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Versions: (draft-quittek-eman-battery-mib) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 RFC 7577

Network Working Group                                         J. Quittek
Internet-Draft                                                 R. Winter
Intended status: Standards Track                                T. Dietz
Expires: April 25, 2013                                  NEC Europe Ltd.
                                                        October 22, 2012


          Definition of Managed Objects for Battery Monitoring
                     draft-ietf-eman-battery-mib-07

Abstract

   This memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB)
   for use with network management protocols in the Internet community.
   In particular, it defines managed objects that provide information on
   the status of batteries in managed devices.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 25, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.



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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3

   2.  The Internet-Standard Management Framework . . . . . . . . . .  4

   3.  Design of the Battery MIB Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  MIB Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.2.  Battery Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.3.  Charging Cycles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7

   4.  Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8

   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     6.1.  SMI Object Identifier Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     6.2.  Battery Technology Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

   7.  Open Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     7.1.  Entity MIB augmentation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     7.2.  Kind of entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     7.3.  Voltage and temperature per cell?  . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     7.4.  Notifications for removable batteries  . . . . . . . . . . 28
     7.5.  Notification for battery charging state changes? . . . . . 28
     7.6.  Support for ACPI critical battery state? . . . . . . . . . 28

   8.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

















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1.  Introduction

   Today, more and more managed devices contain batteries that supply
   them with power when disconnected from electrical power distribution
   grids.  Common examples are nomadic and mobile devices, such as
   notebook computers, netbooks, and smart phones.  The status of
   batteries in such a device, particularly the charging status is
   typically controlled by automatic functions that act locally on the
   device and manually by users of the device.

   In addition to this, there is a need to monitor battery status of
   these devices by network management systems.  This document defines a
   portion of the Management Information Base (MIB) that provides a
   means for monitoring batteries in or attached to managed devices.
   The Battery MIB module defined in Section 4 meets the requirements
   for monitoring the status of batteries specified in
   [I-D.ietf-eman-requirements].

   The Battery MIB module provides for monitoring the battery status.
   According to the framework for energy management
   [I-D.ietf-eman-framework] it is an Energy Managed Object, and thus,
   MIB modules such as the Power and Energy  Monitoring MIB
   [I-D.ietf-eman-energy-monitoring-mib] could in principle be
   implemented for batteries.  The Battery MIB extends the more generic
   aspects of energy management by adding battery-specific information.
   Amongst other things, the Battery MIB enables the monitoring of:

   o  the current charge of a battery,
   o  the age of a battery (charging cycles),
   o  the state of a battery (e.g. being re-charged),
   o  last usage of a battery,
   o  maximum energy provided by a battery (remaining and total
      capacity).

   Further, means are provided for battery-powered devices to send
   notifications when the current battery charge has dropped below a
   certain threshold in order to inform the management system of needed
   replacement.  The same applies to the age of a battery.

   Many battery-driven devices have existing instrumentation for
   monitoring the battery status, because this is already needed for
   local control of the battery by the device.  This reduces the effort
   for implementing the managed objects defined in this document.  For
   many devices only additional software will be needed but no
   additional hardware instrumentation for battery monitoring.

   Since there are a lot of devices in use that contain more than one
   battery, means for battery monitoring defined in this document



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   support addressing multiple batteries within a single device.  Also,
   batteries today often come in packages that can include
   identification and might contain additional hardware and firmware.
   The former allows to trace a battery and allows continuous monitoring
   even if the battery is e.g. installed in another device.  The
   firmware version is useful information as the battery behavior might
   be different for different firmware versions.

   Not explicitly in scope of definitions in this document are very
   small backup batteries, such as for example, batteries used on PC
   motherboard to run the clock circuit and retain configuration memory
   while the system is turned off.  Other means may be required for
   reporting on these batteries.  However, the MIB module defined in
   Section 3.1 can be used for this purpose.

   A traditional type of managed device containing batteries is an
   Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system; these supply other devices
   with electrical energy when the main power supply fails.  There is
   already a MIB module for managing UPS systems defined in RFC 1628
   [RFC1628].  This module includes managed objects for monitoring the
   batteries contained in an UPS system.  However, the information
   provided by these objects is limited and tailored the particular
   needs of UPS systems.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC
   2119 [RFC2119].


2.  The Internet-Standard Management Framework

   For a detailed overview of the documents that describe the current
   Internet-Standard Management Framework, please refer to section 7 of
   RFC 3410 [RFC3410].

   Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information store, termed
   the Management Information Base or MIB.  MIB objects are generally
   accessed through the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
   Objects in the MIB are defined using the mechanisms defined in the
   Structure of Management Information (SMI).  This memo specifies MIB
   modules that are compliant to the SMIv2, which is described in STD
   58, RFC 2578 [RFC2578], STD 58, RFC 2579 [RFC2579] and STD 58,RFC
   2580 [RFC2580].







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3.  Design of the Battery MIB Module

3.1.  MIB Module Structure

   The Battery MIB module defined in this document defines objects for
   reporting information about batteries.  All managed objects providing
   information of the status of a battery are contained in a single
   table called batteryTable.  The batteryTable contains one conceptual
   row per battery.

