[Docs] [txt|pdf|xml|html] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: (draft-ietf-drinks-spprov) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 RFC 7877

DRINKS                                                     K. Cartwright
Internet-Draft                                                 V. Bhatia
Intended status: Standards Track                                     TNS
Expires: February 13, 2016                                        S. Ali
                                                                 NeuStar
                                                             D. Schwartz
                                                                XConnect
                                                         August 12, 2015


             Session Peering Provisioning Framework (SPPF)
                   draft-ietf-drinks-spp-framework-12

Abstract

   This document specifies the data model and the overall structure for
   a framework to provision session establishment data into Session Data
   Registries and SIP Service Provider data stores.  The framework is
   called the Session Peering Provisioning Framework (SPPF).  The
   provisioned data is typically used by network elements for session
   establishment.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 13, 2016.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016               [Page 1]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.  Framework High Level Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.1.  Framework Data Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.2.  Time Value  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.3.  Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   4.  Transport Substrate Protocol Requirements . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.1.  Mandatory Substrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.2.  Connection Oriented . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.3.  Request and Response Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.4.  Connection Lifetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.5.  Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.6.  Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.7.  Confidentiality and Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.8.  Near Real Time  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.9.  Request and Response Sizes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.10. Request and Response Correlation  . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.11. Request Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   5.  Base Framework Data Structures and Response Codes . . . . . .  13
     5.1.  Basic Object Type and Organization Identifiers  . . . . .  13
     5.2.  Various Object Key Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       5.2.1.  Generic Object Key Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       5.2.2.  Derived Object Key Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     5.3.  Response Message Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   6.  Framework Data Model Objects  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     6.1.  Destination Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     6.2.  Public Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     6.3.  SED Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     6.4.  SED Record  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     6.5.  SED Group Offer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     6.6.  Egress Route  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
   7.  Framework Operations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     7.1.  Add Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     7.2.  Delete Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     7.3.  Get Operations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
     7.4.  Accept Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     7.5.  Reject Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     7.6.  Get Server Details Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   8.  XML Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     8.1.  Namespaces  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016               [Page 2]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


     8.2.  Versioning and Character Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
     9.1.  Confidentiality and Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . .  40
     9.2.  Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
     9.3.  Denial of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
       9.3.1.  DoS Issues Inherited from Substrate Mechanism . . . .  41
       9.3.2.  DoS Issues Specific to SPPF . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
     9.4.  Information Disclosure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     9.5.  Non-repudiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     9.6.  Replay Attacks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     9.7.  Compromised or Malicious Intermediary . . . . . . . . . .  43
   10. Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
   11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
     11.1.  URN Assignments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
     11.2.  Organization Identifier Namespace Registry . . . . . . .  44
   12. Formal Specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
   13. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
   14. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     14.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     14.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55

1.  Introduction

   Service providers and enterprises use routing databases known as
   Registries to make session routing decisions for Voice over IP, SMS
   and MMS traffic exchanges.  This document is narrowly focused on the
   provisioning framework for these registries.  This framework
   prescribes a way for an entity to provision session-related data into
   a SPPP Registry (or "Registry").  The data being provisioned can be
   optionally shared with other participating peering entities.  The
   requirements and use cases driving this framework have been
   documented in [RFC6461].

   Three types of provisioning flows have been described in the use case
   document: client to Registry, Registry to local data repository and
   Registry to Registry.  This document addresses client to Registry
   flow enabling the ability to provision Session Establishment Data
   (SED).  The framework that supports flow of messages to facilitate
   client to Registry provisioning is referred to as Session Peering
   Provisioning Framework (SPPF).

   The roles of the "client" and the "server" only apply to the
   connection, and those roles are not related in any way to the type of
   entity that participates in a protocol exchange.  For example, a
   Registry might also include a "client" when such a Registry initiates
   a connection (for example, for data distribution to SSP).




Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016               [Page 3]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   *--------*               *------------*               *------------*
   |        | (1). Client   |            | (3).Registry  |            |
   | Client | ------------> |  Registry  |<------------->|  Registry  |
   |        |   to Registry |            |  to Registry  |            |
   *--------*               *------------*               *------------*
                                 /  \                          \
                                /    \                          \
                               /      \                          \
                              /        \                          v
                             /          \                         ...
                            /            \
                           / (2). Distrib \
                          / Registry data  \
                         /  to local data   \
                        V      store         V
                       +----------+       +----------+
                       |Local Data|       |Local Data|
                       |Repository|       |Repository|
                       +----------+       +----------+

                     Three Registry Provisioning Flows

                                 Figure 1

   A "terminating" SIP Service Provider (SSP) provisions Session
   Establishment Data or SED into the Registry to be selectively shared
   with other peer SSPs.

   SED is typically used by various downstream SIP signaling systems to
   route a call to the next hop associated with the called domain.
   These systems typically use a local data store ("Local Data
   Repository") as their source of session routing information.  More
   specifically, the SED data is the set of parameters that the outgoing
   signaling path border elements (SBEs) need to initiate the session.
   See [RFC5486] for more details.

   A Registry may distribute the provisioned data into local data
   repositories or may additionally offer a central query resolution
   service (not shown in the above figure) for query purposes.

   A key requirement for the SPPF is to be able to accommodate two basic
   deployment scenarios:

   1.  A resolution system returns a Look-Up Function (LUF) that
       identifies the target domain to assist in call routing (as
       described in Section 4.3.3 of [RFC5486]).  In this case, the
       querying entity may use other means to perform the Location




Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016               [Page 4]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


       Routing Function (LRF) which in turn helps determine the actual
       location of the Signaling Function in that domain.

   2.  A resolution system returns a Location Routing Function (LRF)
       that comprises the location (address) of the signaling function
       in the target domain (as described in [RFC5486]).

   In terms of framework design, SPPF is agnostic to the substrate
   protocol.  This document includes the specification of the data model
   and identifies, but does not specify, the means to enable protocol
   operations within a request and response structure.  That aspect of
   the specification has been delegated to the "protocol" specification
   for the framework.  To encourage interoperability, the framework
   supports extensibility aspects.

   In this document, XML schema is used to describe the building blocks
   of the SPPF and to express the data types, the semantic relationships
   between the various data types, and the various constraints as a
   binding construct.  However, the "protocol" specification is free to
   choose any data representation format as long as it meets the
   requirements laid out in the SPPF XML schema definition.  As an
   example, XML and JSON are two widely used data representation
   formats.

   This document is organized as follows:

   o  Section 2 provides the terminology

   o  Section 3 provides an overview of SPPF, including functional
      entities and data model

   o  Section 4 specifies requirements for SPPF substrate protocols

   o  Section 5 describes the base framework data structures, the
      generic response types that MUST be supported by a conforming
      substrate "protocol" specification, and the basic object type most
      first class objects extend from

   o  Section 6 provides a detailed description of the data model object
      specifications

   o  Section 7 describes the operations that are supported by the data
      model

   o  Section 8 defines XML considerations XML parsers must meet to
      conform to this specification





Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016               [Page 5]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   o  Sections 9 - 11 discuss security, internationalization and IANA
      considerations

   o  Section 12 normatively defines the SPPF using its XML Schema
      Definition.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].

   This document reuses terms from [RFC3261], [RFC5486], use cases and
   requirements documented in [RFC6461] and the ENUM Validation
   Architecture [RFC4725].

   This document defines the following additional terms:


   SPPF:   Session Peering Provisioning Framework, the framework used by
      a substrate protocol to provision data into a Registry (see arrow
      labeled "1." in Figure 1 of [RFC6461]).  It is the primary scope
      of this document.



   Client:   In the context of SPPF, this is an application that
      initiates a provisioning request.  It is sometimes referred to as
      a "Registry client".



   Server:   In the context of SPPF, this is an application that
      receives a provisioning request and responds accordingly.



   Registry:   The Registry operates a master database of Session
      Establishment Data for one or more Registrants.



   Registrant:   The definition of a Registrant is based on [RFC4725].
      It is the end-user, the person or organization that is the
      "holder" of the Session Establishment Data being provisioned into
      the Registry by a Registrar.  For example, in [RFC6461], a
      Registrant is pictured as a Service Provider in Figure 2.



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016               [Page 6]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


      Within the confines of a Registry, a Registrant is uniquely
      identified by the 'rant' element.



   Registrar:   The definition of a Registrar is based on [RFC4725].  It
      is an entity that performs provisioning operations on behalf of a
      Registrant by interacting with the Registry via SPPF operations.
      In other words the Registrar is the SPPF Client.  The Registrar
      and Registrant roles are logically separate to allow, but not
      require, a single Registrar to perform provisioning operations on
      behalf of more than one Registrant.

   Peering Organization:   A Peering Organization is an entity to which
      a Registrant's SED Groups are made visible using the operations of
      SPPF.

3.  Framework High Level Design

   This section introduces the structure of the data model and provides
   the information framework for the SPPF.  The data model is defined
   along with all the objects manipulated by a conforming substrate
   protocol and their relationships.

3.1.  Framework Data Model

   The data model illustrated and described in Figure 2 defines the
   logical objects and the relationships between these objects supported
   by SPPF.  SPPF defines protocol operations through which an SPPF
   client populates a Registry with these logical objects.  SPPF clients
   belonging to different Registrars may provision data into the
   Registry using a conforming substrate protocol that implements these
   operations

   The logical structure presented below is consistent with the
   terminology and requirements defined in [RFC6461].















Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016               [Page 7]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


       +-------------+                        +-----------------+
       | all object  |                        |Egress Route:    |
       | types       |                   0..n | rant,           |
       +-------------+                     +--| egrRteName,     |
             |0..n                        /   | pref,           |
             |                           /    | regxRewriteRule,|
             |2                         /     | ingrSedGrp,     |
   +----------------------+            /      | svcs            |
   |Organization:         |           /       +-----------------+
   | orgId                |          /
   +----------------------+         /
          |0..n                    /
          |                       /        ("rant" = Registrant)
          |A SED Group is        /
          |associated with      /
          |zero or more        /              +---[abstract]----+
          |Peering            /               | SED Record:     |
          |Organizations     /                |  rant,          |
          |                 /                 |  sedName,       |0..n
          |0..n            /                  |  sedFunction,   |------|
   +--------+--------------+0..n          0..n|  isInSvc,       |      |
   |SED Group:             |------------------|  ttl            |      |
   |  rant,                |                  +-----------------+      |
   |  sedGrpName,          |                      ^ Various types      |
   |  isInSvc,             |                      | of SED Records     |
   |  sedRecRef,           |                      |                    |
   |  peeringOrg,          |                +-----+------------+       |
   |  sourceIdent,         |                |        |         |       |
   |  priority,            |             +----+  +-------+  +----+     |
   |  dgName               |             | URI|  | NAPTR |  | NS |     |
   +-----------------------+             +----+  +-------+  +----+     |
          |0..n                                                        |
          |                                 +-----[abstract]------+    |
          |0..n                             |Public Identifier:   |    |
      +----------------------+0..n      0..n|  rant,              |    |
      | Dest Group:          |--------------|  publicIdentifier,  |    |
      |   rant,              |              |  dgName             |    |
      |   dgName             |              |                     |    |
      +----------------------+              +---------------------+    |
                                                     ^ Various types   |
                 +---------+-------+------+----------+ of Public       |
                 |         |       |      |          | Identifiers     |
              +------+  +-----+  +-----+ +-----+  +------+             |
              |  URI |  | TNP |  | TNR | | RN  |  |  TN  |-------------|
              +------+  +-----+  +-----+ +-----+  +------+  0..n

                                 Figure 2




Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016               [Page 8]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   The objects and attributes that comprise the data model can be
   described as follows (objects listed from the bottom up):

   o  Public Identifier:
      From a broad perspective a public identifier is a well-known
      attribute that is used as the key to perform resolution lookups.
      Within the context of SPPF, a public identifier object can be a
      Telephone Number (TN), a range of Telephone Numbers, a PSTN
      Routing Number (RN), a TN prefix, or a URI.

