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Versions: (draft-rosen-ecrit-ecall) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 RFC 8147

ECRIT                                                         R. Gellens
Internet-Draft                               Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
Intended status: Standards Track                           H. Tschofenig
Expires: August 22, 2016                                    (Individual)
                                                       February 19, 2016


                   Next-Generation Pan-European eCall
                     draft-ietf-ecrit-ecall-07.txt

Abstract

   This document describes how to use IP-based emergency services
   mechanisms to support the next generation of the Pan European in-
   vehicle emergency call service defined under the eSafety initiative
   of the European Commission (generally referred to as "eCall"). eCall
   is a standardized and mandated system for a special form of emergency
   calls placed by vehicles.  eCall deployment is required in the very
   near future in European Union member states, and eCall (and eCall-
   compatible systems) are also being deployed in other regions.  eCall
   provides an integrated voice path and a standardized set of vehicle,
   sensor (e.g., crash related), and location data.  An eCall is
   recognized and handled as a specialized form of emergency call and is
   routed to a specialized eCall-capable Public Safety Answering Point
   (PSAP) capable of processing the vehicle data and trained in handling
   emergency calls from vehicles.

   Currently, eCall functions over circuit-switched cellular telephony;
   work on next-generation eCall (NG-eCall, sometimes called packet-
   switched eCall or PS-eCall) is now in process, and this document
   assists in that work by describing how to support eCall within the
   IP-based emergency services infrastructure.

   This document also registers a MIME Content Type and an Emergency
   Call Additional Data Block for the eCall vehicle data.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any



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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 22, 2016.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Document Scope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  eCall Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Vehicle Data  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   6.  Call Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   7.  Call Routing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   8.  Test Calls  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   9.  eCall-Specific Control/Metadata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     9.1.  The eCall Control Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       9.1.1.  The <ack> element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
         9.1.1.1.  Attributes of the <ack> element . . . . . . . . .  12
         9.1.1.2.  Child Elements of the <ack> element . . . . . . .  12
         9.1.1.3.  Ack Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       9.1.2.  The <capabilities> element  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
         9.1.2.1.  Child Elements of the <capabilities> element  . .  14
         9.1.2.2.  Capabilities Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       9.1.3.  The <request> element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
         9.1.3.1.  Attributes of the <request> element . . . . . . .  16
         9.1.3.2.  Child Elements of the <request> element . . . . .  18
         9.1.3.3.  Request Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     9.2.  The emergencyCallData.eCall INFO package  . . . . . . . .  19
   10. Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   12. Privacy Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   13. XML Schema  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26



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   14. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     14.1.  Service URN Registrations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     14.2.  MIME Content-type Registration for
            'application/emergencyCallData.eCall.MSD+xml'  . . . . .  30
     14.3.  MIME Content-type Registration for
            'application/emergencyCallData.eCall.control+xml'  . . .  31
     14.4.  Registration of the 'eCall.MSD' entry in the Emergency
            Call Additional Data Blocks registry . . . . . . . . . .  33
     14.5.  Registration of the 'eCall.control' entry in the
            Emergency Call Additional Data Blocks registry . . . . .  33
     14.6.  Registration of the emergencyCallData.eCall Info Package  33
     14.7.  URN Sub-Namespace Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       14.7.1.  Registration for urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:eCall  . . .  33
       14.7.2.  Registration for
                urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:eCall:control . . . . . . . .  34
     14.8.  Registry creation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       14.8.1.  eCall Control Action Registry  . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       14.8.2.  eCall Static Message Registry  . . . . . . . . . . .  36
       14.8.3.  eCall Reason Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
       14.8.4.  eCall Lamp ID Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
       14.8.5.  eCall Camera ID Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   15. Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   16. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   17. Changes from Previous Versions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     17.1.  Changes from draft-ietf-05 to draft-ietf-06  . . . . . .  40
     17.2.  Changes from draft-ietf-04 to draft-ietf-05  . . . . . .  40
     17.3.  Changes from draft-ietf-03 to draft-ietf-04  . . . . . .  40
     17.4.  Changes from draft-ietf-02 to draft-ietf-03  . . . . . .  40
     17.5.  Changes from draft-ietf-01 to draft-ietf-02  . . . . . .  40
     17.6.  Changes from draft-ietf-00 to draft-ietf-01  . . . . . .  41
     17.7.  Changes from draft-gellens-03 to draft-ietf-00 . . . . .  41
     17.8.  Changes from draft-gellens-02 to -03 . . . . . . . . . .  41
     17.9.  Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . .  41
     17.10. Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . .  41
   18. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
     18.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     18.2.  Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44

1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   This document re-uses terminology defined in Section 3 of [RFC5012].

   Additionally, we use the following abbreviations:



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            +--------+----------------------------------------+
            | Term   | Expansion                              |
            +--------+----------------------------------------+
            | 3GPP   | 3rd Generation Partnership Project     |
            | CEN    | European Committee for Standardization |
            | EENA   | European Emergency Number Association  |
            | ESInet | Emergency Services IP network          |
            | IMS    | IP Multimedia Subsystem                |
            | IVS    | In-Vehicle System                      |
            | MNO    | Mobile Network Operator                |
            | MSD    | Minimum Set of Data                    |
            | PSAP   | Public Safety Answering Point          |
            +--------+----------------------------------------+

2.  Document Scope

   This document is limited to the signaling, data exchange, and
   protocol needs of next-generation eCall (NG-eCall, also referred to
   as packet-switched eCall (PS-eCall) and all-IP eCall) within the SIP
   framework for emergency calls, as described in [RFC6443] and
   [RFC6881].  eCall itself is specified by 3GPP and CEN and these
   specifications include far greater scope than is covered here.

   The eCall service operates over cellular wireless communication, but
   this document does not address cellular-specific details, nor client
   domain selection (e.g., circuit-switched versus packet-switched).
   All such aspects are the purview of their respective standards
   bodies.  The scope of this document is limited to eCall operating
   within a SIP-based environment (e.g., 3GPP IMS Emergency Calling).

   The technical contents of this document can be suitable for use in
   other vehicle-initiated emergency call systems, but this is out of
   scope for this document.

   Vehicles designed for multiple regions might need to support eCall
   and other Advanced Automatic Crash Notification (AACN) systems, such
   as described in [I-D.ietf-ecrit-car-crash].  That system is
   compatible with eCall, differing primarily in the specific data set
   that is sent.

3.  Introduction

   Emergency calls made from vehicles (e.g., in the event of a crash)
   assist in significantly reducing road deaths and injuries by allowing
   emergency services to be aware of the incident, the state of the
   vehicle, the location of the vehicle, and to have a voice channel
   with the vehicle occupants.  This enables a quick and appropriate
   response.



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   The European Commission initiative of eCall was conceived in the late
   1990s, and has evolved to a European Parliament decision requiring
   the implementation of compliant in-vehicle systems (IVS) in new
   vehicles and the deployment of eCall in the European Member States in
   the very near future.  eCall (and eCall-compatible systems) are also
   being adopted in other regions.

   The pan-European eCall system provides a standardized and mandated
   mechanism for emergency calls by vehicles.  eCall establishes
   procedures for such calls to be placed by in-vehicle systems,
   recognized and processed by the network, and routed to a specialized
   PSAP where the vehicle data is available to assist the call taker in
   assessing and responding to the situation.  eCall provides a standard
   set of vehicle, sensor (e.g., crash related), and location data.

   An eCall can be either user-initiated or automatically triggered.
   Automatically triggered eCalls indicate a car crash or some other
   serious incident and carry a greater presumption of risk of injury.
   Manually triggered eCalls might be reports of serious hazards and are
   likely to require a different response than an automatically
   triggered eCall.  Manually triggered eCalls are also more likely to
   be false (e.g., accidental) calls and so might be subject to
   different operational handling by the PSAP.

   Currently, eCall is standardized (by 3GPP [SDO-3GPP] and CEN [CEN])
   as a 3GPP circuit-switched call over GSM (2G) or UMTS (3G).  Flags in
   the call setup mark the call as an eCall, and further indicate if the
   call was automatically or manually triggered.  The call is routed to
   an eCall-capable PSAP, a voice channel is established between the
   vehicle and the PSAP, and an eCall in-band modem is used to carry a
   defined set of vehicle, sensor (e.g., crash related), and location
   data (the Minimum Set of Data or MSD) within the voice channel.  The
   same in-band mechanism is used for the PSAP to acknowledge successful
   receipt of the MSD, and to request the vehicle to send a new MSD
   (e.g., to check if the state of or location of the vehicle or its
   occupants has changed).  Work on next-generation eCall (NG-eCall,
   also referred to as packet-switched eCall or PS eCall) is now in
   process.  As part of this work, the European Telecommunications
   Standards Institute (ETSI) [SDO-ETSI] has published a Technical
   Report titled "Mobile Standards Group (MSG); eCall for VoIP" [MSG_TR]
   that presents findings and recommendations regarding support for
   eCall in an all-IP environment.  NG-eCall moves from circuit switched
   to all-IP, and carries the vehicle data and other eCall-specific data
   as additional data associated with the call.  This document describes
   how IETF mechanisms for IP-based emergency calls, including [RFC6443]
   and [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data] are used to provide the
   signaling and data exchange of the next generation of pan-European
   eCall.