   If there is an implementation of the Entity MIB module [RFC4133] that
   identifies the batteries to be reported on by individual values for
   managed object entPhysicalIndex, then it is REQUIRED that these
   values are used as index values for the batteryTable.

   The kind of entity in the entPhysicalTable of the Entity MIB module
   is indicated by the value of enumeration object entPhysicalClass.
   Since there is no value called 'battery' defined for this object, it
   is RECOMMENDED that for batteries the value of this object is chosen
   to be powerSupply(6).

   The batteryTable contains three groups of objects.  The first group
   (OIDs ending with 2-11) provides information on static properties of
   the battery.  The second group of objects (OIDs ending with 12-19)
   provides information on the current battery state, if it is charging
   or discharging, how much it is charged, its remaining capacity, the
   number of experienced charging cycles, etc.
























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      batteryTable(1)
      +--batteryEntry(1) [batteryIndex]
         +-- --- Integer32       batteryIndex(1)
         +-- r-n SnmpAdminString batteryIdentifier(2)
         +-- r-n SnmpAdminString batteryFirmwareVersion(3)
         +-- r-n Enumeration     batteryType(4)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryTechnology(5)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryDesignVoltage(6)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryNumberOfCells(7)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryDesignCapacity(8)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryMaxChargingCurrent(9)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryTrickleChargingCurrent(10)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryActualCapacity(11)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryChargingCycleCount(12)
         +-- r-n DateAndTime     batteryLastChargingCycleTime(13)
         +-- r-n Enumeration     batteryChargingOperState(14)
         +-- rwn Enumeration     batteryChargingAdminState(15)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryActualCharge(16)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryActualVoltage(17)
         +-- r-n Integer32       batteryActualCurrent(18)
         +-- r-n Integer32       batteryTemperature(19)
         +-- rwn Unsigned32      batteryAlarmLowCharge(20)
         +-- rwn Unsigned32      batteryAlarmLowVoltage(21)
         +-- rwn Unsigned32      batteryAlarmLowCapacity(22)
         +-- rwn Unsigned32      batteryAlarmHighCycleCount(23)
         +-- rwn Integer32       batteryAlarmHighTemperature(24)
         +-- rwn Integer32       batteryAlarmLowTemperature(25)

   The third group of objects in this table (OIDs ending with 20-25)
   indicates thresholds which can be used to raise an alarm if a
   property of the battery exceeds one of them.  Raising an alarm may
   include sending a notification.

   The Battery MIB defines four notifications.  One indicating a low
   battery charging state, one indicating an aged battery that may need
   to be replaced and two dealing with battery temperature.  The
   temperature-related notifications are either indicating the battery
   temperature to have risen above or fallen below a predefined value.

3.2.  Battery Technologies

   Static information in the batteryTable includes battery type and
   technology.  The battery type distinguishes primary (not
   rechargeable) batteries from rechargeable (secondary) batteries and
   capacitors.  The battery technology describes the actual technology
   of a battery, which typically is a chemical technology.

   Since battery technologies are subject of intensive research and



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   widely used technologies are often replaced by successor technologies
   within an few years, the list of battery technologies was not chosen
   as a fixed list.  Instead, IANA has created a registry for battery
   technologies at http://www.iana.org/assignments/eman where numbers
   are assigned to battery technologies (TBD).

   The table below shows battery technologies known today that are in
   commercial use with the numbers assigned to them by IANA.  New
   entries can be added to the IANA registry if new technologies are
   developed or if missing technologies are identified.  Note that there
   exists a huge number of battery types that are not listed in the IANA
   registry.  Many of them are experimental or cannot be used in an
   economically useful way.  New entries should be added to the IANA
   registry only if the respective technologies are in commercial use
   and relevant to standardized battery monitoring over the Internet.

      +----------------------------+----------+
      | battery technology         | assigned |
      |                            |  number  |
      +----------------------------+----------+
      | Unknown                    |        1 |
      | Other                      |        2 |
      | Zinc-carbon                |        3 |
      | Zinc chloride              |        4 |
      | Nickel oxyhydroxide        |        5 |
      | Lithium-copper oxide       |        6 |
      | Lithium-iron disulfide     |        7 |
      | Lithium-manganese dioxide  |        8 |
      | Zinc-air                   |        9 |
      | Silver oxide               |       10 |
      | Alkaline                   |       11 |
      | Lead acid                  |       12 |
      | Nickel-cadmium             |       13 |
      | Nickel-metal hybride       |       14 |
      | Nickel-zinc                |       15 |
      | Lithium-ion                |       16 |
      | Lithium polymer            |       17 |
      | Double layer capacitor     |       18 |
      +----------------------------+----------+

3.3.  Charging Cycles

   The lifetime of a battery can be approximated using the measure of
   charging cycles.  A commonly used definition of a charging cycle is
   the amount of discharge equal to the design (or nominal) capacity of
   the battery [SBS].  This means that a single charging cycle may
   include several steps of partial charging and discharging until the
   amount of discharging has reached the design capacity of the battery.



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   After that the next charging cycle immediately starts.


