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Versions: (draft-quittek-eman-battery-mib) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 RFC 7577

Network Working Group                                         J. Quittek
Internet-Draft                                                 R. Winter
Intended status: Standards Track                                T. Dietz
Expires: June 3, 2015                                    NEC Europe Ltd.
                                                       November 30, 2014


          Definition of Managed Objects for Battery Monitoring
                     draft-ietf-eman-battery-mib-13

Abstract

   This memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB)
   for use with network management protocols in the Internet community.
   In particular, it defines managed objects that provide information on
   the status of batteries in managed devices.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 3, 2015.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.



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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3

   2.  The Internet-Standard Management Framework . . . . . . . . . .  4

   3.  Design of the Battery MIB Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  MIB Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.2.  Battery Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.2.1.  Guidelines for Adding Battery Technologies . . . . . .  8
     3.3.  Battery Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.4.  Charging Cycles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9

   4.  Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9

   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
     6.1.  SMI Object Identifier Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
     6.2.  Battery Technology Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35























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1.  Introduction

   Today, more and more managed devices contain batteries that supply
   them with power when disconnected from electrical power distribution
   grids.  Common examples are nomadic and mobile devices, such as
   notebook computers, netbooks, and smart phones.  The status of
   batteries in such a device, particularly the charging status is
   typically controlled by automatic functions that act locally on the
   device and manually by users of the device.

   In addition to this, there is a need to monitor battery status of
   these devices by network management systems.  This document defines a
   portion of the Management Information Base (MIB) that provides a
   means for monitoring batteries in or attached to managed devices.
   The Battery MIB module defined in Section 4 meets the requirements
   for monitoring the status of batteries specified in RFC 6988
   [RFC6988].

   The Battery MIB module provides for monitoring the battery status.
   According to the framework for energy management [RFC7326] it is an
   Energy Managed Object, and thus, MIB modules such as the Power and
   Energy Monitoring MIB [I-D.ietf-eman-energy-monitoring-mib] could in
   principle be implemented for batteries.  The Battery MIB extends the
   more generic aspects of energy management by adding battery-specific
   information.  Amongst other things, the Battery MIB enables the
   monitoring of:

   o  the current charge of a battery,
   o  the age of a battery (charging cycles),
   o  the state of a battery (e.g. being re-charged),
   o  last usage of a battery,
   o  maximum energy provided by a battery (remaining and total
      capacity).

   Further, means are provided for battery-powered devices to send
   notifications when the current battery charge has dropped below a
   certain threshold to inform the management system of needed
   replacement.  The same applies to the age of a battery.

   Many battery-driven devices have existing instrumentation for
   monitoring the battery status because this is already needed for
   local control of the battery by the device.  This reduces the effort
   for implementing the managed objects defined in this document.  For
   many devices only additional software will be needed but no
   additional hardware instrumentation for battery monitoring.

   Since there are a lot of devices in use that contain more than one
   battery, means for battery monitoring defined in this document



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   support addressing multiple batteries within a single device.  Also,
   batteries today often come in packages that can include
   identification and might contain additional hardware and firmware.
   The former allows tracing a battery and allows continuous monitoring
   even if the battery is installed in another device.  The firmware
   version is useful information as the battery behavior might be
   different for different firmware versions.

   Not explicitly in scope of definitions in this document are very
   small backup batteries, such as for example, batteries used on PC
   motherboard to run the clock circuit and retain configuration memory
   while the system is turned off.  Other means may be required for
   reporting on these batteries.  However, the MIB module defined in
   Section 3.1 can be used for this purpose.

   A traditional type of managed device containing batteries is an
   Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system; these supply other devices
   with electrical energy when the main power supply fails.  There is
   already a MIB module for managing UPS systems defined in RFC 1628
   [RFC1628].  The UPS MIB module includes managed objects for
   monitoring the batteries contained in an UPS system.  However, the
   information provided by the UPS MIB objects is limited and tailored
   the particular needs of UPS systems.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC
   2119 [RFC2119].


2.  The Internet-Standard Management Framework

   For a detailed overview of the documents that describe the current
   Internet-Standard Management Framework, please refer to section 7 of
   RFC 3410 [RFC3410].

   Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information store, termed
   the Management Information Base or MIB.  MIB objects are generally
   accessed through the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
   Objects in the MIB are defined using the mechanisms defined in the
   Structure of Management Information (SMI).  This memo specifies MIB
   modules that are compliant to the SMIv2, which is described in STD
   58, RFC 2578 [RFC2578], STD 58, RFC 2579 [RFC2579] and STD 58,RFC
   2580 [RFC2580].







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3.  Design of the Battery MIB Module

3.1.  MIB Module Structure

   The Battery MIB module defined in this document defines objects for
   reporting information about batteries.  All managed objects providing
   information of the status of a battery are contained in a single
   table called batteryTable.  The batteryTable contains one conceptual
   row per battery.

   Batteries are indexed by the entPhysicalIndex of the entPhysicalTable
   defined in the ENTITY-MIB module [RFC6933].  An implementation of the
   ENTITY-MIB module complying with the entity4CRCompliance MODULE-
   COMPLIANCE statement is required for compliant implementations of the
   BATTERY-MIB module.

   If a battery is replaced, and the replacing battery uses the same
   physical connector as the replaced battery, then the replacing
   battery MUST be indexed with the same value of object
   entPhysicalIndex as the replaced battery.

   The kind of entity in the entPhysicalTable of the Entity MIB module
   is indicated by the value of enumeration object entPhysicalClass.
   All batteries SHOULD have the value of object entPhysicalClass set to
   battery(14) in their row of the entPhysicalTable.

   The batteryTable contains three groups of objects.  The first group
   (OIDs ending with 1-9) provides information on static properties of
   the battery.  The second group of objects (OIDs ending with 10-18)
   provides information on the current battery state, if it is charging
   or discharging, how much it is charged, its remaining capacity, the
   number of experienced charging cycles, etc.



















