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Versions: (draft-dickinson-dnsop-dns-capture-format) 00 01 02 03

dnsop                                                       J. Dickinson
Internet-Draft                                                  J. Hague
Intended status: Standards Track                            S. Dickinson
Expires: January 4, 2018                                      Sinodun IT
                                                            T. Manderson
                                                                 J. Bond
                                                                   ICANN
                                                            July 3, 2017


                   C-DNS: A DNS Packet Capture Format
                 draft-ietf-dnsop-dns-capture-format-03

Abstract

   This document describes a data representation for collections of DNS
   messages.  The format is designed for efficient storage and
   transmission of large packet captures of DNS traffic; it attempts to
   minimize the size of such packet capture files but retain the full
   DNS message contents along with the most useful transport metadata.
   It is intended to assist with the development of DNS traffic
   monitoring applications.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 4, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of



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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Data Collection Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  Conceptual Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   6.  Choice of CBOR  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   7.  The C-DNS format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     7.1.  CDDL definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     7.2.  Format overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     7.3.  File header contents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     7.4.  File preamble contents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     7.5.  Configuration contents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     7.6.  Block contents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     7.7.  Block preamble map  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     7.8.  Block statistics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     7.9.  Block table map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     7.10. IP address table  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     7.11. Class/Type table  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     7.12. Name/RDATA table  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     7.13. Query Signature table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     7.14. Question table  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     7.15. Resource Record (RR) table  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     7.16. Question list table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     7.17. Resource Record list table  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     7.18. Query/Response data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     7.19. Address Event counts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     7.20. Malformed packet records  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   8.  Malformed Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   9.  C-DNS to PCAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     9.1.  Name Compression  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   10. Data Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     10.1.  Matching algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     10.2.  Message identifiers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       10.2.1.  Primary ID (required)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       10.2.2.  Secondary ID (optional)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     10.3.  Algorithm Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     10.4.  Algorithm Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     10.5.  Algorithm Limitations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     10.6.  Workspace  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28



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     10.7.  Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     10.8.  Post Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   11. Implementation Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     11.1.  DNS-STATS Compactor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
   12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
   13. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
   14. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
   15. Changelog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   16. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     16.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     16.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     16.3.  URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   Appendix A.  CDDL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
   Appendix B.  DNS Name compression example . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
     B.1.  NSD compression algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     B.2.  Knot Authoritative compression algorithm  . . . . . . . .  42
     B.3.  Observed differences  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
   Appendix C.  Comparison of Binary Formats . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
     C.1.  Comparison with full PCAP files . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
     C.2.  Simple versus block coding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
     C.3.  Binary versus text formats  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     C.4.  Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     C.5.  Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     C.6.  Block size choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49

1.  Introduction

   There has long been a need to collect DNS queries and responses on
   authoritative and recursive name servers for monitoring and analysis.
   This data is used in a number of ways including traffic monitoring,
   analyzing network attacks and "day in the life" (DITL) [ditl]
   analysis.

   A wide variety of tools already exist that facilitate the collection
   of DNS traffic data, such as DSC [dsc], packetq [packetq], dnscap
   [dnscap] and dnstap [dnstap].  However, there is no standard exchange
   format for large DNS packet captures.  The PCAP [pcap] or PCAP-NG
   [pcapng] formats are typically used in practice for packet captures,
   but these file formats can contain a great deal of additional
   information that is not directly pertinent to DNS traffic analysis
   and thus unnecessarily increases the capture file size.

   There has also been work on using text based formats to describe DNS
   packets such as [I-D.daley-dnsxml], [I-D.hoffman-dns-in-json], but
   these are largely aimed at producing convenient representations of
   single messages.




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   Many DNS operators may receive hundreds of thousands of queries per
   second on a single name server instance so a mechanism to minimize
   the storage size (and therefore upload overhead) of the data
   collected is highly desirable.

   The format described in this document, C-DNS (Compacted-DNS),
   focusses on the problem of capturing and storing large packet capture
   files of DNS traffic. with the following goals in mind:

   o  Minimize the file size for storage and transmission

   o  Minimizing the overhead of producing the packet capture file and
      the cost of any further (general purpose) compression of the file

   This document contains:

   o  A discussion of the some common use cases in which such DNS data
      is collected Section 3

   o  A discussion of the major design considerations in developing an
      efficient data representation for collections of DNS messages
      Section 4

   o  A conceptual overview of the C-DNS format Section 5

   o  A description of why CBOR [RFC7049] was chosen for this format
      Section 6

   o  The definition of the C-DNS format for the collection of DNS
      messages Section 7.

   o  Notes on converting C-DNS data to PCAP format Section 9

   o  Some high level implementation considerations for applications
      designed to produce C-DNS Section 10

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   "Packet" refers to individual IPv4 or IPv6 packets.  Typically these
   are UDP, but may be constructed from a TCP packet.  "Message", unless
   otherwise qualified, refers to a DNS payload extracted from a UDP or
   TCP data stream.





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   The parts of DNS messages are named as they are in [RFC1035].  In
   specific, the DNS message has five sections: Header, Question,
   Answer, Authority, and Additional.

   Pairs of DNS messages are called a Query and a Response.

3.  Data Collection Use Cases

   In an ideal world, it would be optimal to collect full packet
   captures of all packets going in or out of a name server.  However,
   there are several design choices or other limitations that are common
   to many DNS installations and operators.

   o  DNS servers are hosted in a variety of situations

      *  Self-hosted servers

      *  Third party hosting (including multiple third parties)

      *  Third party hardware (including multiple third parties)

   o  Data is collected under different conditions

      *  On well-provisioned servers running in a steady state

      *  On heavily loaded servers

      *  On virtualized servers

      *  On servers that are under DoS attack

      *  On servers that are unwitting intermediaries in DoS attacks

   o  Traffic can be collected via a variety of mechanisms

      *  On the same hardware as the name server itself

      *  Using a network tap on an adjacent host to listen to DNS
         traffic

      *  Using port mirroring to listen from another host

   o  The capabilities of data collection (and upload) networks vary

      *  Out-of-band networks with the same capacity as the in-band
         network





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      *  Out-of-band networks with less capacity than the in-band
         network

      *  Everything being on the in-band network

   Thus, there is a wide range of use cases from very limited data
   collection environments (third party hardware, servers that are under
   attack, packet capture on the name server itself and no out-of-band
   network) to "limitless" environments (self hosted, well provisioned
   servers, using a network tap or port mirroring with an out-of-band
   networks with the same capacity as the in-band network).  In the
   former, it is infeasible to reliably collect full packet captures,
   especially if the server is under attack.  In the latter case,
   collection of full packet captures may be reasonable.

   As a result of these restrictions, the C-DNS data format was designed
   with the most limited use case in mind such that:

   o  data collection will occur on the same hardware as the name server
      itself

   o  collected data will be stored on the same hardware as the name
      server itself, at least temporarily

   o  collected data being returned to some central analysis system will
      use the same network interface as the DNS queries and responses

   o  there can be multiple third party servers involved

   Because of these considerations, a major factor in the design of the
   format is minimal storage size of the capture files.

   Another significant consideration for any application that records
   DNS traffic is that the running of the name server software and the
   transmission of DNS queries and responses are the most important jobs
   of a name server; capturing data is not.  Any data collection system
   co-located with the name server needs to be intelligent enough to
   carefully manage its CPU, disk, memory and network utilization.  This
   leads to designing a format that requires a relatively low overhead
   to produce and minimizes the requirement for further potentially
   costly compression.

   However, it was also essential that interoperability with less
   restricted infrastructure was maintained.  In particular, it is
   highly desirable that the collection format should facilitate the re-
   creation of common formats (such as PCAP) that are as close to the
   original as is realistic given the restrictions above.




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4.  Design Considerations

   This section presents some of the major design considerations used in
   the development of the C-DNS format.

   1.  The basic unit of data is a combined DNS Query and the associated
       Response (a "Q/R data item").  The same structure will be used
       for unmatched Queries and Responses.  Queries without Responses
       will be captured omitting the response data.  Responses without
       queries will be captured omitting the Query data (but using the
       Question section from the response, if present, as an identifying
       QNAME).

       *  Rationale: A Query and Response represents the basic level of
          a clients interaction with the server.  Also, combining the
          Query and Response into one item often reduces storage
          requirements due to commonality in the data of the two
          messages.

   2.  Each Q/R data item will comprise a default Q/R data description
       and a set of optional sections.  Inclusion of optional sections
       shall be configurable.

       *  Rationale: Different users will have different requirements
          for data to be available for analysis.  Users with minimal
          requirements should not have to pay the cost of recording full
          data, however this will limit the ability to reconstruct
          packet captures.  For example, omitting the resource records
          from a Response will reduce the files size, and in principle
          responses can be synthesized if there is enough context.

   3.  Multiple Q/R data items will be collected into blocks in the
       format.  Common data in a block will be abstracted and referenced
       from individual Q/R data items by indexing.  The maximum number
       of Q/R data items in a block will be configurable.

       *  Rationale: This blocking and indexing provides a significant
          reduction in the volume of file data generated.  Although this
          introduces complexity, it provides compression of the data
          that makes use of knowledge of the DNS message structure.

       *  It is anticipated that the files produced can be subject to
          further compression using general purpose compression tools.
          Measurements show that blocking significantly reduces the CPU
          required to perform such strong compression.  See
          Appendix C.2.





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       *  [TODO: Further discussion of commonality between DNS messages
          e.g. common query signatures, a finite set of valid responses
          from authoritatives]

   4.  Metadata about other packets received can optionally be included
       in each block.  For example, counts of malformed DNS packets and
       non-DNS packets (e.g.  ICMP, TCP resets) sent to the server may
       be of interest.

