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Versions: (draft-gellens-ecrit-car-crash) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 RFC 8148

ECRIT                                                         R. Gellens
Internet-Draft                                Qualcomm Technologies, Inc
Intended status: Informational                                  B. Rosen
Expires: January 5, 2015                                   NeuStar, Inc.
                                                           H. Tschofenig
                                                        (no affiliation)
                                                           July 04, 2014


           Internet Protocol-based In-Vehicle Emergency Calls
                   draft-ietf-ecrit-car-crash-00.txt

Abstract

   This document describes how to use IP-based emergency services
   mechanisms to support the next generation of emergency calls placed
   by vehicles (automatically in the event of a crash or serious
   incident, or manually invoked by a vehicle occupant) and conveying
   vehicle, sensor, and location data related to the crash or incident.
   Such calls are often referred to as "Automatic Crash Notification"
   (ACN), or "Advanced Automatic Crash Notification" (AACN), even in the
   case of manual trigger.  The "Advanced" qualifier refers to the
   ability to carry a richer set of data.

   This document also registers a MIME Content Type and an Emergency
   Call Additional Data Block for the vehicle, sensor, and location data
   (often referred to as "crash data" even though there is not
   necessarily a crash).

   Profiling and simplifications are possible due to the nature of the
   functionality that is provided in vehicles with the usage of Global
   Satellite Navigation System (GNSS).

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."




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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 5, 2015.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Overview of Current Deployment Models . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  Document Scope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   5.  Migration to Next-Generation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   6.  Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  Call Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   8.  Call Routing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   9.  Test Calls  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   10. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     12.1.  Service URN Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     12.2.  MIME Content-type Registration for
            'application/EmergencyCall.VEDS+xml' . . . . . . . . . .  17
     12.3.  Registration of the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call
            Additional Data registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   13. Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   14. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   15. Changes from Previous Versions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     15.1.  Changes from draft-gellens-02 to draft-ietf-00 . . . . .  19
     15.2.  Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . .  19
     15.3.  Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . .  19
   16. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     16.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     16.2.  Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21





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1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   This document re-uses terminology defined in Section 3 of [RFC5012].

   Additionally, we use the following abbreviations:

   3GPP:  3rd Generation Partnership Project

   AACN:  Advanced Automatic Crash Notification

   ACN:  Automatic Crash Notification

   APCO:  Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials

   EENA:  European Emergency Number Association

   ESInet:  Emergency Services IP network

   GNSS:  Global Satellite Navigation System (which includes the various
      such systems including the Global Positioning System or GPS)

   IVS:  In-Vehicle System

   MNO:  Mobile Network Operator

   NENA:  National Emergency Number Association

   TSP:  Telematics Service Provider

   VEDS:  Vehicle Emergency Data Set

2.  Introduction

   Emergency calls made by in-vehicle systems (e.g., in the event of a
   crash) assist in significantly reducing road deaths and injuries by
   allowing emergency services to respond quickly and often with better
   location.

   Drivers often have a poor location awareness, especially outside of
   major cities, at night and when away from home (especially abroad).
   In the most crucial cases, the victim(s) may not be able to call
   because they have been injured or trapped.





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   For more than a decade, some vehicles have been equipped with
   telematics systems that, among other features, place an emergency
   call automatically in the event of a crash or manually in response to
   an emergency call button.  Such systems generally have on-board
   location determination systems that make use of satellite-based
   positioning technology, inertial sensors, gyroscopes, etc., to
   provide a fairly accurate position for the vehicle.  Such built-in
   systems can take advantage of the benefits of being integrated into a
   vehicle, such as more reliable power, ability to have larger or
   specialized antenna, ability to be engineered to avoid or minimise
   degradation by vehicle glass coatings, interference from other
   vehicle systems, etc.  Thus, the PSAP can be provided with a good
   estimate of where the vehicle is during an emergency.  Vehicle
   manufacturers are increasingly adopting such systems, both for the
   safety benefits and for the additional features and services they
   enable (e.g., remote engine diagnostics, remote door unlock, stolen
   vehicle tracking and disabling, etc.).

   The general term for such systems is Automatic Crash Notification
   (ACN) or "Advanced Automatic Crash Notification" (AACN).  "ACN" is
   used in this document as a general term.  ACN systems transmit some
   amount of data specific to the incident, referred to generally as
   "crash data" (the term is commonly used even though there might not
   have been a crash).  While different systems transmit different
   amounts of crash data, standardized formats, structures, and
   mechanisms are needed to provide interoperability among systems and
   PSAPs.