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      batteryTable(1)
      +--batteryEntry(1) [entPhysicalIndex]
         +-- r-n SnmpAdminString batteryIdentifier(1)
         +-- r-n SnmpAdminString batteryFirmwareVersion(2)
         +-- r-n Enumeration     batteryType(3)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryTechnology(4)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryDesignVoltage(5)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryNumberOfCells(6)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryDesignCapacity(7)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryMaxChargingCurrent(8)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryTrickleChargingCurrent(9)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryActualCapacity(10)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryChargingCycleCount(11)
         +-- r-n DateAndTime     batteryLastChargingCycleTime(12)
         +-- r-n Enumeration     batteryChargingOperState(13)
         +-- rwn Enumeration     batteryChargingAdminState(14)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryActualCharge(15)
         +-- r-n Unsigned32      batteryActualVoltage(16)
         +-- r-n Integer32       batteryActualCurrent(17)
         +-- r-n Integer32       batteryTemperature(18)
         +-- rwn Unsigned32      batteryAlarmLowCharge(19)
         +-- rwn Unsigned32      batteryAlarmLowVoltage(20)
         +-- rwn Unsigned32      batteryAlarmLowCapacity(21)
         +-- rwn Unsigned32      batteryAlarmHighCycleCount(22)
         +-- rwn Integer32       batteryAlarmHighTemperature(23)
         +-- rwn Integer32       batteryAlarmLowTemperature(24)
         +-- r-n SnmpAdminString batteryCellIdentifier(25)

   The third group of objects in this table (OIDs ending with 19-25) is
   used for notifications.  Threshold objects (OIDs ending with 19-24)
   indicate thresholds which can be used to raise an alarm if a property
   of the battery exceeds one of them.  Raising an alarm may include
   sending a notification.

   The Battery MIB defines seven notifications for indicating

   1.  a battery charging state change that was not triggered by writing
       to object batteryChargingAdminState,
   2.  a low battery charging state,
   3.  a critical battery state in which it cannot be used for power
       supply,
   4.  an aged battery that may need to be replaced,
   5.  a battery exceed a temperature threshold,
   6.  a battery that has been connected,
   7.  disconnection of one or more batteries.

   Notifications 2.-5. can use object batteryCellIdentifier to indicate
   a specific cell or a set of cells within the battery that have



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   triggered the notification.

3.2.  Battery Technologies

   Static information in the batteryTable includes battery type and
   technology.  The battery type distinguishes primary (not
   rechargeable) batteries from rechargeable (secondary) batteries and
   capacitors.  The battery technology describes the actual technology
   of a battery, which typically is a chemical technology.

   Since battery technologies are subject of intensive research and
   widely used technologies are often replaced by successor technologies
   within an few years, the list of battery technologies was not chosen
   as a fixed list.  Instead, IANA has created a registry for battery
   technologies at http://www.iana.org/assignments/eman where numbers
   are assigned to battery technologies (TBD).

   The table below shows battery technologies known today that are in
   commercial use with the numbers assigned to them by IANA.  New
   entries can be added to the IANA registry if new technologies are
   developed or if missing technologies are identified.  Note that there
   exists a huge number of battery types that are not listed in the IANA
   registry.  Many of them are experimental or cannot be used in an
   economically useful way.  New entries should be added to the IANA
   registry only if the respective technologies are in commercial use
   and relevant to standardized battery monitoring over the Internet.

























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      +--------------------------------+----------+
      | battery technology             | assigned |
      |                                |  number  |
      +--------------------------------+----------+
      | Unknown                        |        1 |
      | Other                          |        2 |
      | Zinc-carbon                    |        3 |
      | Zinc chloride                  |        4 |
      | Nickel oxyhydroxide            |        5 |
      | Lithium-copper oxide           |        6 |
      | Lithium-iron disulfide         |        7 |
      | Lithium-manganese dioxide      |        8 |
      | Zinc-air                       |        9 |
      | Silver oxide                   |       10 |
      | Alkaline                       |       11 |
      | Lead acid                      |       12 |
      | Valve-Regulated Lead Acid, Gel |       13 |
      | Valve-Regulated Lead Acid, AGM |       14 |
      | Nickel-cadmium                 |       15 |
      | Nickel-metal hydride           |       16 |
      | Nickel-zinc                    |       17 |
      | Lithium-ion                    |       18 |
      | Lithium polymer                |       19 |
      | Double layer capacitor         |       20 |
      +--------------------------------+----------+

3.2.1.  Guidelines for Adding Battery Technologies

   New entries can be added to the IANA registry if new technologies are
   developed or if missing technologies are identified.  Note that there
   exists a huge number of battery types that are not listed in the IANA
   registry.  Many of them are experimental or cannot be used in an
   economically useful way.  New entries should be added to the IANA
   registry only if the respective technologies are in commercial use
   and relevant to standardized battery monitoring over the Internet.

3.3.  Battery Identification

   There are two identifiers to be used: The entPhysicalUUID defined in
   the ENTITY-MIB [RFC6933] module and the batteryIdentifier defined in
   this module.  A battery is linked to an entPhysicalUUID through the
   shared entPhysicalIndex.

   The batteryIdentifier uniquely identifies the battery itself while
   the entPhysicalUUID identifies the slot of the device in which the
   battery is (currently) contained.  For a non-replaceable battery both
   identifiers are always linked to the same physical battery.  But for
   batteries that can be replaced, the identifiers have different



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   functions.

   The entPhysicalUUID is always the same for a certain battery slot of
   a containing device even if the contained battery is replaced by
   another one.  The batteryIdentifier is a representation of the
   battery identifier set by the battery manufacturer.  It is tied to
   the battery and usually cannot be changed.

   Many manufacturers deliver not just plain batteries but battery
   packages including additional hardware and firmware.  Typically,
   these modules include an battery identifier that can by retrieved by
   a device in which a battery has been installed.  The value of the
   object batteryIdentifier is an exact representation of this
   identifier.  The batteryIdentifier is useful when batteries are
   removed and re-installed in the same device or in other devices.
   Then the device or the network management system can trace batteries
   and achieve continuity of battery monitoring.

3.4.  Charging Cycles

   The lifetime of a battery can be approximated using the measure of
   charging cycles.  A commonly used definition of a charging cycle is
   the amount of discharge equal to the design (or nominal) capacity of
   the battery [SBS].  This means that a single charging cycle may
   include several steps of partial charging and discharging until the
   amount of discharging has reached the design capacity of the battery.
   After that the next charging cycle immediately starts.