   5.  The wire format content of malformed DNS packets can optionally
       be recorded.

       *  Rationale: Any structured capture format that does not capture
          the DNS payload byte for byte will be limited to some extent
          in that it cannot represent "malformed" DNS packets (see
          Section 8).  Only those packets that can be transformed
          reasonably into the structured format can be represented by
          the format.  However this can result in rather misleading
          statistics.  For example, a malformed query which cannot be
          represented in the C-DNS format will lead to the (well formed)
          DNS responses with error code FORMERR appearing as
          'unmatched'.  Therefore it can greatly aid downstream analysis
          to have the wire format of the malformed DNS packets available
          directly in the C-DNS file.

5.  Conceptual Overview

   The following figures show purely schematic representations of the
   C-DNS format to convey the high-level structure of the C-DNS format.
   Section 7 provides a detailed discussion of the CBOR representation
   and individual elements.

   Figure showing the C-DNS format (PNG) [1]

   Figure showing the C-DNS format (SVG) [2]

   Figure showing the Q/R data item and Block tables format (PNG) [3]

   Figure showing the Q/R data item and Block tables format (SVG) [4]

6.  Choice of CBOR

   This document presents a detailed format description using CBOR, the
   Concise Binary Object Representation defined in [RFC7049].

   The choice of CBOR was made taking a number of factors into account.





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   o  CBOR is a binary representation, and thus is economical in storage
      space.

   o  Other binary representations were investigated, and whilst all had
      attractive features, none had a significant advantage over CBOR.
      See Appendix C for some discussion of this.

   o  CBOR is an IETF standard and familiar to IETF participants.  It is
      based on the now-common ideas of lists and objects, and thus
      requires very little familiarization for those in the wider
      industry.

   o  CBOR is a simple format, and can easily be implemented from
      scratch if necessary.  More complex formats require library
      support which may present problems on unusual platforms.

   o  CBOR can also be easily converted to text formats such as JSON
      ([RFC7159]) for debugging and other human inspection requirements.

   o  CBOR data schemas can be described using CDDL
      [I-D.greevenbosch-appsawg-cbor-cddl].

7.  The C-DNS format

7.1.  CDDL definition

   The CDDL definition for the C-DNS format is given in Appendix A.

7.2.  Format overview

   A C-DNS file begins with a file header containing a file type
   identifier and a preamble.  The preamble contains information on the
   collection settings.

   The file header is followed by a series of data blocks.

   A block consists of a block header, containing various tables of
   common data, and some statistics for the traffic received over the
   block.  The block header is then followed by a list of the Q/R data
   items detailing the queries and responses received during processing
   of the block input.  The list of Q/R data items is in turn followed
   by a list of per-client counts of particular IP events that occurred
   during collection of the block data.

   The exact nature of the DNS data will affect what block size is the
   best fit, however sample data for a root server indicated that block
   sizes up to 10,000 Q/R data items give good results.  See
   Appendix C.6 for more details.



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   If no field type is specified, then the field is unsigned.

   In all quantities that contain bit flags, bit 0 indicates the least
   significant bit.  An item described as an index is the index of the
   Q/R data item in the referenced table.  Indexes are 1-based.  An
   index value of 0 is reserved to mean "not present".

7.3.  File header contents

   The file header contains the following:

   +---------------+---------------+-----------------------------------+
   | Field         | Type          | Description                       |
   +---------------+---------------+-----------------------------------+
   | file-type-id  | Text string   | String "C-DNS" identifying the    |
   |               |               | file type.                        |
   |               |               |                                   |
   | file-preamble | Map of items  | Collection information for the    |
   |               |               | whole file.                       |
   |               |               |                                   |
   | file-blocks   | Array of      | The data blocks.                  |
   |               | Blocks        |                                   |
   +---------------+---------------+-----------------------------------+

7.4.  File preamble contents

   The file preamble contains the following:
























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   +----------------------+----------+---------------------------------+
   | Field                | Type     | Description                     |
   +----------------------+----------+---------------------------------+
   | major-format-version | Unsigned | Unsigned integer '1'. The major |
   |                      |          | version of format used in file. |
   |                      |          |                                 |
   | minor-format-version | Unsigned | Unsigned integer '0'. The minor |
   |                      |          | version of format used in file. |
   |                      |          |                                 |
   | private-version      | Unsigned | Version indicator available for |
   |                      |          | private use by applications.    |
   |                      |          | Optional.                       |
   |                      |          |                                 |
   | configuration        | Map of   | The collection configuration.   |
   |                      | items    | Optional.                       |
   |                      |          |                                 |
   | generator-id         | Text     | String identifying the          |
   |                      | string   | collection program. Optional.   |
   |                      |          |                                 |
   | host-id              | Text     | String identifying the          |
   |                      | string   | collecting host. Empty if       |
   |                      |          | converting an existing packet   |
   |                      |          | capture file. Optional.         |
   +----------------------+----------+---------------------------------+

7.5.  Configuration contents

   The collection configuration contains the following items.  All are
   optional.

   +--------------------+----------+-----------------------------------+
   | Field              | Type     | Description                       |
   +--------------------+----------+-----------------------------------+
   | query-timeout      | Unsigned | To be matched with a query, a     |
   |                    |          | response must arrive within this  |
   |                    |          | number of seconds.                |
   |                    |          |                                   |
   | skew-timeout       | Unsigned | The network stack may report a    |
   |                    |          | response before the corresponding |
   |                    |          | query. A response is not          |
   |                    |          | considered to be missing a query  |
   |                    |          | until after this many micro-      |
   |                    |          | seconds.                          |
   |                    |          |                                   |
   | snaplen            | Unsigned | Collect up to this many bytes per |
   |                    |          | packet.                           |
   |                    |          |                                   |
   | promisc            | Unsigned | 1 if promiscuous mode was enabled |



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   |                    |          | on the interface, 0 otherwise.    |
   |                    |          |                                   |
   | interfaces         | Array of | Identifiers of the interfaces     |
   |                    | text     | used for collection.              |
   |                    | strings  |                                   |
   |                    |          |                                   |
   | server-addresses   | Array of | Server collection IP addresses.   |
   |                    | byte     | Hint for downstream analysers;    |
   |                    | strings  | does not affect collection.       |
   |                    |          |                                   |
   | vlan-ids           | Array of | Identifiers of VLANs selected for |
   |                    | unsigned | collection.                       |
   |                    |          |                                   |
   | filter             | Text     | 'tcpdump' [pcap] style filter for |
   |                    | string   | input.                            |
   |                    |          |                                   |
   | query-options      | Unsigned | Bit flags indicating sections in  |
   |                    |          | Query messages to be collected.   |
   |                    |          | Bit 0. Collect second and         |
   |                    |          | subsequent Questions in the       |
   |                    |          | Question section.                 |
   |                    |          | Bit 1. Collect Answer sections.   |
   |                    |          | Bit 2. Collect Authority          |
   |                    |          | sections.                         |
   |                    |          | Bit 3. Collection Additional      |
   |                    |          | sections.                         |
   |                    |          |                                   |
   | response-options   | Unsigned | Bit flags indicating sections in  |
   |                    |          | Response messages to be           |
   |                    |          | collected.                        |
   |                    |          | Bit 0. Collect second and         |
   |                    |          | subsequent Questions in the       |
   |                    |          | Question section.                 |
   |                    |          | Bit 1. Collect Answer sections.   |
   |                    |          | Bit 2. Collect Authority          |
   |                    |          | sections.                         |
   |                    |          | Bit 3. Collection Additional      |
   |                    |          | sections.                         |
   |                    |          |                                   |
   | accept-rr-types    | Array of | A set of RR type names [rrtypes]. |
   |                    | text     | If not empty, only the nominated  |
   |                    | strings  | RR types are collected.           |
   |                    |          |                                   |
   | ignore-rr-types    | Array of | A set of RR type names [rrtypes]. |
   |                    | text     | If not empty, all RR types are    |
   |                    | strings  | collected except those listed. If |
   |                    |          | present, this item must be empty  |
   |                    |          | if a non-empty list of Accept RR  |



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   |                    |          | types is present.                 |
   |                    |          |                                   |
   | max-block-qr-items | Unsigned | Maximum number of Q/R data items  |
   |                    |          | in a block.                       |
   |                    |          |                                   |
   | collect-malformed  | Unsigned | 1 if malformed packet contents    |
   |                    |          | are collected, 0 otherwise.       |
   +--------------------+----------+-----------------------------------+

7.6.  Block contents

   Each block contains the following:

   +-----------------------+--------------+----------------------------+
   | Field                 | Type         | Description                |
   +-----------------------+--------------+----------------------------+
   | preamble              | Map of items | Overall information for    |
   |                       |              | the block.                 |
   |                       |              |                            |
   | statistics            | Map of       | Statistics about the       |
   |                       | statistics   | block. Optional.           |
   |                       |              |                            |
   | tables                | Map of       | The tables containing data |
   |                       | tables       | referenced by individual   |
   |                       |              | Q/R data items.            |
   |                       |              |                            |
   | queries               | Array of Q/R | Details of individual Q/R  |
   |                       | data items   | data items.                |
   |                       |              |                            |
   | address-event-counts  | Array of     | Per client counts of ICMP  |
   |                       | Address      | messages and TCP resets.   |
   |                       | Event counts | Optional.                  |
   |                       |              |                            |
   | malformed-packet-data | Array of     | Wire contents of malformed |
   |                       | malformed    | packets. Optional.         |
   |                       | packets      |                            |
   +-----------------------+--------------+----------------------------+

7.7.  Block preamble map

   The block preamble map contains overall information for the block.










