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     Network Working Group                                  B. Claise
     Internet-Draft                                        J. Parello
     Intended Status: Informational               Cisco Systems, Inc.
     Expires: September 12, 2012                         B. Schoening
                                               Independent Consultant
                                                           J. Quittek
                                                      NEC Europe Ltd.
                                                           B. Nordman
                                                    Lawrence Berkeley
                                                  National Laboratory
                                                       March 12, 2012
     
     
     
     
                      Energy Management Framework
                      draft-ietf-eman-framework-04
     
     
     Status of this Memo
     
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        conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
     
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     Copyright Notice
     
        Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        the document authors.  All rights reserved.
     
        This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's
        Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
        (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the
        date of publication of this document.  Please review these
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        Components extracted from this document must include
        Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
        the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without
        warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.
     
     
     
     Abstract
     
        This document defines a framework for providing Energy
        Management for devices within or connected to communication
        networks, and components thereof.  The framework defines an
        Energy Management Domain as a set of Energy Objects, for
        which each Energy Object is identified, classified and
        given context.   Energy Objects can be monitored and/or
        controlled with respect to Power, Power State, Energy,
        Demand, Power Quality, and battery.  Additionally the
        framework models relationships and capabilities between
        Energy Objects.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     Table of Contents
     
        1. Introduction............................................5
           1.1. Energy Management Document Overview................6
        2. Terminology.............................................7
           Energy Management.......................................8
           Energy Management System (EnMS).........................8
           ISO Energy Management System............................9
           Energy..................................................9
           Power..................................................10
           Demand.................................................10
           Power Quality..........................................10
           Electrical Equipment...................................11
           Non-Electrical Equipment (Mechanical Equipment)........11
           Energy Object..........................................11
           Electrical Energy Object...............................11
           Non-Electrical Energy Object...........................11
           Energy Monitoring......................................11
           Energy Control.........................................12
           Energy Management Domain...............................12
           Energy Object Identification...........................12
           Energy Object Context..................................13
           Energy Object Relationship.............................13
           Energy Object Parent...................................14
           Energy Object Child....................................15
           Power State............................................15
           Power State Set........................................16
           Nameplate Power........................................16
        3. Requirements & Use Cases...............................16
        4. Energy Management Issues...............................18
           4.1. Power Supply......................................19
              4.1.1 Identification of Power Supply and Powered
              Devices.............................................20
              4.1.2 Multiples Devices Supplied by a Single Power
              Line................................................21
              4.1.3 Multiple Power Supply for a Single Powered
              Device..............................................22
              4.1.4 Bidirectional Power Interfaces................23
              4.1.5 Relevance of Power Supply Issues..............23
              4.1.6 Remote Power Supply Control...................24
           4.2. Power and Energy Measurement......................24
              4.2.1 Local Estimates...............................24
              4.2.2 Management System Estimates...................25
           4.3. Reporting Sleep and Off States....................25
           4.4. Energy Device and Energy Device Components........25
           4.5. Non-Electrical Equipment..........................26
        5. Energy Management Reference Model......................26
     
     
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           5.1. Energy Object, Energy Object Components and
           Containment Tree.......................................29
        6. Framework High Level Concepts and Scope................30
           6.1. Energy Object and Energy Management Domain........31
           6.2. Power Interface...................................31
           6.3. Energy Object Identification and Context..........32
              6.2.1 Energy Object Identification..................32
              6.2.2 Context in General............................32
              6.2.3 Context: Importance...........................32
              6.2.4 Context: Keywords.............................33
              6.2.5 Context: Role.................................34
           6.4. Energy Object Relationships.......................34
              6.4.1 Energy Object Children Discovery..............36
              6.4.2 Energy Object Relationship Conventions and
              Guidelines..........................................37
           6.5. Energy Monitoring.................................37
              6.5.1 Power Measurement.............................38
           6.6. Energy Control....................................40
              6.5.1 IEEE1621 Power State Series...................41
              6.5.2 DMTF Power State Series.......................41
              6.5.3 EMAN Power State Set..........................42
           6.7. Energy Objects Relationship Extensions............45
        7. Structure of the Information Model: UML
        Representation............................................45
        8. Configuration..........................................50
        9. Fault Management.......................................51
        10. Examples..............................................52
        11. Relationship with Other Standards Development
        Organizations.............................................55
           11.1. Information Modeling.............................55
        12. Security Considerations...............................56
        12.1. Security Considerations for SNMP....................56
        13. IANA Considerations...................................57
        14. Acknowledgments.......................................57
        15. References............................................57
           Normative References...................................57
           Informative References.................................58
     