4.  Definitions

   BATTERY-MIB DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN

   IMPORTS
       MODULE-IDENTITY, OBJECT-TYPE, NOTIFICATION-TYPE,
       mib-2, Integer32, Unsigned32
           FROM SNMPv2-SMI                                -- RFC2578
       SnmpAdminString
           FROM SNMP-FRAMEWORK-MIB                        -- RFC3411
       DateAndTime
           FROM SNMPv2-TC                                 -- RFC2579
       MODULE-COMPLIANCE, OBJECT-GROUP, NOTIFICATION-GROUP
           FROM SNMPv2-CONF;                              -- RFC2580

   batteryMIB MODULE-IDENTITY
       LAST-UPDATED "201106261200Z"         -- 26 june 2010
       ORGANIZATION "IETF EMAN Working Group"
       CONTACT-INFO
           "General Discussion: eman@ietf.org
           To Subscribe: http://www.ietf.org/mailman/listinfo/eman
           Archive: http://www.ietf.org/mail-archive/web/eman

           Editor:
             Juergen Quittek
             NEC Europe Ltd.
             NEC Laboratories Europe
             Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
             69115 Heidelberg
             Germany
             Tel: +49 6221 4342-115
             Email: quittek@neclab.eu"

       DESCRIPTION
           "This MIB module defines a set of objects for monitoring
           batteries of networked devices and of their components.

           Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
           authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

           Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
           without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
           to the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD
           License set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal
           Provisions Relating to IETF Documents



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           (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

           This version of this MIB module is part of RFC yyyy; see
           the RFC itself for full legal notices."
   -- replace yyyy with actual RFC number & remove this notice

   --  Revision history

       REVISION "201106261200Z"         -- 26 June 2010
       DESCRIPTION
           "Initial version, published as RFC yyyy."
   -- replace yyyy with actual RFC number & remove this notice

       ::= { mib-2 zzz }
   -- zzz to be assigned by IANA.

   --******************************************************************
   -- Top Level Structure of the MIB module
   --******************************************************************

   batteryNotifications OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { batteryMIB 0 }
   batteryObjects       OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { batteryMIB 1 }
   batteryConformance   OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { batteryMIB 2 }

   --==================================================================
   -- 1. Object Definitions
   --==================================================================

   --------------------------------------------------------------------
   -- 1.1. Battery Table
   --------------------------------------------------------------------
   batteryTable  OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      SEQUENCE OF BatteryEntry
       MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This table provides information on batteries.
           It contains one conceptual row per battery."
       ::= { batteryObjects 1 }

   batteryEntry OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      BatteryEntry
       MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "An entry providing information on a battery."
       INDEX  { batteryIndex }
       ::= { batteryTable 1 }



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   BatteryEntry ::=
       SEQUENCE {
          batteryIndex                    Integer32,
          batteryIdentifier               SnmpAdminString,
          batteryFirmwareVersion          SnmpAdminString,
          batteryType                     INTEGER,
          batteryTechnology               Unsigned32,
          batteryDesignVoltage            Unsigned32,
          batteryNumberOfCells            Unsigned32,
          batteryDesignCapacity           Unsigned32,
          batteryMaxChargingCurrent       Unsigned32,
          batteryTrickleChargingCurrent   Unsigned32,
          batteryActualCapacity           Unsigned32,
          batteryChargingCycleCount       Unsigned32,
          batteryLastChargingCycleTime    DateAndTime,
          batteryChargingOperState        INTEGER,
          batteryChargingAdminState       INTEGER,
          batteryActualCharge             Unsigned64,
          batteryActualVoltage            Unsigned32,
          batteryActualCurrent            Integer32,
          batteryTemperature              Integer32,
          batteryAlarmLowCharge           Unsigned32,
          batteryAlarmLowVoltage          Unsigned32,
          batteryAlarmLowCapacity         Unsigned32,
          batteryAlarmHighCycleCount      Unsigned32,
          batteryAlarmHighTemperature     Integer32,
          batteryAlarmLowTemperature      Integer32
       }

   batteryIndex OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Integer32 (1..2147483647)
       MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object identifies a battery for which status is
           reported. Index values MUST be locally unique.

           If there is an instance of the entPhysicalTable (defined in
           the ENTITY-MIB module, see RFC 4133) with an individual
           entry for each battery, then it is REQUIRED that values of
           batteryIndex match the corresponding values of
           entPhysicalIndex for the batteries. Otherwise, index values
           may be chosen arbitrarily."
       ::= { batteryEntry 1 }

   batteryIdentifier OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      SnmpAdminString
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only



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       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object contains an identifier for the battery.

           Many manufacturers deliver not pure batteries but battery
           packages including additional hardware and firmware.
           Typically, these modules include an identifier that can be
           retrieved by a device at which a battery has been installed.
           The identifier is useful when batteries are removed and
           re-installed at the same or other devices. Then the device
           or the network management system can trace batteries and
           achieve continuity of battery monitoring.

           If the battery identifier cannot be represented using the
           ISO/IEC IS 10646-1 character set, then a hexadecimal
           encoding of a binary representation of the battery
           identifier must be used.

           The value of this object must be an empty string if there
           is no battery identifier or if the battery idenitfier is
           unknown."
       ::= { batteryEntry 2 }

   batteryFirmwareVersion OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      SnmpAdminString
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object indicates the version number of the firmware
           that is included in a battery module.