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   The [MSG_TR] recommendation for NG-eCall is to use 3GPP IMS emergency
   calling with additional elements identifying the call as an eCall and
   as carrying eCall data and with mechanisms for carrying the data.
   3GPP IMS emergency services support multimedia, providing the ability
   to carry voice, text, and video.  This capability is referred to
   within 3GPP as Multimedia Emergency Services (MMES).

   A transition period will exist during which time the various entities
   involved in initiating and handling an eCall might support next-
   generation eCall, legacy eCall, or both.  This transition period
   might last several years or longer.  The issue of migration/co-
   existence during the transition period is very important but is
   outside the scope of this document.  The ETSI TR "Mobile Standards
   Group (MSG); eCall for VoIP" [MSG_TR] discusses these issues in
   Clause 7.

4.  eCall Requirements

   Overall eCall requirements are specified by CEN in [EN_16072] and by
   3GPP in [TS22.101] clauses 10.7 and A.27.  Requirements specific to
   vehicle data are contained in EN 15722 [msd].  For convenience, the
   requirements most applicable to the limited scope of this document
   are summarized very briefly below.

   eCall requires:

   o  The call be recognized as an eCall (which is inherently an
      emergency call)
   o  The call setup indicates if the call was manually or automatically
      triggered
   o  A voice channel between the vehicle and the PSAP
   o  Carrying the MSD intrinsically with the call (the MSD needs to be
      available to the same call-taker as the voice)
   o  The ability for the PSAP to acknowledge receipt of the MSD
   o  The ability for the PSAP to request that the vehicle generate and
      transmit a new MSD
   o  The ability of the PSAP to be able to re-contact the occupants of
      vehicle after the initial eCall is concluded
   o  The ability to perform a test call (which can be routed to a PSAP
      but is not treated as an emergency call and not handled by a call
      taker)

   It is recognized that NG-eCall offers many potential enhancements,
   although these are not required by current EU regulations.  For
   convenience, the enhancements most applicable to the limited scope of
   this document are summarized very briefly below.

   NG-eCall is expected to offer:



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   o  The ability to carry more data (e.g., an enhanced MSD or an MSD
      plus additional sets of data)
   o  The ability to handle video
   o  The ability to handle text
   o  The ability for the PSAP to access vehicle components (e.g., an
      onboard camera (such as rear facing or blind-spot cameras) for a
      visual assessment of the crash site situation)
   o  The ability for the PSAP to request the vehicle to take actions
      (e.g., sound the horn, disable the ignition, lock/unlock doors)
   o  The ability to avoid audio muting of the voice channel (because
      the MSD is not transferred using an in-band modem)

5.  Vehicle Data

   Pan-European eCall provides a standardized and mandated set of
   vehicle related data, known as the Minimum Set of Data (MSD).  The
   European Committee for Standardization (CEN) has specified this data
   in EN 15722 [msd], along with both ASN.1 and XML encodings for the
   MSD [msd].  Circuit-switched eCall uses the ASN.1 encoding.  The XML
   encoding is better suited for use in SIP messages and is used in this
   document.  (The ASN.1 encoding is specified in Annex A of EN 15722
   [msd], while the XML encoding is specified in Annex C.)

   The "Additional Data related to an Emergency Call" document
   [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data] establishes a general mechanism for
   attaching blocks of data to a SIP emergency call.  This document
   makes use of that mechanism to carry the eCall MSD in a SIP emergency
   call.

   This document registers the 'application/
   emergencyCallData.eCall.MSD+xml' MIME Content-Type to enable the MSD
   to be carried in SIP.  This document also adds the 'eCall.MSD' entry
   to the Emergency Call Additional Data Blocks registry (established by
   [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]) to enable the MSD to be recognized
   as such in a SIP-based eCall emergency call.

   Note that if additional data sets are defined and registered (e.g.,
   in the future or in other regions) and transmitted using the same
   mechanisms, the size and frequency of transmission during a session
   needs to be evaluated to be sure it is appropriate to use the
   signaling channel.

6.  Call Setup

   In circuit-switched eCall, the IVS places a special form of a 112
   emergency call which carries an eCall flag (indicating that the call
   is an eCall and also if the call was manually or automatically
   triggered); the mobile network operator (MNO) recognizes the eCall



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   flag and routes the call to an eCall-capable PSAP; vehicle data is
   transmitted to the PSAP via the eCall in-band modem (in the voice
   channel).

      ///----\\\      112 voice call with eCall flag      +------+
     ||| IVS  |||---------------------------------------->+ PSAP |
      \\\----///   vehicle data via eCall in-band modem   +------+


                     Figure 1: circuit-switched eCall

   An In-Vehicle System (IVS) which supports NG-eCall transmits the MSD
   in accordance with [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data] by encoding it as
   specified (per Appendix C of EN 15722 [msd]) and attaching it to an
   INVITE as a MIME body part.  The body part is identified by its MIME
   content-type ('application/emergencyCallData.eCall.MSD+xml') in the
   Content-Type header field of the body part.  The body part is
   assigned a unique identifier which is listed in a Content-ID header
   field in the body part.  The INVITE is marked as containing the MSD
   by adding (or appending to) a Call-Info header field at the top level
   of the INVITE.  This Call-Info header field contains a CID URL
   referencing the body part's unique identifier, and a 'purpose'
   parameter identifying the data as the eCall MSD per the registry
   entry; the 'purpose' parameter's value is 'emergencyCallData.' and
   the root of the MIME type (not including the 'emergencyCallData'
   prefix and any suffix such as '+xml' (e.g.,
   'purpose=emergencyCallData.eCall.MSD').

   For NG-eCall, the IVS establishes an emergency call using the 3GPP
   IMS solution with a Request-URI indicating an eCall type of emergency
   call and with vehicle data attached; the MNO or ESInet recognizes the
   eCall URN and routes the call to a NG-eCall capable PSAP; the PSAP
   interpets the vehicle data sent with the call and makes it available
   to the call taker.

     ///----\\\     IMS emergency call with eCall URN    +------+
        IVS    ----------------------------------------->+ PSAP |
     \\\----///    vehicle data included in call setup   +------+

                            Figure 2: NG-eCall

   This document registers new service URN children within the "sos"
   subservice.  These URNs provide the mechanism by which an eCall is
   identified, and differentiate between manually and automatically
   triggered eCalls (which can be subject to different treatment,
   depending on policy).  The two service URNs are:
   urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic and urn:service:sos.ecall.manual




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7.  Call Routing

   The routing rules for eCalls are likely to differ from those of other
   emergency calls because eCalls are special types of emergency calls
   (with implications for the types of response required) and need to be
   handled by specially designated PSAPs.  In an environment that uses
   ESInets, the originating network passes all types of emergency calls
   to an ESInet (which have a request URI containing the "SOS" service
   URN).  The ESInet is then responsible for routing such calls to the
   appropriate PSAP.  In an environment without an ESInet, the emergency
   services authorities and the originating network jointly determine
   how such calls are routed.

8.  Test Calls

   eCall requires the ability to place test calls.  These are calls that
   are recognized and treated to some extent as eCalls but are not given
   emergency call treatment and are not handled by call takers.  The
   test call facility allows the IVS or user to verify that an eCall can
   be successfully established with voice communication.  The IVS can
   also verify that the MSD was successfully received.

   A service URN starting with "test." indicates a test call.  For
   eCall, "urn:service:test.sos.ecall" indicates such a test feature.
   This functionality is defined in [RFC6881].

   This document registers "urn:service:test.sos.ecall" for eCall test
   calls.

   the current eCall test call facility is a non-emergency number so
   does not get treated as an emergency call.  MNOs can treat a vehicle
   call in the "test" service URN in a way that tests as much
   functionality as desired, but this is outside the scope of this
   document.

   PSAPs that have the ability to process NG-eCalls SHOULD accept test
   calls and send an acknowledgment if the MSD was successfully
   received, per this document.  Such PSAPs MAY also play an audio clip
   (for example, saying that the call reached a PSAP) in addition to
   supporting media loopback per [RFC6881].

9.  eCall-Specific Control/Metadata

   eCall requires the ability for the PSAP to acknowledge successful
   receipt of an MSD sent by the IVS, and for the PSAP to request that
   the IVS send an MSD (e.g., the call taker can initiate a request for
   a new MSD to see if the vehicle's state or location has changed).
   Future enhancements are desired to enable the PSAP to send other



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   requests to the vehicle, such as locking or unlocking doors, sounding
   the horn, flashing the lights, starting a video stream from on-board
   cameras (such as rear focus or blind-spot), etc.