   Currently deployed in-vehicle telematics systems are circuit-switched
   and lack a standards-based ability to convey crash data directly to
   the PSAP (generally relying on either a human call taker or an
   automated system to provide the PSAP call taker with some crash data
   orally, or possibly a proprietary mechanism).  The PSAP call taker
   needs to first realize that the call is related to a vehicle
   incident, and in most cases must then listen to the data and
   transcribe it.















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   The transition to next-generation calling in general, and emergency
   calling in particular, provides an opportunity to vastly improve the
   scope, breadth, reliability and usefulness of crash data during an
   emergency by allowing it to be presented alongside the call, and to
   be automatically processed by the PSAP and made available to the call
   taker in an integrated, automated way.  In addition, vehicle
   manufacturers are provided an opportunity to take advantage of the
   same standardized mechanisms for data transmission for internal use
   if they wish (such as telemetry between the vehicle and a service
   center for both emergency and non-emergency uses, including location-
   based services, multi-media entertainment systems, and road-side
   assistance applications).

   Next-generation ACN provides an opportunity for such calls to be
   recognized and processed as such during call set-up, and routed to a
   specialized PSAP where the vehicle data is available to assist the
   call taker in assessing and responding to the situation.

   An ACN call may be either occupant-initiated or automatically
   triggered.  (The "A" in "ACN" does stand for "Automatic," but the
   term is often used to refer to the class of calls that are placed by
   an in-vehicle system (IVS) and that carry incident-related data as
   well as voice.)  Automatically triggered calls indicate a car crash
   or some other serious incident (e.g., a fire) and carry a greater
   presumption of risk of injury.  Manually triggered calls are often
   reports of serious hazards (such as drunk drivers) and may require
   different responses depending on the situation.  Manually triggered
   calls are also more likely to be false (e.g., accidental) calls and
   may thus be subject to different handling by the PSAP.

   This document describes how the IETF mechanisms for IP-based
   emergency calls, including [RFC6443] and [additional-data-draft], are
   used to provide the realization of next-generation ACN.

   The Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials (APCO) and
   the National Emergency Number Association (NENA) have jointly
   developed a standardized set of incident-related vehicle data for ACN
   use, called the Vehicle Emergency Data Set (VEDS) [VEDS].  Such data
   is often referred to as crash data although it is applicable in
   incidents other than crashes.

   VEDS provides a standard data set for the transmission, exchange, and
   interpretation of vehicle-related data.  A standard data format
   allows the data to be generated by an IVS, and interpreted by PSAPs,
   emergency responders, and medical facilities (including those capable
   of providing trauma level patient care).  It includes incident-
   related information such as airbag deployment, location of the
   vehicle, if the vehicle was involved in a rollover, various sensor



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   data that can indicate the potential severity of the crash and the
   likelihood of severe injuries to the vehicle occupants, etc.  This
   data better informs the PSAP and emergency responders as to the type
   of response that may be needed.  This information was recently
   included in the federal guidelines for field triage of injured
   patients.  These guidelines are designed to help responders at the
   accident scene identify the potential existence of severe internal
   injuries and to make critical decisions about how and where a patient
   needs to be transported.

   This document registers the 'application/EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml'
   MIME content-type, and registers the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency
   Call Additional Data registry.

   VEDS is an XML structure (see [VEDS]).  The 'application/
   EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml' MIME content-type is used to identify it.
   The 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call Additional Data registry is
   used to construct a 'purpose' parameter value for conveying VEDS data
   in a Call-Info header (as described in [additional-data-draft]).

   VEDS is a versatile structure that can accomodate varied needs.
   However, if additional sets of data are determined to be needed, the
   steps to enable each data block are very briefly summarized below:

   o  A standardized format and encoding (such as XML) is defined and
      published by a Standards Development Organization (SDO).
   o  A MIME Content-Type is registered for it (typically under the
      'Application' media type and with a sub-type starting with
      'EmergencyCallData.').
   o  An entry for the block is added to the Emergency Call Additional
      Data Blocks sub-registry (established by [additional-data-draft]);
      the registry entry is the root of the MIME sub-type (not including
      the 'EmergencyCallData' prefix and any suffix such as '+xml').


