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   +---------------+----------+----------------------------------------+
   | Field         | Type     | Description                            |
   +---------------+----------+----------------------------------------+
   | earliest-time | Array of | A timestamp for the earliest record in |
   |               | unsigned | the block. The timestamp is specified  |
   |               |          | as a CBOR array with two or three      |
   |               |          | elements. The first two elements are   |
   |               |          | as in Posix struct timeval. The first  |
   |               |          | element is an unsigned integer time_t  |
   |               |          | and the second is an unsigned integer  |
   |               |          | number of microseconds. The third, if  |
   |               |          | present, is an unsigned integer number |
   |               |          | of picoseconds. The microsecond and    |
   |               |          | picosecond items always have a value   |
   |               |          | between 0 and 999,999.                 |
   +---------------+----------+----------------------------------------+

7.8.  Block statistics

   The block statistics section contains some basic statistical
   information about the block.  All are optional.

   +---------------------+----------+----------------------------------+
   | Field               | Type     | Description                      |
   +---------------------+----------+----------------------------------+
   | total-packets       | Unsigned | Total number of packets          |
   |                     |          | processed from the input traffic |
   |                     |          | stream during collection of the  |
   |                     |          | block data.                      |
   | total-pairs         | Unsigned | Total number of Q/R data items   |
   |                     |          | in the block.                    |
   | unmatched-queries   | Unsigned | Number of unmatched queries in   |
   |                     |          | the block.                       |
   | unmatched-responses | Unsigned | Number of unmatched responses in |
   |                     |          | the block.                       |
   | malformed-packets   | Unsigned | Number of malformed packets      |
   |                     |          | found in input for the block.    |
   +---------------------+----------+----------------------------------+

   Implementations may choose to add additional implementation-specific
   fields to the statistics.

7.9.  Block table map

   The block table map contains the block tables.  Each element, or
   table, is an array.  The following tables detail the contents of each
   block table.




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   The Present column in the following tables indicates the
   circumstances when an optional field will be present.  A Q/R data
   item may be:

   o  A Query plus a Response.

   o  A Query without a Response.

   o  A Response without a Query.

   Also:

   o  A Query and/or a Response may contain an OPT section.

   o  A Question may or may not be present.  If the Query is available,
      the Question section of the Query is used.  If no Query is
      available, the Question section of the Response is used.  Unless
      otherwise noted, a Question refers to the first Question in the
      Question section.

   So, for example, a field listed with a Present value of QUERY is
   present whenever the Q/R data item contains a Query.  If the pair
   contains a Response only, the field will not be present.

7.10.  IP address table

   The table "ip-address" holds all client and server IP addresses in
   the block.  Each item in the table is a single IP address.

   +------------+--------+---------------------------------------------+
   | Field      | Type   | Description                                 |
   +------------+--------+---------------------------------------------+
   | ip-address | Byte   | The IP address, in network byte order. The  |
   |            | string | string is 4 bytes long for an IPv4 address, |
   |            |        | 16 bytes long for an IPv6 address.          |
   +------------+--------+---------------------------------------------+

7.11.  Class/Type table

   The table "classtype" holds pairs of RR CLASS and TYPE values.  Each
   item in the table is a CBOR map.










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                         +-------+--------------+
                         | Field | Description  |
                         +-------+--------------+
                         | type  | TYPE value.  |
                         |       |              |
                         | class | CLASS value. |
                         +-------+--------------+

7.12.  Name/RDATA table

   The table "name-rdata" holds the contents of all NAME or RDATA items
   in the block.  Each item in the table is the content of a single NAME
   or RDATA.

   +------------+--------+---------------------------------------------+
   | Field      | Type   | Description                                 |
   +------------+--------+---------------------------------------------+
   | name-rdata | Byte   | The NAME or RDATA contents. NAMEs, and      |
   |            | string | labels within RDATA contents, are in        |
   |            |        | uncompressed label format.                  |
   +------------+--------+---------------------------------------------+

7.13.  Query Signature table

   The table "query-sig" holds elements of the Q/R data item that are
   often common between multiple individual Q/R data items.  Each item
   in the table is a CBOR map.  Each item in the map has an unsigned
   value and an unsigned key.

   The following abbreviations are used in the Present (P) column

   o  Q = QUERY

   o  A = Always

   o  QT = QUESTION

   o  QO = QUERY, OPT

   o  QR = QUERY & RESPONSE

   o  R = RESPONSE

   +-----------------------+----+--------------------------------------+
   | Field                 | P  | Description                          |
   +-----------------------+----+--------------------------------------+
   | server-address-index  | A  | The index in the IP address table of |
   |                       |    | the server IP address.               |



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   |                       |    |                                      |
   | server-port           | A  | The server port.                     |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | transport-flags       | A  | Bit flags describing the transport   |
   |                       |    | used to service the query. Bit 0 is  |
   |                       |    | the least significant bit.           |
   |                       |    | Bit 0. Transport type. 0 = UDP, 1 =  |
   |                       |    | TCP.                                 |
   |                       |    | Bit 1. IP type. 0 = IPv4, 1 = IPv6.  |
   |                       |    | Bit 2. Trailing bytes in query       |
   |                       |    | payload. The DNS query message in    |
   |                       |    | the UDP payload was followed by some |
   |                       |    | additional bytes, which were         |
   |                       |    | discarded.                           |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | qr-sig-flags          | A  | Bit flags indicating information     |
   |                       |    | present in this Q/R data item. Bit 0 |
   |                       |    | is the least significant bit.        |
   |                       |    | Bit 0. 1 if a Query is present.      |
   |                       |    | Bit 1. 1 if a Response is present.   |
   |                       |    | Bit 2. 1 if one or more Question is  |
   |                       |    | present.                             |
   |                       |    | Bit 3. 1 if a Query is present and   |
   |                       |    | it has an OPT Resource Record.       |
   |                       |    | Bit 4. 1 if a Response is present    |
   |                       |    | and it has an OPT Resource Record.   |
   |                       |    | Bit 5. 1 if a Response is present    |
   |                       |    | but has no Question.                 |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | query-opcode          | Q  | Query OPCODE. Optional.              |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | qr-dns-flags          | A  | Bit flags with values from the Query |
   |                       |    | and Response DNS flags. Bit 0 is the |
   |                       |    | least significant bit. Flag values   |
   |                       |    | are 0 if the Query or Response is    |
   |                       |    | not present.                         |
   |                       |    | Bit 0. Query Checking Disabled (CD). |
   |                       |    | Bit 1. Query Authenticated Data      |
   |                       |    | (AD).                                |
   |                       |    | Bit 2. Query reserved (Z).           |
   |                       |    | Bit 3. Query Recursion Available     |
   |                       |    | (RA).                                |
   |                       |    | Bit 4. Query Recursion Desired (RD). |
   |                       |    | Bit 5. Query TrunCation (TC).        |
   |                       |    | Bit 6. Query Authoritative Answer    |
   |                       |    | (AA).                                |
   |                       |    | Bit 7. Query DNSSEC answer OK (DO).  |
   |                       |    | Bit 8. Response Checking Disabled    |



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   |                       |    | (CD).                                |
   |                       |    | Bit 9. Response Authenticated Data   |
   |                       |    | (AD).                                |
   |                       |    | Bit 10. Response reserved (Z).       |
   |                       |    | Bit 11. Response Recursion Available |
   |                       |    | (RA).                                |
   |                       |    | Bit 12. Response Recursion Desired   |
   |                       |    | (RD).                                |
   |                       |    | Bit 13. Response TrunCation (TC).    |
   |                       |    | Bit 14. Response Authoritative       |
   |                       |    | Answer (AA).                         |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | query-rcode           | Q  | Query RCODE. If the Query contains   |
   |                       |    | OPT, this value incorporates any     |
   |                       |    | EXTENDED_RCODE_VALUE. Optional.      |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | query-classtype-index | QT | The index in the Class/Type table of |
   |                       |    | the CLASS and TYPE of the first      |
   |                       |    | Question. Optional.                  |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | query-qd-count        | QT | The QDCOUNT in the Query, or         |
   |                       |    | Response if no Query present.        |
   |                       |    | Optional.                            |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | query-an-count        | Q  | Query ANCOUNT. Optional.             |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | query-ar-count        | Q  | Query ARCOUNT. Optional.             |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | query-ns-count        | Q  | Query NSCOUNT. Optional.             |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | edns-version          | QO | The Query EDNS version. Optional.    |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | udp-buf-size          | QO | The Query EDNS sender's UDP payload  |
   |                       |    | size. Optional.                      |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | opt-rdata-index       | QO | The index in the NAME/RDATA table of |
   |                       |    | the OPT RDATA. Optional.             |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | response-rcode        | R  | Response RCODE. If the Response      |
   |                       |    | contains OPT, this value             |
   |                       |    | incorporates any                     |
   |                       |    | EXTENDED_RCODE_VALUE. Optional.      |
   +-----------------------+----+--------------------------------------+








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7.14.  Question table

   The table "qrr" holds details on individual Questions in a Question
   section.  Each item in the table is a CBOR map containing a single
   Question.  Each item in the map has an unsigned value and an unsigned
   key.  This data is optionally collected.

   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | Field           | Description                                     |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | name-index      | The index in the NAME/RDATA table of the QNAME. |
   |                 |                                                 |
   | classtype-index | The index in the Class/Type table of the CLASS  |
   |                 | and TYPE of the Question.                       |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+

7.15.  Resource Record (RR) table

   The table "rr" holds details on individual Resource Records in RR
   sections.  Each item in the table is a CBOR map containing a single
   Resource Record.  This data is optionally collected.