   The mechanism established in [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data], used
   in Section 5 of this document to carry the MSD from the IVS to the
   PSAP, is also used to carry a block of control data from the PSAP to
   the IVS.  This eCall control block (sometimes referred to as eCall
   metadata) is an XML structure containing eCall-specific elements.
   When the PSAP needs to send an eCall control block that is in
   response to the MSD or other data sent by the IVS in a SIP request,
   the control block can be sent in the SIP response to that request
   (e.g., the INVITE).  When the PSAP needs to send an eCall control
   block that is not an immediate response to an MSD or other data sent
   by the IVS, the control block can be transmitted from the PSAP to the
   IVS in a SIP INFO message within the established session.  The IVS
   can then send any requested data (such as a new MSD) in the reply to
   the INFO message.  This mechanism flexibly allows the PSAP to send
   eCall-specific data to the IVS and the IVS to respond.  If control
   data sent in a response message requests the IVS to send a new MSD or
   other data block, or to perform an action other than sending data,
   the IVS can send the requested data or an acknowledgment regarding
   the action in an INFO message within the session (it could also use
   re-INVITE but that is unnecessary when no aspect of the session or
   media is changing).

   This mechanism requires

   o  An XML definition of the eCall control object
   o  An extension mechanism by which new elements can be added to the
      control object definition (e.g., permitting additional elements to
      be included by adding their namespace)
   o  A MIME type registration for the control object (so it can be
      carried in SIP messages and responses)
   o  An entry in the Emergency Call Additional Data Blocks sub-registry
      (established by [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]) so that the
      control block can be recognized as emergency call specific data
      within the SIP messages
   o  An Info-Package registration per [RFC6086] permitting the control
      block within Info messages

9.1.  The eCall Control Block

   The eCall control block is an XML data structure allowing for
   acknowledgments, requests, and capabilities information.  It is
   carried in a SIP body part with a specific MIME content type.  Three
   top-level elements are defined for use within an eCall control block:




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   ack           Used in a control block sent by either side.  The PSAP
                 uses this to acknowledge receipt of a data set sent by
                 the IVS.  The IVS uses this to acknowledge receipt of a
                 request by the PSAP when that request would not
                 otherwise be acknowledged (if the PSAP requests the
                 vehicle to send data and the vehicle does so, the data
                 serves as a success acknowledgement).

   capabilities: Used in a control block sent from the IVS to the PSAP
                 (e.g., in the initial INVITE) to inform the PSAP of the
                 vehicle capabilities.  Child elements contain all
                 actions and data types supported by the vehicle and all
                 available lamps (lights) and cameras.

   request       Used in a control block sent by the PSAP to the IVS, to
                 request the vehicle to perform an action.

   Mandatory Actions (the IVS and the PSAP MUST support):

   o  Transmit data object

   Optional Actions (the IVS and the PSAP MAY support):

   o  Play and/or display static (pre-defined) message
   o  Speak/display dynamic text (text supplied in action)
   o  Flash or turn on or off a lamp (light)
   o  Honk horn
   o  Enable a camera

   The <ack> element indicates the object being acknowledged (i.e., a
   data object or a <request> element), and reports success or failure.

   The <capabilities> element has child <request> elements to indicate
   the actions supported by the IVS.

   The <request> element contains attributes to indicate the request and
   to supply any needed information, and MAY contain a <text> child
   element to contain the text for a dynamic message.  The 'action'
   attribute is mandatory and indicates the specific action.  An IANA
   registry is created in Section 14.8.1 to contain the allowed values.

   Extensibility: New elements, child elements, and attributes can be
   defined in new namespaces.  IANA registries are used to specify the
   permitted values of several elements and attributes.  These
   mechanisms allow for extension.






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   There is no 'request' action to play dynamic media (such as a pre-
   recorded audio message).  The SIP re-INVITE mechanism can be used to
   establish a one-way media stream for this purpose.

9.1.1.  The <ack> element

   The <ack> element is transmitted by the PSAP to acknowledge receipt
   of an eCall data object.  An <ack> element sent by a PSAP references
   the unique ID of the data object that was sent by the IVS, and
   further indicates if the PSAP considers the receipt successful or
   not.  The <ack> element is also transmitted by the IVS to the PSAP to
   acknowledge receipt of a <request> element that requested the IVS to
   perform an action other than transmitting a data object (e.g., a
   request to display a message would be acknowledged, but a request to
   transmit a data object would not result in a separate <ack> element
   being sent, since the data object itself serves as acknowledgment.)
   An <ack> element sent by an IVS references the unique ID of the
   request being acknowledged, indicates whether the request was
   successfully performed, and if not, optionally includes an
   explanation.

   The <ack> element has the following attributes and child elements:

9.1.1.1.  Attributes of the <ack> element

   The <ack> element has the following attributes:

   Name:  ref
   Usage:  Mandatory
   Type:  anyURI
   Description:  References the Content-ID of the body part that
      contained the data object or control object being acknowledged.
   Example:  <ack received="yes" ref="1234567890@atlanta.example.com"/>

   Name:  received
   Usage:  Conditional: mandatory in an >ack< element sent by a PSAP;
      not applicable in an >ack< element sent by an IVS
   Type:  Boolean
   Description:  Indicates if the referenced object was successfully
      received or not
   Example:  <ack received="yes" ref="1234567890@atlanta.example.com"/>

9.1.1.2.  Child Elements of the <ack> element

   The <ack> element has the following child elements:

   Name:  actionResult
   Usage:  Optional



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   Description:  An <actionResult> element indicates the result of an
      action (other than a 'send-data' action).  When an <ack> element
      is in response to a control object with multiple <request>
      elements (that are not 'send-data' actions), the <ack> element
      contains an <actionResult> element for each.  The <actionResult>
      element has the following attributes:



      Name:  action
      Usage:  Mandatory
      Type:  token
      Description:  Contains the value of the 'action' attribute of the
         <request> element

      Name:  success
      Usage:  Mandatory
      Type:  Boolean
      Description:  Indicates if the action was successfully
         accomplished

      Name:  reason
      Usage:  Conditional
      Type:  token
      Description:  Used when 'success' is "False", this attribute
         contains a reason code for a failure.  A registry for reason
         codes is defined in Section 14.8.3.

      Name:  details
      Usage:  optional
      Type:  string
      Description:  Contains further explanation of the circumstances of
         a success or failure.  The contents are implementation-specific
         and human-readable.

   Example:  <actionResult action="msg-dynamic" success="true"/>

   Example:  <actionResult action="lamp" success="false" reason="unable"
      details="The requested lamp is inoperable"/>

9.1.1.3.  Ack Examples










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      <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
      <EmergencyCallData.eCallControl
          xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:EmergencyCallData:eCall-control"
          xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:EmergencyCallData:
              eCall-control">

      <ack received="true" ref="1234567890@atlanta.example.com"/>

      </EmergencyCallData.eCallControl>


                  Figure 3: Ack Example from PSAP to IVS


      <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
      <EmergencyCallData.eCallControl
          xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:EmergencyCallData:eCall-control"
          xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:EmergencyCallData:
              eCall-control">

      <ack ref="1234567890@atlanta.example.com">
          <actionResult action="msg-dynamic" success="true"/>
          <actionResult action="lamp" success="false" reason="unable"
                        details="The requested lamp is inoperable"/>
      </ack>

      </EmergencyCallData.eCallControl>


                  Figure 4: Ack Example from IVS to PSAP

9.1.2.  The <capabilities> element

   The <capabilities> element is transmitted by the IVS to indicate to
   the PSAP its capabilities.  No attributes for this element are
   currently defined.  The following child elements are defined:

9.1.2.1.  Child Elements of the <capabilities> element

   The <capabilities> element has the following child elements:

   Name:  request
   Usage:  Mandatory
   Description:  The <capabilities> element contains a <request> child
      element per action supported by the vehicle.




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      Because support for a 'send-data' action is REQUIRED, a <request>
      child element with a "send-data" 'action' attribute is also
      REQUIRED.  The 'supported-datatypes' attribute is REQUIRED in this
      <request> element within a <capabilities> element, and MUST
      contain at a minimum the 'eCall.MSD' data block value; it SHOULD
      contain all data blocks supported by the IVS.

      All other actions are OPTIONAL.

      If the "msg-static" action is supported, a <request> child element
      with a "msg-static" 'action' attribute is sent, with a 'msgid'
      attribute set to the highest supported static message supported by
      the vehicle.  A registry is created in Section 14.8.2 to map
      'msgid' values to static text messages.  By sending the highest
      supported static message number in its <capabilities> element, the
      vehicle indicates its support for all static messages in the
      registry up to and including that value.

      If the "lamp" action is supported, a <request> child element with
      a "lamp" 'action' is sent, with a 'supported-lamps' attribute set
      to all supported lamp IDs.

      If the "enable-camera" action is supported, a <request> child
      element with an "enable-camera" 'action' is sent, with a
      'supported-cameras' attribute set to all supported camera IDs.