4.  Definitions

   BATTERY-MIB DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN

   IMPORTS
       MODULE-IDENTITY, OBJECT-TYPE, NOTIFICATION-TYPE,
       mib-2, Integer32, Unsigned32
           FROM SNMPv2-SMI                                -- RFC2578
       SnmpAdminString
           FROM SNMP-FRAMEWORK-MIB                        -- RFC3411
       DateAndTime
           FROM SNMPv2-TC                                 -- RFC2579
       MODULE-COMPLIANCE, OBJECT-GROUP, NOTIFICATION-GROUP
           FROM SNMPv2-CONF                               -- RFC2580
       entPhysicalIndex
           FROM ENTITY-MIB;                               -- RFC6933

   batteryMIB MODULE-IDENTITY
       LAST-UPDATED "201411301200Z"         -- 30 November 2014



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       ORGANIZATION "IETF EMAN Working Group"
       CONTACT-INFO
           "General Discussion: eman@ietf.org
           To Subscribe: http://www.ietf.org/mailman/listinfo/eman
           Archive: http://www.ietf.org/mail-archive/web/eman

           Editor:
             Juergen Quittek
             NEC Europe Ltd.
             NEC Laboratories Europe
             Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
             69115 Heidelberg
             Germany
             Tel: +49 6221 4342-115
             Email: quittek@neclab.eu"

       DESCRIPTION
           "This MIB module defines a set of objects for monitoring
           batteries of networked devices and of their components.

           Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
           authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

           Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
           without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
           to the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD
           License set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal
           Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
           (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

           This version of this MIB module is part of RFC yyyy; see
           the RFC itself for full legal notices."
   -- replace yyyy with actual RFC number & remove this notice

   --  Revision history

       REVISION "201411301200Z"         -- 30 November 2014
       DESCRIPTION
           "Initial version, published as RFC yyyy."
   -- replace yyyy with actual RFC number & remove this notice

       ::= { mib-2 zzz }
   -- zzz to be assigned by IANA.

   --******************************************************************
   -- Top Level Structure of the MIB module
   --******************************************************************




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   batteryNotifications OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { batteryMIB 0 }
   batteryObjects       OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { batteryMIB 1 }
   batteryConformance   OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { batteryMIB 2 }

   --==================================================================
   -- 1. Object Definitions
   --==================================================================

   --------------------------------------------------------------------
   -- 1.1. Battery Table
   --------------------------------------------------------------------
   batteryTable  OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      SEQUENCE OF BatteryEntry
       MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This table provides information on batteries.  It contains
           one conceptual row per battery in a managed entity.

           Batteries are indexed by the entPhysicalIndex of the
           entPhysicalTable defined in the ENTITY-MIB (RFC6933).

           For implementations of the BATTERY-MIB an implementation of
           the ENTITY-MIB complying with the entity4CRCompliance
           MODULE-COMPLIANCE statement of the ENTITY-MIB is required.

           If batteries are replaced, and the replacing battery uses
           the same physical connector as the replaced battery, then
           the replacing battery SHOULD be indexed with the same value
           of object entPhysicalIndex as the replaced battery."
       ::= { batteryObjects 1 }

   batteryEntry OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      BatteryEntry
       MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "An entry providing information on a battery."
       INDEX  { entPhysicalIndex }
       ::= { batteryTable 1 }

   BatteryEntry ::=
       SEQUENCE {
          batteryIdentifier               SnmpAdminString,
          batteryFirmwareVersion          SnmpAdminString,
          batteryType                     INTEGER,
          batteryTechnology               Unsigned32,
          batteryDesignVoltage            Unsigned32,



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          batteryNumberOfCells            Unsigned32,
          batteryDesignCapacity           Unsigned32,
          batteryMaxChargingCurrent       Unsigned32,
          batteryTrickleChargingCurrent   Unsigned32,
          batteryActualCapacity           Unsigned32,
          batteryChargingCycleCount       Unsigned32,
          batteryLastChargingCycleTime    DateAndTime,
          batteryChargingOperState        INTEGER,
          batteryChargingAdminState       INTEGER,
          batteryActualCharge             Unsigned32,
          batteryActualVoltage            Unsigned32,
          batteryActualCurrent            Integer32,
          batteryTemperature              Integer32,
          batteryAlarmLowCharge           Unsigned32,
          batteryAlarmLowVoltage          Unsigned32,
          batteryAlarmLowCapacity         Unsigned32,
          batteryAlarmHighCycleCount      Unsigned32,
          batteryAlarmHighTemperature     Integer32,
          batteryAlarmLowTemperature      Integer32,
          batteryCellIdentifier           SnmpAdminString
       }

   batteryIdentifier OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      SnmpAdminString
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object contains an identifier for the battery.

           Many manufacturers deliver not only simple batteries but
           battery packages including additional hardware and firmware.
           Typically, these modules include an identifier that can be
           retrieved by a device in which a battery has been installed.
           The identifier is useful when batteries are removed and
           re-installed in the same or other devices.  Then the device
           or the network management system can trace batteries and
           achieve continuity of battery monitoring.

           If the battery is identified by more than one value,
           for example, by a model number and a serial number,
           then the value of this object is a concatenation of these
           values, separated by the colon symbol ':'.  The values
           should be ordered that a more significant value comes
           before a less significant one. In the example above, the
           (more significant) model number would be first, the serial
           number would follow: '<model number>:<serial number>'.

           If the battery identifier cannot be represented using the



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           ISO/IEC IS 10646-1 character set, then a hexadecimal
           encoding of a binary representation of the entire battery
           identifier must be used.

           The value of this object must be an empty string if there
           is no battery identifier or if the battery identifier is
           unknown."
       ::= { batteryEntry 1 }

   batteryFirmwareVersion OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      SnmpAdminString
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object indicates the version number of the firmware
           that is included in a battery module.

           Many manufacturers deliver not pure batteries but battery
           packages including additional hardware and firmware.

           Since the behavior of the battery may change with the
           firmware, it may be useful to retrieve the firmware version
           number.

           The value of this object must be an empty string if there
           is no firmware or if the version number of the firmware is
           unknown."
       ::= { batteryEntry 2 }

   batteryType OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      INTEGER {
                       unknown(1),
                       other(2),
                       primary(3),
                       rechargeable(4),
                       capacitor(5)
                   }
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object indicates the type of battery.
           It distinguishes between primary (not rechargeable)
           batteries, rechargeable (secondary) batteries, and
           capacitors.  Capacitors are not really batteries but
           often used in the same way as a battery.