   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | Field           | Description                                     |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | name-index      | The index in the NAME/RDATA table of the NAME.  |
   |                 |                                                 |
   | classtype-index | The index in the Class/Type table of the CLASS  |
   |                 | and TYPE of the RR.                             |
   |                 |                                                 |
   | ttl             | The RR Time to Live.                            |
   |                 |                                                 |
   | rdata-index     | The index in the NAME/RDATA table of the RR     |
   |                 | RDATA.                                          |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+

7.16.  Question list table

   The table "qlist" holds a list of second and subsequent individual
   Questions in a Question section.  Each item in the table is a CBOR
   unsigned integer.  This data is optionally collected.

   +----------+--------------------------------------------------------+
   | Field    | Description                                            |
   +----------+--------------------------------------------------------+
   | question | The index in the Question table of the individual      |
   |          | Question.                                              |
   +----------+--------------------------------------------------------+



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7.17.  Resource Record list table

   The table "rrlist" holds a list of individual Resource Records in a
   Answer, Authority or Additional section.  Each item in the table is a
   CBOR unsigned integer.  This data is optionally collected.

   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | Field | Description                                               |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | rr    | The index in the Resource Record table of the individual  |
   |       | Resource Record.                                          |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+

7.18.  Query/Response data

   The block Q/R data is a CBOR array of individual Q/R data items.
   Each item in the array is a CBOR map containing details on the
   individual Q/R data item.

   Note that there is no requirement that the elements of the Q/R array
   are presented in strict chronological order.

   The following abbreviations are used in the Present (P) column

   o  Q = QUERY

   o  A = Always

   o  QT = QUESTION

   o  QO = QUERY, OPT

   o  QR = QUERY & RESPONSE

   o  R = RESPONSE

   Each item in the map has an unsigned value (with the exception of
   those listed below) and an unsigned key.

   o  query-extended and response-extended which are of type Extended
      Information.

   o  delay-useconds and delay-pseconds which are integers (The delay
      can be negative if the network stack/capture library returns them
      out of order.)

   +-----------------------+----+--------------------------------------+
   | Field                 | P  | Description                          |



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   +-----------------------+----+--------------------------------------+
   | time-useconds         | A  | Q/R timestamp as an offset in        |
   |                       |    | microseconds from the Block preamble |
   |                       |    | Timestamp. The timestamp is the      |
   |                       |    | timestamp of the Query, or the       |
   |                       |    | Response if there is no Query.       |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | time-pseconds         | A  | Picosecond component of the          |
   |                       |    | timestamp. Optional.                 |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | client-address-index  | A  | The index in the IP address table of |
   |                       |    | the client IP address.               |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | client-port           | A  | The client port.                     |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | transaction-id        | A  | DNS transaction identifier.          |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | query-signature-index | A  | The index of the Query Signature     |
   |                       |    | table record for this data item.     |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | client-hoplimit       | Q  | The IPv4 TTL or IPv6 Hoplimit from   |
   |                       |    | the Query packet. Optional.          |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | delay-useconds        | QR | The time difference between Query    |
   |                       |    | and Response, in microseconds. Only  |
   |                       |    | present if there is a query and a    |
   |                       |    | response.                            |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | delay-pseconds        | QR | Picosecond component of the time     |
   |                       |    | different between Query and          |
   |                       |    | Response. If delay-useconds is non-  |
   |                       |    | zero then delay-pseconds (if         |
   |                       |    | present) MUST be of the same sign as |
   |                       |    | delay-useconds, or be 0. Optional.   |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | query-name-index      | QT | The index in the NAME/RDATA table of |
   |                       |    | the QNAME for the first Question.    |
   |                       |    | Optional.                            |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | query-size            | R  | DNS query message size (see below).  |
   |                       |    | Optional.                            |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | response-size         | R  | DNS query message size (see below).  |
   |                       |    | Optional.                            |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | query-extended        | Q  | Extended Query information. This     |
   |                       |    | item is only present if collection   |
   |                       |    | of extra Query information is        |



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   |                       |    | configured. Optional.                |
   |                       |    |                                      |
   | response-extended     | R  | Extended Response information. This  |
   |                       |    | item is only present if collection   |
   |                       |    | of extra Response information is     |
   |                       |    | configured. Optional.                |
   +-----------------------+----+--------------------------------------+

   An implementation must always collect basic Q/R information.  It may
   be configured to collect details on Question, Answer, Authority and
   Additional sections of the Query, the Response or both.  Note that
   only the second and subsequent Questions of any Question section are
   collected (the details of the first are in the basic information),
   and that OPT Records are not collected in the Additional section.

   The query-size and response-size fields hold the DNS message size.
   For UDP this is the size of the UDP payload that contained the DNS
   message and will therefore include any trailing bytes if present.
   Trailing bytes with queries are routinely observed in traffic to
   authoritative servers and this value allows a calculation of how many
   trailing bytes were present.  For TCP it is the size of the DNS
   message as specified in the two-byte message length header.

   The Extended information is a CBOR map as follows.  Each item in the
   map is present only if collection of the relevant details is
   configured.  Each item in the map has an unsigned value and an
   unsigned key.

   +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
   | Field            | Description                                    |
   +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
   | question-index   | The index in the Questions list table of the   |
   |                  | entry listing any second and subsequent        |
   |                  | Questions in the Question section for the      |
   |                  | Query or Response.                             |
   |                  |                                                |
   | answer-index     | The index in the RR list table of the entry    |
   |                  | listing the Answer Resource Record sections    |
   |                  | for the Query or Response.                     |
   |                  |                                                |
   | authority-index  | The index in the RR list table of the entry    |
   |                  | listing the Authority Resource Record sections |
   |                  | for the Query or Response.                     |
   |                  |                                                |
   | additional-index | The index in the RR list table of the entry    |
   |                  | listing the Additional Resource Record         |
   |                  | sections for the Query or Response.            |
   +------------------+------------------------------------------------+



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7.19.  Address Event counts

   This table holds counts of various IP related events relating to
   traffic with individual client addresses.

   +------------------+----------+-------------------------------------+
   | Field            | Type     | Description                         |
   +------------------+----------+-------------------------------------+
   | ae-type          | Unsigned | The type of event. The following    |
   |                  |          | events types are currently defined: |
   |                  |          | 0. TCP reset.                       |
   |                  |          | 1. ICMP time exceeded.              |
   |                  |          | 2. ICMP destination unreachable.    |
   |                  |          | 3. ICMPv6 time exceeded.            |
   |                  |          | 4. ICMPv6 destination unreachable.  |
   |                  |          | 5. ICMPv6 packet too big.           |
   |                  |          |                                     |
   | ae-code          | Unsigned | A code relating to the event.       |
   |                  |          | Optional.                           |
   |                  |          |                                     |
   | ae-address-index | Unsigned | The index in the IP address table   |
   |                  |          | of the client address.              |
   |                  |          |                                     |
   | ae-count         | Unsigned | The number of occurrences of this   |
   |                  |          | event during the block collection   |
   |                  |          | period.                             |
   +------------------+----------+-------------------------------------+

7.20.  Malformed packet records

   This optional table records the original wire format content of
   malformed packets (see Section 8).

   +----------------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
   | Field          | Type   | Description                             |
   +----------------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
   | time-useconds  | A      | Packet timestamp as an offset in        |
   |                |        | microseconds from the Block preamble    |
   |                |        | Timestamp.                              |
   |                |        |                                         |
   | time-pseconds  | A      | Picosecond component of the timestamp.  |
   |                |        | Optional.                               |
   |                |        |                                         |
   | packet-content | Byte   | The packet content in wire format.      |
   |                | string |                                         |
   +----------------+--------+-----------------------------------------+





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8.  Malformed Packets

   In the context of generating a C-DNS file it is assumed that only
   those packets which can be parsed to produce a well-formed DNS
   message are stored in the C-DNS format.  This means as a minimum:

   o  The packet has a well-formed 12 bytes DNS Header

   o  The section counts are consistent with the section contents

   o  All of the resource records can be parsed

   In principle, packets that do not meet these criteria could be
   classified into two categories:

   o  Partially malformed: those packets which can be decoded
      sufficiently to extract

      *  a DNS header (and therefore a DNS transaction ID)

      *  a QDCOUNT

      *  the first Question in the Question section if QDCOUNT is
         greater than 0

      but suffer other issues while parsing.  This is the minimum
      information required to attempt Query/Response matching as
      described in Section 10.1

   o  Completely malformed: those packets that cannot be decoded to this
      extent.

   An open question is whether there is value in attempting to process
   partially malformed packets in an analogous manner to well formed
   packets in terms of attempting to match them with the corresponding
   query or response.  This could be done by creating 'placeholder'
   records during Query/Response matching with just the information
   extracted as above.  If the packet were then matched the resulting
   C-DNS Q/R data item would include a flag to indicate a malformed
   record (in addition to capturing the wire format of the packet).

   An advantage of this would be that it would result in more meaningful
   statistics about matched packets because, for example, some partially
   malformed queries could be matched to responses.  However it would
   only apply to those queries where the first Question is well formed.
   It could also simplify the downstream analysis of C-DNS files and the
   reconstruction of packet streams from C-DNS.




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   A disadvantage is that this adds complexity to the Query/Response
   matching and data representation, could potentially lead to false
   matches and some additional statistics would be required (e.g. counts
   for matched-partially-malformed, unmatched-partially-malformed,
   completely-malformed).

9.  C-DNS to PCAP

   It is possible to re-construct PCAP files from the C-DNS format in a
   lossy fashion.  Some of the issues with reconstructing both the DNS
   payload and the full packet stream are outlined here.