      An SPPF Public Identifier may be a member of zero or more
      Destination Groups to create logical groupings of Public
      Identifiers that share a common set of Session Establishment Data
      (e.g., routes).

      A TN Public Identifier may optionally be associated with zero or
      more individual SED Records.  This ability for a Public Identifier
      to be directly associated with a SED Record, as opposed to forcing
      membership in one or more Destination Groups, supports use cases
      where the SED Record contains data specifically tailored to an
      individual TN Public Identifier.

   o  Destination Group:
      A named logical grouping of zero or more Public Identifiers that
      can be associated with one or more SED Groups for the purpose of
      facilitating the management of their common session establishment
      information.

   o  SED Group:
      A SED Group contains a set of SED Record references, a set of
      Destination Group references, and a set of peering organization
      identifiers.  This is used to establish a three part relationships
      between a set of Public Identifiers, the session establishment
      information (SED) shared across these Public Identifiers, and the
      list of peering organizations whose query responses from the
      resolution system may include the session establishment
      information contained in a given SED group.  In addition, the
      sourceIdent element within a SED Group, in concert with the set of
      peering organization identifiers, enables fine-grained source-
      based routing.  For further details about the SED Group and
      source-based routing, refer to the definitions and descriptions in
      Section 6.1.

   o  SED Record:
      A SED Record contains the data that a resolution system returns in
      response to a successful query for a Public Identifier.  SED
      Records are generally associated with a SED Group when the SED
      within is not specific to a Public Identifier.



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016               [Page 9]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


      To support the use cases defined in [RFC6461], SPPF framework
      defines three type of SED Records: URIType, NAPTRType, and NSType.
      These SED Records extend the abstract type SedRecType and inherit
      the common attribute 'priority' that is meant for setting
      precedence across the SED records defined within a SED Group in a
      protocol agnostic fashion.

   o  Egress Route:
      In a high-availability environment, the originating SSP likely has
      more than one egress paths to the ingress SBE of the target SSP.
      The Egress Route allows the originating SSP to choose a specific
      egress SBE to be associated with the target ingress SBE. the
      'svcs' element specifies ENUM services ((e.g.,E2U+pstn:sip+sip)
      that are used to identify the SED records associated with the SED
      Group that will be modified by the originating SSP.

   o  Organization:
      An Organization is an entity that may fulfill any combination of
      three roles: Registrant, Registrar, and Peering Organization.  All
      objects in SPPF are associated with two organization identifiers
      to identify each object's Registrant and Registrar.  A SED Group
      object is also associated with a set of zero or more organization
      identifiers that identify the peering organization(s) whose
      resolution query responses may include the session establishment
      information (SED) defined in the SED Records within that SED
      Group.  A peering organization is an entity that the Registrant
      intends to share the SED data with.

3.2.  Time Value

   Some request and response messages in SPPF include time value(s)
   defined as type xs:dateTime, a built-in W3C XML Schema Datatype.  Use
   of unqualified local time value is disallowed as it can lead to
   interoperability issues.  The value of a time attribute MUST be
   expressed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) format without the
   timezone digits.

   "2010-05-30T09:30:10Z" is an example of an acceptable time value for
   use in SPPF messages.  "2010-05-30T06:30:10+3:00" is a valid UTC
   time, but not acceptable for use in SPPF messages.

3.3.  Extensibility

   The framework contains various points of extensibility in form of the
   "ext" elements.  Extensions used beyond the scope of private SPPF
   installations need to be documented in an RFC, and the first such
   extension is expected to define an IANA registry, holding a list of
   documented extensions.



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 10]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


4.  Transport Substrate Protocol Requirements

   This section provides requirements for substrate protocols suitable
   to carry SPPF.  More specifically, this section specifies the
   services, features, and assumptions that SPPF framework delegates to
   the chosen substrate and envelope technologies.

4.1.  Mandatory Substrate

   None of the existing transport protocols carried directly over IP,
   appearing as "Protocol" in the IPv4 headers, or "Next Header" in the
   IPv6 headers, meet the requirements listed in this section to carry
   SPPF.

   Therefore, one choice to carry SPPF has been provided in the SPP
   Protocol over SOAP document [I-D.ietf-drinks-spp-protocol-over-soap],
   using SOAP as the substrate.  To encourage interoperability, the SPPF
   server MUST provide support for this protocol.  With time, it is
   possible that other choices may surface that comply with with the
   requirements discussed above.

4.2.  Connection Oriented

   The SPPF follows a model where a client establishes a connection to a
   server in order to further exchange SPPF messages over such a point-
   to-point connection.  A substrate protocol for SPPF will therefore be
   connection oriented.

4.3.  Request and Response Model

   Provisioning operations in SPPF follow the request-response model,
   where a client sends a request message to initiate a transaction and
   the server responds with a response.  Multiple subsequent request-
   response exchanges MAY be performed over a single persistent
   connection.

   Therefore, a substrate protocol for SPPF will follow the request-
   response model by ensuring a response is sent to the request
   initiator.

4.4.  Connection Lifetime

   Some use cases involve provisioning a single request to a network
   element.  Connections supporting such provisioning requests might be
   short-lived, and may be established only on demand, for the duration
   of a few seconds.  Other use cases involve either provisioning a
   large dataset, or a constant stream of small updates, either of which




Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 11]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   would likely require long-lived connections, spanning multiple hours
   or even days.

   Therefore, a protocol suitable for SPPF SHOULD be able to support
   both short-lived as well as long-lived connections.

4.5.  Authentication

   All SPPF objects are associated with a Registrant identifier.  An
   SPPF Client provisions SPPF objects on behalf of Registrants.  An
   authenticated SPP Client is a Registrar.  Therefore, the SPPF
   substrate protocol MUST provide means for an SPPF server to
   authenticate an SPPF Client.

4.6.  Authorization

   After successful authentication of the SPPF client as a Registrar the
   Registry performs authorization checks to determine if the Registrar
   is authorized to act on behalf of the Registrant whose identifier is
   included in the SPPF request.  Refer to Section 9 for further
   guidance.

4.7.  Confidentiality and Integrity

   SPPF objects that the Registry manages can be private in nature.
   Therefore, the substrate protocol MUST provide means for data
   integrity protection.

   If the data is compromised in-flight between the SPPF client and
   Registry, it will seriously affect the stability and integrity of the
   system.  Therefore, the substrate protocol MUST provide means for
   data integrity protection.

4.8.  Near Real Time

   Many use cases require near real-time responses from the server (in
   the range of a few multiples of round-trip-time between server and
   client).  Therefore, a DRINKS substrate protocol MUST support near
   real-time response to requests submitted by the client.

4.9.  Request and Response Sizes

   Use of SPPF may involve simple updates that may consist of small
   number of bytes, such as, update of a single public identifier.
   Other provisioning operations may constitute large dataset as in
   adding millions of records to a Registry.  As a result, a suitable
   substrate protocol for SPPF SHOULD accommodate datasets of various
   sizes.



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 12]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


4.10.  Request and Response Correlation

   A substrate protocol suitable for SPPF MUST allow responses to be
   correlated with requests.

4.11.  Request Acknowledgement

   Data transported in the SPPF is likely crucial for the operation of
   the communication network that is being provisioned.  An SPPF client
   responsible for provisioning SED to the Registry has a need to know
   if the submitted requests have been processed correctly.

   Failed transactions can lead to situations where a subset of public
   identifiers or even SSPs might not be reachable, or the provisioning
   state of the network is inconsistent.

   Therefore, a substrate protocol for SPPF MUST provide a response for
   each request, so that a client can identify whether a request
   succeeded or failed.

5.  Base Framework Data Structures and Response Codes

   SPPF contains some common data structures for most of the supported
   object types.  This section describes these common data structures.

5.1.  Basic Object Type and Organization Identifiers

   All first class objects extend the type BasicObjType.  It consists of
   the Registrant organization, the Registrar organization, the date and
   time of object creation, and the last date and time the object was
   modified.  The Registry MUST store the date and time of the object
   creation and modification, if applicable, for all Get operations (see
   Section 7).  If the client passed in either date and time values, the
   Registry MUST ignore it.  The Registrar performs the SPPF operations
   on behalf of the Registrant, the organization that owns the object.

   <complexType name="BasicObjType" abstract="true">
    <sequence>
     <element name="rant" type="sppfb:OrgIdType"/>
     <element name="rar" type="sppfb:OrgIdType"/>
     <element name="cDate" type="dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
     <element name="mDate" type="dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
     <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
    </sequence>
   </complexType>

   The identifiers used for Registrants (rant) and Registrars (rar) are
   instances of OrgIdType.  The OrgIdType is defined as a string and all



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 13]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   OrgIdType instances MUST follow the textual convention:
   "namespace:value" (for example "iana-en:32473").  Specifically:

   Strings used as OrgIdType Namespace identifiers MUST conform to the
   following syntax in the Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) [RFC5234]

         namespace = ALPHA * (ALPHA/DIGIT/"-")

   See Section 11 for the corresponding IANA Registry definition.

5.2.  Various Object Key Types

   The SPPF data model contains various object relationships.  In some
   cases, these object relationships are established by embedding the
   unique identity of the related object inside the relating object.
   Note that an object's unique identity is required to Delete or Get
   the details of an object.  The following sub-sections normatively
   define the various object keys in SPPF and the attributes of those
   keys.

   "Name" attributes that are used as components of object key types
   MUST be compared unsing the toCasefold() function, as specified in
   Section 3.13 of [Unicode6.1] (or a newer version of Unicode).  This
   function performs case-insensitive comparisons.

