[Docs] [txt|pdf|xml|html] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: (draft-reddy-dots-data-channel) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

DOTS                                                       T. Reddy, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                    McAfee
Intended status: Standards Track                       M. Boucadair, Ed.
Expires: June 10, 2018                                            Orange
                                                            K. Nishizuka
                                                      NTT Communications
                                                                  L. Xia
                                                                  Huawei
                                                                P. Patil
                                                                   Cisco
                                                            A. Mortensen
                                                    Arbor Networks, Inc.
                                                               N. Teague
                                                          Verisign, Inc.
                                                        December 7, 2017


Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) Data Channel
                    draft-ietf-dots-data-channel-10

Abstract

   The document specifies a Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat
   Signaling (DOTS) data channel used for bulk exchange of data not
   easily or appropriately communicated through the DOTS signal channel
   under attack conditions.

   This is a companion document to the DOTS signal channel
   specification.

Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)

   Please update these statements with the RFC number to be assigned to
   this document:

   o  "This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX;"

   o  "RFC XXXX: Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat Signaling
      (DOTS) Data Channel";

   o  reference: RFC XXXX

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.





Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                 [Page 1]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 10, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Notational Conventions and Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  DOTS Data Channel: Design Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  DOTS Server(s) Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  DOTS Data Channel YANG Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.1.  Identifier YANG Tree Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.2.  Filter YANG Tree Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.3.  YANG Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   6.  DOTS Identifiers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     6.1.  Create Identifiers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     6.2.  Retrieve Installed Identifiers  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     6.3.  Delete Identifiers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   7.  DOTS Filtering Rules  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     7.1.  Install Filtering Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     7.2.  Retrieve Installed Filtering Rules  . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     7.3.  Remove Filtering Rules  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     8.1.  DOTS Data Channel JSON Attribute Mappings Registry  . . .  22
       8.1.1.  Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23



Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                 [Page 2]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


       8.1.2.  Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     8.2.  YANG Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   9.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
   11. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29

1.  Introduction

   A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is an attempt to make
   machines or network resources unavailable to their intended users.
   In most cases, sufficient scale can be achieved by compromising
   enough end-hosts and using those infected hosts to perpetrate and
   amplify the attack.  The victim in this attack can be an application
   server, a client, a router, a firewall, or an entire network.

   DDoS Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) [I-D.ietf-dots-architecture]
   defines two channels: signal and data channels (Figure 1).  The DOTS
   signal channel used to convey that a network is under a DDOS attack
   to an upstream DOTS server so that appropriate mitigation actions are
   undertaken on the suspect traffic is further elaborated in
   [I-D.ietf-dots-signal-channel].  The DOTS data channel is used for
   infrequent bulk data exchange between DOTS agents in the aim to
   significantly augment attack response coordination.

     +---------------+                                 +---------------+
     |               | <------- Signal Channel ------> |               |
     |  DOTS Client  |                                 |  DOTS Server  |
     |               | <=======  Data Channel  ======> |               |
     +---------------+                                 +---------------+

                          Figure 1: DOTS Channels

   Section 2 of [I-D.ietf-dots-architecture] identifies that the DOTS
   data channel is used to perform the tasks listed below:

   o  Creating identifiers, such as names or aliases, for resources for
      which mitigation may be requested:

      A.  The DOTS client may submit to the DOTS server a collection of
          prefixes which it would like to refer to by alias when
          requesting mitigation.  The server can respond to this request
          with either with a success or failure response (see
          requirement OP-006 in [I-D.ietf-dots-requirements] and
          Section 2 in [I-D.ietf-dots-architecture]).



Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                 [Page 3]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


      Refer to Section 6.

   o  Filter management, which enables a DOTS client to request the
      installation or removal of traffic filters, dropping or rate-
      limiting unwanted traffic and permitting white-listed traffic.
      Sample use cases for populating black- or white-list filtering
      rules are detailed hereafter:

      A.  If a network resource (DOTS client) detects a potential DDoS
          attack from a set of IP addresses, the DOTS client informs its
          servicing router (DOTS gateway) of all suspect IP addresses
          that need to be blocked or black-listed for further
          investigation.  The DOTS client could also specify a list of
          protocols and ports in the black-list rule.  That DOTS gateway
          in-turn propagates the black-listed IP addresses to the DOTS
          server which will undertake appropriate action so that traffic
          from these IP addresses to the target network (specified by
          the DOTS client) is blocked.

      B.  A network has partner sites from which only legitimate traffic
          arrives and the network wants to ensure that the traffic from
          these sites is not penalized during DDOS attacks.  The DOTS
          client uses the DOTS data channel to convey the white-listed
          IP addresses or prefixes of the partner sites to its DOTS
          server.  The DOTS server uses this information to white-list
          flows from such IP addresses or prefixes reaching the network.

      Refer to Section 7.

2.  Notational Conventions and Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   The reader should be familiar with the terms defined in
   [I-D.ietf-dots-architecture].

   The terminology for describing YANG data modules is defined in
   [RFC7950].  The meaning of the symbols in tree diagrams is defined in
   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-tree-diagrams].