           Many manufacturers deliver not pure batteries but battery
           packages including additional hardware and firmware.

           Since the bahavior of the battery may change with the
           firmware, it may be useful to retrieve the firmware version
           number.

           The value of this object must be an empty string if there
           is no firmware or if the version number of the firware is
           unknown."
       ::= { batteryEntry 3 }

   batteryType OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      INTEGER {
                       unknown(1),
                       other(2),
                       primary(3),



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                       rechargeable(4),
                       capacitor(5)
                   }
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object indicates the type of battery.
           It distinguishes between primary (not rechargeable)
           batteries, rechargeable (secondary) batteries and capacitors
           which are not really batteries but often used in the same
           way as a battery.

           The value other(2) can be used if the battery type is known
           but none of the ones above.  Value unknown(1) is to be used
           if the type of battery cannot be determined."
       ::= { batteryEntry 4 }

   batteryTechnology OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object indicates the technology used by the battery.
           Numbers identifying battery types are registered at IANA.
           A current list of assignments can be found at
           <http://www.iana.org/assignments/eman>.

           Value 0 (unknown) MUST be used if the type of battery
           cannot be determined.

           Value 1 (other) can be used if the battery type is known
           but not one of the types already registered at IANA."
       ::= { batteryEntry 5 }

   batteryDesignVoltage OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "millivolt"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the design (or nominal) voltage of the
           battery in units of millivolt (mV).

           Note that the design voltage is a constant value and
           typically different from the actual voltage of the battery.

           A value of 0 indicates that the design voltage is unknown."
       ::= { batteryEntry 6 }



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   batteryNumberOfCells OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object indicates the number of cells contained in the
           battery.

           A value of 0 indicates that the number of cells is unknown."
       ::= { batteryEntry 7 }

   batteryDesignCapacity OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "milliampere hours"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the design (or nominal) capacity of the
           battery in units of milliampere hours (mAh).

           Note that the design capacity is a constant value and
           typically different from the actual capacity of the battery.
           Usually, this is a value provided by the manufacturer of the
           battery.

           A value of 0 indicates that the design capacity is
           unknown."
       ::= { batteryEntry 8 }

   batteryMaxChargingCurrent OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "milliampere"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the maximal current to be used for
           charging the battery in units of milliampere (mA).

           Note that the maximal charging current may not lead to
           optimal charge of the battery and that some batteries can
           only be charged with the maximal current for a limited
           amount of time.

           A value of 0 indicates that the maximal charging current is
           unknown."
       ::= { batteryEntry 9 }

   batteryTrickleChargingCurrent OBJECT-TYPE



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       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "milliampere"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the recommended current to be used for
           trickle charging the battery in units of milliampere (mA).

           Typically, this is a value recommended by the manufacturer
           of the battery or by the manufacturer of the charging
           circuit.

           A value of 0 indicates that the recommended trickle charging
           current is unknown."
       ::= { batteryEntry 10 }

   batteryActualCapacity OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "milliampere hours"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the actual capacity of the
           battery in units of milliampere hours (mAh).

           Typically, the actual capacity of a battery decreases
           with time and with usage of the battery. It is usually
           lower than the design capacity

           Note that the actual capacity needs to be measured and is
           typically an estimate based on observed discharging and
           charging cycles of the battery.

           A value of 'ffffffff'H indicates that the actual capacity
           cannot be determined."
       ::= { batteryEntry 11 }

   batteryChargingCycleCount OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object indicates the number of completed charging
           cycles that the battery underwent. In line with the
           Smart Battery Data Specification Revision 1.1, a charging
           cycle is defined as the process of discharging the battery
           by a total amount equal to the battery design capacity as
           given by object batteryDesignCapacity. A charging cycle



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           may include several steps of charging and discharging the
           battery until the discharging amount given by
           batteryDesignCapacity has been reached. As soon as a
           charging cycle has been completed the next one starts
           immediately independent of the battery's current charge at
           the end of the cycle.


           For batteries of type primary(1) the value of this object is
           always 0.

           A value of 'ffffffff'H indicates that the number of charging
           cycles cannot be determined."
       ::= { batteryEntry 12 }

   batteryLastChargingCycleTime OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      DateAndTime
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The date and time of the last charging cycle.  The value
           '0000000000000000'H is returned if the battery has not been
           charged yet or if the last charging time cannot be
           determined.

           For batteries of type primary(1) the value of this object is
           always '0000000000000000'H."
       ::= { batteryEntry 13 }

   batteryChargingOperState OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      INTEGER {
                       unknown(1),
                       charging(2),
                       fastCharging(3),
                       maintainingCharge(4),
                       noCharging(5),
                       discharging(6)
                   }
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object indicates the current charging state of the
           battery.

           Value unknown(1) indicates that the charging state of the
           battery cannot be determined.

           Value charging(2) indicates that the battery is being



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           charged in a way that the charge of the battery increases.

           Value fastCharging(3) indicated that the battery is being
           charged rapidly, i.e. faster than in the charging(2) state.
           If multiple fast charging states exist, all of these
           states are indicated by fastCharging(3).

           Value maintainingCharge(4) indicates that the battery is
           being charged with a low current that compensates
           self-discharging. This includes trickle charging, float
           charging and other methods for maintaining the current
           charge of a battery.

