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                  Parent's SIG over child's KEY
                  draft-ietf-dnsop-parent-sig-00.txt

                    Miek Gieben, Ted Lindgreen


Status of This Document

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026.  Internet-Drafts are
   working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its
   areas, and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also
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Abstract

   When dealing with large amounts of keys the procedures to update a zone and
   to sign a zone need to be clearly defined and practically possible.
   The current idea is to have the KEY RR and the parent's SIG to reside in the
   child's zone and perhaps also in the parent's zone. We feel that this would
   lead to very complicated procedures for large TLD's. We propose a alternative
   scheme in which the parent zone stores the parent's signature over the child's
   key and also a copy of the child's key itself.

   The advantage of this proposal is that all signatures signed by a key are in
   the same zone file as the producing key. This allows for a simple key
   rollover and resigning mechanism. For large TLD's this is extremely important.

   We further discuss the impact on a secure aware resolver/forwarder.


Table of Contents

      Status of This Document....................................
      Abstract...................................................

      Table of Contents..........................................
      1 Introduction.............................................
      2 Proposal.................................................
      3 Impact on a secure aware resolver/forwarder..............
      3.1 Impact of key rollovers on resolver/forwarder..........
      4 Key rollovers............................................
      4.1 Scheduled key rollover.................................
      4.2 Unscheduled key rollover...............................
      5 Zone resiging............................................


      References................................................

      Authors' Addresses........................................
      References................................................


1. Introduction
   Within a CENTR working group NLnet Labs is researching the impact of
   DNSSEC on the ccTLDs and gTLDs.

   In this document we are considering a secure zone, somewhere under a secure
   entry point and on-tree [1] validation between the secure entry point and the
   zone in question.  The resolver we are considering is security aware and is
   preconfigured with the KEY of the secure entry point.

   RFC 2535 [2] states that a zone key must be present in the apex of a zone.
   This can be in the at the delegation point in the parent's zonefile
   (normally the case for null keys), or in the child's zonefile, or in both.
   This key is only valid if it is signed by the parent, so there is also the
   question where this signature is located.

   The original idea was to have the KEY RR and the parent's SIG to reside
   in the child's zone and perhaps also in the parent's zone. There is a
   draft proposal [3], that describes how a keyrollover can be handled.

   At NLnet Labs we found that storing the parent's signature over the
   child's key in the child's zone:
       - makes resigning a KEY by the parent difficult
       - makes a scheduled keyrollover very complicated
       - makes an unscheduled keyrollover virtually impossible

   We propose an alternative scheme in which the parent's signature over the
   child's key is only stored in the parent's zone, i.e. where the signing key
   resides. This would solve the above problems.


2. Proposal
   The core of the new proposal is that the parent zone stores the parent's
   signature over the child's key and also a copy of the child's key itself.
   The child zone also contains its zonekey, where it is selfsigned.

   The advantage of this proposal is that all signatures signed by a key are in
   the same zone file as the producing key. This allows for a simple key
   rollover and resigning mechanism. For large TLD's this is extremely important.

   A disadvantage would be that not all the information concerning one zone is
   stored at that zone, namely the (parent) SIG RR. Note that the same argument
   can be applied to a zone's NULL key, which is also stored at the parent.


3. Impact on a secure aware resolver/forwarder
   The resolver must be aware of the fact that the parent is more authoritative
   than a child when it comes to deciding whether a zone is secured or not.

   Without caching and with on-tree validation, a resolver will always start
   its search at a secure entry point. In this way it can determine whether it
   must expect SIG records or not.

   Considering caching in a secure aware resolver or forwarder. If information
   of a secure zone is cached, its validated KEY should also be cached.

   If the KEY record expires, because the KEY TTL expires or because the SIG is
   no longer valid, the KEY should be discarded. The resolver or forwarder
   should then also discard other data concerning the zone because it is no
   longer validated and possible bad data should not be cached.

3.1. Impact of key rollovers on resolver/forwarder
   When a zone is in the process of a key rollover, there could be a discrepancy
   between the KEY and the SIG in the apex of the zone and the KEY and SIG that
   are stored in the cache of a resolver.

   Suppose a resolver has cached the NS, KEY and SIG records of a zone. Next a
   request comes for an A record in that zone. Also the zone is in the process
   of a keyrollover and already has new keys in its zone. The resolver receives
   an answer consisting of the A record and a SIG over the A record.  It uses
   the tag field in the SIG to determine if it has a KEY which is suitable to
   validate the SIG.  If it does not has such a KEY the resolver must ask the
   parent of the zone for a new KEY and then try it again.  Now the resolver
   has 2 keys for the zone, according to the tag field in the SIG it can use
   either one.

   If the new key also does not validate the SIG the zone is marked bad. If the
   KEY found at the parent is the NULL key the resolver knows that the child is
   considered insecure. This could for instance be in the case the private key
   of the zone is stolen.

4. Key rollovers
   Private keys can be stolen or a key can become over used. In both
   cases a new a new key must be signed and distributed.  This event is
   called keyrollover. We further distinguish between a scheduled and an
   unscheduled key rollover. A scheduled rollover is announced before hand.
   An unscheduled key rollover is needed when a private key is compromised.

4.1. Scheduled key rollover
   When the signatures, produced by the key to be rolled over, are all
   in one zone file, there are two parties involved.  Let us look at an
   example where a TLD rolls over its zone key. The new key needs to be
   signed with the root's key before it can be used to sign the TLD zone
   and the zone keys of the TLD's children. The steps that need to be taken
   by TLD and root are:
      - the TLD adds the new key to its keyset in its zonefile. This
        zone and keyset are signed with the old zonekey
      - then the TLD signals the parent
      - the root copies the new keyset, consisting of the both new
        and the old key, in its zonefile, resigns it and signals the TLD
      - the TLD removes the old key from its keyset, resigns its zone
        with the new key, and signals the the root
      - the root copies the new keyset, now consisting of the new key
        only, and resigns it

4.2. Unscheduled key rollover
   Although nobody hopes that this will ever happen, we must be able to
   cope with possible key compromises. When such an event occurs, an
   immediate keyrollover is needed and must be completed in the shortest
   possible time.  With two parties involved, it will still be awkward, but
   not impossible to update two zonefiles overnight. "Out-of-band"
   communication between the two parties will be necessary, since the
   compromised old key can not be trusted. We think that between two
   parties this is doable, but this complicated procedure is beyond the
   scope of this document. [4]

5. Zone resigning
   Resigning a TLD is necessary before the current signatures expire.
   When all SIG records, produced by the TLD's zone key are kept in the
   TLD's zonefile, and only there, such a resign session is trivial, as
   only one party (the TLD) and one zonefile is involved.


Authors' Addresses

   R. Gieben
   Stichting NLnet Labs
   Kruislaan 419
   1098 VA Amsterdam
   miek@nlnetlabs.nl

   T. Lindgreen
   Stichting NLnet Labs
   Kruislaan 419
   1098 VA Amsterdam
   ted@nlnetlabs.nl

References

   [1] Lewis, E. "DNS Security Extension Clarification on Zone Status",
       http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-dnsext-zone-status-04.txt
   [2] Eastlake, D. "DNS Security Extensions", RFC 2535
       http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2535.txt?number=2535
   [3] Andrews, M., Eastlake, D. "Domain Name System (DNS) Security Key Rollover"
       http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-dnsop-rollover-01.txt
   [4] Gieben, R. "Chain of trust"
       http://secnl.nlnetlabs.nl/thesis/thesis.html


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