   For simplicity, all of the examples in this document use "/restconf"
   as the discovered RESTCONF API root path.  Many protocol header lines
   and message-body text within examples throughout the document are
   split into multiple lines for display purposes only.  When a line
   ends with backslash ('\') as the last character, the line is wrapped
   for display purposes.  It is to be considered to be joined to the



Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                 [Page 4]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


   next line by deleting the backslash, the following line break, and
   the leading whitespace of the next line.

3.  DOTS Data Channel: Design Overview

   The DOTS data channel is intended to be used for bulk data exchanges
   between DOTS agents.  Unlike the signal channel
   [I-D.ietf-dots-signal-channel], which must operate nominally even
   when confronted with signal degradation due to packets loss, the data
   channel is not expected to be constructed to deal with DDoS attack
   conditions.

   As the primary function of the data channel is data exchange, a
   reliable transport is required in order for DOTS agents to detect
   data delivery success or failure.  RESTCONF [RFC8040] over TLS
   [RFC5246] over TCP is used for DOTS data channel (Figure 2).
   RESTCONF uses HTTP methods to provide CRUD (create, read, update,
   delete) operations on a conceptual datastore containing YANG data,
   which is compatible with a server implementing NETCONF datastores.

                                  +--------------+
                                  |     DOTS     |
                                  +--------------+
                                  |   RESTCONF   |
                                  +--------------+
                                  |     TLS      |
                                  +--------------+
                                  |     TCP      |
                                  +--------------+
                                  |     IP       |
                                  +--------------+

    Figure 2: Abstract Layering of DOTS data channel over RESTCONF over
                                    TLS

   The HTTP POST, PUT, PATCH, and DELETE methods are used to edit data
   resources represented by DOTS data channel YANG data models.  These
   basic edit operations allow the DOTS data channel running
   configuration to be altered by a DOTS client.

   DOTS data channel configuration data and state data can be retrieved
   with the GET method.  HTTP status codes are used to report success or
   failure for RESTCONF operations.

   The DOTS client will perform the root resource discovery procedure
   discussed in Section 3.1 of [RFC8040] to determine the root of the
   RESTCONF API.  After discovering the RESTCONF API root, the DOTS
   client uses this value as the initial part of the path in the request



Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                 [Page 5]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


   URI, in any subsequent request to the DOTS server.  The DOTS server
   may support retrieval of the YANG modules it supports (Section 3.7 in
   [RFC8040]), for example, a DOTS client may use RESTCONF to retrieve
   the company proprietary YANG modules supported by the DOTS server.

      Note: This document uses RESTCONF, a protocol based on HTTP
      [RFC7230], for configuring data defined in YANG version 1
      [RFC6020] or YANG version 1.1 [RFC7950], using the datastore
      concepts defined in the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)
      [RFC6241].  RESTCONF combines the simplicity of the HTTP protocol
      with the predictability and automation potential of a schema-
      driven API.  RESTCONF offers a simple subset of NETCONF
      functionality and provides a simplified interface using REST-like
      API which addresses the needs of the DOTS data channel and hence
      an optimal choice.

   JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC7159] payload is used to
   propagate data channel specific payload messages that convey request
   parameters and response information such as errors.  This
   specification uses the encoding rules defined in [RFC7951] for
   representing DOTS data channel configuration data defined using YANG
   (Section 5) as JSON text.

   A DOTS client registers itself to its DOTS server(s) in order to set
   up DOTS data channel related configuration data and receive state
   data (i.e., non-configuration data) from the DOTS server(s).

   A single DOTS data channel between DOTS agents can be used to
   exchange multiple requests and multiple responses.  To reduce DOTS
   client and DOTS server workload, DOTS client SHOULD re-use the same
   TLS session.  While the communication to the DOTS server is
   quiescent, the DOTS client MAY probe the server to ensure it has
   maintained cryptographic state.  Such probes can also keep alive
   firewall and/or NAT bindings.  A TLS heartbeat [RFC6520] verifies the
   DOTS server still has TLS state by returning a TLS message.

4.  DOTS Server(s) Discovery

   This document assumes that DOTS clients are provisioned with the
   reachability information of their DOTS server(s) using a variety of
   means (e.g., local configuration, or dynamic means such as DHCP).
   These means are out of scope of this document.

   Likewise, it is out of scope of this document to specify the behavior
   to follow by a DOTS client to place its requests (e.g., contact all
   servers, select one server among the list) when multiple DOTS servers
   are provisioned.




Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                 [Page 6]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


5.  DOTS Data Channel YANG Module

5.1.  Identifier YANG Tree Structure

   This document defines a YANG module (ietf-dots-data-channel) for
   creating identifiers, such as names or aliases, for resources for
   which mitigation may be requested.  Such identifiers may be used in
   subsequent DOTS signal channel exchanges to refer more efficiently to
   the resources under attack.  The tree structure for DOTS identifiers
   is as follows:

       +--rw identifier
          +--rw client-identifier*   binary
          +--rw alias* [alias-name]
             +--rw alias-name           string
             +--rw target-ip*           inet:ip-address
             +--rw target-prefix*       inet:ip-prefix
             +--rw target-port-range* [lower-port upper-port]
             |  +--rw lower-port    inet:port-number
             |  +--rw upper-port    inet:port-number
             +--rw target-protocol*     uint8
             +--rw target-fqdn*         inet:domain-name
             +--rw target-uri*          inet:uri

   This structure is aligned with [I-D.ietf-dots-signal-channel].