   Examples:
      <request action="send-data" supported-datatypes="eCall.MSD" />
      <request action="send-data" supported-datatypes="eCall.MSD; VEDS;
      eCall.type2" />
      <request action="msg-dynamic"/>
      <request action="msg.static" msgid="17" />

9.1.2.2.  Capabilities Example

















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    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <EmergencyCallData.eCallControl
        xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:EmergencyCallData:eCall-control"
        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xsi:schemaLocation="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:EmergencyCallData:
            eCall-control">

    <capabilities>
        <request action="send-data" supported-datatypes="eCall.MSD"/>
        <request action="lamp"
                 supported-lamps="head;interior;fog-front;fog-rear;brake;
                 position-front;position-rear;turn-left;turn-right;hazard"/>
        <request action="msg-static" msgid="3"/>
        <request action="msg-dynamic"/>
        <request action="honk"/>
        <request action="enable-camera" supported-cameras="backup; interior"/>
    </capabilities>

    </EmergencyCallData.eCallControl>


                      Figure 5: Capabilities Example

9.1.3.  The <request> element

   A <request> element appears one or more times on its own or as a
   child of a <capabilities> element.  The following attributes and
   child elements are defined:

9.1.3.1.  Attributes of the <request> element

   The <request> element has the following attributes:

   Name:  action
   Usage:  Mandatory
   Type:  token
   Description:  Identifies the action that the vehicle is requested to
      perform.  An IANA registry is established in Section 14.8.1 to
      contain the allowed values.
   Example:  action="send-data"

   Name:  msgid
   Usage:  Conditional
   Type:  int
   Description:  Mandatory with a "msg-static" action.  Indicates the
      identifier of the static message to be displayed and/or spoken for
      the vehicle occupants.  This document established an IANA registry
      for messages and their IDs, in Section 14.8.2



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   Example:  msgid="3"

   Name:  persistance
   Usage:  Optional
   Type:  duration
   Description:  Specifies how long to carry on the specified action,
      for example, how long to continue honking or flashing.  If absent,
      the default is indefinitely.
   Example:  persistance="PT1H"

   Name:  datatype
   Usage:  Conditional
   Type:  token
   Description:  Mandatory with a "send-data" action.  Specifies the
      data block that the IVS is requested to transmit, using the same
      identifier as in the 'purpose' attribute set in a Call-Info header
      field to point to the data block.  Permitted values are contained
      in the 'Emergency Call Data Types' IANA registry established in
      [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data].
   Example:  datatype="eCall.MSD"

   Name:  supported-datatypes
   Usage:  Conditional
   Type:  string
   Description:  Used with a 'send-data' action in a <request> element
      that is a child of a <capability> element, this attribute lists
      all data blocks that the vehicle can transmit, using the same
      identifier as in the 'purpose' attribute in a Call-Info header
      field to point to the data block.  Permitted values are contained
      in the 'Emergency Call Data Types' IANA registry established in
      [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data].  Multiple values are separated
      with a semicolon.
   Example:  supported-datatypes="eCall.MSD; VEDS; eCall.foo"

   Name:  lamp-action
   Usage:  Conditional
   Type:  token
   Description:  Used with a 'lamp' action, indicates if the lamp is to
      be illuminated, turned off, or flashed.  Permitted values are
      'on', 'off', and 'flash'.
   Example:  lamp-action="flash"

   Name:  lamp-ID
   Usage:  Conditional
   Type:  token
   Description:  Used with a 'lamp' action, indicates which lamp the
      action affects.  Permitted values are contained in the registry of
      lamp-ID tokens created in Section 14.8.4



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   Example:  lamp-ID="hazard"

   Name:  supported-lamps
   Usage:  Conditional
   Type:  string
   Description:  Used with a 'lamp' action in a <request> element that
      is a child of a <capability> element, this attribute lists all
      supported lamps, using values in the registry of lamp-ID tokens
      created in Section 14.8.4.  Multiple values are separated with a
      semicolon.
   Example:  supported-lamps="head; interior; fog-front; fog-rear;
      brake; position-front; position-rear; turn-left; turn-right;
      hazard"

   Name:  camera-ID
   Usage:  Conditional
   Type:  token
   Description:  Used with an 'enable-camera' action, indicates which
      camera to enable.  Permitted values are contained in the registry
      of camera-ID tokens created in Section 14.8.5.  When a vehicle
      camera is enabled, the IVS sends a re-INVITE to negotiate a one-
      way media stream for the camera.
   Example:  camera-ID="backup"

   Name:  supported-cameras
   Usage:  Conditional
   Type:  string
   Description:  Used with an 'enable-camera' action in a <request>
      element that is a child of a <capability> element, this attribute
      lists all cameras that the vehicle supports (can add as a video
      feed in the current session), using the same identifiers as are
      used in the 'camera-ID' attribute (contained in the camera ID
      registry in Section 14.8.5).  Multiple values are separated with a
      semicolon.
   Example:  supported-cameras="backup; interior"

9.1.3.2.  Child Elements of the <request> element

   The <request> element has the following child elements:

   Name:  text
   Usage:  Conditional
   Type:  string
   Description:  Used within a <request action="msg-dynamic"> element to
      contain the text to be displayed and/or spoken (via text-to-
      speech) for the vehicle occupants.
   Example:  <text>Emergency authorities are aware of your incident and
      location.  Due to a multi-vehicle incident in your area, no one is



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      able to speak with you right now.  Please remain calm.  We will
      assist you soon.</text>

9.1.3.3.  Request Example


      <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
      <EmergencyCallData.eCallControl
          xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:EmergencyCallData:eCall-control"
          xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:EmergencyCallData:
              eCall-control">

      <request action="send-data" datatype="eCall.MSD"/>
      <request action="lamp" lamp-id="hazard"
               lamp-action="flash" persistance="PT1H"/>
      <request action="msg-static" msgid="1"/>
      <request action="msg-dynamic">
          <text>Remain calm.  Help is on the way.</text>
      </request>

      </EmergencyCallData.eCallControl>


                         Figure 6: Request Example

9.2.  The emergencyCallData.eCall INFO package

   This document registers the 'emergencyCallData.eCall' INFO package.
   Both endpoints (the IVS and the PSAP equipment) set the Recv-Info
   header field to 'emergencyCallData.eCall' per [RFC6086] to indicate
   ability to receive INFO messages carrying eCall data or control
   blocks.

   Support for the 'emergencyCallData.eCall' INFO package indicates the
   ability to receive eCall data and control blocks, which are carried
   in a body part whose subtype starts with 'emergencyCallData.eCall.'.
   At present there is only one defined eCall data block, which has the
   'application/emergencyCallData.eCall.MSD+xml' MIME type, and one
   eCall control block, which has the 'application/
   emergencyCallData.eCall.control+xml' MIME type.  The eCall control
   block includes the ability for the IVS to indicate its capabilities,
   so in the event additional eCall blocks are defined, the IVS can
   indicate which it supports.

   The use of INFO is based on an analysis of the requirements against
   the intent and effects of INFO versus other approaches (such as SIP
   MESSAGE, media plane, or non-SIP protocols).  In particular, the



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   transport of eCall data and control blocks is done only during an
   emergency session established with SIP, using the mechanism
   established in [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data], and is normally
   carried in the initial INVITE and its response; the use of INFO only
   occurs when a data block or request needs to be sent subsequently
   during the call.  While MESSAGE could be used, it is not tied to a
   SIP session as is INFO.  REINVITE could also be used, but is normally
   used to modify the session.  SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY could be coerced into
   service, but the semantics are not a clean fit.  Hence, INFO is
   appropriate.

   An INFO request message carrying an eCall data or control block has
   an Info-Package header field set to 'emergencyCallData.eCall' per
   [RFC6086].  The INFO request message is marked as containing the
   eCall data or control block by a Call-Info header field containing a
   CID URL referencing the unique identifier of the body part containing
   the eCall data or control, and a 'purpose' parameter identifying the
   block.  Because the eCall data or control block is being carried in
   an INFO request message, the body part also carries a Content-
   Disposition header field set to "Info-Package".

   Per [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data], emergency call related
   additional data MAY be included in any SIP request or response
   message that can contain a body.  Hence, notwithstanding
   Section 4.3.2. of [RFC6086], INFO response messages MAY contain eCall
   data or control blocks, provided they are included as described in
   this document (with a Call-Info header field containing a CID URL
   referencing the unique identifier of the body part, and a 'purpose'
   parameter identifying the block).  When eCall data or control blocks
   are included in an INFO response message, this is done per
   [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data] and this document, and not under
   [RFC6086]; that is, they are included as emergency call additional
   data, not as an INFO package associated data.

10.  Examples

   Figure 7 shows an eCall.  The call uses the request URI
   'urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic' service URN and is recognized as an
   eCall, and further as one that was invoked automatically by the IVS
   due to a crash or other serious incident.  In this example, the
   originating network routes the call to an ESInet (as for any
   emergency call in an environment with an ESInet).  The ESInet routes
   the call to the appropriate NG-eCall capable PSAP.  The emergency
   call is received by the ESInet's Emergency Services Routing Proxy
   (ESRP), as the entry point into the ESInet.  The ESRP routes the call
   to a PSAP, where it is received by a call taker.  In deployments
   where there is no ESInet, the originating network routes the call
   directly to the appropriate NG-eCall capable PSAP.