     
     
        TO DO/OPEN ISSUE
        - Add figures to the section 10 examples
        - The figure 5 and 6 from the framework must be updated
          with the notion of power interfaces
        - Aggregation Relationship is different compared to the
          other Relationships. There are some use cases: a building
          mediator implementing the MIB, with some subtended
          devices, a meter for many devices, etc... However, this
     
     
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          is also a generic function. We could argue that an
          aggregation function is something that is not particular
          to the EMAN context.
        - Since we speak about Power Interface now, we need to
          double the EO Relationships here and in [EMAN-AWARE-MIB]:
          Example: poweredBy versus providingPower.
        - Energy Interface or Power Interface, which term is best?
        - The UML must be aligned with the latest [EMAN-AWARE-MIB]
          and [EMAN-AWARE-MIB] document versions.
        - JOHN: Does the multiple URIs requirement apply to all of
          the defined relationship fields?  For example, can
          eoProxyBy have multiple URIs?  What about the other
          relationships? Answer: yes, but need to be explained
        - Needs scrub for terminology and new "provide and receive
          energy" consensus. Power and energy also incorrectly used
          interchangeably from merged text.
        - Some reference in the terminology section will certainly
          have to be removed.
        - Complete the section "Energy Object Relationship
          Guidelines and Conventions"
     
     
     1. Introduction
     
        Network management is divided into the five main areas
        defined in the ISO Telecommunications Management Network
        model: Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and
        Security Management (FCAPS) [X.700].  Absent from this
        management model is any consideration of Energy Management,
        which is now becoming a critical area of concern worldwide
        as seen in [ISO50001].
     
        Note that Energy Management has particular challenges in
        that a power distribution network is responsible for the
        supply of energy to various devices and components, while a
        separate communication network is typically used to monitor
        and control the power distribution network.
     
        This document defines a framework for providing Energy
        Management for devices within or connected to communication
        networks.  The framework describes how to identify,
        classify and provide context for a device in a
        communications network from the point of view of Energy
        Management.
     
        The identified device (Energy Device) or identified
        components within a device (Energy Device Component) can
        then be monitored for Energy Management by obtaining
     
     
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        measurements for Power, Energy, Demand and Power Quality.
        If a device contains batteries, they can be also be
        monitored and managed.  An Energy Object state can be
        monitored or controlled by providing an interface expressed
        as one or more Power State Sets.  The most basic example of
        Energy Management is a single Energy Object reporting
        information about itself.  However, in many cases, energy
        is not measured by the Energy Object itself, but by a meter
        located upstream in the power distribution tree.  An
        example is a power distribution unit (PDU) that measures
        energy received by attached devices and may report this to
        an Energy Management System (EnMS).  Therefore, Energy
        Objects are recognized as having relationships to other
        devices in the network from the point of view of Energy
        Management.  These relationships include Aggregation
        Relationship, Metering Relationship, Power Source
        Relationship, and Proxy Relationship.
     
     
     1.1. Energy Management Document Overview
     
        The EMAN standard provides a set of specifications for
        Energy Management.  This document specifies the framework,
        per the Energy Management requirements specified in [EMAN-
        REQ].
     
        The applicability statement document [EMAN-AS] provides a
        list of use cases, a cross-reference between existing
        standards and the EMAN standard, and shows how this
        framework relates to other frameworks.
     