           The value other(2) can be used if the battery type is known
           but none of the ones above.  Value unknown(1) is to be used



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           if the type of battery cannot be determined."
       ::= { batteryEntry 3 }

   batteryTechnology OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object indicates the technology used by the battery.
           Numbers identifying battery types are registered at IANA.
           A current list of assignments can be found at
           <http://www.iana.org/assignments/eman>.

           Value 1 (unknown) MUST be used if the type of battery
           cannot be determined.

           Value 2 (other) can be used if the battery type is known
           but not one of the types already registered at IANA."
       ::= { batteryEntry 4 }

   batteryDesignVoltage OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "millivolt"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the design (or nominal) voltage of the
           battery in units of millivolt (mV).

           Note that the design voltage is a constant value and
           typically different from the actual voltage of the battery.

           A value of 0 indicates that the design voltage is unknown."
       ::= { batteryEntry 5 }

   batteryNumberOfCells OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object indicates the number of cells contained in the
           battery.

           A value of 0 indicates that the number of cells is unknown."
       ::= { batteryEntry 6 }

   batteryDesignCapacity OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32



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       UNITS       "milliampere hours"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the design (or nominal) capacity of
           the battery in units of milliampere hours (mAh).

           Note that the design capacity is a constant value and
           typically different from the actual capacity of the battery.
           Usually, this is a value provided by the manufacturer of the
           battery.

           A value of 0 indicates that the design capacity is
           unknown."
       ::= { batteryEntry 7 }

   batteryMaxChargingCurrent OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "milliampere"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the maximal current to be used for
           charging the battery in units of milliampere (mA).

           Note that the maximal charging current may not lead to
           optimal charge of the battery and that some batteries can
           only be charged with the maximal current for a limited
           amount of time.

           A value of 0 indicates that the maximal charging current is
           unknown."
       ::= { batteryEntry 8 }

   batteryTrickleChargingCurrent OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "milliampere"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the recommended current to be used for
           trickle charging the battery in units of milliampere (mA).

           Typically, this is a value recommended by the manufacturer
           of the battery or by the manufacturer of the charging
           circuit.

           A value of 0 indicates that the recommended trickle charging



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           current is unknown."
       ::= { batteryEntry 9 }

   batteryActualCapacity OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "milliampere hours"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the actual capacity of the
           battery in units of milliampere hours (mAh).

           Typically, the actual capacity of a battery decreases
           with time and with usage of the battery. It is usually
           lower than the design capacity

           Note that the actual capacity needs to be measured and is
           typically an estimate based on observed discharging and
           charging cycles of the battery.

           A value of 'ffffffff'H indicates that the actual capacity
           cannot be determined."
       ::= { batteryEntry 10 }

   batteryChargingCycleCount OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object indicates the number of completed charging
           cycles that the battery underwent. In line with the
           Smart Battery Data Specification Revision 1.1, a charging
           cycle is defined as the process of discharging the battery
           by a total amount equal to the battery design capacity as
           given by object batteryDesignCapacity. A charging cycle
           may include several steps of charging and discharging the
           battery until the discharging amount given by
           batteryDesignCapacity has been reached. As soon as a
           charging cycle has been completed the next one starts
           immediately independent of the battery's current charge at
           the end of the cycle.

           For batteries of type primary(3) the value of this object is
           always 0.

           A value of 'ffffffff'H indicates that the number of charging
           cycles cannot be determined."
       ::= { batteryEntry 11 }



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   batteryLastChargingCycleTime OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      DateAndTime
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The date and time of the last charging cycle.  The value
           '0000000000000000'H is returned if the battery has not been
           charged yet or if the last charging time cannot be
           determined.

           For batteries of type primary(1) the value of this object is
           always '0000000000000000'H."
       ::= { batteryEntry 12 }

   batteryChargingOperState OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      INTEGER {
                       unknown(1),
                       charging(2),
                       fastCharging(3),
                       maintainingCharge(4),
                       noCharging(5),
                       discharging(6)
                   }
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object indicates the current charging state of the
           battery.

           Value unknown(1) indicates that the charging state of the
           battery cannot be determined.

           Value charging(2) indicates that the battery is being
           charged in a way that the charge of the battery increases.

           Value fastCharging(3) indicated that the battery is being
           charged rapidly, i.e. faster than in the charging(2) state.
           If multiple fast charging states exist, all of these
           states are indicated by fastCharging(3).

           Value maintainingCharge(4) indicates that the battery is
           being charged with a low current that compensates
           self-discharging. This includes trickle charging, float
           charging and other methods for maintaining the current
           charge of a battery.

           Value noCharging(5) indicates that the battery is not being
           charged or discharged by electric current between the



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           battery and electric circuits external to the battery.
           Note that the battery may still be subject to
           self-discharging.

           Value discharging(6) indicates that the battery is being
           discharged and that the charge of the battery decreases."
       ::= { batteryEntry 13 }

   batteryChargingAdminState OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      INTEGER {
                       charging(2),
                       fastCharging(3),
                       maintainingCharge(4),
                       noCharging(5),
                       discharging(6),
                       notSet(7)
                   }
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The value of this object indicates the desired
           charging state of the battery. The real state is
           indicated by object batteryChargingOperState. See the
           definition of object batteryChargingOperState for a
           description of the values.

           When this object is initialized by an implementation of the
           BATTERY-MIB module, its value is set to notSet(7).

           However, a SET request can only set this object to either
           charging(2), fastCharging(3), maintainingCharge(4),
           noCharging(5), or discharging(6). Attempts to set this
           object to notSet(7) will always fail with an
           'inconsistentValue' error. In case multiple fast charging
           states exist, the battery logic can choose an appropriate
           fast charging state - preferably the fastest.

           When the batteryChargingAdminState object is set, then the
           BATTERY-MIB implementation must try to set the battery
           to the indicated state. The result will be indicated by
           object batteryChargingOperState.

           Due to operational conditions and limitations of the
           implementation of the BATTERY-MIB module, changing the
           battery status according to a set value of object
           batteryChargingAdminState may not be possible.