           Value noCharging(5) indicates that the battery is not being
           charged or discharged by electric current between the
           battery and electric circuits external to the battery.
           Note that the battery may still be subject to
           self-discharging.

           Value discharging(6) indicates that the battery is being
           discharged and that the charge of the battery decreases."
       ::= { batteryEntry 14 }

   batteryChargingAdminState OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      INTEGER {
                       charging(2),
                       fastCharging(3),
                       maintainingCharge(4),
                       noCharging(5),
                       discharging(6),
                       notSet(7)
                   }
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The value of this object indicates the desired status of
           the charging state of the battery. The real state is
           indicated by object batteryChargingOperState. See the
           definition of object batteryChargingOperState for a
           description of the values.

           When this object is initialized by an implementation of the
           BATTERY-MIB module, its value is set to notSet(7).

           However, a SET request can only set this object to either
           charging(2), fastCharging(3), maintainingCharge(4),
           noCharging(5), or discharging(6). Attempts to set this
           object to notSet(7) will always fail with an



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           'inconsistentValue' error. In case multiple fast charging
           states exist, the battery logic can choose an appropriate
           fast charging state - preferably the fastest.

           When the batteryChargingAdminState object is set, then the
           BATTERY-MIB implementation must try to set the battery
           to the indicated state. The result will be indicated by
           object batteryChargingOperState.

           Due to operational conditions and limitations of the
           implementation of the BATTERY-MIB module, changing the
           battery status according to a set value of object
           batteryChargingAdminState may not be possible.

           Setting the value of object batteryChargingAdminState
           may result in not changing the state of the battery
           to this value or even in setting the charging state
           to another value. For example, setting
           batteryChargingAdminState to value fastCharging(3) may
           have no effect when the battery logic is not allowing
           fast charging due to temperature constraints."

       ::= { batteryEntry 15 }

   batteryActualCharge OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned64
       UNITS       "milliampere hours"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the actual charge of the battery
           in units of milliampere hours (mAh).

           Note that the actual charge needs to be measured and is
           typically an estimate based on observed discharging and
           charging cycles of the battery.

           A value of 'ffffffff'H indicates that the actual charge
           cannot be determined."
       ::= { batteryEntry 16 }

   batteryActualVoltage OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "millivolt"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the actual voltage of the battery



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           in units of millivolt (mV).

           A value of 'ffffffff'H indicates that the actual voltage
           cannot be determined."
       ::= { batteryEntry 17 }

   batteryActualCurrent OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Integer32
       UNITS       "milliampere"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the actual charging or discharging
           current of the battery in units of milliampere (mA).
           Charging current is represented by positive values,
           discharging current is represented by negative values.

           A value of '7fffffff'H indicates that the actual current
           cannot be determined."
       ::= { batteryEntry 18 }

   batteryTemperature OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Integer32
       UNITS       "deci-degrees Celsius"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The ambient temperature at or near the battery.

           A value of '7fffffff'H indicates that the temperature
           cannot be determined."
       ::= { batteryEntry 19 }

   batteryAlarmLowCharge OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "milliampere hours"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the lower threshold value for object
           batteryActualCharge.  If the value of object
           batteryActualCharge falls below this threshold,
           a low battery alarm will be raised.  The alarm procedure may
           include generating a batteryLowNotification.

           A value of 0 indicates that no alarm will be raised for any
           value of object batteryActualCharge."
       ::= { batteryEntry 20 }



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   batteryAlarmLowVoltage OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "millivolt"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the lower threshold value for object
           batteryActualVoltage.  If the value of object
           batteryActualVoltage falls below this threshold,
           a low battery alarm will be raised.  The alarm procedure may
           include generating a batteryLowNotification.

           A value of 0 indicates that no alarm will be raised for any
           value of object batteryActualVoltage."
       ::= { batteryEntry 21 }

   batteryAlarmLowCapacity OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "milliampere hours"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the lower threshold value for object
           batteryActualCapacity.  If the value of object
           batteryActualCapacity falls below this threshold,
           a battery aging alarm will be raised.  The alarm procedure
           may include generating a batteryAgingNotification.

           A value of 0 indicates that no alarm will be raised for any
           value of object batteryActualCapacity."
       ::= { batteryEntry 22 }

   batteryAlarmHighCycleCount OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the upper threshold value for object
           batteryChargingCycleCount.  If the value of object
           batteryChargingCycleCount rises above this threshold,
           a battery aging alarm will be raised.  The alarm procedure
           may include generating a batteryAgingtNotification.

           A value of 0 indicates that no alarm will be raised for any
           value of object batteryChargingCycleCount."
       ::= { batteryEntry 23 }

   batteryAlarmHighTemperature OBJECT-TYPE



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       SYNTAX      Integer32
       UNITS       "deci-degrees Celsius"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the upper threshold value for object
           batteryTemperature.  If the value of object
           batteryTemperature rises above this threshold, a battery
           high temperature alarm will be raised.  The alarm procedure
           may include generating a batteryHighTemperatNotification.