5.2.1.  Generic Object Key Type

   Most objects in SPPF are uniquely identified by an object key that
   has the object's name, object's type and its Registrant's
   organization ID as its attributes.  The abstract type called
   ObjKeyType is where this unique identity is housed.  Any concrete
   representation of the ObjKeyType MUST contain the following:

      Object Name: The name of the object.

      Registrant Id: The unique organization ID that identifies the
      Registrant.

      Type: The value that represents the type of SPPF object.  This is
      required as different types of objects in SPPF, that belong to the
      same Registrant, can have the same name.

   The structure of abstract ObjKeyType is as follows:








Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 14]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   <complexType name="ObjKeyType" abstract="true">
    <annotation>
     <documentation>
     ---- Generic type that represents the
          key for various objects in SPPF. ----
     </documentation>
    </annotation>
   </complexType>

5.2.2.  Derived Object Key Types

   The SPPF data model contains certain objects that are uniquely
   identified by attributes, different from or in addition to, the
   attributes in the generic object key described in previous section.
   These kind of object keys are derived from the abstract ObjKeyType
   and defined in their own abstract key types.  Because these object
   key types are abstract, they MUST be specified in a concrete form in
   any SPPF conforming substrate protocol specification.  These are used
   in Delete and Get operations, and may also be used in Accept and
   Reject operations.

   Following are the derived object keys in SPPF data model:

   o  SedGrpOfferKeyType: This uniquely identifies an SED Group object
      offer.  This key type extends from ObjKeyType and MUST also have
      the organization ID of the Registrant to whom the object is being
      offered, as one of its attributes.  In addition to the Delete and
      Get operations, these key types are used in Accept and Reject
      operations on an SED Group Offer object.  The structure of
      abstract SedGrpOfferKeyType is as follows:

   <complexType name="SedGrpOfferKeyType"
   abstract="true">
       <complexContent>
           <extension base="sppfb:ObjKeyType">
               <annotation>
       <documentation>
       ---- Generic type that represents
            the key for an object offer. ----
       </documentation>
      </annotation>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

      A SED Group Offer object MUST use SedGrpOfferKeyType.  Refer to
      Section 6.5 for a description of the SED Group Offer object.




Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 15]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   o  PubIdKeyType: This uniquely identifies a Public Identity object.
      This key type extends from the abstract ObjKeyType.  Any concrete
      definition of PubIdKeyType MUST contain the elements that identify
      the value and type of Public Identity and also contain the
      organization ID of the Registrant that is the owner of the Public
      Identity object.  A Public Identity object in SPPF is uniquely
      identified by the Registrant's organization ID, the value of the
      public identity, and the type of the public identity object.
      Consequently, any concrete representation of the PubIdKeyType MUST
      contain the following attributes:

      *  Registrant Id: The unique organization ID that identifies the
         Registrant.

      *  Value: The value of the Public Identity.

      *  Type: The type of the Public Identity Object.

      The PubIdKeyType is used in Delete and Get operations on a Public
      Identifier object.

   o  The structure of abstract PubIdKeyType is as follows:

   <complexType name="PubIdKeyType" abstract="true">
    <complexContent>
     <extension base="sppfb:ObjKeyType">
      <annotation>
       <documentation>
       ---- Generic type that represents the key for a Pub Id. ----
       </documentation>
      </annotation>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

   A Public Identity object MUST use attributes of PubIdKeyType for its
   unique identification . Refer to Section 6 for a description of
   Public Identity object.

5.3.  Response Message Types

   The following table contains the list of response types which MUST by
   defined for a substrate protocol used to carry SPPF.  An SPPF server
   MUST implement all of the following at minimum.

   +---------------------+---------------------------------------------+
   | Response Type       | Description                                 |
   +---------------------+---------------------------------------------+



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 16]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   | Request Succeeded   | A given request succeeded.                  |
   |                     |                                             |
   | Request syntax      | The syntax of a given request was found     |
   | invalid             | invalid.                                    |
   |                     |                                             |
   | Request too large   | The count of entities in the request is     |
   |                     | larger than the server is willing or able   |
   |                     | to process.                                 |
   |                     |                                             |
   | Version not         | The server does not support the version of  |
   | supported           | the SPPF protocol specified in the request. |
   |                     |                                             |
   | Command invalid     | The operation and/or command being          |
   |                     | requested by the client is invalid and/or   |
   |                     | not supported by the server.                |
   |                     |                                             |
   | System temporarily  | The SPPF server is temporarily not          |
   | unavailable         | available to serve the client request.      |
   |                     |                                             |
   | Unexpected internal | The SPPF server encountered an unexpected   |
   | system or server    | error that prevented the server from        |
   | error.              | fulfilling the request.                     |
   |                     |                                             |
   | Attribute value     | The SPPF server encountered an attribute or |
   | invalid             | property in the request that had an         |
   |                     | invalid/bad value.  Optionally, the         |
   |                     | specification MAY provide a way to indicate |
   |                     | the Attribute Name and the Attribute Value  |
   |                     | to identify the object that was found to be |
   |                     | invalid.                                    |
   |                     |                                             |
   | Object does not     | An object present in the request does not   |
   | exist               | exist on the SPPF server. Optionally, the   |
   |                     | specification MAY provide a way to indicate |
   |                     | the Attribute Name and the Attribute Value  |
   |                     | that identifies the non-existent object.    |
   |                     |                                             |
   | Object status or    | The operation requested on an object        |
   | ownership does not  | present in the request cannot be performed  |
   | allow for           | because the object is in a status that does |
   | operation.          | not allow said operation, or the user       |
   |                     | requesting the operation is not authorized  |
   |                     | to perform said operation on the object.    |
   |                     | Optionally, the specification MAY provide a |
   |                     | way to indicate the Attribute Name and the  |
   |                     | Attribute Value that identifies the object. |
   +---------------------+---------------------------------------------+




Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 17]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


                          Table 1: Response Types

   When the response messages are "parameterized" with the Attribute
   Name and Attribute Value, then the use of these parameters MUST
   adhere to the following rules:

   o  Any value provided for the Attribute Name parameter MUST be an
      exact XSD element name of the protocol data element that the
      response message is referring to.  For example, valid values for
      "attribute name" are "dgName", "sedGrpName", "sedRec", etc.

   o  The value for Attribute Value MUST be the value of the data
      element to which the preceding Attribute Name refers.

   o  Response type "Attribute value invalid" MUST be used whenever an
      element value does not adhere to data validation rules.

   o  Response types "Attribute value invalid" and "Object does not
      exist" MUST NOT be used interchangeably.  Response type "Object
      does not exist" MUST be returned by an Update/Del/Accept/Reject
      operation when the data element(s) used to uniquely identify a
      pre-existing object do not exist.  If the data elements used to
      uniquely identify an object are malformed, then response type
      "Attribute value invalid" MUST be returned.

6.  Framework Data Model Objects

   This section provides a description of the specification of each
   supported data model object (the nouns) and identifies the commands
   (the verbs) that MUST be supported for each data model object.
   However, the specification of the data structures necessary to
   support each command is delegated to an SPPF conforming substrate
   protocol specification.

6.1.  Destination Group

   Destination Group represents a logical grouping of Public Identifiers
   with common session establishment information.  The substrate
   protocol MUST support the ability to Add, Get, and Delete Destination
   Groups (refer to Section 7 for a generic description of various
   operations).

   A Destination Group object MUST be uniquely identified by attributes
   as defined in the description of "ObjKeyType" in the section "Generic
   Object Key Type" of this document.

   The DestGrpType object structure is defined as follows:




Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 18]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   <complexType name="DestGrpType">
    <complexContent>
     <extension base="sppfb:BasicObjType">
      <sequence>
       <element name="dgName" type="sppfb:ObjNameType"/>
      </sequence>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

   The DestGrpType object is composed of the following elements:

   o  base: All first class objects extend BasicObjType (see
      Section 5.1).

   o  dgName: The character string that contains the name of the
      Destination Group.

   o  ext: Point of extensibility described in Section 3.3.

6.2.  Public Identifier

   A Public Identifier is the search key used for locating the session
   establishment data (SED).  In many cases, a Public Identifier is
   attributed to the end user who has a retail relationship with the
   service provider or Registrant organization.  SPPF supports the
   notion of the carrier-of-record as defined in [RFC5067].  Therefore,
   the Registrant under which the Public Identifier is being created can
   optionally claim to be a carrier-of-record.

   SPPF identifies three types of Public Identifiers: telephone numbers
   (TN), routing numbers (RN), and URIs.  SPPF provides structures to
   manage a single TN, a contiguous range of TNs, and a TN prefix.  The
   substrate protocol MUST support the ability to Add, Get, and Delete
   Public Identifiers (refer to Section 7 for a generic description of
   various operations).

   A Public Identity object MUST be uniquely identified by attributes as
   defined in the description of "PubIdKeyType" in Section 5.2.2.

   The abstract XML schema type definition PubIdType is a generalization
   for the concrete Public Identifier schema types.  The PubIdType
   element 'dgName' represents the name of a destination group that a
   given Public Identifier may be a member of.  Note that this element
   may be present multiple times so that a given Public Identifier may
   be a member of multiple destination groups.  The PubIdType object
   structure is defined as follows:




Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 19]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   <complexType name="PubIdType" abstract="true">
    <complexContent>
     <extension base="sppfb:BasicObjType">
      <sequence>
       <element name="dgName" type="sppfb:ObjNameType"
                minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
      </sequence>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

   A Public Identifier may be a member of zero or more Destination
   Groups.  When a Public Identifier is a member of a Destination Group,
   it is intended to be associated with SED through the SED Group(s)
   that are associated with the Destination Group.  When a Public
   Identifier is not member of any Destination Group, it is intended to
   be associated with SED through the SED Records that are directly
   associated with the Public Identifier.