        The Energy-aware Networks and Devices MIB [EMAN-AWARE-MIB]
        specifies objects for addressing Energy Object
        Identification, classification, context information, and
        relationships from the point of view of Energy Management.
     
        The Power and Energy Monitoring MIB [EMAN-MON-MIB] contains
        objects for monitoring of Power, Energy, Demand, Power
        Quality and Power States.
     
        Further, the battery monitoring MIB [EMAN-BATTERY-MIB]
        defines managed objects that provide information on the
        status of batteries in managed devices.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     2. Terminology
     
        The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL",
        "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY",
        and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as
        described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
     
       EDITOR'S NOTE:
           - All terms are copied over from the version
           5 of the [EMAN-TERMINOLOGY] draft.  The only
           differences in definition are
            o Dependency Relationship is removed
            o Energy Object Relationship improved to
               remove the Dependency Relationship
            o "Reference: herein" has not been copied
               over from the terminology draft.
           - "All" terms have been copied. Potentially,
           some unused terms might have to be removed.
           Alternatively, as this document is the first
           standard track document in the EMAN WG, it
           may become the reference document for the
           terminology (instead of cutting/pasting the
           terminology in all drafts)
           - RFC-EDITOR: the Relationships need to be
           updated.
           - The Power Interface definition has been
           added
     
        Energy Device
     
           An Energy Device is an Energy Object that may be
           monolithic or contain Energy Device Components
     
     
        Energy Device Component
     
           An Energy Device Component is an Energy Object
           contained in an Energy Device, for which the containing
           Energy Device provides individual energy management
           functions.  Typically, the Energy Device Component
           is part the Energy Device physical containment tree
           in the ENTITY-MIB [RFC4133].
     
     
     
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       Energy Management
     
          Energy Management is a set of functions for
          measuring, modeling, planning, and optimizing
          networks to ensure that the network elements
          and attached devices use energy efficiently and
          is appropriate for the nature of the
          application and the cost constraints of the
          organization.
          Reference: Adapted from [ITU-T-M-3400]
          Example: A set of computer systems that will
          poll electrical meters and store the readings
          NOTES:
          1. Energy management refers to the activities,
            methods, procedures and tools that pertain
            to measuring, modeling, planning,
            controlling and optimizing the use of energy
            in networked systems [NMF].
          2. Energy Management is a management domain
            which is congruent to any of FCAPS areas of
            management in the ISO/OSI Network Management
            Model [TMN]. Energy Management for
            communication networks and attached devices
            is a subset or part of an organization's
            greater Energy Management Policies.
     
       Energy Management System (EnMS)
     
          An Energy Management System is a combination of
          hardware and software used to administer a
          network with the primary purpose being Energy
          Management.
          Reference: Adapted from [1037C]
          Example: A single computer system that polls
          data from devices using SNMP
          NOTES:
          1. An Energy Management System according to
            [ISO50001] (ISO-EnMS) is a set of systems or
            procedures upon which organizations can
            develop and implement an energy policy, set
            targets, action plans and take into account
            legal requirements related to energy use.
     
     
     
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            An EnMS allows organizations to improve
            energy performance and demonstrate
            conformity to requirements, standards,
            and/or legal requirements.
          2. Example ISO-EnMS:  Company A defines a set
            of policies and procedures indicating there
            should exist multiple computerized systems
            that will poll energy from their meters and
            pricing / source data from their local
            utility. Company A specifies that their CFO
            should collect information and summarize it
            quarterly to be sent to an accounting firm
            to produce carbon accounting reporting as
            required by their local government.
          3. For the purposes of EMAN, the definition
            from [1037C] is the preferred meaning of an
            Energy Management System (EnMS).  The
            definition from [ISO50001] can be referred
            to as ISO Energy Management System (ISO-
            EnMS).
     