5.2.  Filter YANG Tree Structure

   This document augments the "ietf-access-control-list" Access Control
   List (ACL) YANG module [I-D.ietf-netmod-acl-model] for managing
   filtering rules.  ACL is explained in Section 1 of
   [I-D.ietf-netmod-acl-model].

   Examples of ACL management include, but not limited to,:

   o  Black-list management, which enables a DOTS client to inform the
      DOTS server about sources from which traffic should be suppressed.

   o  White-list management, which enables a DOTS client to inform the
      DOTS server about sources from which traffic should always be
      accepted.

   o  Filter management, which enables a DOTS client to request the
      installation or removal of traffic filters, dropping or rate-
      limiting unwanted traffic and permitting white-listed traffic.

   This document defines the DOTS Data Channel YANG to augment the
   "ietf-access-control-list" module to support filters based on the



Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                 [Page 7]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


   client identifier (client-identifier), to support rate-limit action
   (rate-limit), and to handle fragmented packets (fragments).

   Filtering fragments adds an additional layer of protection against a
   DoS attack that uses only non-initial fragments.  When there is only
   Layer 3 information in the ACL entry and the fragments keyword is
   present, for non-initial fragments matching the ACL entry, the deny
   or permit action associated with the ACL entry will be enforced and
   for initial or non-fragment matching the ACL entry, the next ACL
   entry will be processed.  When there is both Layer 3 and Layer 4
   information in the ACL entry and the fragments keyword is present,
   the ACL action is conservative for both permit and deny actions.  The
   actions are conservative to not accidentally deny a fragmented
   portion of a flow because the fragments do not contain sufficient
   information to match all of the filter attributes.  In the deny
   action case, instead of denying a non-initial fragment, the next ACL
   entry is processed.  In the permit case, it is assumed that the Layer
   4 information in the non-initial fragment, if available, matches the
   Layer 4 information in the ACL entry.

   The tree structure for DOTS filtering rules is as follows:

  augment /ietf-acl:access-lists:
    +--rw client-identifier*   binary
  augment /ietf-acl:access-lists/ietf-acl:acl/ietf-acl:aces/ietf-acl:ace/ietf-acl:actions:
    +--rw rate-limit?   decimal64
  augment /ietf-acl:access-lists/ietf-acl:acl/ietf-acl:aces/ietf-acl:ace/ietf-acl:matches/ietf-acl:ipv4-acl:
    +--rw fragments?   empty
  augment /ietf-acl:access-lists/ietf-acl:acl/ietf-acl:aces/ietf-acl:ace/ietf-acl:matches/ietf-acl:ipv6-acl:
    +--rw fragments?   empty
  augment /ietf-acl:access-lists:
    +--rw dots-acl-order
       +--rw acl-set* [set-name type]
          +--rw set-name    -> /ietf-acl:access-lists/acl/acl-name
          +--rw type        -> /ietf-acl:access-lists/acl/acl-type

5.3.  YANG Module

   <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-dots-data-channel@2017-12-08.yang"

   module ietf-dots-data-channel {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-dots-data-channel";

     prefix "data-channel";

     import ietf-inet-types {prefix "inet";}
     import ietf-access-control-list {prefix "ietf-acl";}



Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                 [Page 8]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


     organization "IETF DOTS Working Group";

     contact
       "Konda, Tirumaleswar Reddy <TirumaleswarReddy_Konda@McAfee.com>
        Mohamed Boucadair <mohamed.boucadair@orange.com>
        Kaname Nishizuka <kaname@nttv6.jp>
        Liang Xia <frank.xialiang@huawei.com>
        Prashanth Patil <praspati@cisco.com>
        Andrew Mortensen <amortensen@arbor.net>
        Nik Teague <nteague@verisign.com>";

     description
       "This module contains YANG definition for configuring
        identifiers for resources and filtering rules using DOTS
        data channel.

        Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

        Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
        to the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License
        set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
        Relating to IETF Documents
        (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

        This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX; see
        the RFC itself for full legal notices.";

     revision 2017-12-08 {
       description
         "Initial revision.";
       reference
         "RFC XXXX: Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat
                    Signaling (DOTS) Data Channel";
     }

     container identifier {
       description "Top level container for identifiers";

       leaf-list client-identifier {
         type binary;
         description
           "A client identifier conveyed by a
            DOTS gateway to a remote DOTS server.";
         reference
           "I-D.itef-dots-signal-channel: Distributed Denial-of-Service
                         Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) Signal Channel";



Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                 [Page 9]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


       }

       list alias {
         key alias-name;
         description
           "List of identifiers";

         leaf alias-name {
           type string;
           description "alias name";
         }

         leaf-list target-ip {
           type inet:ip-address;
           description
             "IPv4 or IPv6 address identifying the target.";
         }

         leaf-list target-prefix {
           type inet:ip-prefix;
           description
            "IPv4 or IPv6 prefix identifying the target.";
         }

         list target-port-range {
           key "lower-port upper-port";

           description
             "Port range. When only lower-port is
              present, it represents a single port.";

           leaf lower-port {
             type inet:port-number;
             mandatory true;
             description "Lower port number.";
           }

           leaf upper-port {
             type inet:port-number;
             must ". >= ../lower-port" {
                error-message
                  "The upper port number must be greater than
                   or equal to lower port number.";
             }
             description "Upper port number.";
           }
         }




Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 10]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


         leaf-list target-protocol {
           type uint8;
           description
             "Identifies the target protocol number.