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   A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by
   encoding it in a standardized and registered format (such as VEDS)
   and attaching it to an INVITE as a MIME body part.  The body part is
   identified by its MIME content-type (such as 'application/
   EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml') in the Content-Type header field of the
   body part.  The body part is assigned a unique identifier which is
   listed in a Content-ID header field in the body part.  The INVITE is
   marked as containing the crash data by adding (or appending to) a
   Call-Info header field at the top level of the INVITE.  The Call-Info
   header field contains a CID URL referencing the body part's unique
   identifier, and a 'purpose' parameter identifying the data as the
   crash data per the registry entry; the 'purpose' parameter's value is
   'EmergencyCallData.' and the root of the MIME type (not including the
   'EmergencyCallData' prefix and any suffix such as '+xml' (e.g.,
   'purpose=EmergencyCallData.VEDS').

   The mechanisms described here can be used place emergency calls that
   are identifiable as ACN calls and that carry one or more standardized
   crash data objects in an interoperable way.

   Note that while ACN systems in the U.S. and other regions are not
   currently mandated, Europe has a mandated and standardized system for
   emergency calls by in-vehicle systems.  This pan-European system is
   known as "eCall" and is not further discussed in this document but is
   the subject of a separate document, [eCall-draft]

3.  Overview of Current Deployment Models

   Current (circuit-switched or legacy) systems for placing emergency
   calls by in-vehicle systems, including automatic crash notification
   systems, generally have a limited ability to convey at least location
   and in some cases telematics data to the PSAP.  Most such systems use
   one of three architectural models, which are described here as:
   "Telematics Service Provider" (TSP), "direct", and "paired handset".
   These three models are illustrated below.

   In the TSP model, both emergency and non-emergency calls are placed
   to a Telematics Service Provider (TSP); a proprietary technique is
   used for data transfer (such as proprietary in-band modems) to the
   TSP.

   In an emergency, the TSP call taker bridges in the PSAP and
   communicates location, crash data (such as impact severity and trauma
   prediction), and other data (such as the vehicle description) to the
   PSAP call taker verbally.  Typically, a three-way voice call is
   established between the vehicle, the TSP, and the PSAP, allowing
   communication between the PSAP call taker, the TSP call taker, and
   the vehicle occupants (who might be unconscious).



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      ///----\\\  proprietary  +------+    911 trunk      +------+
     ||| IVS |||-------------->+ TSP  +------------------>+ PSAP |
      \\\----///  crash data   +------+                   +------+


                        Figure 1: Legacy TSP Model.

   In the paired model, the IVS uses a Bluetooth link with a previously-
   paired handset to establish an emergency call with the PSAP (by
   dialing a standard emergency number such as 9-1-1), and then
   communicates location data to the PSAP via text-to-speech; crash data
   is not conveyed.  Some such systems use an automated voice prompt
   menu (e.g., "this is an automatic emergency call from a vehicle;
   press 1 to open a voice path to the vehicle; press 2 to hear the
   location read out") to allow the call taker to request location data
   via text-to-speech.

                   +---+
      ///----\\\   | H |   911/etc voice call via handset   +------+
     ||| IVS |||-->| S +----------------------------------->+ PSAP |
      \\\----///   +---+   location via text-to-speech      +------+


                       Figure 2: Legacy Paired Model

   In the direct model, the IVS directly places an emergency call with
   the PSAP by dialing a standard emergency number such as 9-1-1.  Such
   systems might communicate location data to the PSAP via text-to-
   speech; crash data might not be conveyed.

      ///----\\\      911/etc voice call via IVS          +------+
     ||| IVS  |||---------------------------------------->+ PSAP |
      \\\----///     location via text-to-speech          +------+


                       Figure 3: Legacy Direct Model

4.  Document Scope













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   This document is focused on the interface to the PSAP, that is, how
   an ACN emergency call is setup and incident-related data (including
   vehicle, sensor, and location data) is transmitted to the PSAP using
   IETF specifications.  (The goal is to re-use specifications rather
   than to invent new.)  For the direct model, this is the end-to-end
   description (between the vehicle and the PSAP).  For the TSP model,
   this describes the right-hand side (between the TSP and the PSAP),
   leaving the left-hand side (between the vehicle and the TSP) up to
   the entities involved (i.e., IVS and TSP vendors) who are then free
   to use the same mechanism as for the right-hand side (or not).

   This document does not address pan-European eCall (a mandated and
   standardized system for emergency calls by in-vehicle systems within
   Europe and other regions), which is the subject of a separate
   document, [eCall-draft]

5.  Migration to Next-Generation

   Migration of emergency calls placed by in-vehicle systems to next-
   generation (all-IP) technology provides a standardized mechanism to
   identify such calls and to present crash data with the call.  This
   allows ACN calls and crash data to be automatically processed by the
   PSAP and made available to the call taker in an integrated, automated
   way.