           Setting the value of object batteryChargingAdminState



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           may result in not changing the state of the battery
           to this value or even in setting the charging state
           to another value. For example, setting
           batteryChargingAdminState to value fastCharging(3) may
           have no effect when the battery logic is not allowing
           fast charging due to temperature constraints."

       ::= { batteryEntry 14 }

   batteryActualCharge OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "milliampere hours"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the actual charge of the battery
           in units of milliampere hours (mAh).

           Note that the actual charge needs to be measured and is
           typically an estimate based on observed discharging and
           charging cycles of the battery.

           A value of 'ffffffff'H indicates that the actual charge
           cannot be determined."
       ::= { batteryEntry 15 }

   batteryActualVoltage OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "millivolt"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the actual voltage of the battery
           in units of millivolt (mV).

           A value of 'ffffffff'H indicates that the actual voltage
           cannot be determined."
       ::= { batteryEntry 16 }

   batteryActualCurrent OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Integer32
       UNITS       "milliampere"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the actual charging or discharging
           current of the battery in units of milliampere (mA).
           Charging current is represented by positive values,



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           discharging current is represented by negative values.

           A value of '7fffffff'H indicates that the actual current
           cannot be determined."
       ::= { batteryEntry 17 }

   batteryTemperature OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Integer32
       UNITS       "deci-degrees Celsius"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The ambient temperature at or within close proximity
           of the battery.

           A value of '7fffffff'H indicates that the temperature
           cannot be determined."
       ::= { batteryEntry 18 }

   batteryAlarmLowCharge OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "milliampere hours"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the lower threshold value for object
           batteryActualCharge.  If the value of object
           batteryActualCharge falls below this threshold,
           a low battery alarm will be raised.  The alarm procedure may
           include generating a batteryLowNotification.

           This object should be set to a value such that when the
           batteryLowNotification is generated, the battery is still
           sufficiently charged to keep the device(s) that it powers
           operational for a time long enough to take actions before
           the powered device(s) enter a 'sleep' or 'off' state.

           A value of 0 indicates that no alarm will be raised for any
           value of object batteryActualCharge."
       ::= { batteryEntry 19 }

   batteryAlarmLowVoltage OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "millivolt"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the lower threshold value for object



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           batteryActualVoltage.  If the value of object
           batteryActualVoltage falls below this threshold,
           a low battery alarm will be raised.  The alarm procedure may
           include generating a batteryLowNotification.

           This object should be set to a value such that when the
           batteryLowNotification is generated, the battery is still
           sufficiently charged to keep the device(s) that it powers
           operational for a time long enough to take actions before
           the powered device(s) enter a 'sleep' or 'off' state.

           A value of 0 indicates that no alarm will be raised for any
           value of object batteryActualVoltage."
       ::= { batteryEntry 20 }

   batteryAlarmLowCapacity OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       UNITS       "milliampere hours"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the lower threshold value for object
           batteryActualCapacity.  If the value of object
           batteryActualCapacity falls below this threshold,
           a battery aging alarm will be raised.  The alarm procedure
           may include generating a batteryAgingNotification.

           A value of 0 indicates that no alarm will be raised for any
           value of object batteryActualCapacity."
       ::= { batteryEntry 21 }

   batteryAlarmHighCycleCount OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the upper threshold value for object
           batteryChargingCycleCount.  If the value of object
           batteryChargingCycleCount rises above this threshold,
           a battery aging alarm will be raised.  The alarm procedure
           may include generating a batteryAgingNotification.

           A value of 0 indicates that no alarm will be raised for any
           value of object batteryChargingCycleCount."
       ::= { batteryEntry 22 }

   batteryAlarmHighTemperature OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Integer32



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       UNITS       "deci-degrees Celsius"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the upper threshold value for object
           batteryTemperature.  If the value of object
           batteryTemperature rises above this threshold, a battery
           high temperature alarm will be raised.  The alarm procedure
           may include generating a batteryTemperatureNotification.

           A value of '7fffffff'H indicates that no alarm will be
           raised for any value of object batteryTemperature."
       ::= { batteryEntry 23 }

   batteryAlarmLowTemperature OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Integer32
       UNITS       "deci-degrees Celsius"
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This object provides the lower threshold value for object
           batteryTemperature.  If the value of object
           batteryTemperature falls below this threshold, a battery
           low temperature alarm will be raised.  The alarm procedure
           may include generating a batteryTemperatureNotification.

           A value of '7fffffff'H indicates that no alarm will be
           raised for any value of object batteryTemperature."
       ::= { batteryEntry 24 }

   batteryCellIdentifier OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      SnmpAdminString
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The value of this object identifies one or more cells of a
           battery.  The format of the cell identifier may vary between
           different implementations.  It should uniquely identify one
           or more cells of the indexed battery.

           This object can be used for batteries, such as, for example,
           lithium polymer batteries for which battery controllers
           monitor cells individually.

           This object is used by notifications of type
           batteryLowNotification, batteryTemperatureNotification,
           batteryCriticalNotification, and batteryAgingNotification.
           These notifications can use the value of this object to



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           indicate the event that triggered the generation of the
           notification in more details by specifying a single cell
           or a set of cells within the battery which are specifically
           addressed by the notification.

           An example use case for this object is a single cell in a
           battery that exceeds the temperature indicated by object
           batteryAlarmHighTemperature.  In such a case, a
           batteryTemperatureNotification can be generated that not
           just indicates the battery for which the temperature is
           exceeded but also the particular cell.

           The initial value of this object is the empty string.  The
           value of this object is set at each time a
           batteryLowNotification, a batteryTemperatureNotification,
           a batteryCriticalNotification, or a batteryAgingNotification
           is generated.

           When a notification is generated that does not indicate a
           specific cell or set of cells, the value of this object is
           set to the empty string."
       ::= { batteryEntry 25 }



   --==================================================================
   -- 2. Notifications
   --==================================================================

   batteryChargingStateNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE
       OBJECTS     {
           batteryChargingOperState
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This notification can be generated when a charging state
           of the battery (indicated by the value of object
           batteryChargingOperState) is triggered by an event other
           than a write action to object batteryChargingAdminState.
           Such an event may, for example, be triggered by a local
           battery controller."
       ::= { batteryNotifications 1 }

   batteryLowNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE
       OBJECTS     {
           batteryActualCharge,
           batteryActualVoltage,
           batteryCellIdentifier



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       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This notification can be generated when the current charge
           (batteryActualCharge) or the current voltage
           (batteryActualVoltage) of the battery falls below a
           threshold defined by object batteryAlarmLowCharge or object
           batteryAlarmLowVoltage, respectively.