   The reconstruction depends on whether or not all the optional
   sections of both the query and response were captured in the C-DNS
   file.  Clearly, if they were not all captured, the reconstruction
   will be imperfect.

   Even if all sections of the response were captured, one cannot
   reconstruct the DNS response payload exactly due to the fact that
   some DNS names in the message on the wire may have been compressed.
   Section 9.1 discusses this is more detail.

   Some transport information is not captured in the C-DNS format.  For
   example, the following aspects of the original packet stream cannot
   be re-constructed from the C-DNS format:

   o  IP fragmentation

   o  TCP stream information:

      *  Multiple DNS messages may have been sent in a single TCP
         segment

      *  A DNS payload may have be split across multiple TCP segments

      *  Multiple DNS messages may have be sent on a single TCP session

   o  Malformed DNS messages if the wire format is not recorded

   o  Any Non-DNS messages that were in the original packet stream e.g.
      ICMP

   Simple assumptions can be made on the reconstruction: fragmented and
   DNS-over-TCP messages can be reconstructed into single packets and a
   single TCP session can be constructed for each TCP packet.






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   Additionally, if malformed packets and Non-DNS packets are captured
   separately, they can be merged with packet captures reconstructed
   from C-DNS to produce a more complete packet stream.

9.1.  Name Compression

   All the names stored in the C-DNS format are full domain names; no
   DNS style name compression is used on the individual names within the
   format.  Therefore when reconstructing a packet, name compression
   must be used in order to reproduce the on the wire representation of
   the packet.

   [RFC1035] name compression works by substituting trailing sections of
   a name with a reference back to the occurrence of those sections
   earlier in the message.  Not all name server software uses the same
   algorithm when compressing domain names within the responses.  Some
   attempt maximum recompression at the expense of runtime resources,
   others use heuristics to balance compression and speed and others use
   different rules for what is a valid compression target.

   This means that responses to the same question from different name
   server software which match in terms of DNS payload content (header,
   counts, RRs with name compression removed) do not necessarily match
   byte-for-byte on the wire.

   Therefore, it is not possible to ensure that the DNS response payload
   is reconstructed byte-for-byte from C-DNS data.  However, it can at
   least, in principle, be reconstructed to have the correct payload
   length (since the original response length is captured) if there is
   enough knowledge of the commonly implemented name compression
   algorithms.  For example, a simplistic approach would be to try each
   algorithm in turn to see if it reproduces the original length,
   stopping at the first match.  This would not guarantee the correct
   algorithm has been used as it is possible to match the length whilst
   still not matching the on the wire bytes but, without further
   information added to the C-DNS data, this is the best that can be
   achieved.

   Appendix B presents an example of two different compression
   algorithms used by well-known name server software.

10.  Data Collection

   This section describes a non-normative proposed algorithm for the
   processing of a captured stream of DNS queries and responses and
   matching queries/responses where possible.





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   For the purposes of this discussion, it is assumed that the input has
   been pre-processed such that:

   1.  All IP fragmentation reassembly, TCP stream reassembly, and so
       on, has already been performed

   2.  Each message is associated with transport metadata required to
       generate the Primary ID (see Section 10.2.1)

   3.  Each message has a well-formed DNS header of 12 bytes and (if
       present) the first Question in the Question section can be parsed
       to generate the Secondary ID (see below).  As noted earlier, this
       requirement can result in a malformed query being removed in the
       pre-processing stage, but the correctly formed response with
       RCODE of FORMERR being present.

   DNS messages are processed in the order they are delivered to the
   application.  It should be noted that packet capture libraries do not
   necessary provide packets in strict chronological order.

   TODO: Discuss the corner cases resulting from this in more detail.

10.1.  Matching algorithm

   A schematic representation of the algorithm for matching Q/R data
   items is shown in the following diagram:

   Figure showing the Query/Response matching algorithm format (PNG) [5]

   Figure showing the Query/Response matching algorithm format (SVG) [6]

   Further details of the algorithm are given in the following sections.

10.2.  Message identifiers

10.2.1.  Primary ID (required)

   A Primary ID is constructed for each message.  It is composed of the
   following data:

   1.  Source IP Address

   2.  Destination IP Address

   3.  Source Port

   4.  Destination Port




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   5.  Transport

   6.  DNS Message ID

10.2.2.  Secondary ID (optional)

   If present, the first Question in the Question section is used as a
   secondary ID for each message.  Note that there may be well formed
   DNS queries that have a QDCOUNT of 0, and some responses may have a
   QDCOUNT of 0 (for example, responses with RCODE=FORMERR or NOTIMP).
   In this case the secondary ID is not used in matching.

10.3.  Algorithm Parameters

   1.  Query timeout

   2.  Skew timeout

10.4.  Algorithm Requirements

   The algorithm is designed to handle the following input data:

   1.  Multiple queries with the same Primary ID (but different
       Secondary ID) arriving before any responses for these queries are
       seen.

   2.  Multiple queries with the same Primary and Secondary ID arriving
       before any responses for these queries are seen.

   3.  Queries for which no later response can be found within the
       specified timeout.

   4.  Responses for which no previous query can be found within the
       specified timeout.

10.5.  Algorithm Limitations

   For cases 1 and 2 listed in the above requirements, it is not
   possible to unambiguously match queries with responses.  This
   algorithm chooses to match to the earliest query with the correct
   Primary and Secondary ID.

10.6.  Workspace

   A FIFO structure is used to hold the Q/R data items during
   processing.





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10.7.  Output

   The output is a list of Q/R data items.  Both the Query and Response
   elements are optional in these items, therefore Q/R data items have
   one of three types of content:

   1.  A matched pair of query and response messages

   2.  A query message with no response

   3.  A response message with no query

   The timestamp of a list item is that of the query for cases 1 and 2
   and that of the response for case 3.

10.8.  Post Processing

   When ending capture, all remaining entries in the Q/R data item FIFO
   should be treated as timed out queries.

11.  Implementation Status

   [Note to RFC Editor: please remove this section and reference to
   [RFC7942] prior to publication.]

   This section records the status of known implementations of the
   protocol defined by this specification at the time of posting of this
   Internet-Draft, and is based on a proposal described in [RFC7942].
   The description of implementations in this section is intended to
   assist the IETF in its decision processes in progressing drafts to
   RFCs.  Please note that the listing of any individual implementation
   here does not imply endorsement by the IETF.  Furthermore, no effort
   has been spent to verify the information presented here that was
   supplied by IETF contributors.  This is not intended as, and must not
   be construed to be, a catalog of available implementations or their
   features.  Readers are advised to note that other implementations may
   exist.

   According to [RFC7942], "this will allow reviewers and working groups
   to assign due consideration to documents that have the benefit of
   running code, which may serve as evidence of valuable experimentation
   and feedback that have made the implemented protocols more mature.
   It is up to the individual working groups to use this information as
   they see fit".







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11.1.  DNS-STATS Compactor

   ICANN/Sinodun IT have developed an open source implementation called
   DNS-STATS Compactor.  The Compactor is a suite of tools which can
   capture DNS traffic (from either a network interface or a PCAP file)
   and store it in the Compacted-DNS (C-DNS) file format.  PCAP files
   for the captured traffic can also be reconstructed.  See Compactor
   [7].

   This implementation:

   o  is mature but has only been deployed for testing in a single
      environment so is not yet classified as production ready.

   o  covers the whole of the specification described in the -03 draft
      with the exception of support for malformed packets (Section 8)
      and pico second time resolution.  (Note: this implementation does
      allow malformed packets to be dumped to a PCAP file).

   o  is released under the Mozilla Public License Version 2.0.

   o  has a users mailing list available, see dns-stats-users [8].

   There is also some discussion of issues encountered during
   development available at Compressing Pcap Files [9] and Packet
   Capture [10].

   This information was last updated on 29th of June 2017.

12.  IANA Considerations

   None

13.  Security Considerations

   Any control interface MUST perform authentication and encryption.

   Any data upload MUST be authenticated and encrypted.

14.  Acknowledgements

   The authors wish to thank CZ.NIC, in particular Tomas Gavenciak, for
   many useful discussions on binary formats, compression and packet
   matching.  Also Jan Vcelak and Wouter Wijngaards for discussions on
   name compression and Paul Hoffman for a detailed review of the
   document and the C-DNS CDDL.

   Thanks also to Robert Edmonds and Jerry Lundstroem for review.



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   Also, Miek Gieben for mmark [11]

15.  Changelog

   draft-ietf-dnsop-dns-capture-format-03

   o  Added an Implementation Status section

   draft-ietf-dnsop-dns-capture-format-02

   o  Update qr_data_format.png to match CDDL

   o  Editorial clarifications and improvements

   draft-ietf-dnsop-dns-capture-format-01

   o  Many editorial improvements by Paul Hoffman

   o  Included discussion of malformed packet handling

   o  Improved Appendix C on Comparison of Binary Formats

   o  Now using C-DNS field names in the tables in section 8

   o  A handful of new fields included (CDDL updated)

   o  Timestamps now include optional picoseconds

   o  Added details of block statistics

   draft-ietf-dnsop-dns-capture-format-00

   o  Changed dnstap.io to dnstap.info

   o  qr_data_format.png was cut off at the bottom

   o  Update authors address

   o  Improve wording in Abstract

   o  Changed DNS-STAT to C-DNS in CDDL

   o  Set the format version in the CDDL

   o  Added a TODO: Add block statistics

   o  Added a TODO: Add extend to support pico/nano.  Also do this for
      Time offset and Response delay



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   o  Added a TODO: Need to develop optional representation of malformed
      packets within C-DNS and what this means for packet matching.
      This may influence which fields are optional in the rest of the
      representation.

   o  Added section on design goals to Introduction

   o  Added a TODO: Can Class be optimised?  Should a class of IN be
      inferred if not present?

   draft-dickinson-dnsop-dns-capture-format-00

   o  Initial commit

16.  References

16.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035,
              November 1987, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1035>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC7049]  Bormann, C. and P. Hoffman, "Concise Binary Object
              Representation (CBOR)", RFC 7049, DOI 10.17487/RFC7049,
              October 2013, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7049>.