   A telephone number is provisioned using the TNType, an extension of
   PubIdType.  Each TNType object is uniquely identified by the
   combination of its value contained within the <tn> element, and its
   Registrant ID.  TNType is defined as follows:




























Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 20]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   <complexType name="TNType">
    <complexContent>
     <extension base="sppfb:PubIdType">
      <sequence>
       <element name="tn" type="sppfb:NumberValType"/>
       <element name="corInfo" type="sppfb:CORInfoType" minOccurs="0"/>
       <element name="sedRecRef" type="sppfb:SedRecRefType"
                minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
      </sequence>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

   <complexType name="CORInfoType">
    <sequence>
      <element name="corClaim" type="boolean" default="true"/>
      <element name="cor" type="boolean" default="false" minOccurs="0"/>
      <element name="corDate" type="dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
    </sequence>
   </complexType>

   <simpleType name="NumberValType">
    <restriction base="token">
     <maxLength value="20"/>
     <pattern value="\+?\d\d*"/>
    </restriction>
   </simpleType>


   TNType consists of the following attributes:

   o  tn: Telephone number to be added to the Registry.

   o  sedRecRef: Optional reference to SED records that are directly
      associated with the TN Public Identifier.  Following the SPPF data
      model, the SED record could be a protocol agnostic URIType or
      another type.

   o  corInfo: corInfo is an optional parameter of type CORInfoType that
      allows the Registrant organization to set forth a claim to be the
      carrier-of-record (see [RFC5067]).  This is done by setting the
      value of the <corClaim> element of the CORInfoType object
      structure to "true".  The other two parameters of the CORInfoType,
      <cor> and <corDate> are set by the Registry to describe the
      outcome of the carrier-of-record claim by the Registrant.  In
      general, inclusion of <corInfo> parameter is useful if the
      Registry has the authority information, such as, the number
      portability data, etc., in order to qualify whether the Registrant



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 21]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


      claim can be satisfied.  If the carrier-of-record claim disagrees
      with the authority data in the Registry, whether a TN Add
      operation fails or not is a matter of policy and is beyond the
      scope of this document.

   A routing number is provisioned using the RNType, an extension of
   PubIDType.  The Registrant organization can add the RN and associate
   it with the appropriate destination group(s) to share the route
   information.  This allows SSPs to use the RN search key to derive the
   ingress routes for session establishment at the runtime resolution
   process (see [RFC6116].  Each RNType object is uniquely identified by
   the combination of its value inside the <rn> element, and its
   Registrant ID.  RNType is defined as follows:

   <complexType name="RNType">
    <complexContent>
     <extension base="sppfb:PubIdType">
      <sequence>
       <element name="rn" type="sppfb:NumberValType"/>
       <element name="corInfo" type="sppfb:CORInfoType" minOccurs="0"/>
      </sequence>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

   RNType has the following attributes:

   o  rn: Routing Number used as the search key.

   o  corInfo: corInfo is an optional parameter of type CORInfoType that
      allows the Registrant organization to set forth a claim to be the
      carrier-of-record (see [RFC5067])

   TNRType structure is used to provision a contiguous range of
   telephone numbers.  The object definition requires a starting TN and
   an ending TN that together define the span of the TN range, including
   the starting and ending TN.  Use of TNRType is particularly useful
   when expressing a TN range that does not include all the TNs within a
   TN block or prefix.  The TNRType definition accommodates the open
   number plan as well such that the TNs that fall between the start and
   end TN range may include TNs with different length variance.  Whether
   the Registry can accommodate the open number plan semantics is a
   matter of policy and is beyond the scope of this document.  Each
   TNRType object is uniquely identified by the combination of its value
   that in turn is a combination of the <startTn> and <endTn> elements,
   and its Registrant ID.  The TNRType object structure definition is as
   follows:




Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 22]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   <complexType name="TNRType">
    <complexContent>
     <extension base="sppfb:PubIdType">
      <sequence>
       <element name="range" type="sppfb:NumberRangeType"/>
       <element name="corInfo" type="sppfb:CORInfoType" minOccurs="0"/>
      </sequence>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

   <complexType name="NumberRangeType">
    <sequence>
     <element name="startTn" type="sppfb:NumberValType"/>
     <element name="endTn" type="sppfb:NumberValType"/>
    </sequence>
   </complexType>

   TNRType has the following attributes:

   o  startTn: Starting TN in the TN range

   o  endTn: The last TN in the TN range

   o  corInfo: corInfo is an optional parameter of type CORInfoType that
      allows the Registrant organization to set forth a claim to be the
      carrier-of-record (see [RFC5067])

   In some cases, it is useful to describe a set of TNs with the help of
   the first few digits of the telephone number, also referred to as the
   telephone number prefix or a block.  A given TN prefix may include
   TNs with different length variance in support of the open number
   plan.  Once again, whether the Registry supports the open number plan
   semantics is a matter of policy and it is beyond the scope of this
   document.  The TNPType data structure is used to provision a TN
   prefix.  Each TNPType object is uniquely identified by the
   combination of its value in the <tnPrefix> element, and its
   Registrant ID.  TNPType is defined as follows:













Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 23]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   <complexType name="TNPType">
    <complexContent>
     <extension base="sppfb:PubIdType">
      <sequence>
       <element name="tnPrefix" type="sppfb:NumberValType"/>
       <element name="corInfo" type="sppfb:CORInfoType" minOccurs="0"/>
      </sequence>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

   TNPType consists of the following attributes:

   o  tnPrefix: The telephone number prefix

   o  corInfo: corInfo is an optional parameter of type CORInfoType that
      allows the Registrant organization to set forth a claim to be the
      carrier-of-record (see [RFC5067])

   In some cases, a Public Identifier may be a URI, such as an email
   address.  The URIPubIdType object is comprised of the data element
   necessary to house such Public Identifiers.  Each URIPubIdType object
   is uniquely identified by the combination of its value in the <uri>
   element, and its Registrant ID.  URIPubIdType is defined as follows:

   <complexType name="URIPubIdType">
    <complexContent>
     <extension base="sppfb:PubIdType">
      <sequence>
       <element name="uri" type="anyURI"/>
       <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
      </sequence>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

   URIPubIdType consists of the following attributes:

   o  uri: The value that acts as Public Identifier.

   o  ext: Point of extensibility described in Section 3.3.

6.3.  SED Group

   SED Group is a grouping of one or more Destination Group, the common
   SED Records, and the list of peer organizations with access to the
   SED Records associated with a given SED Group.  It is this indirect
   linking of public identifiers to their Session Establishment Data



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 24]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   that significantly improves the scalability and manageability of the
   peering data.  Additions and changes to SED information are reduced
   to a single operation on a SED Group or SED Record, rather than
   millions of data updates to individual public identifier records that
   individually contain their peering data.  The substrate protocol MUST
   support the ability to Add, Get, and Delete SED Groups (refer to
   Section 7 for a generic description of various operations).

   A SED Group object MUST be uniquely identified by attributes as
   defined in the description of "ObjKeyType" in the section "Generic
   Object Key Type" of this document.

   The SedGrpType object structure is defined as follows:

   <complexType name="SedGrpType">
    <complexContent>
     <extension base="sppfb:BasicObjType">
      <sequence>
       <element name="sedGrpName" type="sppfb:ObjNameType"/>
       <element name="sedRecRef" type="sppfb:SedRecRefType"
                minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
       <element name="dgName" type="sppfb:ObjNameType"
                minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
       <element name="peeringOrg" type="sppfb:OrgIdType"
                minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
       <element name="sourceIdent" type="sppfb:SourceIdentType"
                minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
       <element name="isInSvc" type="boolean"/>
       <element name="priority" type="unsignedShort"/>
       <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
      </sequence>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

   <complexType name="SedRecRefType">
    <sequence>
     <element name="sedKey" type="sppfb:ObjKeyType"/>
     <element name="priority" type="unsignedShort"/>
     <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
    </sequence>
   </complexType>

   The SedGrpType object is composed of the following elements:

   o  base: All first class objects extend BasicObjType (see
      Section 5.1).




Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 25]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   o  sedGrpName: The character string that contains the name of the SED
      Group.  It uniquely identifies this object within the context of
      the Registrant ID (a child element of the base element as
      described above).

   o  sedRecRef: Set of zero or more objects of type SedRecRefType that
      house the unique keys of the SED Records (containing the session
      establishment data) that the SedGrpType object refers to and their
      relative priority within the context of this SED Group.

   o  dgName: Set of zero or more names of DestGrpType object instances.
      Each dgName name, in association with this SED Group's Registrant
      ID, uniquely identifies a DestGrpType object instance whose
      associated public identifiers are reachable using the session
      establishment information housed in this SED Group.  An intended
      side effect of this is that a SED Group cannot provide session
      establishment information for a Destination Group belonging to
      another Registrant.

   o  peeringOrg: Set of zero or more peering organization IDs that have
      accepted an offer to receive this SED Group's information.  Note
      that this identifier "peeringOrg" is an instance of OrgIdType.
      The set of peering organizations in this list is not directly
      settable or modifiable using the addSedGrpsRqst operation.  This
      set is instead controlled using the SED offer and accept
      operations.

   o  sourceIdent: Set of zero or more SourceIdentType object instances.
      These objects, described further below, house the source
      identification schemes and identifiers that are applied at
      resolution time as part of source-based routing algorithms for the
      SED Group.

   o  isInSvc: A boolean element that defines whether this SED Group is
      in service.  The session establishment information contained in a
      SED Group that is in service is a candidate for inclusion in
      resolution responses for public identities residing in the
      Destination Group associated with this SED Group.  The session
      establishment information contained in a SED Group that is not in
      service is not a candidate for inclusion in resolution responses.

   o  priority: Priority value that can be used to provide a relative
      value weighting of one SED Group over another.  The manner in
      which this value is used, perhaps in conjunction with other
      factors, is a matter of policy.

   o  ext: Point of extensibility described in Section 3.3.




Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 26]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   As described above, the SED Group contains a set of references to SED
   record objects.  A SED record object is based on an abstract type:
   SedRecType.  The concrete types that use SedRecType as an extension
   base are NAPTRType, NSType, and URIType.  The definitions of these
   types are included the SED Record section of this document.

   The SedGrpType object provides support for source-based routing via
   the peeringOrg data element and more granular source base routing via
   the source identity element.  The source identity element provides
   the ability to specify zero or more of the following in association
   with a given SED Group: a regular expression that is matched against
   the resolution client IP address, a regular expression that is
   matched against the root domain name(s), and/or a regular expression
   that is matched against the calling party URI(s).  The result will be
   that, after identifying the visible SED Groups whose associated
   Destination Group(s) contain the lookup key being queried and whose
   peeringOrg list contains the querying organization's organization ID,
   the resolution server will evaluate the characteristics of the Source
   URI, and Source IP address, and root domain of the lookup key being
   queried.  The resolution server then compares these criteria against
   the source identity criteria associated with the SED Groups.  The
   session establishment information contained in SED Groups that have
   source-based routing criteria will only be included in the resolution
   response if one or more of the criteria matches the source criteria
   from the resolution request.  The Source Identity data element is of
   type SourceIdentType, whose structure is defined as follows:

   <complexType name="SourceIdentType">
    <sequence>
     <element name="sourceIdentRegex" type="sppfb:RegexType"/>
     <element name="sourceIdentScheme"
              type="sppfb:SourceIdentSchemeType"/>
     <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
    </sequence>
   </complexType>

   <simpleType name="SourceIdentSchemeType">
    <restriction base="token">
     <enumeration value="uri"/>
     <enumeration value="ip"/>
     <enumeration value="rootDomain"/>
    </restriction>
   </simpleType>

   The SourceIdentType object is composed of the following data
   elements:





Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 27]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   o  sourceIdentScheme: The source identification scheme that this
      source identification criteria applies to and that the associated
      sourceIdentRegex should be matched against.

   o  sourceIdentRegex: The regular expression that should be used to
      test for a match against the portion of the resolution request
      that is dictated by the associated sourceIdentScheme.

   o  ext: Point of extensibility described in Section 3.3.