           Note that typically, this notification is generated in a
           state where the battery is still sufficiently charged to keep
           the device(s) that it powers operational for some time.
           If the charging state of the battery has become critical,
           i.e., the device(s) powered by the battery must go to a
           'sleep' or 'off' state, then the batteryCriticalNotification
           should be used instead.

           If the low charge or voltage has been detected for a single
           cell or a set of cells of the battery and not for the entire
           battery, then object batteryCellIdentifier should be set to
           a value that identifies the cell or set of cells.
           Otherwise, the value of object batteryCellIdentifier should
           be set to the empty string when this notification is
           generated.

           The notification should not be sent again for the same
           battery or cell before either (a) the current voltage or
           the current charge, respectively, has become higher than the
           corresponding threshold through charging or (b) an indication
           of a maintenance action has been detected, such as battery
           disconnection event, or a reinitialization of the battery
           monitoring system.

           This notification should not be sent when the battery is in
           a charging mode, i.e., the value of object
           batteryChargingOperState is charging(2) or fastCharging(3)."
       ::= { batteryNotifications 2 }

   batteryCriticalNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE
       OBJECTS     {
           batteryActualCharge,
           batteryActualVoltage,
           batteryCellIdentifier
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This notification can be generated when the current charge
           of the battery falls so low that it cannot provide a



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           sufficient power supply function for regular operation
           of the powered device(s). The battery needs to be charged
           before it can be used for regular power supply again. The
           battery may still provide sufficient power for a 'sleep'
           mode of powered device(s) or for a transition into an 'off'
           mode.

           If the critical state is caused a single cell or a set of
           cells of the battery, then object batteryCellIdentifier
           should be set to a value that identifies the cell or set of
           cells.  Otherwise, the value of object batteryCellIdentifier
           should be set to the empty string when this notification is
           generated.

           The notification should not be sent again for the same
           battery before either the battery charge has increased
           through charging to a non-critical value or an indication
           of a maintenance action has been detected, such a battery
           disconnection event, or a reinitialization of the battery
           monitoring system.

           This notification should not be sent when the battery is in
           a charging mode, i.e., the value of object
           batteryChargingOperState is charging(2) or fastCharging(3)."
       ::= { batteryNotifications 3 }

   batteryTemperatureNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE
       OBJECTS     {
           batteryTemperature,
           batteryCellIdentifier
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This notification can be generated when the measured
           temperature (batteryTemperature) rises above the threshold
           defined by object batteryAlarmHighTemperature or falls
           below the threshold defined by object
           batteryAlarmLowTemperature.

           If the low or high temperature has been detected for a
           single cell or a set of cells of the battery and not for the
           entire battery, then object batteryCellIdentifier should be
           set to a value that identifies the cell or set of cells.
           Otherwise, the value of object batteryCellIdentifier should
           be set to the empty string when this notification is
           generated.

           It may occur that the temperature alternates between values



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           slightly below and slightly above a threshold. For limiting
           the notification rate in such a case, this notification
           should not be sent again for the same battery or cell,
           respectively, with in a time interval of 10 minutes.

           An exception to the rate limitations occurs immediately
           after the reinitialization of the battery monitoring system.
           If at this point in time the battery temperature is above
           the threshold defined by object batteryAlarmHighTemperature
           or below the threshold defined by object
           batteryAlarmLowTemperature, respectively, then this
           notification should be sent, independent of the time at
           which previous notifications for the same battery or cell,
           respectively, had been sent."
       ::= { batteryNotifications 4 }

   batteryAgingNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE
       OBJECTS     {
           batteryActualCapacity,
           batteryChargingCycleCount,
           batteryCellIdentifier
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This notification can be generated when the actual
           capacity (batteryActualCapacity) falls below a threshold
           defined by object batteryAlarmLowCapacity
           or when the charging cycle count of the battery
           (batteryChargingCycleCount) exceeds the threshold defined
           by object batteryAlarmHighCycleCount.

           If the aging has been detected for a single cell or a set of
           cells of the battery and not for the entire battery, then
           object batteryCellIdentifier should be set to a value that
           identifies the cell or set of cells.  Otherwise, the value
           of object batteryCellIdentifier should be set to the empty
           string when this notification is generated.

           This notification should not be sent again for the same
           battery or cell, respectively, before an indication of a
           maintenance action has been detected, such as a battery
           disconnection event, or a reinitialization of the battery
           monitoring system."
       ::= { batteryNotifications 5 }

   batteryConnectedNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE
       OBJECTS     {
           batteryIdentifier



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       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This notification can be generated when it has been
           detected that a battery has been connected. The battery
           can be identified by the value of object batteryIdentifier
           as well as by the value of index entPhysicalIndex that is
           contained in the OID of object batteryIdentifier."
       ::= { batteryNotifications 6 }

   batteryDisconnectedNotification NOTIFICATION-TYPE
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This notification can be generated when it has been
           detected that one or more batteries have been disconnected."
       ::= { batteryNotifications 7 }


   --==================================================================
   -- 3. Conformance Information
   --==================================================================

   batteryCompliances OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { batteryConformance 1 }
   batteryGroups      OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { batteryConformance 2 }

   --------------------------------------------------------------------
   -- 3.1. Compliance Statements
   --------------------------------------------------------------------

   batteryCompliance MODULE-COMPLIANCE
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The compliance statement for implementations of the
           BATTERY-MIB module.

           A compliant implementation MUST implement the objects
           defined in the mandatory groups batteryDescriptionGroup
           and batteryStatusGroup.

           Note that compliance with this compliance
           statement requires compliance with the
           entity4CRCompliance MODULE-COMPLIANCE statement of the
           ENTITY-MIB (RFC6933)."
       MODULE  -- this module
           MANDATORY-GROUPS {
               batteryDescriptionGroup,
               batteryStatusGroup
           }



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           GROUP   batteryAlarmThresholdsGroup
           DESCRIPTION
              "A compliant implementation does not have to implement
               the batteryAlarmThresholdsGroup."