16.2.  Informative References

   [ditl]     DNS-OARC, "DITL", 2016, <https://www.dns-
              oarc.net/oarc/data/ditl>.

   [dnscap]   DNS-OARC, "DNSCAP", 2016, <https://www.dns-oarc.net/tools/
              dnscap>.

   [dnstap]   dnstap.info, "dnstap", 2016, <http://dnstap.info/>.

   [dsc]      Wessels, D. and J. Lundstrom, "DSC", 2016,
              <https://www.dns-oarc.net/tools/dsc>.

   [I-D.daley-dnsxml]
              Daley, J., Morris, S., and J. Dickinson, "dnsxml - A
              standard XML representation of DNS data", draft-daley-
              dnsxml-00 (work in progress), July 2013.



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   [I-D.greevenbosch-appsawg-cbor-cddl]
              Birkholz, H., Vigano, C., and C. Bormann, "CBOR data
              definition language (CDDL): a notational convention to
              express CBOR data structures", draft-greevenbosch-appsawg-
              cbor-cddl-10 (work in progress), March 2017.

   [I-D.hoffman-dns-in-json]
              Hoffman, P., "Representing DNS Messages in JSON", draft-
              hoffman-dns-in-json-12 (work in progress), May 2017.

   [packetq]  .SE - The Internet Infrastructure Foundation, "PacketQ",
              2014, <https://github.com/dotse/PacketQ>.

   [pcap]     tcpdump.org, "PCAP", 2016, <http://www.tcpdump.org/>.

   [pcapng]   Tuexen, M., Risso, F., Bongertz, J., Combs, G., and G.
              Harris, "pcap-ng", 2016, <https://github.com/pcapng/
              pcapng>.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, DOI 10.17487/RFC7159, March
              2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7159>.

   [RFC7942]  Sheffer, Y. and A. Farrel, "Improving Awareness of Running
              Code: The Implementation Status Section", BCP 205,
              RFC 7942, DOI 10.17487/RFC7942, July 2016,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7942>.

   [rrtypes]  IANA, "RR types", 2016, <http://www.iana.org/assignments/
              dns-parameters/dns-parameters.xhtml#dns-parameters-4>.

16.3.  URIs

   [1] https://github.com/dns-stats/draft-dns-capture-
       format/blob/master/draft-03/cdns_format.png

   [2] https://github.com/dns-stats/draft-dns-capture-
       format/blob/master/draft-03/cdns_format.svg

   [3] https://github.com/dns-stats/draft-dns-capture-
       format/blob/master/draft-03/qr_data_format.png

   [4] https://github.com/dns-stats/draft-dns-capture-
       format/blob/master/draft-03/qr_data_format.svg

   [5] https://github.com/dns-stats/draft-dns-capture-
       format/blob/master/draft-03/packet_matching.png




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   [6] https://github.com/dns-stats/draft-dns-capture-
       format/blob/master/draft-03/packet_matching.svg

   [7] https://github.com/dns-stats/compactor/wiki

   [8] https://mm.dns-stats.org/mailman/listinfo/dns-stats-users

   [9] https://www.sinodun.com/2017/06/compressing-pcap-files/

   [10] https://www.sinodun.com/2017/06/more-on-debian-jessieubuntu-
        trusty-packet-capture-woes/

   [11] https://github.com/miekg/mmark

   [12] https://www.nlnetlabs.nl/projects/nsd/

   [13] https://www.knot-dns.cz/

   [14] https://avro.apache.org/

   [15] https://developers.google.com/protocol-buffers/

   [16] http://cbor.io

   [17] https://github.com/kubo/snzip

   [18] http://google.github.io/snappy/

   [19] http://lz4.github.io/lz4/

   [20] http://www.gzip.org/

   [21] http://facebook.github.io/zstd/

   [22] http://tukaani.org/xz/

   [23] https://github.com/dns-stats/draft-dns-capture-
        format/blob/master/file-size-versus-block-size.png

   [24] https://github.com/dns-stats/draft-dns-capture-
        format/blob/master/file-size-versus-block-size.svg

Appendix A.  CDDL

  ; CDDL specification of the file format for C-DNS,
  ; which describes a collection of DNS messages and
  ; traffic meta-data.




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  File = [
      file-type-id  : tstr, ; = "C-DNS"
      file-preamble : FilePreamble,
      file-blocks   : [* Block],
  ]

  FilePreamble = {
      major-format-version => uint,  ; = 1
      minor-format-version => uint,  ; = 0
      ? private-version    => uint,
      ? configuration      => Configuration,
      ? generator-id       => tstr,
      ? host-id            => tstr,
  }

  major-format-version = 0
  minor-format-version = 1
  private-version      = 2
  configuration        = 3
  generator-id         = 4
  host-id              = 5

  Configuration = {
      ? query-timeout      => uint,
      ? skew-timeout       => uint,
      ? snaplen            => uint,
      ? promisc            => uint,
      ? interfaces         => [* tstr],
      ? server-addresses   => [* IPAddress], ; Hint for later analysis
      ? vlan-ids           => [* uint],
      ? filter             => tstr,
      ? query-options      => QRCollectionSections,
      ? response-options   => QRCollectionSections,
      ? accept-rr-types    => [* uint],
      ? ignore-rr-types    => [* uint],
      ? max-block-qr-items => uint,
      ? collect-malformed  => uint,
  }

  QRCollectionSectionValues = &(
      question  : 0, ; Second & subsequent questions
      answer    : 1,
      authority : 2,
      additional: 3,
  )
  QRCollectionSections = uint .bits QRCollectionSectionValues

  query-timeout      = 0



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  skew-timeout       = 1
  snaplen            = 2
  promisc            = 3
  interfaces         = 4
  vlan-ids           = 5
  filter             = 6
  query-options      = 7
  response-options   = 8
  accept-rr-types    = 9
  ignore-rr-types    = 10
  server-addresses   = 11
  max-block-qr-items = 12
  collect-malformed  = 13

  Block = {
      preamble                => BlockPreamble,
      ? statistics            => BlockStatistics,
      tables                  => BlockTables,
      queries                 => [* QueryResponse],
      ? address-event-counts  => [* AddressEventCount],
      ? malformed-packet-data => [* MalformedPacket],
  }

  preamble              = 0
  statistics            = 1
  tables                = 2
  queries               = 3
  address-event-counts  = 4
  malformed-packet-data = 5

  BlockPreamble = {
      earliest-time => Timeval
  }

  earliest-time = 1

  Timeval = [
      seconds       : uint,
      microseconds  : uint,
      ? picoseconds : uint,
  ]

  BlockStatistics = {
      ? total-packets                => uint,
      ? total-pairs                  => uint,
      ? unmatched-queries            => uint,
      ? unmatched-responses          => uint,
      ? malformed-packets            => uint,



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  }

  total-packets                = 0
  total-pairs                  = 1
  unmatched-queries            = 2
  unmatched-responses          = 3
  malformed-packets            = 4

  BlockTables = {
      ip-address => [* IPAddress],
      classtype  => [* ClassType],
      name-rdata => [* bstr], ; Holds both Name RDATA and RDATA
      query-sig  => [* QuerySignature]
      ? qlist    => [* QuestionList],
      ? qrr      => [* Question],
      ? rrlist   => [* RRList],
      ? rr       => [* RR],
  }

  ip-address = 0
  classtype  = 1
  name-rdata = 2
  query-sig  = 3
  qlist      = 4
  qrr        = 5
  rrlist     = 6
  rr         = 7

  QueryResponse = {
      time-useconds         => uint, ; Time offset from start of block
      ? time-pseconds       => uint, ; in microseconds and picoseconds
      client-address-index  => uint,
      client-port           => uint,
      transaction-id        => uint,
      query-signature-index => uint,
      ? client-hoplimit     => uint,
      ? delay-useconds      => int,
      ? delay-pseconds      => int, ; Has same sign as delay-useconds
      ? query-name-index    => uint,
      ? query-size          => uint, ; DNS size of query
      ? response-size       => uint, ; DNS size of response
      ? query-extended      => QueryResponseExtended,
      ? response-extended   => QueryResponseExtended,
  }

  time-useconds         = 0
  time-pseconds         = 1
  client-address-index  = 2



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  client-port           = 3
  transaction-id        = 4
  query-signature-index = 5
  client-hoplimit       = 6
  delay-useconds        = 7
  delay-pseconds        = 8
  query-name-index      = 9
  query-size            = 10
  response-size         = 11
  query-extended        = 12
  response-extended     = 13

  ClassType = {
      type  => uint,
      class => uint,
  }

  type  = 0
  class = 1

  DNSFlagValues = &(
      query-cd   : 0,
      query-ad   : 1,
      query-z    : 2,
      query-ra   : 3,
      query-rd   : 4,
      query-tc   : 5,
      query-aa   : 6,
      query-d0   : 7,
      response-cd: 8,
      response-ad: 9,
      response-z : 10,
      response-ra: 11,
      response-rd: 12,
      response-tc: 13,
      response-aa: 14,
  )
  DNSFlags = uint .bits DNSFlagValues