6.4.  SED Record

   SED Group represents a combined grouping of SED Records that define
   session establishment information.  However, SED Records need not be
   created to just serve a single SED Group.  SED Records can be created
   and managed to serve multiple SED Groups.  As a result, a change for
   example to the properties of a network node used for multiple routes,
   would necessitate just a single update operation to change the
   properties of that node.  The change would then be reflected in all
   the SED Groups whose SED record set contains a reference to that
   node.  The substrate protocol MUST support the ability to Add, Get,
   and Delete SED Records (refer to Section 7 for a generic description
   of various operations).

   A SED Record object MUST be uniquely identified by attributes as
   defined in the description of "ObjKeyType" in the section "Generic
   Object Key Type" of this document.

   The SedRecType object structure is defined as follows:






















Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 28]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   <complexType name="SedRecType" abstract="true">
    <complexContent>
     <extension base="sppfb:BasicObjType">
      <sequence>
       <element name="sedName" type="sppfb:ObjNameType"/>
       <element name="sedFunction" type="sppfb:SedFunctionType"
                minOccurs="0"/>
       <element name="isInSvc" type="boolean"/>
       <element name="ttl" type="positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
      </sequence>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

   <simpleType name="SedFunctionType">
    <restriction base="token">
     <enumeration value="routing"/>
     <enumeration value="lookup"/>
    </restriction>
   </simpleType>

   The SedRecType object is composed of the following elements:

   o  base: All first class objects extend BasicObjType (see
      Section 5.1).

   o  sedName: The character string that contains the name of the SED
      Record.  It uniquely identifies this object within the context of
      the Registrant ID (a child element of the base element as
      described above).

   o  sedFunction: As described in [RFC6461], SED or Session
      Establishment Data falls primarily into one of two categories or
      functions, LUF and LRF.  To remove any ambiguity as to the
      function a SED record is intended to provide, this optional
      element allows the provisioning party to make its intentions
      explicit.

   o  isInSvc: A boolean element that defines whether this SED Record is
      in service or not.  The session establishment information
      contained in a SED Record which is in service is a candidate for
      inclusion in resolution responses for Telephone Numbers that are
      either directly associated to this SED Record, or for Public
      Identities residing in a Destination Group that is associated to a
      SED Group which in turn has an association to this SED Record.

   o  ttl: Number of seconds that an addressing server may cache a
      particular SED Record.



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 29]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   As described above, SED records are based on an abstract type:
   SedRecType.  The concrete types that use SedRecType as an extension
   base are NAPTRType, NSType, and URIType.  The definitions of these
   types are included below.  The NAPTRType object is comprised of the
   data elements necessary for a NAPTR (see [RFC3403]that contains
   routing information for a SED Group.  The NSType object is comprised
   of the data elements necessary for a DNS name server that points to
   another DNS server that contains the desired routing information.
   The NSType is relevant only when the resolution protocol is ENUM (see
   [RFC6116]).  The URIType object is comprised of the data elements
   necessary to house a URI.

   The data provisioned in a Registry can be leveraged for many purposes
   and queried using various protocols including SIP, ENUM and others.
   As such, the resolution data represented by the SED records must be
   in a form suitable for transport using one of these protocols.  In
   the NAPTRType for example, if the URI is associated with a
   destination group, the user part of the replacement string <uri> that
   may require the Public Identifier cannot be preset.  As a SIP
   Redirect, the resolution server will apply <ere> pattern on the input
   Public Identifier in the query and process the replacement string by
   substituting any back reference(s) in the <uri> to arrive at the
   final URI that is returned in the SIP Contact header.  For an ENUM
   query, the resolution server will simply return the values of the
   <ere> and <uri> members of the URI.

   <complexType name="NAPTRType">
    <complexContent>
     <extension base="sppfb:SedRecType">
      <sequence>
       <element name="order" type="unsignedShort"/>
       <element name="flags" type="sppfb:FlagsType" minOccurs="0"/>
       <element name="svcs" type="sppfb:SvcType"/>
       <element name="regx" type="sppfb:RegexParamType" minOccurs="0"/>
       <element name="repl" type="sppfb:ReplType" minOccurs="0"/>
       <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
      </sequence>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

   <complexType name="NSType">
    <complexContent>
     <extension base="sppfb:SedRecType">
      <sequence>
       <element name="hostName" type="token"/>
       <element name="ipAddr" type="sppfb:IPAddrType"
                minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 30]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


       <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
      </sequence>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

   <complexType name="IPAddrType">
    <sequence>
     <element name="addr" type="sppfb:AddrStringType"/>
     <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
    </sequence>
    <attribute name="type" type="sppfb:IPType" default="IPv4"/>
   </complexType>

   <simpleType name="IPType">
    <restriction base="token">
     <enumeration value="IPv4"/>
     <enumeration value="IPv6"/>
    </restriction>
   </simpleType>

   <complexType name="URIType">
    <complexContent>
     <extension base="sppfb:SedRecType">
      <sequence>
       <element name="ere" type="token" default="^(.*)$"/>
       <element name="uri" type="anyURI"/>
       <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
      </sequence>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

   <simpleType name="flagsType">
    <restriction base="token">
     <length value="1"/>
     <pattern value="[A-Z]|[a-z]|[0-9]"/>
    </restriction>
   </simpleType>


   The NAPTRType object is composed of the following elements:

   o  order: Order value in an ENUM NAPTR, relative to other NAPTRType
      objects in the same SED Group.

   o  svcs: ENUM service(s) that are served by the SBE.  This field's
      value must be of the form specified in [RFC6116] (e.g.,



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 31]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


      E2U+pstn:sip+sip).  The allowable values are a matter of policy
      and not limited by this protocol.

   o  regx: NAPTR's regular expression field.  If this is not included
      then the repl field must be included.

   o  repl: NAPTR replacement field, should only be provided if the regx
      field is not provided, otherwise the server will ignore it

   o  ext: Point of extensibility described in Section 3.3.

   The NSType object is composed of the following elements:

   o  hostName: Root-relative host name of the name server.

   o  ipAddr: Zero or more objects of type IpAddrType.  Each object
      holds an IP Address and the IP Address type ("IPv4" or "IPv6").

   o  ext: Point of extensibility described in Section 3.3.

   The URIType object is composed of the following elements:

   o  ere: The POSIX Extended Regular Expression (ere) as defined in
      [RFC3986].

   o  uri: the URI as defined in [RFC3986].  In some cases, this will
      serve as the replacement string and it will be left to the
      resolution server to arrive at the final usable URI.

6.5.  SED Group Offer

   The list of peer organizations whose resolution responses can include
   the session establishment information contained in a given SED Group
   is controlled by the organization to which a SED Group object belongs
   (its Registrant), and the peer organization that submits resolution
   requests (a data recipient, also known as a peering organization).
   The Registrant offers access to a SED Group by submitting a SED Group
   Offer.  The data recipient can then accept or reject that offer.  Not
   until access to a SED Group has been offered and accepted will the
   data recipient's organization ID be included in the peeringOrg list
   in a SED Group object, and that SED Group's peering information
   become a candidate for inclusion in the responses to the resolution
   requests submitted by that data recipient.  The substrate protocol
   MUST support the ability to Add, Get, Delete, Accept and Reject SED
   Group Offers (refer to Section 7 for a generic description of various
   operations).





Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 32]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   A SED Group Offer object MUST be uniquely identified by attributes as
   defined in the description of "SedGrpOfferKeyType" in the section
   "Derived Object Key Types" of this document.

   The SedGrpOfferType object structure is defined as follows:

   <complexType name="SedGrpOfferType">
    <complexContent>
     <extension base="sppfb:BasicObjType">
      <sequence>
       <element name="sedGrpOfferKey" type="sppfb:SedGrpOfferKeyType"/>
       <element name="status" type="sppfb:SedGrpOfferStatusType"/>
       <element name="offerDateTime" type="dateTime"/>
       <element name="acceptDateTime" type="dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
       <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
      </sequence>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

   <complexType name="SedGrpOfferKeyType" abstract="true">
    <annotation>
     <documentation>
     -- Generic type that represents the key for a SED group offer. Must
        be defined in concrete form in the substrate specification. --
     </documentation>
    </annotation>
   </complexType>

   <simpleType name="SedGrpOfferStatusType">
    <restriction base="token">
     <enumeration value="offered"/>
     <enumeration value="accepted"/>
    </restriction>
   </simpleType>

   The SedGrpOfferType object is composed of the following elements:

   o  base: All first class objects extend BasicObjType (see
      Section 5.1).

   o  sedGrpOfferKey: The object that identifies the SED that is or has
      been offered and the organization that it is or has been offered
      to.

   o  status: The status of the offer, offered or accepted.  The server
      controls the status.  It is automatically set to "offered"
      whenever a new SED Group Offer is added, and is automatically set



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 33]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


      to "accepted" if and when that offer is accepted.  The value of
      the element is ignored when passed in by the client.

   o  offerDateTime: Date and time in UTC when the SED Group Offer was
      added.

   o  acceptDateTime: Date and time in UTC when the SED Group Offer was
      accepted.

6.6.  Egress Route

   In a high-availability environment, the originating SSP likely has
   more than one egress path to the ingress SBE of the target SSP.  If
   the originating SSP wants to exercise greater control and choose a
   specific egress SBE to be associated to the target ingress SBE, it
   can do so using the EgrRteType object.

   An Egress Route object MUST be uniquely identified by attributes as
   defined in the description of "ObjKeyType" in the section "Generic
   Object Key Type" of this document.

   Assume that the target SSP has offered as part of its session
   establishment data, to share one or more ingress routes and that the
   originating SSP has accepted the offer.  In order to add the egress
   route to the Registry, the originating SSP uses a valid regular
   expression to rewrite the ingress route in order to include the
   egress SBE information.  Also, more than one egress route can be
   associated with a given ingress route in support of fault-tolerant
   configurations.  The supporting SPPF structure provides a way to
   include route precedence information to help manage traffic to more
   than one outbound egress SBE.