           GROUP   batteryNotificationsGroup
           DESCRIPTION
              "A compliant implementation does not have to implement
               the batteryNotificationsGroup."

           GROUP   batteryPerCellNotificationsGroup
           DESCRIPTION
              "A compliant implementation does not have to implement
               the batteryPerCellNotificationsGroup."

           GROUP   batteryAdminGroup
           DESCRIPTION
              "A compliant implementation does not have to implement
               the batteryAdminGroup."

           OBJECT batteryAlarmLowCharge
           MIN-ACCESS  read-only
           DESCRIPTION
               "A compliant implementation is not required
               to support set operations to this object."

           OBJECT batteryAlarmLowVoltage
           MIN-ACCESS  read-only
           DESCRIPTION
               "A compliant implementation is not required
               to support set operations to this object."

           OBJECT batteryAlarmLowCapacity
           MIN-ACCESS  read-only
           DESCRIPTION
               "A compliant implementation is not required
               to support set operations to this object."

           OBJECT batteryAlarmHighCycleCount
           MIN-ACCESS  read-only
           DESCRIPTION
               "A compliant implementation is not required
               to support set operations to this object."

           OBJECT batteryAlarmHighTemperature
           MIN-ACCESS  read-only
           DESCRIPTION
               "A compliant implementation is not required



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               to support set operations to this object."

           OBJECT batteryAlarmLowTemperature
           MIN-ACCESS  read-only
           DESCRIPTION
               "A compliant implementation is not required
               to support set operations to this object."

       ::= { batteryCompliances 1 }

   --------------------------------------------------------------------
   -- 3.2. MIB Grouping
   --------------------------------------------------------------------

   batteryDescriptionGroup OBJECT-GROUP
       OBJECTS {
          batteryIdentifier,
          batteryFirmwareVersion,
          batteryType,
          batteryTechnology,
          batteryDesignVoltage,
          batteryNumberOfCells,
          batteryDesignCapacity,
          batteryMaxChargingCurrent,
          batteryTrickleChargingCurrent
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
          "A compliant implementation MUST implement the objects
          contained in this group."
       ::= { batteryGroups 1 }

   batteryStatusGroup OBJECT-GROUP
       OBJECTS {
          batteryActualCapacity,
          batteryChargingCycleCount,
          batteryLastChargingCycleTime,
          batteryChargingOperState,
          batteryActualCharge,
          batteryActualVoltage,
          batteryActualCurrent,
          batteryTemperature
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
          "A compliant implementation MUST implement the objects
          contained in this group."
       ::= { batteryGroups 2 }



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   batteryAdminGroup OBJECT-GROUP
       OBJECTS {
          batteryChargingAdminState
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
          "A compliant implementation does not have to implement the
          object contained in this group."
       ::= { batteryGroups 3 }

   batteryAlarmThresholdsGroup OBJECT-GROUP
       OBJECTS {
          batteryAlarmLowCharge,
          batteryAlarmLowVoltage,
          batteryAlarmLowCapacity,
          batteryAlarmHighCycleCount,
          batteryAlarmHighTemperature,
          batteryAlarmLowTemperature
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
          "A compliant implementation does not have to implement the
          objects contained in this group."
       ::= { batteryGroups 4 }

   batteryNotificationsGroup NOTIFICATION-GROUP
       NOTIFICATIONS {
          batteryChargingStateNotification,
          batteryLowNotification,
          batteryCriticalNotification,
          batteryAgingNotification,
          batteryTemperatureNotification,
          batteryConnectedNotification,
          batteryDisconnectedNotification
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "A compliant implementation does not have to implement the
           notifications contained in this group."
       ::= { batteryGroups 5 }

   batteryPerCellNotificationsGroup OBJECT-GROUP
       OBJECTS {
          batteryCellIdentifier
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "A compliant implementation does not have to implement the



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           object contained in this group."
       ::= { batteryGroups 6 }
   END


5.  Security Considerations

   There are a number of management objects defined in this MIB module
   with a MAX-ACCESS clause of read-write.  Such objects may be
   considered sensitive or vulnerable in some network environments.  The
   support for SET operations in a non-secure environment without proper
   protection can have a negative effect on network operations.  These
   are the tables and objects and their sensitivity/vulnerability:

   o  batteryChargingAdminState
      Setting the battery charging state can be beneficial for an
      operator for various reasons such as charging batteries when the
      price of electricity is low.  However, setting the charging state
      can be used by an attacker to discharge batteries of devices and
      thereby switching these devices off if they are powered solely by
      batteries.  In particular, if the batteryAlarmLowCharge and
      batteryAlarmLowVoltage can also be set, this attack will go
      unnoticed (i.e. no notifications are sent).

   o  batteryAlarmLowCharge and batteryAlarmLowVoltage
      These objects set the threshold for an alarm to be raised when the
      battery charge or voltage falls below the corresponding one of
      them.  An attacker setting one of these alarm values can switch
      off the alarm by setting it to the 'off' value 0 or modify the
      alarm behavior by setting it to any other value.  The result may
      be loss of data if the battery runs empty without warning to a
      recipient expecting such a notification.

   o  batteryAlarmLowCapacity and batteryAlarmHighCycleCount
      These objects set the threshold for an alarm to be raised when the
      battery becomes older and less performant than required for stable
      operation.  An attacker setting this alarm value can switch off
      the alarm by setting it to the 'off' value 0 or modify the alarm
      behavior by setting it to any other value.  This may either lead
      to a costly replacement of a working battery or too old or too
      weak batteries being used.  The consequence of the latter could
      e.g. be that a battery cannot provide power long enough between
      two scheduled charging actions causing the powered device to shut
      down and potentially lose data.

   o  batteryAlarmHighTemperature and batteryAlarmLowTemperature
      These objects set thresholds for an alarm to be raised when the
      battery rises above/falls below them.  An attacker setting one of



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      these alarm values can switch off these alarms by setting them to
      the 'off' value '7fffffff'H or modify the alarm behavior by
      setting them to any other value.  The result may e.g. be an
      unnecessary shutdown of a device if batteryAlarmHighTemperature is
      set to too low or damage to the device by too high temperatures if
      switched off or set to too high values or by damage to the battery
      when it e.g. is being charged.  Batteries can also be damaged e.g.
      in an attempt to charge them at too low temperatures.