  QueryResponseFlagValues = &(
      has-query               : 0,
      has-reponse             : 1,
      query-has-question      : 2,
      query-has-opt           : 3,
      response-has-opt        : 4,
      response-has-no-question: 5,
  )
  QueryResponseFlags = uint .bits QueryResponseFlagValues



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  TransportFlagValues = &(
      tcp               : 0,
      ipv6              : 1,
      query-trailingdata: 2,
  )
  TransportFlags = uint .bits TransportFlagValues

  QuerySignature = {
      server-address-index    => uint,
      server-port             => uint,
      transport-flags         => TransportFlags,
      qr-sig-flags            => QueryResponseFlags,
      ? query-opcode          => uint,
      qr-dns-flags            => DNSFlags,
      ? query-rcode           => uint,
      ? query-classtype-index => uint,
      ? query-qd-count        => uint,
      ? query-an-count        => uint,
      ? query-ar-count        => uint,
      ? query-ns-count        => uint,
      ? edns-version          => uint,
      ? udp-buf-size          => uint,
      ? opt-rdata-index       => uint,
      ? response-rcode        => uint,
  }

  server-address-index  = 0
  server-port           = 1
  transport-flags       = 2
  qr-sig-flags          = 3
  query-opcode          = 4
  qr-dns-flags          = 5
  query-rcode           = 6
  query-classtype-index = 7
  query-qd-count        = 8
  query-an-count        = 9
  query-ar-count        = 10
  query-ns-count        = 11
  edns-version          = 12
  udp-buf-size          = 13
  opt-rdata-index       = 14
  response-rcode        = 15

  QuestionList = [
      * uint, ; Index of Question
  ]

  Question = {                 ; Second and subsequent questions



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      name-index      => uint, ; Index to a name in the name-rdata table
      classtype-index => uint,
  }

  name-index      = 0
  classtype-index = 1

  RRList = [
      * uint, ; Index of RR
  ]

  RR = {
      name-index      => uint, ; Index to a name in the name-rdata table
      classtype-index => uint,
      ttl             => uint,
      rdata-index     => uint, ; Index to RDATA in the name-rdata table
  }

  ttl         = 2
  rdata-index = 3

  QueryResponseExtended = {
      ? question-index   => uint, ; Index of QuestionList
      ? answer-index     => uint, ; Index of RRList
      ? authority-index  => uint,
      ? additional-index => uint,
  }

  question-index   = 0
  answer-index     = 1
  authority-index  = 2
  additional-index = 3

  AddressEventCount = {
      ae-type          => &AddressEventType,
      ? ae-code        => uint,
      ae-address-index => uint,
      ae-count         => uint,
  }

  ae-type          = 0
  ae-code          = 1
  ae-address-index = 2
  ae-count         = 3

  AddressEventType = (
      tcp-reset              : 0,
      icmp-time-exceeded     : 1,



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      icmp-dest-unreachable  : 2,
      icmpv6-time-exceeded   : 3,
      icmpv6-dest-unreachable: 4,
      icmpv6-packet-too-big  : 5,
  )

  MalformedPacket = {
      time-useconds   => uint, ; Time offset from start of block
      ? time-pseconds => uint, ; in microseconds and picoseconds
      packet-content  => bstr, ; Raw packet contents
  }

  time-useconds    = 0
  time-pseconds    = 1
  packet-content   = 2

  IPv4Address = bstr .size 4
  IPv6Address = bstr .size 16
  IPAddress = IPv4Address / IPv6Address

Appendix B.  DNS Name compression example

   The basic algorithm, which follows the guidance in [RFC1035], is
   simply to collect each name, and the offset in the packet at which it
   starts, during packet construction.  As each name is added, it is
   offered to each of the collected names in order of collection,
   starting from the first name.  If labels at the end of the name can
   be replaced with a reference back to part (or all) of the earlier
   name, and if the uncompressed part of the name is shorter than any
   compression already found, the earlier name is noted as the
   compression target for the name.

   The following tables illustrate the process.  In an example packet,
   the first name is example.com.

          +---+-------------+--------------+--------------------+
          | N | Name        | Uncompressed | Compression Target |
          +---+-------------+--------------+--------------------+
          | 1 | example.com |              |                    |
          +---+-------------+--------------+--------------------+

   The next name added is bar.com.  This is matched against example.com.
   The com part of this can be used as a compression target, with the
   remaining uncompressed part of the name being bar.







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          +---+-------------+--------------+--------------------+
          | N | Name        | Uncompressed | Compression Target |
          +---+-------------+--------------+--------------------+
          | 1 | example.com |              |                    |
          | 2 | bar.com     | bar          | 1 + offset to com  |
          +---+-------------+--------------+--------------------+

   The third name added is www.bar.com.  This is first matched against
   example.com, and as before this is recorded as a compression target,
   with the remaining uncompressed part of the name being www.bar.  It
   is then matched against the second name, which again can be a
   compression target.  Because the remaining uncompressed part of the
   name is www, this is an improved compression, and so it is adopted.

          +---+-------------+--------------+--------------------+
          | N | Name        | Uncompressed | Compression Target |
          +---+-------------+--------------+--------------------+
          | 1 | example.com |              |                    |
          | 2 | bar.com     | bar          | 1 + offset to com  |
          | 3 | www.bar.com | www          | 2                  |
          +---+-------------+--------------+--------------------+

   As an optimization, if a name is already perfectly compressed (in
   other words, the uncompressed part of the name is empty), then no
   further names will be considered for compression.

B.1.  NSD compression algorithm

   Using the above basic algorithm the packet lengths of responses
   generated by NSD [12] can be matched almost exactly.  At the time of
   writing, a tiny number (<.01%) of the reconstructed packets had
   incorrect lengths.

B.2.  Knot Authoritative compression algorithm

   The Knot Authoritative [13] name server uses different compression
   behavior, which is the result of internal optimization designed to
   balance runtime speed with compression size gains.  In brief, and
   omitting complications, Knot Authoritative will only consider the
   QNAME and names in the immediately preceding RR section in an RRSET
   as compression targets.

   A set of smart heuristics as described below can be implemented to
   mimic this and while not perfect it produces output nearly, but not
   quite, as good a match as with NSD.  The heuristics are:






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   1.  A match is only perfect if the name is completely compressed AND
       the TYPE of the section in which the name occurs matches the TYPE
       of the name used as the compression target.

   2.  If the name occurs in RDATA:

       *  If the compression target name is in a query, then only the
          first RR in an RRSET can use that name as a compression
          target.

       *  The compression target name MUST be in RDATA.

       *  The name section TYPE must match the compression target name
          section TYPE.

       *  The compression target name MUST be in the immediately
          preceding RR in the RRSET.

   Using this algorithm less than 0.1% of the reconstructed packets had
   incorrect lengths.

B.3.  Observed differences

   In sample traffic collected on a root name server around 2-4% of
   responses generated by Knot had different packet lengths to those
   produced by NSD.

Appendix C.  Comparison of Binary Formats

   Several binary serialisation formats were considered, and for
   completeness were also compared to JSON.

   o  Apache Avro [14].  Data is stored according to a pre-defined
      schema.  The schema itself is always included in the data file.
      Data can therefore be stored untagged, for a smaller serialisation
      size, and be written and read by an Avro library.

      *  At the time of writing, Avro libraries are available for C,
         C++, C#, Java, Python, Ruby and PHP.  Optionally tools are
         available for C++, Java and C# to generate code for encoding
         and decoding.

   o  Google Protocol Buffers [15].  Data is stored according to a pre-
      defined schema.  The schema is used by a generator to generate
      code for encoding and decoding the data.  Data can therefore be
      stored untagged, for a smaller serialisation size.  The schema is
      not stored with the data, so unlike Avro cannot be read with a
      generic library.



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      *  Code must be generated for a particular data schema to to read
         and write data using that schema.  At the time of writing, the
         Google code generator can currently generate code for encoding
         and decoding a schema for C++, Go, Java, Python, Ruby, C#,
         Objective-C, Javascript and PHP.

   o  CBOR [16].  Defined in [RFC7049], this serialisation format is
      comparable to JSON but with a binary representation.  It does not
      use a pre-defined schema, so data is always stored tagged.
      However, CBOR data schemas can be described using CDDL
      [I-D.greevenbosch-appsawg-cbor-cddl] and tools exist to verify
      data files conform to the schema.

      *  CBOR is a simple format, and simple to implement.  At the time
         of writing, the CBOR website lists implementations for 16
         languages.

   Avro and Protocol Buffers both allow storage of untagged data, but
   because they rely on the data schema for this, their implementation
   is considerably more complex than CBOR.  Using Avro or Protocol
   Buffers in an unsupported environment would require notably greater
   development effort compared to CBOR.

   A test program was written which reads input from a PCAP file and
   writes output using one of two basic structures; either a simple
   structure, where each query/response pair is represented in a single
   record entry, or the C-DNS block structure.

   The resulting output files were then compressed using a variety of
   common general-purpose lossless compression tools to explore the
   compressibility of the formats.  The compression tools employed were:

   o  snzip [17].  A command line compression tool based on the Google
      Snappy [18] library.

   o  lz4 [19].  The command line compression tool from the reference C
      LZ4 implementation.

   o  gzip [20].  The ubiquitous GNU zip tool.

   o  zstd [21].  Compression using the Zstandard algorithm.

   o  xz [22].  A popular compression tool noted for high compression.

   In all cases the compression tools were run using their default
   settings.





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   Note that this draft does not mandate the use of compression, nor any
   particular compression scheme, but it anticipates that in practice
   output data will be subject to general-purpose compression, and so
   this should be taken into consideration.