   Vehicle manufacturers using the TSP model may choose to take
   advantage of the same mechanism to carry telematics data between the
   vehicle and the TSP for both emergency and non-emergency calls.

   A next-generation IVS establishes an emergency call using the 3GPP
   IMS solution with a Request-URI indicating an ACN type of emergency
   call with vehicle data attached; the MNO only needs to recognize the
   call as an emergency call and route it to an ESInet; the ESInet
   recognizes the call as an ACN with vehicle data and routes the call
   to an NG-ACN capable PSAP; the PSAP interpets the vehicle data sent
   with the call and makes it available to the call taker.

   Because of the need to identify and specially process Next-Generation
   ACN calls (as discussed above), this document registers new service
   URN children within the "sos" subservice.  These URNs provide the
   mechanism by which an NG-ACN call is identified, and differentiate
   between manually and automatically triggered NG-ACN calls (which may
   be subject to different treatment, depending on policy).  The two
   service URNs are: 'urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic' and
   'urn:service:sos.vehicle.manual'.

   Migration of the three architectural models to next-generation (all-
   IP) is described below.



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   In the TSP model, the IVS transmits crash and location data to the
   TSP using either a protocol that is based on a proprietary design or
   one that re-uses IETF specifications.  In an emergency, the TSP call
   taker bridges in the PSAP and the TSP transmits crash and other data
   to the PSAP using IETF specifications.  There is a three-way call
   between the vehicle, the TSP, and the PSAP, allowing communication
   between the PSAP call taker, the TSP call taker, and the vehicle
   occupants (who might be unconscious).

                proprietary
    ///----\\\  or standard        +------+     standard       +------+
   ||| IVS ||| ------------------->+ TSP  +------------------->+ PSAP |
    \\\----///  crash + other data +------+ crash + other data +------+

                    Figure 4: Next-Generation TSP Model

   The vehicle manufacturer and the TSP may choose to use the same IETF
   specifications to transmit crash and location data from the vehicle
   to the TSP as is described here to transmit such data from the TSP to
   the PSAP.

   In the paired model, the IVS uses a Bluetooth link to a previously-
   paired handset to establish an emergency call with the PSAP; it is
   not clear what facilities are or will be available for transmitting
   crash data through the Bluetooth link.

                                 +---+
    ///----\\\     (unclear)     | H |      (unclear)     +------+
   ||| IVS |||------------------>| S +------------------->+ PSAP |
    \\\----///     (unclear)     +---+      (unclear)     +------+

                  Figure 5: Next-Generation Paired Model

   In the direct model, the IVS communicates crash data to the PSAP
   directly using IETF specifications.

    ///----\\\          NG1-1-2/NG9-1-1 call            +------+
   ||| IVS |||----------------------------------------->+ PSAP |
    \\\----///               crash data                 +------+

                      Figure 6: Next-Generation Model

6.  Profile

   In the context of emergncy calls placed by an in-vehicle system it is
   assumed that the car is equipped with a built-in GNSS receiver.  For
   this reason only geodetic location information will be sent within an
   emergency call.  The following location shapes MUST be implemented:



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   2d and 3d Point (see Section 5.2.1 of [RFC5491]), Circle (see
   Section 5.2.3 of [RFC5491]), and Ellipsoid (see Section 5.2.7 of
   [RFC5491]).  The coordinate reference systems (CRS) specified in
   [RFC5491] are also mandatory for this document.  The <direction>
   element, as defined in [RFC5962] which indicates the direction of
   travel of the vehicle, is important for dispatch and hence it MUST be
   included in the PIDF-LO . The <heading> element specified in
   [RFC5962] MUST be implemented and MAY be included.

   Calls by in-vehicle systems are placed via cellular networks, which
   may ignore location sent by an originating device in an emergency
   call INVITE, instead attaching their own location (often determined
   in cooperation with the originating device).  The IVS MAY attach
   location data to the call INVITE.  Standardized crash data structures
   often include location as determined by the IVS.  A benefit of this
   is that it allows the PSAP to see both the location as determined by
   the cellular network (often in cooperation with the originating
   device) and the location as determined by the IVS.

   This specification also inherits the ability to utilize test call
   functionality from Section 15 of [RFC6881].