   Some of the readable objects in this MIB module (i.e., objects with a
   MAX-ACCESS other than not-accessible) may be considered sensitive or
   vulnerable in some network environments.  It is thus important to
   control even GET and/or NOTIFY access to these objects and possibly
   to even encrypt the values of these objects when sending them over
   the network via SNMP.  These are the tables and objects and their
   sensitivity/vulnerability:

   All potentially sensible or vulnerable objects of this MIB module are
   in the batteryTable.  In general, there are no serious operational
   vulnerabilities foreseen in case of an unauthorized read access to
   this table.  However, corporate confidentiality issues need to be
   considered.  It may be a trade secret of the operator
   o  how many batteries are installed in a managed node (batteryIndex)
   o  how old these batteries are (batteryActualCapacity and
      batteryChargingCycleCount)
   o  when the next replacement cycle for batteries can be expected
      (batteryAlarmLowCapacity and batteryAlarmHighCycleCount)
   o  what battery type and make are used with which firmware version
      (batteryIdentifier, batteryFirmwareVersion, batteryType, and
      batteryTechnology)

   For any battery-powered device whose use can be correlated to an
   individual or a small group of individuals, the following objects
   have the potential to reveal information about those individuals'
   activities or habits (e.g., if they are near a power outlet, if they
   have been using their devices heavily, etc.):
   o  batteryChargingCycleCount
   o  batteryLastChargingCycleTime
   o  batteryChargingOperState
   o  batteryActualCharge
   o  batteryActualVoltage
   o  batteryActualCurrent
   o  batteryTemperature
   o  batteryAlarmLowCharge
   o  batteryAlarmLowVoltage
   o  batteryAlarmLowCapacity





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   o  batteryAlarmHighCycleCount
   o  batteryAlarmHighTemperature
   o  batteryAlarmLowTemperature

   Implementers SHOULD use appropriate privacy protections.  Battery
   monitoring of devices used by individuals SHOULD only occur with
   proper authorization.  See the relevant discussion in Section 9 of
   the Requirements for Energy Management [RFC6988].

   It is RECOMMENDED that implementers consider the security features as
   provided by the SNMPv3 framework (see [RFC3410], section 8),
   including full support for the SNMPv3 cryptographic mechanisms (for
   authentication and privacy).

   Further, deployment of SNMP versions prior to SNMPv3 is NOT
   RECOMMENDED.  Instead, it is RECOMMENDED to deploy SNMPv3 and to
   enable cryptographic security.  It is then a customer/operator
   responsibility to ensure that the SNMP entity giving access to an
   instance of this MIB module is properly configured to give access to
   the objects only to those principals (users) that have legitimate
   rights to GET or SET (change/create/delete) them.


6.  IANA Considerations

6.1.  SMI Object Identifier Registration

   The Battery MIB module defined in this document uses the following
   IANA-assigned OBJECT IDENTIFIER value recorded in the SMI Numbers
   registry:

             Descriptor        OBJECT IDENTIFIER value
             ----------        -----------------------
             batteryMIB        { mib-2 xxx }

   [NOTE for IANA: Please allocate an object identifier at
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/smi-numbers for object batteryMIB.]

6.2.  Battery Technology Registration

   Object batteryTechnology defined in Section 4 reports battery
   technologies.  Eighteen values for battery technologies have
   initially been defined.  They are listed in a table in Section 3.2.

   For ensuring extensibility of this list, IANA has created a registry
   for battery technologies at http://www.iana.org/assignments/eman and
   filled it with the initial list given in Section 3.2.




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   New assignments of numbers for battery technologies will be
   administered by IANA through Expert Review ([RFC5226]).  Experts must
   check for sufficient relevance of a battery technology to be added
   according to the guidelines in section Section 3.2.1.

   [NOTE for IANA: Please create a new registry under
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/eman for battery types.  Please fill
   the registry with values from the table in Section 3.2]


7.  Acknowledgements

   We would like to thank Steven Chew, Bill Mielke, and Alan Luchuk for
   their valuable input.


8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC2578]  McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Structure of Management Information
              Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.

   [RFC2579]  McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Textual Conventions for SMIv2",
              STD 58, RFC 2579, April 1999.

   [RFC2580]  McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., and J. Schoenwaelder,
              "Conformance Statements for SMIv2", STD 58, RFC 2580,
              April 1999.

   [RFC6933]  Bierman, A., Romascanu, D., Quittek, J., and M.
              Chandramouli, "Entity MIB (Version 4)", RFC 6933,
              May 2013.

8.2.  Informative References

   [RFC6988]  Quittek, J., Chandramouli, M., Winter, R., Dietz, T., and
              B. Claise, "Requirements for Energy Management", RFC 6988,
              September 2013.



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   [RFC7326]  Parello, J., Claise, B., Schoening, B., and J. Quittek,
              "Energy Management Framework", RFC 7326, September 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-eman-energy-monitoring-mib]
              Chandramouli, M., Claise, B., Schoening, B., Quittek, J.,
              and T. Dietz, "Power, Energy Monitoring and Control MIB",
              draft-ietf-eman-energy-monitoring-mib-13 (work in
              progress), November 2014.

   [RFC1628]  Case, J., "UPS Management Information Base", RFC 1628,
              May 1994.

   [RFC3410]  Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D., and B. Stewart,
              "Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet-
              Standard Management Framework", RFC 3410, December 2002.

   [SBS]      "Smart Battery Data Specification", Revision 1.1,
              December 1998.


Authors' Addresses

   Juergen Quittek
   NEC Europe Ltd.
   NEC Laboratories Europe
   Network Research Division
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   DE

   Phone: +49 6221 4342-115
   Email: quittek@neclab.eu


   Rolf Winter
   NEC Europe Ltd.
   NEC Laboratories Europe
   Network Research Division
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   DE

   Phone: +49 6221 4342-121
   Email: Rolf.Winter@neclab.eu







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   Thomas Dietz
   NEC Europe Ltd.
   NEC Laboratories Europe
   Network Research Division
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   DE

   Phone: +49 6221 4342-128
   Email: Thomas.Dietz@neclab.eu









































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