           A value of '7fffffff'H indicates that no alarm will be
           raised for any value of object batteryTemperature."
       ::= { batteryEntry 24 }

   batteryAlarmLowTemperature OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Integer32
       UNITS       "deci-degrees Celsius"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the lower threshold value for object
           batteryTemperature.  If the value of object
           batteryTemperature rises above this threshold, a battery
           low temperature alarm will be raised.  The alarm procedure
           may include generating a batteryLowTemperatNotification.

           A value of '7fffffff'H indicates that no alarm will be
           raised for any value of object batteryTemperature."
       ::= { batteryEntry 25 }


   --==================================================================
   -- 2. Notifications
   --==================================================================

   batteryLowNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE
       OBJECTS     {
           batteryActualCharge,
           batteryActualVoltage
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This notification can be generated when the current charge
           (batteryActualCharge) or the current voltage
           (batteryActualVoltage) of the battery falls below a
           threshold defined by object batteryAlarmLowCharge or object
           batteryAlarmLowVoltage, respectively. The notification can



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           only be sent again when the current voltage or the current
           charge become higher than the respective thresholds
           through charging before falling below the thresholds again
           (to avoid fluctuations through e.g. temperature). The
           notification can also be sent again when a charging process
           is interrupted and either the battery charge
           (batteryActualCharge) or battery voltage
           (batteryActualVoltage) is still below either the value of
           the object batteryAlarmLowCharge or the value of object
           batteryAlarmLowVoltage."
       ::= { batteryNotifications 1 }

   batteryAgingNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE
       OBJECTS     {
           batteryActualCapacity,
           batteryChargingCycleCount
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This notification can be generated when the actual
           capacity (batteryActualCapacity) falls below a threshold
           defined by object batteryAlarmLowCapacity
           or when the charging cycle count of the battery
           (batteryChargingCycleCount) exceeds the threshold defined
           by object batteryAlarmHighCycleCount."
       ::= { batteryNotifications 2 }

   batteryHighTemperatNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE
       OBJECTS     {
           batteryTemperature
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This notification can be generated when the measured
           temperature (batteryTemperature) rises above a threshold
           defined by object batteryAlarmHighTemperature."
       ::= { batteryNotifications 3 }

   batteryLowTemperatNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE
       OBJECTS     {
           batteryTemperature
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This notification can be generated when the measured
           temperature (batteryTemperature) falls below a threshold
           defined by object batteryAlarmLowTemperature."
       ::= { batteryNotifications 4 }



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   --==================================================================
   -- 3. Conformance Information
   --==================================================================

   batteryCompliances OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { batteryConformance 1 }
   batteryGroups      OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { batteryConformance 2 }

   --------------------------------------------------------------------
   -- 3.1. Compliance Statements
   --------------------------------------------------------------------

   batteryCompliance MODULE-COMPLIANCE
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The compliance statement for implementations of the
           POWER-STATE-MIB module.

           A compliant implementation MUST implement the objects
           defined in the mandatory groups batteryDescriptionGroup
           and batteryStatusGroup."
       MODULE  -- this module
           MANDATORY-GROUPS {
               batteryDescriptionGroup,
               batteryStatusGroup
           }

           GROUP   batteryAlarmThresholdsGroup
           DESCRIPTION
              "A compliant implementation does not have to implement
               the batteryAlarmThresholdsGroup."

           GROUP   batteryNotificationsGroup
           DESCRIPTION
              "A compliant implementation does not have to implement
               the batteryNotificationsGroup."

           GROUP   batteryAdminGroup
           DESCRIPTION
              "A compliant implementation does not have to implement
               the batteryAdminGroup."

           OBJECT batteryAlarmLowCharge
           MIN-ACCESS  read-only
           DESCRIPTION
               "The agent is not required to support set
               operations to this object."

           OBJECT batteryAlarmLowVoltage



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           MIN-ACCESS  read-only
           DESCRIPTION
               "The agent is not required to support set
               operations to this object."

           OBJECT batteryAlarmLowCapacity
           MIN-ACCESS  read-only
           DESCRIPTION
               "The agent is not required to support set
               operations to this object."

           OBJECT batteryAlarmHighCycleCount
           MIN-ACCESS  read-only
           DESCRIPTION
               "The agent is not required to support set
               operations to this object."

           OBJECT batteryHighTemperatNotification
           MIN-ACCESS  read-only
           DESCRIPTION
               "The agent is not required to support set
               operations to this object."

       ::= { batteryCompliances 1 }

   --------------------------------------------------------------------
   -- 3.2. MIB Grouping
   --------------------------------------------------------------------

   batteryDescriptionGroup OBJECT-GROUP
       OBJECTS {
          batteryIdentifier,
          batteryFirmwareVersion,
          batteryType,
          batteryTechnology,
          batteryDesignVoltage,
          batteryNumberOfCells,
          batteryDesignCapacity,
          batteryMaxChargingCurrent,
          batteryTrickleChargingCurrent
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
          "A compliant implementation MUST implement the objects
          contained in this group."
       ::= { batteryGroups 1 }

   batteryStatusGroup OBJECT-GROUP



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       OBJECTS {
          batteryActualCapacity,
          batteryChargingCycleCount,
          batteryLastChargingCycleTime,
          batteryChargingOperState,
          batteryActualCharge,
          batteryActualVoltage,
          batteryActualCurrent,
          batteryTemperature
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
          "A compliant implementation MUST implement the objects
          contained in this group."
       ::= { batteryGroups 2 }