              The value '0' means 'all protocols'.

              Values are taken from the IANA protocol registry:
              https://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers/
              protocol-numbers.xhtml

              For example, 6 for a TCP or 17 for UDP.";
         }

         leaf-list target-fqdn {
           type inet:domain-name;
           description "FQDN identifying the target.";
         }

         leaf-list target-uri {
           type inet:uri;
           description "URI identifying the target.";
         }
       }
     }

     augment "/ietf-acl:access-lists" {
       description "client-identifier parameter.";

       leaf-list client-identifier {
         type binary;
         description
           "A client identifier conveyed by a DOTS gateway
            to a remote DOTS server.";
       }
     }

     augment "/ietf-acl:access-lists/ietf-acl:acl/ietf-acl:aces" +
             "/ietf-acl:ace/ietf-acl:actions" {
       description "rate-limit action";
       leaf rate-limit {
         when "/ietf-acl:access-lists/ietf-acl:acl/ietf-acl:aces/" +
              "ietf-acl:ace/ietf-acl:actions/" +
              "ietf-acl:forwarding = 'ietf-acl:accept'" {
         description
           "rate-limit valid only when accept action is used";
         }
         type decimal64 {



Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 11]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


           fraction-digits 2;
         }
        description "rate-limit traffic";
        }
     }

     augment "/ietf-acl:access-lists/ietf-acl:acl/ietf-acl:aces" +
             "/ietf-acl:ace/ietf-acl:matches/ietf-acl:ipv4-acl" {
       description
         "Handle non-initial and initial fragments for IPv4 packets.";

       leaf fragments {
         type empty;
         description "Handle fragments.";
       }
     }

     augment "/ietf-acl:access-lists/ietf-acl:acl/ietf-acl:aces" +
             "/ietf-acl:ace/ietf-acl:matches/ietf-acl:ipv6-acl" {
       description
         "Handle non-initial and initial fragments for IPv6 packets.";

       leaf fragments {
         type empty;
         description
           "Handle fragments.";
       }
     }

     augment "/ietf-acl:access-lists" {
       description
         "Handle ordering of ACLs from a DOTS client";

       container dots-acl-order {
         description
           "Enclosing container for ordering
            the ACLs from a DOTS client";

          list acl-set {
           key "set-name type";
           ordered-by user;
           description
             "List of ACLs";

           leaf set-name {
             type leafref {
               path "/ietf-acl:access-lists/ietf-acl:acl" +
                    "/ietf-acl:acl-name";



Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 12]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


             }
             description
               "Reference to the ACL set name";
           }
            leaf type {
             type leafref {
               path "/ietf-acl:access-lists/ietf-acl:acl" +
                    "/ietf-acl:acl-type";
             }
             description
               "Reference to the ACL set type";
           }
         }
       }
     }
   }
    <CODE ENDS>

6.  DOTS Identifiers

6.1.  Create Identifiers

   A POST request is used to create identifiers, such as names or
   aliases, for resources for which a mitigation may be requested.  Such
   identifiers may then be used in subsequent DOTS signal channel
   exchanges to refer more efficiently to the resources under attack
   (Figure 3).
























Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 13]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


    POST /restconf/data/ietf-dots-data-channel-identifier HTTP/1.1
    Host: {host}:{port}
    Content-Type: "application/yang-data+json"
    {
     "ietf-dots-data-channel:identifier": {
       "client-identifier": [
            "string"
       ],
       "alias": [
         {
           "alias-name": "string",
           "target-ip": [
             "string"
           ],
           "target-prefix": [
             "string"
           ],
           "target-port-range": [
             {
               "lower-port": integer,
               "upper-port": integer
             }
           ],
           "target-protocol": [
             integer
           ],
           "target-fqdn": [
             "string"
           ],
           "target-uri": [
             "string"
           ]
         }
       ]
     }
   }

                   Figure 3: POST to create identifiers

   The header parameters are described below:

   client-identifier:  This attribute has the same meaning, syntax and
      processing rules as the 'client-identifier' attribute defined in
      [I-D.ietf-dots-signal-channel].  This is an optional attribute.

   alias-name:  Name of the alias.  This is a mandatory attribute.





Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 14]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


   target-ip:  IP addresses are separated by commas.  This is an
      optional attribute.

   target-prefix:   Prefixes are separated by commas.  This is an
      optional attribute.

   target-port-range:   A range of port numbers.

      The port range is defined by two bounds, a lower port number
      (lower-port) and an upper port number (upper-port).  When only
      'lower-port' is present, it represents a single port number.  For
      TCP, UDP, Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [RFC4960],
      or Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) [RFC4340], the
      range of ports can be, for example, 1024-65535.