7.  Call Setup

   It is important that ACN calls be easily identifiable as such at all
   stages of call handling, and that automatic versis manual triggering
   be known.  ACN calls differ from general emergency calls in several
   aspects, including the presence of standardized crash data, the fact
   that the call is known to be placed by an in-vehicle system (which
   has implications for PSAP operational processes), and, especially for
   automatic calls, information that may indicate a likelihood of severe
   injury and hence need for trauma services.  Knowledge that a call is
   an ACN and further that it was automatically or manually invoked
   carries a range of implications about the call, the circumstances,
   and the vehicle occupants.  Calls by in-vehicle systems may be
   considered a specific sub-class of general emergency calls and need
   to be handled by a PSAP with the technical and operational
   capabilities to serve such calls.  (This is especially so in
   environments such as the U.S. where there are many PSAPs and where
   individual PSAPs have a range of capabilities.)  Technical
   capabilities include the ability to recognize and process
   standardized crash data.  Operational capabilities include training
   and processes for assessing severe injury likelihood and responding
   appropriately (e.g., dispatching trauma-capable medical responders,
   transporting victims to a trauma center, alerting the receiving
   facility, etc.).





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   Because ACN calls differ in significant ways from general emergency
   calls, and because such calls need to be handled by specialized PSAPs
   (equipped technically to interpet and make use of crash data, and
   operationally to handle emergency calls placed by in-vehicle
   systems), this document proposes an SOS sub-service for ACN/car
   crash, specifically, "SOS.vehicle".  Using a sub-service makes it
   readily obvious that the call is an ACN; a further child elements is
   proposed to distinguish calls automatically placed due to a crash or
   other serious incident (such as a fire) from those manually invoked
   by a vehicle occupant (specifically, "SOS.vehicle.automatic" and
   "SOS.vehicle.manual").  The distinction between automatic and manual
   invocation is also significant; automatically triggered calls
   indicate a car crash or some other serious incident (e.g., a fire)
   and carry a greater presumption of risk of injury and hence need for
   specific responders (such as trauma or fire).  Manually triggered
   calls are often reports of serious hazards (such as drunk drivers)
   and may require different responses depending on the situation.
   Manually triggered calls are also more likely to be false (e.g.,
   accidental) calls and may thus be subject to different handling by
   the PSAP.

   A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by
   encoding it in a standardized and registered format and attaching it
   to an INVITE as an additional data block as specified in Section 4.1
   of [additional-data-draft].  As described in that document, the block
   is identified by its MIME content-type, and pointed to by a CID URL
   in a Call-Info header with a 'purpose' parameter value corresponding
   to the block.

   Specifically, the steps required during standardization are:

   o  A set of crash data is standardized by an SDO or appropriate
      organization

   o  A MIME Content-Type for the crash data set is registered with IANA

      *  If the data is specifically for use in emergency calling, the
         MIME type is normally under the 'application' type with a
         subtype starting with 'EmergencyCallData.'

      *  If the data format is XML, then by convention the name has a
         suffix of '+xml'

   o  The item is registered in the Emergency Call Additional Data
      registry, as defined in Section 9.1.7 of [additional-data-draft]

      *  For emergency-call-specific formats, the registered name is the
         root of the MIME Content-Type (not including the



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         'EmergencyCallData' prefix and any suffix such as '+xml') as
         described in Section 4.1 of [additional-data-draft]

   When placing an emergency call:

   o  The crash data set is created and encoded per its specification

   o  The crash data set is attached to the emergency call INVITE as
      specified in Section 4.1 of [additional-data-draft], that is, as a
      MIME body part identified by its MIME Content-Type in the body
      part's Content-Type header field

   o  The body part is assigned a unique identifier label in a Content-
      ID header field of the body part

   o  A Call-Info header field at the top level of the INVITE references
      the crash data and identifies it by its MIME root (as registered
      in the Emergency Call Additional Data registry)

      *  The crash data is referenced in the Call-Info header field by a
         CID URL that contains the unique Content ID assigned to the
         crash data body part

      *  The crash data is identified in the Call-Info header field by a
         'purpose' parameter whose value is 'EmergencyCallData.'
         concatenated with the specific crash data entry in the
         Emergency Call Additional Data registry

      *  The Call-Info header field MAY be either solely to reference
         the crash data (and hence have only the one URL) or may also
         contain other URLs referencing other data

   o  Additional crash data sets MAY be included by following the same
      steps

   The Vehicle Emergency Data Set (VEDS) is an XML structure defined by
   the Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials (APCO) and
   the National Emergency Number Association (NENA) [VEDS].  The
   'application/EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml' MIME content-type is used to
   identify it.  The 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call Additional Data
   registry is used to construct a 'purpose' parameter value for
   conveying VEDS data in a Call-Info header.