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               +------------+  +---------------------------------------+
               |            |  |                  +-------+            |
               |            |  |                  | PSAP2 |            |
               |            |  |                  +-------+            |
               |            |  |                                       |
               |            |  |  +------+     +-------+               |
     Vehicle-->|            |--+->| ESRP |---->| PSAP1 |--> Call-Taker |
               |            |  |  +------+     +-------+               |
               |            |  |                                       |
               |            |  |                  +-------+            |
               |            |  |                  | PSAP3 |            |
               | Originating|  |                  +-------+            |
               |   Mobile   |  |                                       |
               |  Network   |  |                ESInet                 |
               +------------+  +---------------------------------------+

                Figure 7: Example of NG-eCall Message Flow

   The example, shown in Figure 8, illustrates a SIP eCall INVITE that
   contains an MSD and an eCall control block with vehicle capabilities.
   For simplicity, the example does not show all SIP headers, nor does
   it show the additional data blocks added by the IVS and the
   originating mobile network.

    INVITE urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic SIP/2.0
    To: urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic
    From: <sip:+13145551111@example.com>;tag=9fxced76sl
    Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.example.com
    Geolocation: <cid:target123@example.com>
    Geolocation-Routing: no
    Call-Info: cid:1234567890@atlanta.example.com;
               purpose=emergencyCallData.eCall.MSD;
               cid:2345678901@atlanta.example.com;
               purpose=emergencyCallData.eCall.control;
    Accept: application/sdp, application/pidf+xml,
            application/emergencyCallData.eCall.control
    CSeq: 31862 INVITE
    Recv-Info: emergencyCallData.eCall
    Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=boundary1
    Content-Length: ...

    --boundary1
    Content-Type: application/sdp

         ...Session Description Protocol (SDP) goes here...

    --boundary1
    Content-Type: application/emergencyCallData.eCall.MSD+xml



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    Content-ID: 1234567890@atlanta.example.com
    Content-Disposition: by-reference;handling=optional

    <ECallMessage>
       <id>1</id>

       <msd>
          <msdStructure>

             <messageIdentifier>1</messageIdentifier>

             <control>
                <automaticActivation> <true/> </automaticActivation>
                <testCall> <false/> </testCall>
                <positionCanBeTrusted> <true/> </positionCanBeTrusted>
                <vehicleType> <passengerVehicleClassM1/> </vehicleType>
             </control>

             <vehicleIdentificationNumber>
                <isowmi>WMI</isowmi>
                <isovds>VDSVDS</isovds>
                <isovisModelyear>Y</isovisModelyear>
                <isovisSeqPlant>A123456</isovisSeqPlant>
             </vehicleIdentificationNumber>

             <vehiclePropulsionStorageType>
                <gasolineTankPresent> <true/> </gasolineTankPresent>
                <electricEnergyStorage> <true/> </electricEnergyStorage>
             </vehiclePropulsionStorageType>

             <timestamp>123456789</timestamp>

             <vehicleLocation>
                <positionLatitude>173881200</positionLatitude>
                <positionLongitude>41822520</positionLongitude>
             </vehicleLocation>

             <vehicleDirection>14</vehicleDirection>

             <recentVehicleLocationN1>
                <latitudeDelta>10</latitudeDelta>
                <longitudeDelta>-10</longitudeDelta>
             </recentVehicleLocationN1>

             <recentVehicleLocationN2>
                <latitudeDelta>10</latitudeDelta>
                <longitudeDelta>-20</longitudeDelta>
             </recentVehicleLocationN2>



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             <numberOfPassengers>2</numberOfPassengers>

          </msdStructure>

          <optionalAdditionalData>
             <oid>1.2.125</oid>
             <data>30304646</data>
          </optionalAdditionalData>
       </msd>
    </ECallMessage>

    --boundary1
    Content-Type: application/emergencyCallData.eCall.control+xml
    Content-ID: 2345678901@atlanta.example.com
    Content-Disposition: by-reference;handling=optional

     <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
     <EmergencyCallData.eCallControl
         xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:EmergencyCallData:eCall-control"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:EmergencyCallData:
             eCall-control">

     <capabilities>
         <request action="send-data" supported-datatypes="eCall.MSD"/>
         <request action="lamp"
                  supported-lamps="head;interior;fog-front;fog-rear;
                  brake;position-front;position-rear;turn-left;
                  turn-right;hazard"/>
         <request action="msg-static" msgid="3"/>
         <request action="msg-dynamic"/>
         <request action="honk"/>
         <request action="enable-camera"
                  supported-cameras="backup; interior"/>
     </capabilities>

     </EmergencyCallData.eCallControl>

     --boundary1--

                       Figure 8: SIP NG-eCall INVITE

   Continuing the example, Figure 9 illustrates a SIP 200 OK response to
   the INVITE of Figure 8, containing an eCall control block
   acknowledging successful receipt of the eCall MSD.  (For simplicity,
   the example does not show all SIP headers.)





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      SIP/2.0 200 OK
      To: <sip:+13145551111@example.com>;tag=9fxced76sl
      From: Exemplar PSAP <urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic>
      Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.example.com
      Call-Info: cid:2345678901@atlanta.example.com;
                 purpose=emergencyCallData.eCall.control;
      Accept: application/sdp, application/pidf+xml,
              application/emergencyCallData.eCall.control,
              application/emergencyCallData.eCall.MSD
      CSeq: 31862 INVITE
      Recv-Info: emergencyCallData.eCall
      Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=boundaryX
      Content-Length: ...

      --boundaryX
      Content-Type: application/sdp

           ...Session Description Protocol (SDP) goes here...

      --boundaryX
      Content-Type: application/EmergencyCallData:eCall-control+xml
      Content-ID: 2345678901@atlanta.example.com
      Content-Disposition: by-reference;handling=optional

      <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
      <EmergencyCallData.eCallControl
          xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:EmergencyCallData:eCall-control"
          xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:EmergencyCallData:
              eCall-control">

      <ack received="true" ref="1234567890@atlanta.example.com"/>

      </EmergencyCallData.eCallControl>

      --boundaryX--


                    Figure 9: 200 OK response to INVITE

11.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations described in [RFC5069] apply here.

   In addition to any network-provided location that is inherently
   permitted for IMS emergency calls (which might be determined solely
   by the network, or in cooperation with or possibly entirely by the
   originating device), an eCall carries an IVS-supplied location within



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   the MSD.  This is likely to be useful to the PSAP, especially when
   the two locations are independently determined.  Even in situations
   where the network-supplied location is limited to the cell site, this
   can be useful as a sanity check on the device-supplied location
   contained in the MSD.

   The document [RFC7378] discusses trust issues regarding location
   provided by or determined in cooperation with end devices.

   Security considerations specific to the mechanism by which the PSAP
   sends acknowledgments and requests to the vehicle are discussed in
   the "Security Considerations" block of Section 14.3.  In addition to
   that discussion, it's important to note that vehicles MAY decline to
   carry out any requested action, e.g., if the vehicle is unable to
   verify the certificate used to sign the request.  The vehicle MAY use
   any value in the reason registry in Section 14.8.3 to indicate why it
   did not take an action (e.g., the generic "unable" or the more
   specific "security-failure").

   Data received from external sources inherently carries implementation
   risks including buffer overflows, which in many platforms can
   introduce remote code execution vulnerabilities; null characters can
   corrupt strings, numeric values used for internal calculations can
   result in underflow/overflow errors; malformed XML objects can expose
   parsing bugs, etc.  Implementations need to be cognizant of the
   potential risks, observe best practices (e.g., good quality static
   code analysis, fuzz testing, component isolation, avoiding use of
   unsafe coding techniques, third-party attack tests, signed software,
   over-the-air updates, etc.), and have multiple levels of protection.
   Implementors need to be aware that, potentially, the data objects
   described here and elsewhere might be malformed, might contain
   unexpected characters, excessively long attribute values, elements,
   etc.  (This applies across the board, not just to the 'text'
   attribute of a <request> element.)

   Since this document depends on [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data], the
   security considerations discussed there apply here (see especially
   the discussion of TLS, TLS versions, cypher suites, and PKI).

   When vehicle data or control/metadata is contained in a signed or
   encrypted body part, the enclosing multipart (e.g., multipart/signed
   or multipart/encrypted) has the same Content-ID as the data part.
   This allows an entity to identify and access the data blocks it is
   interested in without having to dive deeply into the message
   structure or decrypt parts it is not interested in.  (The 'purpose'
   parameter in a Call-Info header field identifies the data, and the
   CID URL points to the data block in the body, which has a matching
   Content-ID body part header field).