      This is an optional attribute.

   target-protocol:   A list of protocols.  Values are taken from the
      IANA protocol registry [proto_numbers].

      The value 0 has a special meaning for 'all protocols'.

      This is an optional attribute.

   target-fqdn:   A list of Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDNs).  An
      FQDN is the full name of a resource, rather than just its
      hostname.  For example, "venera" is a hostname, and
      "venera.isi.edu" is an FQDN.

      This is an optional attribute.

   target-uri:   A list of Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs)
      [RFC3986].

      This is an optional attribute.

   In the POST request at least one of the attributes 'target-ip' or
   'target-prefix' or 'target-fqdn' or 'target-uri' MUST be present.
   DOTS agents can safely ignore Vendor-Specific parameters they don't
   understand.

   Figure 4 shows a POST request to create alias called "https1" for
   HTTP(S) servers with IP addresses 2001:db8:6401::1 and
   2001:db8:6401::2 listening on port 443.







Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 15]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


   POST /restconf/data/ietf-dots-data-channel-identifier HTTP/1.1
   Host: www.example.com
   Content-Type: "application/yang-data+json"
   {
     "ietf-dots-data-channel:identifier": {
       "client-identifier": [
          "dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw",
          "iAYmCNPmrYoKoqzgFMiobw"
       ],
       "alias": [
         {
           "alias-name": "Server1",
           "target-protocol": [
             6
           ],
           "target-ip": [
             "2001:db8:6401::1",
             "2001:db8:6401::2"
           ],
           "target-port-range": [
             {
               "lower-port": 443
             }
           ]
         }
       ]
     }
   }

                   Figure 4: POST to create identifiers

   The DOTS server indicates the result of processing the POST request
   using HTTP response codes.  HTTP 2xx codes are success, HTTP 4xx
   codes are some sort of invalid requests and 5xx codes are returned if
   the DOTS server has erred or it is incapable of accepting the alias.
   Response code 201 (Created) will be returned in the response if the
   DOTS server has accepted the alias.  If the request is missing one or
   more mandatory attributes or if the request contains invalid or
   unknown parameters, then 400 (Bad Request) will be returned in the
   response.  The HTTP response will include the JSON body received in
   the request.

   The DOTS client can use the PUT request (Section 4.5 in [RFC8040]) to
   create or modify the aliases in the DOTS server.







Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 16]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


6.2.  Retrieve Installed Identifiers

   A GET request is used to retrieve the set of installed identifiers
   from a DOTS server (Section 3.3.1 in [RFC8040]).  Figure 5 shows how
   to retrieve all the identifiers that were instantiated by the DOTS
   client.  The content parameter and its permitted values are defined
   in Section 4.8.1 of [RFC8040].

  GET /restconf/data/ietf-dots-data-channel:identifier\
      /client-identifier=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw,iAYmCNPmrYoKoqzgFMiobw?\
      content=config HTTP/1.1
  Host: {host}:{port}
  Accept: application/yang-data+json

          Figure 5: GET to retrieve all the installed identifiers

   Figure 6 shows response for all identifiers on the DOTS server.


































Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 17]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


   {
    "ietf-dots-data-channel:identifier": {
       "client-identifier": [
          "dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw",
          "iAYmCNPmrYoKoqzgFMiobw"
       ],
       "alias": [
         {
           "alias-name": "Server1",
           "traffic-protocol": [
             6
           ],
           "target-ip": [
             "2001:db8:6401::1",
             "2001:db8:6401::2"
           ],
           "target-port-range": [
             {
               "lower-port": 443
             }
           ]
         },
         {
           "alias-name": "Server2",
           "target-protocol": [
             6
           ],
           "target-ip": [
             "2001:db8:6401::10",
             "2001:db8:6401::20"
           ],
           "target-port-range": [
             {
               "lower-port": 80
             }
           ]
         }
       ]
     }
   }

                          Figure 6: Response body

   If the DOTS server does not find the alias name conveyed in the GET
   request in its configuration data, then it responds with a 404 (Not
   Found) error response code.





Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 18]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


6.3.  Delete Identifiers

   A DELETE request is used to delete identifiers maintained by a DOTS
   server (Figure 7).

     DELETE /restconf/data/ietf-dots-data-channel:identifier\
            /client-identifier=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw,\
            iAYmCNPmrYoKoqzgFMiobw/alias-name=Server1 HTTP/1.1
     Host: {host}:{port}

                        Figure 7: DELETE identifier

   In RESTCONF, URI-encoded path expressions are used.  A RESTCONF data
   resource identifier is encoded from left to right, starting with the
   top-level data node, according to the 'api-path' rule defined in
   Section 3.5.3.1 of [RFC8040].  The data node in the above path
   expression is a YANG list node and MUST be encoded according to the
   rules defined in Section 3.5.1 of [RFC8040].

   If the DOTS server does not find the alias name conveyed in the
   DELETE request in its configuration data, then it responds with a 404
   (Not Found) error response code.  The DOTS server successfully
   acknowledges a DOTS client's request to remove the identifier using
   204 (No Content) in the response.