   The VEDS data is attached as a body part with MIME content type
   'application/EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml' which is pointed at by a
   Call-Info URL of type CID with a 'purpose' parameter of
   'EmergencyCallData.VEDS'.




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   Entities along the path between the vehicle and the PSAP are able to
   identify the call as an ACN call and handle it appropriately.  The
   PSAP is able to identify the crash data as well as any other
   additional data attached to the INVITE by examining the Call-Info
   header fields for 'purpose' parameters whose values start with
   'EmergencyCallData.'  The PSAP is able to access and the data it is
   capable of handling and is interested in by checking the 'purpose'
   parameter values.

8.  Call Routing

   An Emergency Services IP Network (ESInet) is a network operated by
   emergency services authorities.  It handles emergency call routing
   and processing before delivery to a PSAP.  In the NG9-1-1
   architecture adopted by NENA as well as the NG1-1-2 architecture
   adopted by EENA, each PSAP is connected to one or more ESInets.  Each
   originating network is also connected to one or more ESInets.  The
   ESInets maintain policy-based routing rules which control the routing
   and processing of emergency calls.  The centralization of such rules
   within ESInets provides for a cleaner separation between the
   responsibilities of the originating network and that of the emergency
   services network, and provides greater flexibility and control over
   processing of emergency calls by the emergency services authorities.
   This makes it easier to react quickly to unusual situations that
   require changes in how emergency calls are routed or handled (e.g., a
   natural disaster closes a PSAP), as well as ease in making long-term
   changes that affect such routing (e.g., cooperative agreements to
   specially handle calls requiring translation or relay services).

   In an environment that uses ESInets, the originating network need
   only detect that the service URN of an emergency call is or starts
   with "sos", passing all types of emergency calls to an ESInet.  The
   ESInet is then responsible for routing such calls to an appropriate
   PSAP.  In an environment without an ESInet, the emergency services
   authorities and the originating carriers would need to determine how
   such calls are routed.

9.  Test Calls

   This specification also inherits the ability to utilize test call
   functionality from Section 15 of [RFC6881].

   A service URN starting with "test." indicates a request for an
   automated test.  For example,
   "urn:service:test.sos.vehicle.automatic" indicates such a test
   feature.  This functionality is defined in [RFC6881].





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10.  Example

   Figure 7 shows an emergency call placed by a vehicle whereby location
   information and VEDS crash data are both attached to the SIP INVITE
   message.  The INVITE has a request URI containing the
   'urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic' service URN and is thus
   recognized as an ACN type of emergency call, and is also recognized
   as a type of emergency call because the request URI starts with
   'urn:service:sos'.  The mobile network operator (MNO) routes the call
   to an Emergency services IP Network (ESInet), as for any emergency
   call.  The ESInet processes the call as an ACN and routes the call to
   an appropriate ACN-capable PSAP (using location information and the
   fact that that it is an ACN).  (In deployments where there is no
   ESInet, the MNO itself needs to route directly to an appropriate ACN-
   capable PSAP.)  The call is processed by the Emergency Services
   Routing Proxy (ESRP), as the entry point to the ESInet.  The ESRP
   routes the call to an appropriate ACN-capable PSAP, where the call is
   received by a call taker.

                             +-----------------------------------------+
                             |                                         |
             +------------+  |                  +-------+              |
             |            |  |                  | PSAP2 |              |
             |            |  |                  +-------+              |
             | Originating|  |                                         |
             |   Mobile   |  |  +------+     +-------+                 |
   Vehicle-->|  Network   |--+->| ESRP |---->| PSAP1 |---> Call-Taker  |
             |            |  |  +------+     +-------+                 |
             |            |  |                                         |
             +------------+  |                  +-------+              |
                             |                  | PSAP3 |              |
                             |                  +-------+              |
                             |                                         |
                             |                                         |
                             |                                         |
                             |                ESInet                   |
                             +-----------------------------------------+

      Figure 7: Example of Vehicle-Placed Emergency Call Message Flow

   The example, shown in Figure 8, illustrates a SIP emergency call
   eCall INVITE that is being conveyed with location information (a
   PIDF-LO) and crash data (as VEDS data).