   batteryAdminGroup OBJECT-GROUP
       OBJECTS {
          batteryChargingAdminState
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
          "A compliant implementation does not have to implement the
          object contained in this group."
       ::= { batteryGroups 3 }

   batteryAlarmThresholdsGroup OBJECT-GROUP
       OBJECTS {
          batteryAlarmLowCharge,
          batteryAlarmLowVoltage,
          batteryAlarmLowCapacity,
          batteryAlarmHighCycleCount,
          batteryAlarmHighTemperature,
          batteryAlarmLowTemperature
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
          "A compliant implementation does not have to implement the
          objects contained in this group."
       ::= { batteryGroups 4 }

   batteryNotificationsGroup NOTIFICATION-GROUP
       NOTIFICATIONS {
          batteryLowNotification,
          batteryAgingNotification,
          batteryHighTemperatNotification,
          batteryLowTemperatNotification
       }



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       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "A compliant implementation does not have to implement the
           notifications contained in this group."
       ::= { batteryGroups 5 }
   END


5.  Security Considerations

   There are a number of management objects defined in this MIB module
   with a MAX-ACCESS clause of read-write.  Such objects may be
   considered sensitive or vulnerable in some network environments.  The
   support for SET operations in a non-secure environment without proper
   protection can have a negative effect on network operations.  These
   are the tables and objects and their sensitivity/vulnerability:

   o  batteryChargingAdminState
      Setting the battery charging state can be beneficial for an
      operator for various reasons such as charging batteries when the
      price of electricity is low.  However, setting the charging state
      can e.g. be used by an attacker to discharge batteries of devices
      and thereby swiching these devices off if they are powered solely
      by batteries.  In particular, if the batteryAlarmLowCharge and
      batteryAlarmLowVoltage can also be set, this attack will go
      unnoticed (i.e. no notifications are sent).

   o  batteryAlarmLowCharge and batteryAlarmLowVoltage
      These objects set the threshold for an alarm to be raised when the
      battery charge or voltage falls below the corresponding one of
      them.  An attacker setting one of these alarm values can switch
      off the alarm by setting it to the 'off' value 0 or modify the
      alarm behavior by setting it to any other value.  The result may
      be loss of data if the battery runs empty without warning to a
      receipient expecting such a notification.

   o  batteryAlarmLowCapacity and batteryAlarmHighCycleCount
      These objects set the threshold for an alarm to be raised when the
      battery becomes older and less performant than required for stable
      operation.  An attacker setting this alarm value can switch off
      the alarm by setting it to the 'off' value 0 or modify the alarm
      behavior by setting it to any other value.  This may either lead
      to a costly replacement of a working battery or too old or too
      weak batteries are used.  The consequence of the latter could e.g.
      be that a battery cannot provide power long enough between two
      scheduled charging actions causing the powered device to shut down
      and potentially loose data.




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   o  batteryAlarmHighTemperature and batteryAlarmLowTemperature
      These objects set thresholds for an alarm to be raised when the
      battery rises above/falls below them.  An attacker setting one of
      these alarm values can switch off these alarms by setting them to
      the 'off' value '7fffffff'H or modify the alarm behavior by
      setting them to any other value.  The result may e.g. be an
      unnecessary shutdown of a device if batteryAlarmHighTemperature is
      set to too low or damage to the device by too high temperatures if
      switched off or set to too high values or by damage to the battery
      when it e.g. is being charged.  Batteries can also be damaged e.g.
      in an attempt to charge them at too low temperatures.

   Some of the readable objects in this MIB module (i.e., objects with a
   MAX-ACCESS other than not-accessible) may be considered sensitive or
   vulnerable in some network environments.  It is thus important to
   control even GET and/or NOTIFY access to these objects and possibly
   to even encrypt the values of these objects when sending them over
   the network via SNMP.  These are the tables and objects and their
   sensitivity/vulnerability:

   All potentially sensible or vulnerable objects of this MIB modules
   are in the batteryTable.  In general, there are no serious
   operational vulnerabilities foreseen in case of an unauthorized read
   access to this table.  However, privacy issues need to be considered.
   It may be a trade secret of the operator
   o  how many batteries are installed in a managed node (batteryIndex)
   o  how old these batteries are (batteryActualCapacity and
      batteryChargingCycleCount)
   o  when the next replacement cycle for batteries can be expected
      (batteryAlarmLowCapacity and batteryAlarmHighCycleCount)
   o  what battery type and make are used with which firmware version
      (batteryIdentifier, batteryFirmwareVersion, batteryType, and
      batteryTechnology)

   SNMP versions prior to SNMPv3 did not include adequate security.
   Even if the network itself is secure (for example by using IPsec),
   even then, there is no control as to who on the secure network is
   allowed to access and GET/SET (read/change/create/delete) the objects
   in this MIB module.

   It is RECOMMENDED that implementers consider the security features as
   provided by the SNMPv3 framework (see [RFC3410], section 8),
   including full support for the SNMPv3 cryptographic mechanisms (for
   authentication and privacy).