7.  DOTS Filtering Rules

   The DOTS server either receives the filtering rules directly from the
   DOTS client or via a DOTS gateway.

   If the DOTS client signals the filtering rules via a DOTS gateway,
   then the DOTS gateway validates if the DOTS client is authorized to
   signal the filtering rules and if the client is authorized propagates
   the rules to the DOTS server.  Likewise, the DOTS server validates if
   the DOTS gateway is authorized to signal the filtering rules.  To
   create or purge filters, the DOTS client sends HTTP requests to its
   DOTS gateway.  The DOTS gateway validates the rules in the requests
   and proxies the requests containing the filtering rules to a DOTS
   server.  When the DOTS gateway receives the associated HTTP response
   from the DOTS server, it propagates the response back to the DOTS
   client.

   The following APIs define means for a DOTS client to configure
   filtering rules on a DOTS server.







Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 19]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


7.1.  Install Filtering Rules

   A POST request is used to push filtering rules to a DOTS server.
   Figure 8 shows a POST request example to block traffic from
   192.0.2.0/24, destined to 198.51.100.0/24.  The ACL JSON
   configuration for the filtering rule is generated using the ACL YANG
   data model defined in [I-D.ietf-netmod-acl-model] and the ACL
   configuration XML for the filtering rule is specified in Section 4.3
   of [I-D.ietf-netmod-acl-model].

  POST /restconf/data/ietf-dots-data-channel HTTP/1.1
  Host: www.example.com
  Content-Type: "application/yang-data+json"
  {
   "ietf-dots-data-channel:access-lists": {
      "client-identifier": [
       "dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw",
       "iAYmCNPmrYoKoqzgFMiobw"
      ],
      "acl": [
          {
               "acl-name": "sample-ipv4-acl",
               "acl-type": "ipv4-acl",
               "aces": {
                   "ace": [
                       {
                           "rule-name": "rule1",
                           "matches": {
                             "ipv4-acl": {
                               "source-ipv4-network": "192.0.2.0/24",
                               "destination-ipv4-network": "198.51.100.0/24"
                             }
                            },
                            "actions": {
                               "forwarding" : "drop"
                            }
                        }
                    ]
               }
          }
      ]
   }
  }

                 Figure 8: POST to install filterng rules

   The header parameters defined in [I-D.ietf-netmod-acl-model] are
   discussed below:



Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 20]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


   acl-name:  The name of access-list.  This is a mandatory attribute.

   acl-type:  Indicates the primary intended type of match criteria
      (e.g., IPv4, IPv6).  This is a mandatory attribute.

   protocol:   Internet Protocol numbers.  This is an optional
      attribute.

   source-ipv4-network:  The source IPv4 prefix.  This is an optional
      attribute.

   destination-ipv4-network:  The destination IPv4 prefix.  This is an
      optional attribute.

   actions:   "drop" or "accept" or "rate-limit".  "accept" action is
      used to white-list traffic. "drop" action is used to black-list
      traffic. "rate-limit" action is used to rate-limit traffic, the
      allowed traffic rate is represented in bytes per second indicated
      in IEEE floating point format [IEEE.754.1985].  This is an
      optional attribute.

   The DOTS server indicates the result of processing the POST request
   using HTTP response codes.  HTTP 2xx codes are success, HTTP 4xx
   codes are some sort of invalid requests and 5xx codes are returned if
   the DOTS server has erred or it is incapable of configuring the
   filtering rules.  Response code 201 (Created) will be returned in the
   response if the DOTS server has accepted the filtering rules.  If the
   request is missing one or more mandatory attributes or contains
   invalid or unknown parameters, then 400 (Bad Request) will be
   returned in the response.

   The "insert" query parameter discussed in Section 4.8.5 of [RFC8040]
   can be used to specify how a ACE is inserted within an ACL and how a
   ACL is inserted within an ACL list.

   The DOTS client can use the PUT request to create or modify the
   filtering rules in the DOTS server.

7.2.  Retrieve Installed Filtering Rules

   The DOTS client periodically queries the DOTS server to check the
   counters for installed filtering rules.  A GET request is used to
   retrieve filtering rules from a DOTS server.  Figure 9 shows how to
   retrieve all the filtering rules programmed by the DOTS client and
   the number of matches for the installed filtering rules.






Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 21]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


  GET /restconf/data/ietf-dots-data-channel:access-lists\
      /client-identifier=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw,iAYmCNPmrYoKoqzgFMiobw?\
      content=all HTTP/1.1
  Host: {host}:{port}
  Accept: application/yang-data+json

    Figure 9: GET to retrieve the configuration data and state data for
                            the filtering rules

   If the DOTS server does not find the access list name and access list
   type conveyed in the GET request in its configuration data, then it
   responds with a 404 (Not Found) error response code.

7.3.  Remove Filtering Rules

   A DELETE request is used to delete filtering rules from a DOTS server
   (Figure 10).