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12.  Privacy Considerations

   Since this document builds on [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data], the
   data structures specified there, and the corresponding privacy
   considerations discussed there, apply here as well.  The MSD carries
   some additional identifying and personal information (mostly about
   the vehicle and less about the owner), as well as location
   information, and so needs to be protected against unauthorized
   disclosure.  Local regulations may impose additional privacy
   protection requirements.  The additional functionality enabled by
   this document, such as access to vehicle camera streams, carries a
   burden of protection and so implementations need to be careful that
   access is only provided within the context of an emergency call and
   to an emergency services provider, for example, by verifying that the
   request for camera access is signed by a certificate issued by an
   emergency services registrar.

   Privacy considerations specific to the data structure containing
   vehicle information are discussed in the "Security Considerations"
   block of Section 14.2.

   Privacy considerations specific to the mechanism by which the PSAP
   sends acknowledgments and requests to the vehicle are discussed in
   the "Security Considerations" block of Section 14.3.

13.  XML Schema

   This section defines the XML schema of the eCall control block.  (The
   schema for the MSD can be found in EN 15722 [msd].)


    <?xml version="1.0"?>
    <xs:schema
        targetNamespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:EmergencyCallData:eCall-control"
        xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
        xmlns:pi="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:EmergencyCallData:eCall-control"
        xmlns:xml="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace"
        elementFormDefault="qualified"
        attributeFormDefault="unqualified">

        <xs:import namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace"
            schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/2009/01/xml.xsd"/>

        <xs:element name="EmergencyCallData.eCallControl"
                    type="pi:eCallControlType"/>


        <xs:complexType name="eCallControlType">



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            <xs:complexContent>
                <xs:restriction base="xs:anyType">
                    <xs:choice>
                        <xs:element name="capabilities"
                                    type="pi:capabilitiesType"/>
                        <xs:element name="request" type="pi:requestType"/>
                        <xs:element name="ack" type="pi:ackType"/>
                        <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax"
                                minOccurs="0"
                                maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                    </xs:choice>
                    <xs:anyAttribute/>
                </xs:restriction>
            </xs:complexContent>
        </xs:complexType>


        <xs:complexType name="ackType">
            <xs:complexContent>
                <xs:restriction base="xs:anyType">
                    <xs:sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded">
                        <xs:element name="actionResult" minOccurs="0"
                                    maxOccurs="unbounded">
                            <xs:complexType>
                                <xs:attribute name="action"
                                              type="xs:token"
                                              use="required"/>
                                <xs:attribute name="success"
                                              type="xs:boolean"
                                              use="required"/>
                                <xs:attribute name="reason"
                                              type="xs:token">
                                    <xs:annotation>
                                        <xs:documentation>conditionally
                                             mandatory when @success='false"
                                            to indicate reason code for a
                                            failure </xs:documentation>
                                    </xs:annotation>
                                </xs:attribute>
                                <xs:attribute name="details"
                                              type="xs:string"/>
                                <xs:anyAttribute processContents="skip"/>
                            </xs:complexType>
                        </xs:element>
                        <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax"
                                minOccurs="0"
                                maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                    </xs:sequence>



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                    <xs:attribute name="ref"
                                  type="xs:anyURI"
                                  use="required"/>
                    <xs:attribute name="received"
                                  type="xs:boolean"/>
                    <xs:anyAttribute/>
                </xs:restriction>
            </xs:complexContent>
        </xs:complexType>


        <xs:complexType name="capabilitiesType">
            <xs:complexContent>
                <xs:restriction base="xs:anyType">
                    <xs:sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded">
                        <xs:element name="request"
                                    type="pi:requestType"
                                    minOccurs="1"
                            maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                        <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax"
                                 minOccurs="0"
                            maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                    </xs:sequence>
                    <xs:anyAttribute/>
                </xs:restriction>
            </xs:complexContent>
        </xs:complexType>


        <xs:complexType name="requestType">
            <xs:complexContent>
                <xs:restriction base="xs:anyType">
                    <xs:choice minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded">
                        <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax"
                                minOccurs="0"
                                maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                    </xs:choice>
                    <xs:attribute name="action" type="xs:token" use="required"/>
                    <xs:attribute name="msgid" type="xs:unsignedInt"/>
                    <xs:attribute name="persistence" type="xs:duration"/>
                    <xs:attribute name="datatype" type="xs:token"/>
                    <xs:attribute name="supported-datatypes" type="xs:string"/>
                    <xs:attribute name="lamp-id" type="xs:token"/>
                    <xs:attribute name="lamp-action">
                        <xs:simpleType>
                            <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
                                <xs:pattern value=""/>
                                <xs:pattern value=""/>



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                                <xs:enumeration value="on"/>
                                <xs:enumeration value="off"/>
                                <xs:enumeration value="flash"/>
                            </xs:restriction>
                        </xs:simpleType>
                    </xs:attribute>
                    <xs:attribute name="supported-lamps" type="xs:string"/>
                    <xs:attribute name="camera-id" type="xs:token"/>
                    <xs:attribute name="supported-cameras" type="xs:string"/>
                    <xs:anyAttribute/>
                </xs:restriction>
            </xs:complexContent>
        </xs:complexType>

    </xs:schema>


                   Figure 10: eCall Control Block Schema

14.  IANA Considerations

14.1.  Service URN Registrations

   IANA is requested to register the URN 'urn:service:sos.ecall' under
   the sub-services 'sos' registry defined in Section 4.2 of [RFC5031].

   This service identifies a type of emergency call (placed by a
   specialized in-vehicle system and a carrying standardized set of data
   related to the vehicle and crash or incident, and is needed to direct
   the call to a specialized public safety answering point (PSAP) with
   technical and operational capabilities to handle such calls.  Two
   sub-services are registered as well, namely

   urn:service:sos.ecall.manual

      This service URN indicates that an eCall had been triggered based
      on the manual interaction of the driver or a passenger.

   urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic

      This service URN indicates that an eCall had been triggered
      automatically, for example, due to a crash or other serious
      incident (e.g., fire).

   IANA is also requested to register the URN
   'urn:service:test.sos.ecall' under the sub-service 'test' registry
   defined in Setcion 17.2 of [RFC6881].




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14.2.  MIME Content-type Registration for 'application/
       emergencyCallData.eCall.MSD+xml'

   IANA is requested to add application/emergencyCallData.eCall.MSD+xml
   as a MIME content type, with a reference to this document, in
   accordance to the procedures of RFC 6838 [RFC6838] and guidelines in
   RFC 7303 [RFC7303].

      MIME media type name: application

      MIME subtype name: emergencyCallData.eCall.MSD+xml

      Mandatory parameters: none

      Optional parameters: charset

      Indicates the character encoding of the XML content.

      Encoding considerations: Uses XML, which can employ 8-bit
      characters, depending on the character encoding used.  See
      Section 3.2 of RFC 7303 [RFC7303].

      Security considerations: This content type is designed to carry
      vehicle and incident-related data during an emergency call.  This
      data contains personal information including vehicle VIN,
      location, direction, etc.  Appropriate precautions need to be
      taken to limit unauthorized access, inappropriate disclosure to
      third parties, and eavesdropping of this information.  In general,
      it is permissible for the data to be unprotected while briefly in
      transit within the Mobile Network Operator (MNO); the MNO is
      trusted to not permit the data to be accessed by third parties.
      Sections 7 and Section 8 of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
      contain more discussion.

      Interoperability considerations: None

      Published specification: Annex C of EN 15722 [msd]

      Applications which use this media type: Pan-European eCall
      compliant systems

      Additional information: None

      Magic Number: None

      File Extension: .xml

      Macintosh file type code: 'TEXT'



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      Person and email address for further information: Hannes
      Tschofenig, Hannes.Tschofenig@gmx.net

      Intended usage: LIMITED USE

      Author: This specification was produced by the European Committee
      For Standardization (CEN).  For contact information, please see
      <http://www.cen.eu/cen/Pages/contactus.aspx>.

      Change controller: The European Committee For Standardization
      (CEN)

14.3.  MIME Content-type Registration for 'application/
       emergencyCallData.eCall.control+xml'

   IANA is requested to add application/
   emergencyCallData.eCall.control+xml as a MIME content type, with a
   reference to this document, in accordance to the procedures of RFC
   6838 [RFC6838] and guidelines in RFC 7303 [RFC7303].

      MIME media type name: application

      MIME subtype name: emergencyCallData.eCall.control+xml

      Mandatory parameters: none

      Optional parameters: charset

      Indicates the character encoding of the XML content.

      Encoding considerations: Uses XML, which can employ 8-bit
      characters, depending on the character encoding used.  See
      Section 3.2 of RFC 7303 [RFC7303].

      Security considerations:

         This content type carries metadata and control information and
         requests, primarily from a Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP)
         to an In-Vehicle System (IVS) during an emergency call, and
         also capabilities from the IVS to the PSAP.