      INVITE urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic SIP/2.0
      To: urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic
      From: <sip:+13145551111@example.com>;tag=9fxced76sl
      Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.example.com



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      Geolocation: <cid:target123@example.com>
      Geolocation-Routing: no
      Call-Info: cid:1234567890@atlanta.example.com;
                 purpose=EmergencyCallData.VEDS
      Accept: application/sdp, application/pidf+xml
      CSeq: 31862 INVITE
      Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=boundary1
      Content-Length: ...

      --boundary1

      Content-Type: application/sdp

      ...Session Description Protocol (SDP) goes here

      --boundary1

   Content-Type: application/pidf+xml
   Content-ID: <target123@atlanta.example.com>
   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <presence
          xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf"
          xmlns:dm="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:data-model"
          xmlns:gp="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10"
          xmlns:dyn="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10:dynamic"
          xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
          xmlns:gs="http://www.opengis.net/pidflo/1.0"
          entity="sip:+13145551111@example.com">
          <dm:device id="123">
              <gp:geopriv>
                  <gp:location-info>
                      <gml:Point srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326">
                         <gml:pos>-34.407 150.883</gml:pos>
                      </gml:Point>
                       <dyn:Dynamic>
                          <dyn:heading>278</dyn:heading>
                          <dyn:direction><dyn:direction>
                       </dyn:Dynamic>
                  </gp:location-info>
                  <gp:usage-rules/>
                  <method>gps</method>
              </gp:geopriv>
              <timestamp>2012-04-5T10:18:29Z</timestamp>
              <dm:deviceID>1M8GDM9A_KP042788</dm:deviceID>
          </dm:device>
   </presence>

       --boundary1



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   Content-Type: application/EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml
   Content-ID: 1234567890@atlanta.example.com

   ...eCall VEDS data object goes here

       --boundary1--

      Figure 8: SIP INVITE indicating an In-Vehicular Emergency Call

11.  Security Considerations

   This document does not raise security considerations beyond those
   described in [RFC5069].  As with emergency service systems with end
   host provided location information there is the possibility that that
   location is incorrect, either intentially (in case of an a denial of
   service attack against the emergency services infrastructure) or due
   to a malfunctioning devices.  The reader is referred to
   [I-D.ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-location] for a discussion of some of
   these vulnerabilities.

12.  IANA Considerations

12.1.  Service URN Registration

   IANA is requested to register the URN 'urn:service:sos.vehicle' under
   the sub-services 'sos' registry defined in Section 4.2 of [RFC5031].

   This service identifier reaches a public safety answering point
   (PSAP), which in turn dispatches aid appropriate to the emergency
   related to accidents of vehicles.  The following two sub-services are
   registered as well:

   urn:service:sos.vehicle.manual

      This service URN indicates that an emergency call carrying vehicle
      sensor ("crash") data has been placed by an in-vehicle system
      (IVS) based on the manual interaction of the driver or a
      passenger.

   urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic

      This service URN indicates that an emergency call carrying vehicle
      sensor ("crash") data has been placed by an in-vehicle system
      (IVS) triggered automatically, for example, due to a crash.

12.2.  MIME Content-type Registration for 'application/
       EmergencyCall.VEDS+xml'




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   This specification requests the registration of a new MIME type
   according to the procedures of RFC 4288 [RFC4288] and guidelines in
   RFC 3023 [RFC3023].

      MIME media type name: application

      MIME subtype name: EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml

      Mandatory parameters: none

      Optional parameters: charset

      Indicates the character encoding of enclosed XML.

      Encoding considerations: Uses XML, which can employ 8-bit
      characters, depending on the character encoding used.  See
      Section 3.2 of RFC 3023 [RFC3023].

      Security considerations: This content type is designed to carry
      vehicle crash data during an emergency call.  This data may
      contains personal information including vehicle VIN, location,
      direction, etc.  appropriate precautions need to be taken to limit
      unauthorized access, inappropriate disclosure to third parties,
      and eavesdropping of this information.  Please refer to Section 7
      and Section 8 of [additional-data-draft] for more information.

      Interoperability considerations: None

      Published specification: [VEDS]

      Applications which use this media type: Emergency Services

      Additional information: None

      Magic Number: None

      File Extension: .xml

      Macintosh file type code: 'TEXT'

      Person and email address for further information: Hannes
      Tschofenig, Hannes.Tschofenig@gmx.net

      Intended usage: LIMITED USE

      Author: This specification is a work item of the IETF ECRIT
      working group, with mailing list address <ecrit@ietf.org>.