   The substrate protocol MUST support the ability to Add, Get, and
   Delete Egress Routes (refer to Section 7 for a generic description of
   various operations).  The EgrRteType object structure is defined as
   follows:















Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 34]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   <complexType name="EgrRteType">
    <complexContent>
     <extension base="sppfb:BasicObjType">
      <sequence>
       <element name="egrRteName" type="sppfb:ObjNameType"/>
       <element name="pref" type="unsignedShort"/>
       <element name="regxRewriteRule" type="sppfb:RegexParamType"/>
       <element name="ingrSedGrp" type="sppfb:ObjKeyType"
                minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
       <element name="svcs" type="sppfb:SvcType" minOccurs="0"/>
       <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
      </sequence>
     </extension>
    </complexContent>
   </complexType>

   The EgrRteType object is composed of the following elements:

   o  base: All first class objects extend BasicObjType (see
      Section 5.1).

   o  egrRteName: The name of the egress route.

   o  pref: The preference of this egress route relative to other egress
      routes that may get selected when responding to a resolution
      request.

   o  regxRewriteRule: The regular expression re-write rule that should
      be applied to the regular expression of the ingress NAPTR(s) that
      belong to the ingress route.

   o  ingrSedGrp: The ingress SED group that the egress route should be
      used for.

   o  svcs: ENUM service(s) that are served by an Egress Route.  This
      element is used to identify the ingress NAPTRs associated with the
      SED Group to which an Egress Route's regxRewriteRule should be
      applied.  If no ENUM service(s) are associated with an Egress
      Route, then the Egress Route's regxRewriteRule should be applied
      to all the NAPTRs associated with the SED Group.  This field's
      value must be of the form specified in [RFC6116] (e.g.,
      E2U+pstn:sip+sip).  The allowable values are a matter of policy
      and not limited by this protocol.

   o  ext: Point of extensibility described in Section 3.3.






Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 35]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


7.  Framework Operations

   In addition to the operation-specific object types, all operations
   MAY specify the minor version of the protocol that when used in
   conjunction with the major version (which can be for instance
   specified in the protocol namespace) can serve to identify the
   version of the SPPF protocol that the client is using.  If the minor
   version is not specified, the latest minor version supported by the
   SPPF server for the given major version will be used.  Additionally,
   operations that may potentially modify persistent protocol objects
   SHOULD include a transaction ID as well.

7.1.  Add Operation

   Any conforming substrate protocol specification MUST provide a
   definition for the operation that adds one or more SPPF objects into
   the Registry.  If the object, as identified by the request attributes
   that form part of the object's key, does not exist, then the Registry
   MUST create the object.  If the object does exist, then the Registry
   MUST replace the current properties of the object with the properties
   passed in as part of the Add operation.

   Note that this effectively allows to modify a pre-existing object.

   If the entity that issued the command is not authorized to perform
   this operation an appropriate error message MUST be returned from
   amongst the response messages defined in the "Response Message Types"
   section of the document.

7.2.  Delete Operation

   Any conforming substrate protocol specification MUST provide a
   definition for the operation that deletes one or more SPPF objects
   from the Registry using the object's key.

   If the entity that issued the command is not authorized to perform
   this operation an appropriate error message MUST be returned from
   amongst the response messages defined in "Response Message Types"
   section of the document.

   When an object is deleted, any references to that object must of
   course also be removed as the SPPF server implementation fulfills the
   deletion request.  Furthermore, the deletion of a composite object
   must also result in the deletion of the objects it contains.  As a
   result, the following rules apply to the deletion of SPPF object
   types:





Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 36]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   o  Destination Groups: When a destination group is deleted any
      references between that destination group and any SED group must
      be automatically removed by the SPPF implementation as part of
      fulfilling the deletion request.  Similarly, any references
      between that destination group and any Public Identifier must be
      removed by the SPPF implementation.

   o  SED Groups: When a SED group is deleted any references between
      that SED group and any destination group must be automatically
      removed by the SPPF implementation as part of fulfilling the
      deletion request.  Similarly any references between that SED group
      and any SED records must be removed by the SPPF implementation as
      part of fulfilling the deletion request.  Furthermore, SED group
      offers relating to that SED group must also be deleted.

   o  SED Records: When a SED record is deleted any references between
      that SED record and any SED group must be removed by the SPPF
      implementation as part of fulfilling the deletion request.
      Similarly, any reference between that SED record and any Public
      Identifier must be removed by the SPPF implementation.

   o  Public Identifiers: When a public identifier is deleted any
      references between that public identifier and any referenced
      destination group must be removed by the SPPF implementation as
      part of fulfilling the deletion request.  Any references to SED
      records associated directly to that Public Identifier must also be
      deleted by the SPPF implementation.

   Deletes MUST be atomic

7.3.  Get Operations

   At times, on behalf of the Registrant, the Registrar may need to get
   information about SPPF objects that were previously provisioned in
   the Registry.  A few examples include logging, auditing, and pre-
   provisioning dependency checking.  This query mechanism is limited to
   aid provisioning scenarios and should not be confused with query
   protocols provided as part of the resolution system (e.g., ENUM and
   SIP).

   Any conforming "protocol" specification MUST provide a definition for
   the operation that queries the details of one or more SPPF objects
   from the Registry using the object's key.  If the entity that issued
   the command is not authorized to perform this operation an
   appropriate error message MUST be returned from amongst the response
   messages defined in Section 5.3.





Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 37]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   If the response to the Get operation includes object(s) that extend
   the BasicObjType, the Registry MUST include the 'cDate' and 'mDate',
   if applicable.

7.4.  Accept Operations

   In SPPF, a SED Group Offer can be accepted or rejected by, or on
   behalf of, the Registrant to which the SED Group has been offered
   (refer to Section 7 of this document for a description of the SED
   Group Offer object).  The Accept operation is used to accept the SED
   Group Offers.  Any conforming substrate protocol specification MUST
   provide a definition for the operation to accept SED Group Offers by,
   or on behalf of the Registrant, using the SED Group Offer object key.

   Not until access to a SED Group has been offered and accepted will
   the Registrant's organization ID be included in the peeringOrg list
   in that SED Group object, and that SED Group's peering information
   become a candidate for inclusion in the responses to the resolution
   requests submitted by that Registrant.  A SED Group Offer that is in
   the "offered" status is accepted by, or on behalf of, the Registrant
   to which it has been offered.  When the SED Group Offer is accepted
   the SED Group Offer is moved to the "accepted" status and adds that
   data recipient's organization ID into the list of peerOrgIds for that
   SED Group.

   If the entity that issued the command is not authorized to perform
   this operation an appropriate error message MUST be returned from
   amongst the response messages defined in "Response Message Types"
   section of the document.

7.5.  Reject Operations

   In SPPF, a SED Group Offer object can be accepted or rejected by, or
   on behalf of, the Registrant to which the SED Group has been offered
   (refer "Framework Data Model Objects" section of this document for a
   description of the SED Group Offer object).  Furthermore, that offer
   may be rejected, regardless of whether or not it has been previously
   accepted.  The Reject operation is used to reject the SED Group
   Offer.  When the SED Group Offer is rejected that SED Group Offer is
   deleted, and, if appropriate, the data recipient's organization ID is
   removed from the list of peeringOrg IDs for that SED Group.  Any
   conforming substrate protocol specification MUST provide a definition
   for the operation to reject SED Group Offers by, or on behalf of the
   Registrant, using the SED Group Offer object key.

   If the entity that issued the command is not authorized to perform
   this operation an appropriate error message MUST be returned from




Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 38]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   amongst the response messages defined in "Response Message Types"
   section of the document.

7.6.  Get Server Details Operation

   In SPPF, the Get Server Details operation can be used to request
   certain details about the SPPF server that include the SPPF server's
   current status and the major/minor version of the SPPF protocol
   supported by the SPPF server.

   Any conforming substrate protocol specification MUST provide a
   definition for the operation to request such details from the SPPF
   server.  If the entity that issued the command is not authorized to
   perform this operation an appropriate error message MUST be returned
   from amongst the response messages defined in the "Response Message
   Types" section of the document.

8.  XML Considerations

   XML serves as the encoding format for SPPF, allowing complex
   hierarchical data to be expressed in a text format that can be read,
   saved, and manipulated with both traditional text tools and tools
   specific to XML.

   XML is case sensitive.  Unless stated otherwise, the character casing
   of XML specifications in this document MUST be preserved to develop a
   conforming specification.

   This section discusses a small number of XML-related considerations
   pertaining to SPPF.

8.1.  Namespaces

   All SPPF elements are defined in the namespaces in the IANA
   Considerations section and in the Formal Framework Specification
   section of this document.

8.2.  Versioning and Character Encoding

   All XML instances SHOULD begin with an <?xml?> declaration to
   identify the version of XML that is being used, optionally identify
   use of the character encoding used, and optionally provide a hint to
   an XML parser that an external schema file is needed to validate the
   XML instance.

   Conformant XML parsers recognize both UTF-8 (defined in [RFC3629])
   and UTF-16 (defined in [RFC2781]); per [RFC2277] UTF-8 is the
   RECOMMENDED character encoding for use with SPPF.



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 39]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   Character encodings other than UTF-8 and UTF-16 are allowed by XML.
   UTF-8 is the default encoding assumed by XML in the absence of an
   "encoding" attribute or a byte order mark (BOM); thus, the "encoding"
   attribute in the XML declaration is OPTIONAL if UTF-8 encoding is
   used.  SPPF clients and servers MUST accept a UTF-8 BOM if present,
   though emitting a UTF-8 BOM is NOT RECOMMENDED.

   Example XML declarations:

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?>

9.  Security Considerations

   Many SPPF implementations manage data that is considered confidential
   and critical.  Furthermore, SPPF implementations can support
   provisioning activities for multiple Registrars and Registrants.  As
   a result any SPPF implementation must address the requirements for
   confidentiality, authentication, and authorization.

9.1.  Confidentiality and Authentication

   With respect to confidentiality and authentication, the substrate
   protocol requirements section of this document contains security
   properties that the substrate protocol must provide so that
   authenticated endpoints can exchange data confidentially and with
   integrity protection.  Refer to that section and
   [I-D.ietf-drinks-spp-protocol-over-soap] for the specific solutions
   to authentication and confidentiality.

9.2.  Authorization

   With respect to authorization, the SPPF server implementation must
   define and implement a set of authorization rules that precisely
   address (1) which Registrars will be authorized to create/modify/
   delete each SPPF object type for given Registrant(s) and (2) which
   Registrars will be authorized to view/get each SPPF object type for
   given Registrant(s).  These authorization rules are a matter of
   policy and are not specified within the context of SPPF.  However,
   any SPPF implementation must specify these authorization rules in
   order to function in a reliable and safe manner.

9.3.  Denial of Service

   Guidance on Denial-of-Service (DoS) issues in general is given in
   [RFC4732], "Internet Denial of Service Considerations", which also
   gives a general vocabulary for describing the DoS issue.





Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 40]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   SPPF is a high-level client-server protocol that can be implemented
   on lower-level mechanisms such as remote procedure call and web-
   service API protocols.  As such, it inherits any Denial-of-Service
   issues inherent to the specific lower-level mechanism used for any
   implementation of SPPF.  SPPF also has its own set of higher-level
   exposures that are likely to be independent of lower-layer mechanism
   choices.

9.3.1.  DoS Issues Inherited from Substrate Mechanism

   An SPPF implementation is in general dependent on the selection and
   implementation of a lower-level substrate protocol and a binding
   between that protocol and SPPF.  The archetypal SPPF implementation
   uses XML [W3C.REC-xml-20081126] representation in a SOAP [SOAPREF]
   request/response framework over HTTP ([RFC7230]), and probably also
   uses TLS ([RFC5246]) for on-the-wire data integrity and participant
   authentication, and might use HTTP Digest authentication ([RFC2609]).

   The typical deployment scenario for SPPF is to have servers in a
   managed facility, and therefore techniques such as Network Ingress
   Filtering ([RFC2609]) are generally applicable.  In short, any DoS
   mechanism affecting a typical HTTP implementation would affect such
   an SPPF implementation, and the mitigation tools for HTTP in general
   also therefore apply to SPPF.

   SPPF does not directly specify an authentication mechanism, instead
   relying on the lower-level substrate protocol to provide for
   authentication.  In general, authentication is an expensive
   operation, and one apparent attack vector is to flood an SPPF server
   with repeated requests for authentication, thereby exhausting its
   resources.  SPPF implementations SHOULD therefore be prepared to
   handle authentication floods, perhaps by noting repeated failed login
   requests from a given source address and blocking that source
   address.

9.3.2.  DoS Issues Specific to SPPF

   The primary defense mechanism against DoS within SPPF is
   authentication.  Implementations MUST tightly control access to the
   SPPF service, SHOULD implement DoS and other policy control
   screening, and MAY employ a variety of policy violation reporting and
   response measures such as automatic blocking of specific users and
   alerting of operations personnel.  In short, the primary SPPF
   response to DoS-like activity by a user is to block that user or
   subject their actions to additional review.

   SPPF allows a client to submit multiple-element or "batch" requests
   that may insert or otherwise affect a large amount of data with a



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 41]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   single request.  In the simplest case, the server progresses
   sequentially through each element in a batch, completing one before
   starting the next.  Mid-batch failures are handled by stopping the
   batch and rolling-back the data store to its pre-request state.  This
   "stop and roll-back" design provides a DoS opportunity.  A hostile
   client could repeatedly issue large batch requests with one or more
   failing elements, causing the server to repeatedly stop and roll-back
   large transactions.  The suggested response is to monitor clients for
   such failures, and take administrative action (such as blocking the
   user) when an excessive number of roll-backs is reported.

   An additional suggested response is for an implementer to set their
   maximum allowable XML message size, and their maximum allowable batch
   size at a level that they feel protects their operational instance,
   given the hardware sizing they have in place and the expected load
   and size needs that their users expect.

9.4.  Information Disclosure

   It is not uncommon for the logging systems to document on-the-wire
   messages for various purposes, such as, debug, audit, and tracking.
   At the minimum, the various support and administration staff will
   have access to these logs.  Also, if an unprivileged user gains
   access to the SPPF deployments and/or support systems, it will have
   access to the information that is potentially deemed confidential.
   To manage information disclosure concerns beyond the substrate level,
   SPPF implementations MAY provide support for encryption at the SPPF
   object level.

9.5.  Non-repudiation

   In some situations, it may be required to protect against denial of
   involvement (see [RFC4949]) and tackle non-repudiation concerns in
   regards to SPPF messages.  This type of protection is useful to
   satisfy authenticity concerns related to SPPF messages beyond the
   end-to-end connection integrity, confidentiality, and authentication
   protection that the substrate layer provides.  This is an optional
   feature and some SPPF implementations MAY provide support for it.

9.6.  Replay Attacks

   Anti-replay protection ensures that a given SPPF object replayed at a
   later time doesn't affect the integrity of the system.  SPPF provides
   at least one mechanism to fight against replay attacks.  Use of the
   optional client transaction identifier allows the SPPF client to
   correlate the request message with the response and to be sure that
   it is not a replay of a server response from earlier exchanges.  Use




Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 42]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   of unique values for the client transaction identifier is highly
   encouraged to avoid chance matches to a potential replay message.

9.7.  Compromised or Malicious Intermediary

   The SPPF client or Registrar can be a separate entity acting on
   behalf of the Registrant in facilitating provisioning transactions to
   the Registry.  Therefore, even though the substrate layer provides
   end-to-end protection for each specific SPPP connection between
   client and server, data might be available in clear text before or
   after it traverses a SPPP connection.  Therefore, a man-in-the-middle
   attack by one of the intermediaries is a possibility that could
   affect the integrity of the data that belongs to the Registrant and/
   or expose peering data to unintended actors.

10.  Internationalization Considerations

   Character encodings to be used for SPPF elements are described in
   Section 8.2.  The use of time elements in the protocol is specified
   in Section 3.2.  Where human-readable messages that are presented to
   an end user are used in the protocol, those messages SHOULD be tagged
   according to [RFC5646], and the substrate protocol MUST support a
   respective mechanism to transmit such tags together with those human-
   readable messages.

11.  IANA Considerations

11.1.  URN Assignments

   This document uses URNs to describe XML namespaces and XML schemas
   conforming to a Registry mechanism described in [RFC3688].

   Two URI assignments are requested.

   Registration request for the SPPF XML namespace:
   urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sppf:base:1
   Registrant Contact: IESG
   XML: None.  Namespace URIs do not represent an XML specification.

   Registration request for the XML schema:
   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:schema:sppf:1
   Registrant Contact: IESG
   XML: See the "Formal Specification" section of this document
   (Section 12).







Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 43]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


11.2.  Organization Identifier Namespace Registry

   IANA is requested to create and maintain a Registry entitled "SPPF
   OrgIdType Namespaces".  The formal syntax is described in
   Section 5.1.

   Assignments consist of the OrgIdType namespace string and the
   definition of the associated namespace.  This document makes the
   following initial assignment for the OrgIdType Namespaces:

         OrgIdType namespace string                       Namespace
         --------------------------                       ---------
         IANA Enterprise Numbers                          iana-en

   Future assignments are to be made through the well-known IANA Policy
   "RFC Required" (see section 4.1 of [RFC5226]).  Such assignments will
   typically be requested when a new namespace for identification of
   service providers is defined.

12.  Formal Specification

   This section provides the draft XML Schema Definition for SPPF
   Protocol.

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <schema xmlns:sppfb="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sppf:base:1"
   xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
   targetNamespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sppf:base:1"
   elementFormDefault="qualified" xml:lang="EN">
    <annotation>
     <documentation>
      ---- Generic Object key types to be defined by specific
           Substrate/Architecture.  The types defined here can
           be extended by the specific architecture to
           define the Object Identifiers ----
     </documentation>
    </annotation>
    <complexType name="ObjKeyType"
     abstract="true">
     <annotation>
      <documentation>
       ---- Generic type that represents the
            key for various objects in SPPF. ----
      </documentation>
     </annotation>
    </complexType>

    <complexType name="SedGrpOfferKeyType" abstract="true">



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 44]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:ObjKeyType">
       <annotation>
        <documentation>
        ---- Generic type that represents
             the key for a SED group offer. ----
        </documentation>
       </annotation>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>

    <complexType name="PubIdKeyType" abstract="true">
     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:ObjKeyType">
       <annotation>
        <documentation>
         ----Generic type that
         represents the key
         for a Pub Id. ----
        </documentation>
       </annotation>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>

    <annotation>
     <documentation>
       ---- Object Type Definitions ----
     </documentation>
    </annotation>

    <complexType name="SedGrpType">
     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:BasicObjType">
       <sequence>
        <element name="sedGrpName" type="sppfb:ObjNameType"/>
        <element name="sedRecRef" type="sppfb:SedRecRefType"
                 minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
        <element name="dgName" type="sppfb:ObjNameType"
                 minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
        <element name="peeringOrg" type="sppfb:OrgIdType"
                 minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
        <element name="sourceIdent" type="sppfb:SourceIdentType"
                 minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
        <element name="isInSvc" type="boolean"/>
        <element name="priority" type="unsignedShort"/>
        <element name="ext"



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 45]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


        type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
       </sequence>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="DestGrpType">
     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:BasicObjType">
       <sequence>
        <element name="dgName"
        type="sppfb:ObjNameType"/>
       </sequence>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="PubIdType" abstract="true">
     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:BasicObjType">
       <sequence>
        <element name="dgName" type="sppfb:ObjNameType"
                 minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
       </sequence>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="TNType">
     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:PubIdType">
       <sequence>
        <element name="tn" type="sppfb:NumberValType"/>
        <element name="corInfo" type="sppfb:CORInfoType" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element name="sedRecRef" type="sppfb:SedRecRefType"
                 minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
       </sequence>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="TNRType">
     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:PubIdType">
       <sequence>
        <element name="range" type="sppfb:NumberRangeType"/>
        <element name="corInfo" type="sppfb:CORInfoType" minOccurs="0"/>
       </sequence>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="TNPType">



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 46]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:PubIdType">
       <sequence>
        <element name="tnPrefix" type="sppfb:NumberValType"/>
        <element name="corInfo" type="sppfb:CORInfoType" minOccurs="0"/>
       </sequence>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="RNType">
     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:PubIdType">
       <sequence>
        <element name="rn" type="sppfb:NumberValType"/>
        <element name="corInfo" type="sppfb:CORInfoType" minOccurs="0"/>
       </sequence>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>
     <complexType name="URIPubIdType">
     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:PubIdType">
       <sequence>
        <element name="uri" type="anyURI"/>
        <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
       </sequence>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="SedRecType" abstract="true">
     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:BasicObjType">
       <sequence>
        <element name="sedName" type="sppfb:ObjNameType"/>
        <element name="sedFunction" type="sppfb:SedFunctionType"
                 minOccurs="0"/>
        <element name="isInSvc" type="boolean"/>
        <element name="ttl" type="positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
       </sequence>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="NAPTRType">
     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:SedRecType">
       <sequence>
        <element name="order" type="unsignedShort"/>
        <element name="flags" type="sppfb:FlagsType" minOccurs="0"/>



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 47]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