         Metadata (such as an acknowledgment that data sent by the IVS
         to the PSAP was successfully received) has limited privacy and
         security implications.  Control information (such as requests
         from the PSAP that the vehicle perform an action) has some
         privacy and important security implications.  The privacy
         concern arises from the ability to request the vehicle to
         transmit a data set, which as described in Section 14.2, can



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         contain personal information.  The security concern is the
         ability to request the vehicle to perform an action.  It is
         important that control information originate only from a PSAP
         or other emergency services provider, and not be modified en-
         route.  The level of integrity of the cellular network over
         which the emergency call is placed is important: when the IVS
         initiates an eCall over a cellular network, it relies on the
         MNO to route the call to a PSAP.  (Calls placed using other
         means, such as Wi-Fi or over-the-top services, generally incur
         higher levels of risk than calls placed over cellular
         networks.)  A call-back from a PSAP incurs additional risk,
         since the current mechanisms are not ideal for verifying that
         such a call is indeed a call-back from a PSAP in response to an
         emergency call placed by the IVS.  See the discussion in
         Section 11 and the PSAP Callback document [RFC7090].  One
         safeguard, applicable regardless of which end initiated the
         call and the means of the call, is for the PSAP or emergency
         service provider to sign the body part using a certificate
         issued by a known emergency services certificate authority and
         for which the IVS can verify the root certificate.

         Sections 7 and Section 8 of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
         contain more discussion.

      Interoperability considerations: None

      Published specification: Annex C of EN 15722 [msd]

      Applications which use this media type: Pan-European eCall
      compliant systems

      Additional information: None

      Magic Number: None

      File Extension: .xml

      Macintosh file type code: 'TEXT'

      Person and email address for further information: Randall Gellens,
      rg+ietf@qti.qualcomm.com

      Intended usage: LIMITED USE

      Author: The IETF ECRIT WG.

      Change controller: The IETF ECRIT WG.




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14.4.  Registration of the 'eCall.MSD' entry in the Emergency Call
       Additional Data Blocks registry

   This specification requests IANA to add the 'eCall.MSD' entry to the
   Emergency Call Additional Data Blocks registry (established by
   [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]), with a reference to this document.

14.5.  Registration of the 'eCall.control' entry in the Emergency Call
       Additional Data Blocks registry

   This specification requests IANA to add the 'eCall.control' entry to
   the Emergency Call Additional Data Blocks registry (established by
   [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]), with a reference to this document.

14.6.  Registration of the emergencyCallData.eCall Info Package

   IANA is requested to add emergencyCallData.eCall to the Info Packages
   Registry under "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Parameters", with a
   reference to this document.

14.7.  URN Sub-Namespace Registration

14.7.1.  Registration for urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:eCall

   This section registers a new XML namespace, as per the guidelines in
   RFC 3688 [RFC3688].

   URI:  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:eCall

   Registrant Contact:  IETF, ECRIT working group, <ecrit@ietf.org>, as
      delegated by the IESG <iesg@ietf.org>.

   XML:


















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       BEGIN
       <?xml version="1.0"?>
       <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML Basic 1.0//EN"
           "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-basic/xhtml-basic10.dtd">
       <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
       <head>
           <meta http-equiv="content-type"
                 content="text/html;charset=iso-8859-1"/>
           <title>Namespace for eCall Data</title>
       </head>
       <body>
           <h1>Namespace for eCall Data</h1>
           <p>See [TBD: This document].</p>
       </body>
       </html>
       END


14.7.2.  Registration for urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:eCall:control

   This section registers a new XML namespace, as per the guidelines in
   RFC 3688 [RFC3688].

   URI:  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:eCall:control

   Registrant Contact:  IETF, ECRIT working group, <ecrit@ietf.org>, as
      delegated by the IESG <iesg@ietf.org>.

   XML:






















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      BEGIN
      <?xml version="1.0"?>
      <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML Basic 1.0//EN"
           "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-basic/xhtml-basic10.dtd">
      <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
      <head>
           <meta http-equiv="content-type"
                 content="text/html;charset=iso-8859-1"/>
           <title>Namespace for eCall Data:
                  Control Block</title>
      </head>
      <body>
           <h1>Namespace for eCall Data</h1>
           <h2>Control Block</h2>
      <p>See [TBD: This document].</p>
      </body>
      </html>
      END


14.8.  Registry creation

   This document creates a new registry called 'eCall Control Data'.
   The following sub-registries are created for this registry.

14.8.1.  eCall Control Action Registry

   This document creates a new sub-registry called "eCall Control Action
   Registry".  As defined in [RFC5226], this registry operates under
   "Expert Review" rules.  The expert should determine that the proposed
   action is within the purview of a vehicle, is sufficiently
   distinguishable from other actions, and the actions is clearly and
   fully described.  In most cases, a published and stable document is
   referenced for the description of the action.

   The content of this registry includes:

   Name:  The identifier to be used in the 'action' attribute of an
      eCall control <request> element.

   Description:  A description of the action.  In most cases this will
      be a reference to a published and stable document.  The
      description MUST specify if any attributes or child elements are
      optional or mandatory, and describe the action to be taken by the
      vehicle.

   The initial set of values is listed in Table 2.




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             +---------------+------------------------------+
             |      Name     |         Description          |
             +---------------+------------------------------+
             |   send-data   | Section xxx of this document |
             |               |                              |
             |   msg-static  | Section xxx of this document |
             |               |                              |
             |  msg-dynamic  | Section xxx of this document |
             |               |                              |
             |      honk     | Section xxx of this document |
             |               |                              |
             |      lamp     | Section xxx of this document |
             |               |                              |
             | enable-camera | Section xxx of this document |
             +---------------+------------------------------+

           Table 2: eCall Control Action Registry Initial Values

14.8.2.  eCall Static Message Registry

   This document creates a new sub-registry called "eCall Static Message
   Registry".  Because all compliant vehicles are expected to support
   all static messages translated into all languages supported by the
   vehicle, it is important to limit the number of such messages.  As
   defined in [RFC5226], this registry operates under "Publication
   Required" rules, which require a stable, public document and imply
   expert review of the publication.  The expert should determine that
   the document has been published by an appropriate emergency services
   organization (e.g., NENA, EENA, APCO) and that the proposed message
   is sufficiently distinguishable from other messages.

   The content of this registry includes:

   ID:  An integer identifier to be used in the 'msgid' attribute of an
      eCall control <request> element.

   Message:  The text of the message.  Messages are listed in the
      registry in English; vehicles are expected to implement
      translations into languages supported by the vehicle.

   When new messages are added to the registry, the message text is
   determined by the registrant; IANA assigns the IDs.  Each message is
   assigned a consecutive integer value as its ID.  This allows an IVS
   to indicate by a single integer value that it supports all messages
   with that value or lower.

   The initial set of values is listed in Table 3.




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   +----+--------------------------------------------------------------+
   | ID | Message                                                      |
   +----+--------------------------------------------------------------+
   | 1  | Emergency authorities are aware of your incident and         |
   |    | location, but are unable to speak with you right now.  We    |
   |    | will help you as soon as possible.                           |
   +----+--------------------------------------------------------------+

                  Table 3: eCall Static Message Registry

14.8.3.  eCall Reason Registry

   This document creates a new sub-registry called "eCall Reason
   Registry" which contains values for the 'reason' attribute of the
   <actionResult> element.  As defined in [RFC5226], this registry
   operates under "Expert Review" rules.  The expert should determine
   that the proposed reason is sufficiently distinguishable from other
   reasons and that the proposed description is understandable and
   correctly worded.

   The content of this registry includes:

   ID:  A short string identifying the reason, for use in the 'reason'
      attribute of an <actionResult> element.

   Description:  A description of the reason.

   The initial set of values is listed in Table 4.

   +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
   | ID               | Description                                    |
   +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
   | unsupported      | The 'action' is not supported.                 |
   |                  |                                                |
   | unable           | The 'action' could not be accomplished.        |
   |                  |                                                |
   | data-unsupported | The data item referenced in a 'send-data'      |
   |                  | request is not supported.                      |
   |                  |                                                |
   | security-failure | The authenticity of the request or the         |
   |                  | authority of the requestor could not be        |
   |                  | verified.                                      |
   +------------------+------------------------------------------------+

                      Table 4: eCall Reason Registry






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14.8.4.  eCall Lamp ID Registry

   This document creates a new sub-registry called "eCall Lamp ID
   Registry" to standardize the names of automotive lamps (lights).  As
   defined in [RFC5226], this registry operates under "Expert Review"
   rules.  The expert should determine that the proposed lamp name is
   clearly understandable and is sufficiently distinguishable from other
   lamp names.

   The content of this registry includes:

   Name:  The identifier to be used in the 'lamp-ID' attribute of an
      eCall control <request> element.

   Description:  A description of the lamp (light).

   The initial set of values is listed in Table 5.