   "test.pcap", a 662Mb capture of sample data from a root instance was
   used for the comparison.  The following table shows the formatted
   size and size after compression (abbreviated to Comp. in the table
   headers), together with the task resident set size (RSS) and the user
   time taken by the compression.  File sizes are in Mb, RSS in kb and
   user time in seconds.

   +-------------+-----------+-------+------------+-------+-----------+
   | Format      | File size | Comp. | Comp. size |   RSS | User time |
   +-------------+-----------+-------+------------+-------+-----------+
   | PCAP        |    661.87 | snzip |     212.48 |  2696 |      1.26 |
   |             |           | lz4   |     181.58 |  6336 |      1.35 |
   |             |           | gzip  |     153.46 |  1428 |     18.20 |
   |             |           | zstd  |      87.07 |  3544 |      4.27 |
   |             |           | xz    |      49.09 | 97416 |    160.79 |
   |             |           |       |            |       |           |
   | JSON simple |   4113.92 | snzip |     603.78 |  2656 |      5.72 |
   |             |           | lz4   |     386.42 |  5636 |      5.25 |
   |             |           | gzip  |     271.11 |  1492 |     73.00 |
   |             |           | zstd  |     133.43 |  3284 |      8.68 |
   |             |           | xz    |      51.98 | 97412 |    600.74 |
   |             |           |       |            |       |           |
   | Avro simple |    640.45 | snzip |     148.98 |  2656 |      0.90 |
   |             |           | lz4   |     111.92 |  5828 |      0.99 |
   |             |           | gzip  |     103.07 |  1540 |     11.52 |
   |             |           | zstd  |      49.08 |  3524 |      2.50 |
   |             |           | xz    |      22.87 | 97308 |     90.34 |
   |             |           |       |            |       |           |
   | CBOR simple |    764.82 | snzip |     164.57 |  2664 |      1.11 |
   |             |           | lz4   |     120.98 |  5892 |      1.13 |
   |             |           | gzip  |     110.61 |  1428 |     12.88 |
   |             |           | zstd  |      54.14 |  3224 |      2.77 |
   |             |           | xz    |      23.43 | 97276 |    111.48 |
   |             |           |       |            |       |           |
   | PBuf simple |    749.51 | snzip |     167.16 |  2660 |      1.08 |
   |             |           | lz4   |     123.09 |  5824 |      1.14 |
   |             |           | gzip  |     112.05 |  1424 |     12.75 |
   |             |           | zstd  |      53.39 |  3388 |      2.76 |
   |             |           | xz    |      23.99 | 97348 |    106.47 |
   |             |           |       |            |       |           |
   | JSON block  |    519.77 | snzip |     106.12 |  2812 |      0.93 |
   |             |           | lz4   |     104.34 |  6080 |      0.97 |
   |             |           | gzip  |      57.97 |  1604 |     12.70 |



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   |             |           | zstd  |      61.51 |  3396 |      3.45 |
   |             |           | xz    |      27.67 | 97524 |    169.10 |
   |             |           |       |            |       |           |
   | Avro block  |     60.45 | snzip |      48.38 |  2688 |      0.20 |
   |             |           | lz4   |      48.78 |  8540 |      0.22 |
   |             |           | gzip  |      39.62 |  1576 |      2.92 |
   |             |           | zstd  |      29.63 |  3612 |      1.25 |
   |             |           | xz    |      18.28 | 97564 |     25.81 |
   |             |           |       |            |       |           |
   | CBOR block  |     75.25 | snzip |      53.27 |  2684 |      0.24 |
   |             |           | lz4   |      51.88 |  8008 |      0.28 |
   |             |           | gzip  |      41.17 |  1548 |      4.36 |
   |             |           | zstd  |      30.61 |  3476 |      1.48 |
   |             |           | xz    |      18.15 | 97556 |     38.78 |
   |             |           |       |            |       |           |
   | PBuf block  |     67.98 | snzip |      51.10 |  2636 |      0.24 |
   |             |           | lz4   |      52.39 |  8304 |      0.24 |
   |             |           | gzip  |      40.19 |  1520 |      3.63 |
   |             |           | zstd  |      31.61 |  3576 |      1.40 |
   |             |           | xz    |      17.94 | 97440 |     33.99 |
   +-------------+-----------+-------+------------+-------+-----------+

   The above results are discussed in the following sections.

C.1.  Comparison with full PCAP files

   An important first consideration is whether moving away from PCAP
   offers significant benefits.

   The simple binary formats are typically larger than PCAP, even though
   they omit some information such as Ethernet MAC addresses.  But not
   only do they require less CPU to compress than PCAP, the resulting
   compressed files are smaller than compressed PCAP.

C.2.  Simple versus block coding

   The intention of the block coding is to perform data de-duplication
   on query/response records within the block.  The simple and block
   formats above store exactly the same information for each query/
   response record.  This information is parsed from the DNS traffic in
   the input PCAP file, and in all cases each field has an identifier
   and the field data is typed.

   The data de-duplication on the block formats show an order of
   magnitude reduction in the size of the format file size against the
   simple formats.  As would be expected, the compression tools are able
   to find and exploit a lot of this duplication, but as the de-
   duplication process uses knowledge of DNS traffic, it is able to



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   retain a size advantage.  This advantage reduces as stronger
   compression is applied, as again would be expected, but even with the
   strongest compression applied the block formatted data remains around
   75% of the size of the simple format and its compression requires
   roughly a third of the CPU time.

C.3.  Binary versus text formats

   Text data formats offer many advantages over binary formats,
   particularly in the areas of ad-hoc data inspection and extraction.
   It was therefore felt worthwhile to carry out a direct comparison,
   implementing JSON versions of the simple and block formats.

   Concentrating on JSON block format, the format files produced are a
   significant fraction of an order of magnitude larger than binary
   formats.  The impact on file size after compression is as might be
   expected from that starting point; the stronger compression produces
   files that are 150% of the size of similarly compressed binary
   format, and require over 4x more CPU to compress.

C.4.  Performance

   Concentrating again on the block formats, all three produce format
   files that are close to an order of magnitude smaller that the
   original "test.pcap" file.  CBOR produces the largest files and Avro
   the smallest, 20% smaller than CBOR.

   However, once compression is taken into account, the size difference
   narrows.  At medium compression (with gzip), the size difference is
   4%.  Using strong compression (with xz) the difference reduces to 2%,
   with Avro the largest and Protocol Buffers the smallest, although
   CBOR and Protocol Buffers require slightly more compression CPU.

   The measurements presented above do not include data on the CPU
   required to generate the format files.  Measurements indicate that
   writing Avro requires 10% more CPU than CBOR or Protocol Buffers.  It
   appears, therefore, that Avro's advantage in compression CPU usage is
   probably offset by a larger CPU requirement in writing Avro.

C.5.  Conclusions

   The above assessments lead us to the choice of a binary format file
   using blocking.

   As noted previously, this draft anticipates that output data will be
   subject to compression.  There is no compelling case for one
   particular binary serialisation format in terms of either final file
   size or machine resources consumed, so the choice must be largely



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   based on other factors.  CBOR was therefore chosen as the binary
   serialisation format for the reasons listed in Section 6.

C.6.  Block size choice

   Given the choice of a CBOR format using blocking, the question arises
   of what an appropriate default value for the maximum number of query/
   response pairs in a block should be.  This has two components; what
   is the impact on performance of using different block sizes in the
   format file, and what is the impact on the size of the format file
   before and after compression.

   The following table addresses the performance question, showing the
   impact on the performance of a C++ program converting "test.pcap" to
   C-DNS.  File size is in Mb, resident set size (RSS) in kb.

              +------------+-----------+--------+-----------+
              | Block size | File size |    RSS | User time |
              +------------+-----------+--------+-----------+
              |       1000 |    133.46 | 612.27 |     15.25 |
              |       5000 |     89.85 | 676.82 |     14.99 |
              |      10000 |     76.87 | 752.40 |     14.53 |
              |      20000 |     67.86 | 750.75 |     14.49 |
              |      40000 |     61.88 | 736.30 |     14.29 |
              |      80000 |     58.08 | 694.16 |     14.28 |
              |     160000 |     55.94 | 733.84 |     14.44 |
              |     320000 |     54.41 | 799.20 |     13.97 |
              +------------+-----------+--------+-----------+

   Increasing block size, therefore, tends to increase maximum RSS a
   little, with no significant effect (if anything a small reduction) on
   CPU consumption.

   The following figure plots the effect of increasing block size on
   output file size for different compressions.

   Figure showing effect of block size on file size (PNG) [23]

   Figure showing effect of block size on file size (SVG) [24]

   From the above, there is obviously scope for tuning the default block
   size to the compression being employed, traffic characteristics,
   frequency of output file rollover etc.  Using a strong compression,
   block sizes over 10,000 query/response pairs would seem to offer
   limited improvements.






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Authors' Addresses

   John Dickinson
   Sinodun IT
   Magdalen Centre
   Oxford Science Park
   Oxford  OX4 4GA

   Email: jad@sinodun.com


   Jim Hague
   Sinodun IT
   Magdalen Centre
   Oxford Science Park
   Oxford  OX4 4GA

   Email: jim@sinodun.com


   Sara Dickinson
   Sinodun IT
   Magdalen Centre
   Oxford Science Park
   Oxford  OX4 4GA

   Email: sara@sinodun.com


   Terry Manderson
   ICANN
   12025 Waterfront Drive
   Suite 300
   Los Angeles  CA 90094-2536

   Email: terry.manderson@icann.org


   John Bond
   ICANN
   12025 Waterfront Drive
   Suite 300
   Los Angeles  CA 90094-2536

   Email: john.bond@icann.org






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