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      Change controller: The IESG <ietf@ietf.org>

12.3.  Registration of the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call Additional
       Data registry

   This specification requests IANA to add the 'VEDS' entry to the
   Emergency Call Additional Data registry, with a reference to this
   document.  The Emergency Call Additional Data registry has been
   established by [additional-data-draft].

13.  Contributors

   We would like to thank Ulrich Dietz for his help with earlier
   versions of the original version of this document.

14.  Acknowledgements

   We would like to thank Michael Montag, Arnoud van Wijk, Ban Al-Bakri,
   and Gunnar Hellstrom for their feedback.

15.  Changes from Previous Versions

15.1.  Changes from draft-gellens-02 to draft-ietf-00

   o  Renamed from draft-gellens- to draft-ietf-

   o  Added text to Introduction to clarify that during a CS ACN, the
      PSAP call taker usually needs to listen to the data and transcribe
      it

15.2.  Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02

   o  Fixed case of 'EmergencyCallData', in accordance with changes to
      [additional-data-draft]

15.3.  Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01

   o  Now using 'EmergencyCallData' for purpose parameter values and
      MIME subtypes, in accordance with changes to
      [additional-data-draft]

   o  Added reference to RFC 6443

   o  Fixed bug that caused Figure captions to not appear

16.  References





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16.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3023]  Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, "XML Media
              Types", RFC 3023, January 2001.

   [RFC4119]  Peterson, J., "A Presence-based GEOPRIV Location Object
              Format", RFC 4119, December 2005.

   [RFC4288]  Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and
              Registration Procedures", RFC 4288, December 2005.

   [RFC5031]  Schulzrinne, H., "A Uniform Resource Name (URN) for
              Emergency and Other Well-Known Services", RFC 5031,
              January 2008.

   [RFC5491]  Winterbottom, J., Thomson, M., and H. Tschofenig, "GEOPRIV
              Presence Information Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO)
              Usage Clarification, Considerations, and Recommendations",
              RFC 5491, March 2009.

   [RFC5962]  Schulzrinne, H., Singh, V., Tschofenig, H., and M.
              Thomson, "Dynamic Extensions to the Presence Information
              Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO)", RFC 5962,
              September 2010.

   [RFC6442]  Polk, J., Rosen, B., and J. Peterson, "Location Conveyance
              for the Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 6442, December
              2011.

   [RFC6443]  Rosen, B., Schulzrinne, H., Polk, J., and A. Newton,
              "Framework for Emergency Calling Using Internet
              Multimedia", RFC 6443, December 2011.

   [RFC6881]  Rosen, B. and J. Polk, "Best Current Practice for
              Communications Services in Support of Emergency Calling",
              BCP 181, RFC 6881, March 2013.

   [VEDS]     , "Vehicular Emergency Data Set (VEDS) version 3", July
              2012, <http://apcointl.org/resources/aacn-and-veds/
              2012-07-25-19-24-06.html>.

   [additional-data-draft]






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              Rosen, B., Tschofenig, H., Marshall, R., Gellens, R., and
              J. Winterbottom, "Additional Data related to an Emergency
              Call", draft-ietf-ecrit-additional-data-11 (work in
              progress), July 2013.

16.2.  Informative references

   [I-D.ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-location]
              Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and B. Aboba,
              "Trustworthy Location", draft-ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-
              location-07 (work in progress), July 2013.

   [RFC4481]  Schulzrinne, H., "Timed Presence Extensions to the
              Presence Information Data Format (PIDF) to Indicate Status
              Information for Past and Future Time Intervals", RFC 4481,
              July 2006.

   [RFC5012]  Schulzrinne, H. and R. Marshall, "Requirements for
              Emergency Context Resolution with Internet Technologies",
              RFC 5012, January 2008.

   [RFC5069]  Taylor, T., Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and M.
              Shanmugam, "Security Threats and Requirements for
              Emergency Call Marking and Mapping", RFC 5069, January
              2008.

   [eCall-draft]
              Gellens, RG., "Next-Generation Pan-European eCall", 2013.

Authors' Addresses

   Randall Gellens
   Qualcomm Technologies, Inc
   5775 Morehouse Drive
   San Diego  92651
   US

   Email: rg+ietf@qti.qualcomm.com


   Brian Rosen
   NeuStar, Inc.
   470 Conrad Dr
   Mars, PA   16046
   US

   Email: br@brianrosen.net




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   Hannes Tschofenig
   (no affiliation)

   Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@gmx.net
   URI:   http://www.tschofenig.priv.at














































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