     DELETE /restconf/data/ietf-dots-data-channel:access-lists\
            /client-identifier=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw,\
            iAYmCNPmrYoKoqzgFMiobw/acl-name=sample-ipv4-acl&\
            acl-type=ipv4-acl HTTP/1.1
     Host: {host}:{port}

              Figure 10: DELETE to remove the filtering rules

   If the DOTS server does not find the access list name and access list
   type conveyed in the DELETE request in its configuration data, then
   it responds with a 404 (Not Found) error response code.  The DOTS
   server successfully acknowledges a DOTS client's request to withdraw
   the filtering rules using 204 (No Content) response code, and removes
   the filtering rules as soon as possible.

8.  IANA Considerations

8.1.  DOTS Data Channel JSON Attribute Mappings Registry

   The document requests IANA to create a new registry, entitled "DOTS
   Data Channel JSON Attribute Mappings Registry".  The structure of
   this registry is provided in Section 8.1.1.

   The registry is initially populated with the values in Section 8.1.2.

   Values from that registry MUST be assigned via Expert Review
   [RFC8126].






Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 22]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


8.1.1.  Registration Template

   JSON Attribute:
      JSON attribute name.

   Description:
      Brief description of the attribute.

   Change Controller:
      For Standards Track RFCs, list the "IESG".  For others, give the
      name of the responsible party.  Other details (e.g., postal
      address, email address, home page URI) may also be included.

   Specification Document(s):
      Reference to the document or documents that specify the parameter,
      preferably including URIs that can be used to retrieve copies of
      the documents.  An indication of the relevant sections may also be
      included but is not required.

8.1.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   o  JSON Attribute: "client-identifier"
   o  Description: Client identifier.
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): this document

   o  JSON Attribute: "alias-name"
   o  Description: Name of alias.
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): this document

   o  JSON Attribute: "target-protocol"
   o  Description: Internet protocol numbers.
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): this document

   o  JSON Attribute: "target-port-range"
   o  Description: The port range, lower-port for lower port number and
      upper-port for upper port number.  For TCP, UDP, SCTP, or DCCP: a
      range of ports can be, e.g., 80 to 8080.
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): this document

   o  JSON Attribute: "lower-port"
   o  Description: Lower port number for the port range.
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): this document




Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 23]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


   o  JSON Attribute: "upper-port"
   o  Description: Upper port number for the port range.
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): this document

   o  JSON Attribute: "target-ip"
   o  Description: IP address.
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): this document

   o  JSON Attribute: "target-prefix"
   o  Description: IP prefix
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): this document

   o  JSON Attribute: "target-fqdn"
   o  Description: Fully Qualified Domain Name, is the full name of a
      system, rather than just its hostname.  For example, "venera" is a
      hostname, and "venera.isi.edu" is an FQDN.
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): this document

   o  JSON Attribute: "target-uri"
   o  Description: Uniform Resource Identifier (URI).
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): this document

8.2.  YANG Module

   This document requests IANA to register the following URI in the
   "IETF XML Registry" [RFC3688]:

            URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-dots-data-channel
            Registrant Contact: The IESG.
            XML: N/A; the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   This document requests IANA to register the following YANG module in
   the "YANG Module Names" registry [RFC7950].

           name: ietf-dots-data-channel
           namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-dots-data-channel
           prefix: data-channel
           reference: RFC XXXX








Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 24]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


9.  Contributors

   The following individuals have contributed to this document:

   Dan Wing

   Email: dwing-ietf@fuggles.com

10.  Security Considerations

   Authenticated encryption MUST be used for data confidentiality and
   message integrity.  TLS based on client certificate MUST be used for
   mutual authentication.  The interaction between the DOTS agents
   requires Transport Layer Security (TLS) with a cipher suite offering
   confidentiality protection and the guidance given in [RFC7525] MUST
   be followed to avoid attacks on TLS.

   An attacker may be able to inject RST packets, bogus application
   segments, etc., regardless of whether TLS authentication is used.
   Because the application data is TLS protected, this will not result
   in the application receiving bogus data, but it will constitute a DoS
   on the connection.  This attack can be countered by using TCP-AO
   [RFC5925].  If TCP-AO is used, then any bogus packets injected by an
   attacker will be rejected by the TCP-AO integrity check and therefore
   will never reach the TLS layer.

   In order to prevent leaking internal information outside a client-
   domain, DOTS gateways located in the client-domain SHOULD NOT reveal
   the identity of internal DOTS clients (client-identifier) unless
   explicitly configured to do so.

   Special care should be taken in order to ensure that the activation
   of the proposed mechanism won't have an impact on the stability of
   the network (including connectivity and services delivered over that
   network).

   Involved functional elements in the cooperation system must establish
   exchange instructions and notification over a secure and
   authenticated channel.  Adequate filters can be enforced to avoid
   that nodes outside a trusted domain can inject request such as
   deleting filtering rules.  Nevertheless, attacks can be initiated
   from within the trusted domain if an entity has been corrupted.
   Adequate means to monitor trusted nodes should also be enabled.

   RESTCONF security considerations are discussed in [RFC8040].