        <element name="svcs" type="sppfb:SvcType"/>
        <element name="regx" type="sppfb:RegexParamType" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element name="repl" type="sppfb:ReplType" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
       </sequence>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="NSType">
     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:SedRecType">
       <sequence>
        <element name="hostName" type="token"/>
        <element name="ipAddr" type="sppfb:IPAddrType"
                 minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
        <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
       </sequence>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="URIType">
     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:SedRecType">
       <sequence>
        <element name="ere" type="token" default="^(.*)$"/>
        <element name="uri" type="anyURI"/>
        <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
       </sequence>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="SedGrpOfferType">
     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:BasicObjType">
       <sequence>
        <element name="sedGrpOfferKey" type="sppfb:SedGrpOfferKeyType"/>
        <element name="status" type="sppfb:SedGrpOfferStatusType"/>
        <element name="offerDateTime" type="dateTime"/>
        <element name="acceptDateTime" type="dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
       </sequence>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="EgrRteType">
     <complexContent>
      <extension base="sppfb:BasicObjType">
       <sequence>



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 48]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


        <element name="egrRteName" type="sppfb:ObjNameType"/>
        <element name="pref" type="unsignedShort"/>
        <element name="regxRewriteRule" type="sppfb:RegexParamType"/>
        <element name="ingrSedGrp" type="sppfb:ObjKeyType"
                 minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
        <element name="svcs" type="sppfb:SvcType" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
       </sequence>
      </extension>
     </complexContent>
    </complexType>
    <annotation>
     <documentation>
      ---- Abstract Object and Element Type Definitions ----
     </documentation>
    </annotation>
    <complexType name="BasicObjType" abstract="true">
     <sequence>
      <element name="rant" type="sppfb:OrgIdType"/>
      <element name="rar" type="sppfb:OrgIdType"/>
      <element name="cDate" type="dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
      <element name="mDate" type="dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
      <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
     </sequence>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="RegexParamType">
     <sequence>
      <element name="ere" type="sppfb:RegexType" default="^(.*)$"/>
      <element name="repl" type="sppfb:ReplType"/>
     </sequence>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="IPAddrType">
     <sequence>
      <element name="addr" type="sppfb:AddrStringType"/>
      <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
     </sequence>
     <attribute name="type" type="sppfb:IPType" default="v4"/>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="SedRecRefType">
     <sequence>
      <element name="sedKey" type="sppfb:ObjKeyType"/>
      <element name="priority" type="unsignedShort"/>
      <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
     </sequence>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="SourceIdentType">
     <sequence>
      <element name="sourceIdentRegex" type="sppfb:RegexType"/>



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 49]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


      <element name="sourceIdentScheme"
               type="sppfb:SourceIdentSchemeType"/>
      <element name="ext" type="sppfb:ExtAnyType" minOccurs="0"/>
     </sequence>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="CORInfoType">
     <sequence>
      <element name="corClaim" type="boolean" default="true"/>
      <element name="cor" type="boolean" default="false" minOccurs="0"/>
      <element name="corDate" type="dateTime" minOccurs="0"/>
     </sequence>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="SvcMenuType">
     <sequence>
      <element name="serverStatus" type="sppfb:ServerStatusType"/>
      <element name="majMinVersion" type="token" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
      <element name="objURI" type="anyURI" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
      <element name="extURI" type="anyURI"
               minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
     </sequence>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="ExtAnyType">
     <sequence>
      <any namespace="##other" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
     </sequence>
    </complexType>
    <simpleType name="FlagsType">
     <restriction base="token">
      <length value="1"/>
      <pattern value="[A-Z]|[a-z]|[0-9]"/>
     </restriction>
    </simpleType>
    <simpleType name="SvcType">
     <restriction base="token">
      <minLength value="1"/>
     </restriction>
    </simpleType>
    <simpleType name="RegexType">
     <restriction base="token">
      <minLength value="1"/>
     </restriction>
    </simpleType>
    <simpleType name="ReplType">
     <restriction base="token">
      <minLength value="1"/>
      <maxLength value="255"/>
     </restriction>
    </simpleType>



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 50]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


    <simpleType name="OrgIdType">
     <restriction base="token"/>
    </simpleType>
    <simpleType name="ObjNameType">
     <restriction base="token">
      <minLength value="3"/>
      <maxLength value="80"/>
     </restriction>
    </simpleType>
    <simpleType name="TransIdType">
     <restriction base="token">
      <minLength value="3"/>
      <maxLength value="120"/>
     </restriction>
    </simpleType>
    <simpleType name="MinorVerType">
     <restriction base="unsignedLong"/>
    </simpleType>
    <simpleType name="AddrStringType">
     <restriction base="token">
      <minLength value="3"/>
      <maxLength value="45"/>
     </restriction>
    </simpleType>
    <simpleType name="IPType">
     <restriction base="token">
      <enumeration value="v4"/>
      <enumeration value="v6"/>
     </restriction>
    </simpleType>
    <simpleType name="SourceIdentSchemeType">
     <restriction base="token">
      <enumeration value="uri"/>
      <enumeration value="ip"/>
      <enumeration value="rootDomain"/>
     </restriction>
    </simpleType>
    <simpleType name="ServerStatusType">
     <restriction base="token">
      <enumeration value="inService"/>
      <enumeration value="outOfService"/>
     </restriction>
    </simpleType>
    <simpleType name="SedGrpOfferStatusType">
     <restriction base="token">
      <enumeration value="offered"/>
      <enumeration value="accepted"/>
     </restriction>



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 51]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


    </simpleType>
    <simpleType name="NumberValType">
     <restriction base="token">
      <maxLength value="20"/>
      <pattern value="\+?\d\d*"/>
     </restriction>
    </simpleType>
    <simpleType name="NumberTypeEnum">
     <restriction base="token">
      <enumeration value="TN"/>
      <enumeration value="TNPrefix"/>
      <enumeration value="RN"/>
     </restriction>
    </simpleType>
    <simpleType name="SedFunctionType">
     <restriction base="token">
      <enumeration value="routing"/>
      <enumeration value="lookup"/>
     </restriction>
    </simpleType>
    <complexType name="NumberType">
     <sequence>
      <element name="value" type="sppfb:NumberValType"/>
      <element name="type" type="sppfb:NumberTypeEnum"/>
     </sequence>
    </complexType>
    <complexType name="NumberRangeType">
     <sequence>
      <element name="startRange" type="sppfb:NumberValType"/>
      <element name="endRange" type="sppfb:NumberValType"/>
     </sequence>
    </complexType>
   </schema>

13.  Acknowledgments

   This document is a result of various discussions held in the DRINKS
   working group and within the DRINKS protocol design team, with
   contributions from the following individuals, in alphabetical order:
   Alexander Mayrhofer, David Schwartz, Deborah A Guyton, Lisa
   Dusseault, Manjul Maharishi, Mickael Marrache, Otmar Lendl, Richard
   Shockey, Samuel Melloul, Sumanth Channabasappa, Syed Ali, Vikas
   Bhatia, and Jeremy Barkan.








Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 52]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


14.  References

14.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-drinks-spp-protocol-over-soap]
              Cartwright, K., Bhatia, V., Mule, J., and A. Mayrhofer,
              "Session Peering Provisioning (SPP) Protocol over SOAP",
              draft-ietf-drinks-spp-protocol-over-soap-08 (work in
              progress), July 2015.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2277]  Alvestrand, H., "IETF Policy on Character Sets and
              Languages", BCP 18, RFC 2277, DOI 10.17487/RFC2277,
              January 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2277>.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, DOI 10.17487/RFC3629, November
              2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3629>.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5226, May 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5226>.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5234, January 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5234>.

   [W3C.REC-xml-20081126]
              Sperberg-McQueen, C., Yergeau, F., Bray, T., Maler, E.,
              and J. Paoli, "Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth
              Edition)", World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-
              xml-20081126, November 2008,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-xml-20081126>.



Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 53]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


14.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2609]  Guttman, E., Perkins, C., and J. Kempf, "Service Templates
              and Service: Schemes", RFC 2609, DOI 10.17487/RFC2609,
              June 1999, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2609>.

   [RFC2781]  Hoffman, P. and F. Yergeau, "UTF-16, an encoding of ISO
              10646", RFC 2781, DOI 10.17487/RFC2781, February 2000,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2781>.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3261, June 2002,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3261>.

   [RFC3403]  Mealling, M., "Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS)
              Part Three: The Domain Name System (DNS) Database",
              RFC 3403, DOI 10.17487/RFC3403, October 2002,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3403>.

   [RFC4725]  Mayrhofer, A. and B. Hoeneisen, "ENUM Validation
              Architecture", RFC 4725, DOI 10.17487/RFC4725, November
              2006, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4725>.

   [RFC4732]  Handley, M., Ed., Rescorla, E., Ed., and IAB, "Internet
              Denial-of-Service Considerations", RFC 4732,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4732, December 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4732>.

   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
              FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.

   [RFC5067]  Lind, S. and P. Pfautz, "Infrastructure ENUM
              Requirements", RFC 5067, DOI 10.17487/RFC5067, November
              2007, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5067>.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.

   [RFC5486]  Malas, D., Ed. and D. Meyer, Ed., "Session Peering for
              Multimedia Interconnect (SPEERMINT) Terminology",
              RFC 5486, DOI 10.17487/RFC5486, March 2009,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5486>.




Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 54]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   [RFC5646]  Phillips, A., Ed. and M. Davis, Ed., "Tags for Identifying
              Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646, DOI 10.17487/RFC5646,
              September 2009, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5646>.

   [RFC6116]  Bradner, S., Conroy, L., and K. Fujiwara, "The E.164 to
              Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI) Dynamic Delegation
              Discovery System (DDDS) Application (ENUM)", RFC 6116,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6116, March 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6116>.

   [RFC6461]  Channabasappa, S., Ed., "Data for Reachability of Inter-
              /Intra-NetworK SIP (DRINKS) Use Cases and Protocol
              Requirements", RFC 6461, DOI 10.17487/RFC6461, January
              2012, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6461>.

   [RFC7230]  Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
              Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing",
              RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>.

   [SOAPREF]  Gudgin, M., Hadley, M., Moreau, J., and H. Nielsen, "SOAP
              Version 1.2 Part 1: Messaging Framework", W3C
              Recommendation REC-SOAP12-part1-20030624, June 2002.

   [Unicode6.1]
              The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard - Version
              6.1", Unicode 6.1, January 2012.

Authors' Addresses

   Kenneth Cartwright
   TNS
   1939 Roland Clarke Place
   Reston, VA  20191
   USA

   Email: kcartwright@tnsi.com


   Vikas Bhatia
   TNS
   1939 Roland Clarke Place
   Reston, VA  20191
   USA

   Email: vbhatia@tnsi.com





Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 55]


Internet-Draft         draft-drinks-spp-framework            August 2015


   Syed Wasim Ali
   NeuStar
   46000 Center Oak Plaza
   Sterling, VA  20166
   USA

   Email: syed.ali@neustar.biz


   David Schwartz
   XConnect
   316 Regents Park Road
   London  N3 2XJ
   United Kingdom

   Email: dschwartz@xconnect.net



































Cartwright, et al.      Expires February 13, 2016              [Page 56]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.124, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/