   Further, deployment of SNMP versions prior to SNMPv3 is NOT
   RECOMMENDED.  Instead, it is RECOMMENDED to deploy SNMPv3 and to
   enable cryptographic security.  It is then a customer/operator



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   responsibility to ensure that the SNMP entity giving access to an
   instance of this MIB module is properly configured to give access to
   the objects only to those principals (users) that have legitimate
   rights to GET or SET (change/create/delete) them.


6.  IANA Considerations

6.1.  SMI Object Identifier Registration

   The Battery MIB module defined in this document uses the following
   IANA-assigned OBJECT IDENTIFIER value recorded in the SMI Numbers
   registry:

             Descriptor        OBJECT IDENTIFIER value
             ----------        -----------------------
             batteryMIB        { mib-2 xxx }

   [NOTE for IANA: Please allocate an object identifier at
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/smi-numbers for object batteryMIB.]

6.2.  Battery Technology Registration

   Object batteryTechnology defined in Section 4 reports battery
   technologies.  Eighteen values for battery technologies have
   initially been defined.  They are listed in a table in Section 3.2.

   For ensuring extensibility of this list, IANA has created a registry
   for battery technologies at http://www.iana.org/assignments/eman and
   filled it with the initial list given in Section 3.2.

   New assignments of numbers for battery technologies will be
   administered by IANA through Expert Review ([RFC5226]).  Experts must
   check for sufficient relevance of a battery technology to be added.

   [NOTE for IANA: Please create a new registry under
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/eman for battery types.  Please fill
   the registry with values from the table in Section 3.2]


7.  Open Issues

7.1.  Entity MIB augmentation

   Alignment with Entity MIB version 4 is need as soon as it becomes
   stable.





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7.2.  Kind of entity

   In section 3.1 we recommend to use a value of powerSupply(6) for
   object entPhysicalClass, if the entity is a battery.  This sections
   needs to be updates once we have values for entPhysicalClass
   maintained by IANA.  We should then register a new value
   "battery(xy)" at IANA and replace "powerSupply(6) in this section.

7.3.  Voltage and temperature per cell?

   For lithium-ion batteries it is common to measure voltage not just in
   total but also per cell.  Also temperature per cell is sometimes of
   interest.  Shall we support this?  It would require a cell table.

7.4.  Notifications for removable batteries

   PCs and other devices offer battery replacement at runtime.  We need
   to specify events for added a batteries and removed batteries
   (batteryAddedNotification, batteryAddedNotification).  The energy
   management system should get informed about such events, because they
   either create a new entry in the battery table or they remove one
   from it.

7.5.  Notification for battery charging state changes?

   Do we need a notification for battery charging state changes?

7.6.  Support for ACPI critical battery state?

   The ACPI has a 'critical' battery state.  This is when the battery is
   in a state that it cannot be used anymore and must be charged.  We
   already have a batteryLowNotification.  Would we also need a
   batteryCriticalNotification?


8.  Acknowledgements

   We would like to thank Steven Chew and Bill Mielke for their valuable
   input.


9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.




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   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC2578]  McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Structure of Management Information
              Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.

   [RFC2579]  McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Textual Conventions for SMIv2",
              STD 58, RFC 2579, April 1999.

   [RFC2580]  McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., and J. Schoenwaelder,
              "Conformance Statements for SMIv2", STD 58, RFC 2580,
              April 1999.

   [RFC4133]  Bierman, A. and K. McCloghrie, "Entity MIB (Version 3)",
              RFC 4133, August 2005.

9.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-eman-requirements]
              Quittek, J., Chandramouli, M., Winter, R., Dietz, T., and
              B. Claise, "Requirements for Energy Management",
              draft-ietf-eman-requirements-09 (work in progress),
              October 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-eman-framework]
              Claise, B., Parello, J., Silver, L., Quittek, J., and B.
              Nordman, "Energy Management Framework",
              draft-ietf-eman-framework-05 (work in progress),
              July 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-eman-energy-monitoring-mib]
              Chandramouli, M., Silver, L., Quittek, J., Dietz, T., and
              B. Claise, "Power and Energy Monitoring MIB",
              draft-ietf-eman-energy-monitoring-mib-03 (work in
              progress), July 2012.

   [RFC1628]  Case, J., "UPS Management Information Base", RFC 1628,
              May 1994.

   [RFC3410]  Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D., and B. Stewart,
              "Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet-
              Standard Management Framework", RFC 3410, December 2002.

   [SBS]      "Smart Battery Data Specification", Revision 1.1,
              December 1998.



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Authors' Addresses

   Juergen Quittek
   NEC Europe Ltd.
   NEC Laboratories Europe
   Network Research Division
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   DE

   Phone: +49 6221 4342-115
   Email: quittek@neclab.eu


   Rolf Winter
   NEC Europe Ltd.
   NEC Laboratories Europe
   Network Research Division
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   DE

   Phone: +49 6221 4342-121
   Email: Rolf.Winter@neclab.eu


   Thomas Dietz
   NEC Europe Ltd.
   NEC Laboratories Europe
   Network Research Division
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   DE

   Phone: +49 6221 4342-128
   Email: Thomas.Dietz@neclab.eu















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