     +----------------+---------------------------------------------+
     | Name           | Description                                 |
     +----------------+---------------------------------------------+
     | head           | The main lamps used to light the road ahead |
     |                |                                             |
     | interior       | Interior lamp, often at the top center      |
     |                |                                             |
     | fog-front      | Front fog lamps                             |
     |                |                                             |
     | fog-rear       | Rear fog lamps                              |
     |                |                                             |
     | brake          | Brake indicator lamps                       |
     |                |                                             |
     | position-front | Front position/parking/standing lamps       |
     |                |                                             |
     | position-rear  | Rear position/parking/standing lamps        |
     |                |                                             |
     | turn-left      | Left turn/directional lamps                 |
     |                |                                             |
     | turn-right     | Right turn/directional lamps                |
     |                |                                             |
     | hazard         | Hazard/four-way lamps                       |
     +----------------+---------------------------------------------+

              Table 5: eCall Lamp ID Registry Initial Values








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14.8.5.  eCall Camera ID Registry

   This document creates a new sub-registry called "eCall Camera ID
   Registry" to standardize the names of automotive camera.  As defined
   in [RFC5226], this registry operates under "Expert Review" rules.
   The expert should determine that the proposed camera name is clearly
   understandable and is sufficiently distinguishable from other camera
   names.

   The content of this registry includes:

   Name:  The identifier to be used in the 'camera-ID' attribute of an
      eCall control <request> element.

   Description:  A description of the camera.

   The initial set of values is listed in Table 6.

   +----------+--------------------------------------------------------+
   | Name     | Description                                            |
   +----------+--------------------------------------------------------+
   | backup   | Shows what is behind the vehicle.  Also known as       |
   |          | rearview, reverse, etc.                                |
   |          |                                                        |
   | interior | Shows the interior (driver)                            |
   +----------+--------------------------------------------------------+

             Table 6: eCall Camera ID Registry Initial Values

15.  Contributors

   Brian Rosen was a co-author of the original document upon which this
   document is based.

16.  Acknowledgements

   We would like to thank Bob Williams and Ban Al-Bakri for their
   feedback and suggestions, and Keith Drage, James Winterbottom, Wes
   George, and Rex Buddenberg for their review and comments.  We would
   like to thank Michael Montag, Arnoud van Wijk, Gunnar Hellstrom, and
   Ulrich Dietz for their help with the original document upon which
   this document is based.

17.  Changes from Previous Versions







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17.1.  Changes from draft-ietf-05 to draft-ietf-06

   o  Added additional security and privacy clarifications regarding
      signed and encrypted data
   o  Additional security and privacy text
   o  Deleted informative section on ESINets as unnecessary.

17.2.  Changes from draft-ietf-04 to draft-ietf-05

   o  Reworked the security and privacy considerations material in the
      document as a whole and in the MIME registation sections of the
      MSD and control objects
   o  Clarified that the <actionResult> element can appear multiple
      times within an <ack> element
   o  Fixed IMS definition
   o  Added clarifying text for the 'msgid' attribute

17.3.  Changes from draft-ietf-03 to draft-ietf-04

   o  Added Privacy Considerations section
   o  Reworded most uses of non-normative "may", "should", "must", and
      "recommended."
   o  Fixed nits in examples

17.4.  Changes from draft-ietf-02 to draft-ietf-03

   o  Added request to enable cameras
   o  Improved examples and XML schema
   o  Clarifications and wording improvements

17.5.  Changes from draft-ietf-01 to draft-ietf-02

   o  Added clarifying text reinforcing that the data exchange is for
      small blocks of data infrequently transmitted
   o  Clarified that dynamic media is conveyed using SIP re-INVITE to
      establish a one-way media stream
   o  Clarified that the scope is the needs of eCall within the SIP
      emergency call environment
   o  Added informative statement that the document may be suitable for
      reuse by other ACN systems
   o  Clarified that normative language for the control block applies to
      both IVS and PSAP
   o  Removed 'ref', 'supported-mime', and <media> elements
   o  Minor wording improvements and clarifications







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17.6.  Changes from draft-ietf-00 to draft-ietf-01

   o  Added further discussion of test calls
   o  Added further clarification to the document scope
   o  Mentioned that multi-region vehicles may need to support other
      crash notification specifications in addition to eCall
   o  Added details of the eCall metadata and control functionality
   o  Added IANA registration for the MIME content type for the eCall
      control object
   o  Added IANA registries for protocol elements and tokens used in the
      eCall control object
   o  Minor wording improvements and clarifications

17.7.  Changes from draft-gellens-03 to draft-ietf-00

   o  Renamed from draft-gellens- to draft-ietf-.
   o  Added mention of and reference to ETSI TR "Mobile Standards Group
      (MSG); eCall for VoIP"
   o  Added text to Introduction regarding migration/co-existence being
      out of scope
   o  Added mention in Security Considerations that even if the network-
      supplied location is just the cell site, this can be useful as a
      sanity check on the IVS-supplied location
   o  Minor wording improvements and clarifications

17.8.  Changes from draft-gellens-02 to -03

   o  Clarifications and editorial improvements.

17.9.  Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02

   o  Minor wording improvements
   o  Removed ".automatic" and ".manual" from
      "urn:service:test.sos.ecall" registration and discussion text.

17.10.  Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01

   o  Now using 'EmergencyCallData' for purpose parameter values and
      MIME subtypes, in accordance with changes to
      [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
   o  Added reference to RFC 6443
   o  Fixed bug that caused Figure captions to not appear

18.  References







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18.1.  Normative References

   [EN_16072]
              CEN, , "Intelligent transport systems - eSafety - Pan-
              European eCall operating requirements", December 2011.

   [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
              Gellens, R., Rosen, B., Tschofenig, H., Marshall, R., and
              J. Winterbottom, "Additional Data Related to an Emergency
              Call", draft-ietf-ecrit-additional-data-37 (work in
              progress), October 2015.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/
              RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.

   [RFC5031]  Schulzrinne, H., "A Uniform Resource Name (URN) for
              Emergency and Other Well-Known Services", RFC 5031, DOI
              10.17487/RFC5031, January 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5031>.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5226, May 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5226>.

   [RFC6443]  Rosen, B., Schulzrinne, H., Polk, J., and A. Newton,
              "Framework for Emergency Calling Using Internet
              Multimedia", RFC 6443, DOI 10.17487/RFC6443, December
              2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6443>.

   [RFC6838]  Freed, N., Klensin, J., and T. Hansen, "Media Type
              Specifications and Registration Procedures", BCP 13, RFC
              6838, DOI 10.17487/RFC6838, January 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6838>.

   [RFC6881]  Rosen, B. and J. Polk, "Best Current Practice for
              Communications Services in Support of Emergency Calling",
              BCP 181, RFC 6881, DOI 10.17487/RFC6881, March 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6881>.






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   [RFC7303]  Thompson, H. and C. Lilley, "XML Media Types", RFC 7303,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7303, July 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7303>.

   [TS22.101]
              3GPP, , "Technical Specification Group Services and System
              Aspects; Service aspects; Service principles", .

   [msd]      CEN, , "Intelligent transport systems -- eSafety -- eCall
              minimum set of data (MSD), EN 15722", June 2011.

18.2.  Informative references

   [CEN]      "European Committee for Standardization",
              <http://www.cen.eu>.

   [I-D.ietf-ecrit-car-crash]
              Gellens, R., Rosen, B., and H. Tschofenig, "Next-
              Generation Vehicle-Initiated Emergency Calls", draft-ietf-
              ecrit-car-crash-03 (work in progress), July 2015.

   [MSG_TR]   ETSI, , "ETSI Mobile Standards Group (MSG); eCall for
              VoIP", ETSI Technical Report TR 103 140 V1.1.1 (2014-04),
              April 2014.

   [RFC5012]  Schulzrinne, H. and R. Marshall, Ed., "Requirements for
              Emergency Context Resolution with Internet Technologies",
              RFC 5012, DOI 10.17487/RFC5012, January 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5012>.

   [RFC5069]  Taylor, T., Ed., Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and M.
              Shanmugam, "Security Threats and Requirements for
              Emergency Call Marking and Mapping", RFC 5069, DOI
              10.17487/RFC5069, January 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5069>.

   [RFC6086]  Holmberg, C., Burger, E., and H. Kaplan, "Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP) INFO Method and Package
              Framework", RFC 6086, DOI 10.17487/RFC6086, January 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6086>.

   [RFC7090]  Schulzrinne, H., Tschofenig, H., Holmberg, C., and M.
              Patel, "Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) Callback",
              RFC 7090, DOI 10.17487/RFC7090, April 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7090>.






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   [RFC7378]  Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and B. Aboba, Ed.,
              "Trustworthy Location", RFC 7378, DOI 10.17487/RFC7378,
              December 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7378>.

   [SDO-3GPP]
              "3d Generation Partnership Project",
              <http://www.3gpp.org/>.

   [SDO-ETSI]
              "European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)",
              <http://www.etsi.org>.

Authors' Addresses

   Randall Gellens
   Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
   5775 Morehouse Drive
   San Diego  92651
   US

   Email: rg+ietf@randy.pensive.org


   Hannes Tschofenig
   (Individual)

   Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@gmx.net
   URI:   http://www.tschofenig.priv.at























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