the
   autonomous system number 112 for use in originating that prefix.
   This assignment gave the project its name.

   In 2002, the first AS112 anycast nodes were deployed.

   The use of anycast nameservers in the AS112 project contributed to
   the operational experience of anycast DNS services, and can be seen
   as a precursor to the anycast distribution of other authority servers
   in subsequent years (e.g. various root servers).




























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Appendix B.  Acknowledgements

   The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance of Bill Manning, John
   Brown, Marco D'Itri, Daniele Arena, Stephane Bortzmeyer, Frank
   Habicht and Peter Losher in the preparation of this document.














































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Appendix C.  Change History

   This section to be removed prior to publication.

   00 Initial draft, circulated as draft-jabley-as112-ops-00 and
      reviewed at the DNSOP working group meeting at IETF 66.

   00 Document adoped by the DNSOP working group and renamed
      accordingly.

   01 Input from reviewers of DNSOP and others, some cosmetic tweaks.








































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Authors' Addresses

   Joe Abley
   Afilias Canada Corp.
   Suite 204, 4141 Yonge Street
   Toronto, ON  M2P 2A8
   Canada

   Phone: +1 416 673 4176
   Email: jabley@ca.afilias.info


   William F. Maton Sotomayor
   National Research Council of Canada
   1200 Montreal Road
   Ottawa, ON  K1A 0R6
   Canada

   Phone: +1 613 993 0880
   Email: wmaton@ryouko.imsb.nrc.ca































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Full Copyright Statement

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