   All data nodes defined in the YANG module which can be created,
   modified, and deleted (i.e., config true, which is the default) are



Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 25]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


   considered sensitive.  Write operations applied to these data nodes
   without proper protection can negatively affect network operations.
   Appropriate security measures are recommended to prevent illegitimate
   users from invoking DOTS data channel primitives.  Nevertheless, an
   attacker who is able to access to a DOTS client can undertake various
   attacks, such as:

   o  Set an arbitrarily low rate-limit that may lead to discarding
      legitimate traffic to be forwarded (rate-limit).
   o  Set an arbitrarily high rate-limit that may lead to allowing
      illegitimate DDoS traffic to be forwarded (rate-limit).
   o  Communicate invalid aliases to the server (alias) that will lead
      to failure to associate both data and signal channels.
   o  Set invalid ACL entries that may lead to discard legitimate
      traffic from being forwarding.  Likewise, invalid ACL entries may
      lead to forward DDoS traffic.

11.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Christian Jacquenet, Roland Dobbins, Roman Danyliw, Ehud
   Doron, Russ White, Jon Shallow, and Gilbert Clark for the discussion
   and comments.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-dots-architecture]
              Mortensen, A., Andreasen, F., Reddy, T.,
              christopher_gray3@cable.comcast.com, c., Compton, R., and
              N. Teague, "Distributed-Denial-of-Service Open Threat
              Signaling (DOTS) Architecture", draft-ietf-dots-
              architecture-05 (work in progress), October 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-dots-signal-channel]
              Reddy, T., Boucadair, M., Patil, P., Mortensen, A., and N.
              Teague, "Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat
              Signaling (DOTS) Signal Channel", draft-ietf-dots-signal-
              channel-09 (work in progress), November 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-netmod-acl-model]
              Jethanandani, M., Huang, L., Agarwal, S., and D. Blair,
              "Network Access Control List (ACL) YANG Data Model",
              draft-ietf-netmod-acl-model-14 (work in progress), October
              2017.






Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 26]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.

   [RFC5925]  Touch, J., Mankin, A., and R. Bonica, "The TCP
              Authentication Option", RFC 5925, DOI 10.17487/RFC5925,
              June 2010, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5925>.

   [RFC7230]  Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
              Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing",
              RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>.

   [RFC7525]  Sheffer, Y., Holz, R., and P. Saint-Andre,
              "Recommendations for Secure Use of Transport Layer
              Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security
              (DTLS)", BCP 195, RFC 7525, DOI 10.17487/RFC7525, May
              2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7525>.

   [RFC7951]  Lhotka, L., "JSON Encoding of Data Modeled with YANG",
              RFC 7951, DOI 10.17487/RFC7951, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7951>.

   [RFC8040]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
              Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>.

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.

12.2.  Informative References








Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 27]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


   [I-D.ietf-dots-requirements]
              Mortensen, A., Moskowitz, R., and T. Reddy, "Distributed
              Denial of Service (DDoS) Open Threat Signaling
              Requirements", draft-ietf-dots-requirements-07 (work in
              progress), October 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-tree-diagrams]
              Bjorklund, M. and L. Berger, "YANG Tree Diagrams", draft-
              ietf-netmod-yang-tree-diagrams-02 (work in progress),
              October 2017.

   [IEEE.754.1985]
              Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
              "Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic", August
              1985.

   [proto_numbers]
              "IANA, "Protocol Numbers"", 2011,
              <http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers>.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>.

   [RFC4340]  Kohler, E., Handley, M., and S. Floyd, "Datagram
              Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)", RFC 4340,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4340, March 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4340>.

   [RFC4960]  Stewart, R., Ed., "Stream Control Transmission Protocol",
              RFC 4960, DOI 10.17487/RFC4960, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4960>.

   [RFC6020]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "YANG - A Data Modeling Language for
              the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6020,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6020, October 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6020>.

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.








Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 28]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


   [RFC6520]  Seggelmann, R., Tuexen, M., and M. Williams, "Transport
              Layer Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security
              (DTLS) Heartbeat Extension", RFC 6520,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6520, February 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6520>.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, DOI 10.17487/RFC7159, March
              2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7159>.

   [RFC7950]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language",
              RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7950>.

Authors' Addresses

   Tirumaleswar Reddy (editor)
   McAfee, Inc.
   Embassy Golf Link Business Park
   Bangalore, Karnataka  560071
   India

   Email: kondtir@gmail.com


   Mohamed Boucadair (editor)
   Orange
   Rennes  35000
   France

   Email: mohamed.boucadair@orange.com


   Kaname Nishizuka
   NTT Communications
   GranPark 16F 3-4-1 Shibaura, Minato-ku
   Tokyo  108-8118
   Japan

   Email: kaname@nttv6.jp











Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 29]


Internet-Draft              DOTS Data Channel              December 2017


   Liang Xia
   Huawei
   101 Software Avenue, Yuhuatai District
   Nanjing, Jiangsu  210012
   China

   Email: frank.xialiang@huawei.com


   Prashanth Patil
   Cisco Systems, Inc.

   Email: praspati@cisco.com


   Andrew Mortensen
   Arbor Networks, Inc.
   2727 S. State St
   Ann Arbor, MI  48104
   United States

   Email: amortensen@arbor.net


   Nik Teague
   Verisign, Inc.
   United States

   Email: nteague@verisign.com






















Reddy, et al.             Expires June 10, 2018                [Page 30]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.129d, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/