       ISO Energy Management System
     
         Energy Management System as defined by
       [ISO50001]
     
       Energy
     
          That which does work or is capable of doing
          work. As used by electric utilities, it is
          generally a reference to electrical energy and
          is measured in kilo-watt hours (kWh).
          Reference: [IEEE100]
          NOTES
          1. Energy is the capacity of a system to
            produce external activity or perform work
            [ISO50001]
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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       Power
     
          The time rate at which energy is emitted,
          transferred, or received; usually expressed in
          watts (or in joules per second).
          Reference: [IEEE100]
     
       Demand
     
          The average value of power or a related
          quantity over a specified interval of time.
          Note: Demand is expressed in kilowatts,
          kilovolt-amperes, kilovars, or other suitable
          units.
     
          Reference: [IEEE100]
          NOTES:
          1. typically kilowatts
          2. Energy providers typically bill by Demand
            measurements as well as for maximum Demand
            per billing periods.  Power values may spike
            during short-terms by devices, but Demand
            measurements recognize that maximum Demand
            does not equal maximum Power during an
            interval.
     
       Power Quality
     
          Characteristics of the electric current,
          voltage and frequencies at a given point in an
          electric power system, evaluated against a set
          of reference technical parameters. These
          parameters might, in some cases, relate to the
          compatibility between electricity supplied in
          an electric power system and the loads
          connected to that electric power system.
          Reference: [IEC60050]
     
     
     
     
     
     
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       Electrical Equipment
     
          A general term including materials, fittings,
          devices, appliances, fixtures, apparatus,
          machines, etc., used as a part of, or in
          connection with, an electric installation.
          Reference: [IEEE100]
     
       Non-Electrical Equipment (Mechanical Equipment)
     
           A general term including materials, fittings,
          devices appliances, fixtures, apparatus,
          machines, etc., used as a part of, or in
          connection with, non-electrical power
          installations.
          Reference: Adapted from [IEEE100]
     
       Energy Object
     
          An Energy Object (EO) is a piece of equipment
          that is part of or attached to a
          communications network that is monitored,
          controlled, or aids in the management of
          another device for Energy Management.
     
     
       Electrical Energy Object
     
          An Electrical Energy Object (EEO) is an Energy
          Object that is a piece of Electrical Equipment
     
     
       Non-Electrical Energy Object
     
          A Non-Electrical Energy Object (NEEO) an
          Energy Object that is a piece of Non-
          Electrical Equipment.
     
     
       Energy Monitoring
     
          Energy Monitoring is a part of Energy
          Management that deals with collecting or
          reading information from Energy Objects to aid
          in Energy Management.
     
     
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          NOTES:
          1. This could include Energy, Power, Demand,
            Power Quality, Context and/or Battery
            information.
     
       Energy Control
     
          Energy Control is a part of Energy Management
          that deals with directing influence over
          Energy Objects.
     
          NOTES:
          1. Typically in order to optimize or ensure its
             efficiency.
     
     
       Energy Management Domain
     
          An Energy Management Domain is a set of Energy Objects
          where all objects in the domain are considered one unit
          of management.
     
          For example, power distribution units and all of the
          attached Energy Objects are part of the same Energy
          Management Domain.
     
          For example, all EEO's drawing power from the
          same distribution panel with the same AC
          voltage within a building, or all EEO's in a
          building for which there is one main meter,
          would comprise an Energy Management Domain.
     
          NOTES:
          1. Typically, this set will have as members all
             EO's that are powered from the same source.
     
     
     
       Energy Object Identification
     
          Energy Object Identification is a set of
          attributes that enable an Energy Object to be:
          uniquely identified among all Energy Management
          Domains; linked to other systems; classified as
          to type, model, and or manufacturer
     
     
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       Energy Object Context
     
          Energy Object Context is a set of attributes
          that allow an Energy Management System to
          classify the use of the Energy Object within an
          organization.
          NOTES:
          1. The classification could contain the use
            and/or the ranking of the Energy Object as
            compared to other Energy Objects in the
            Energy Management Domain.
     
     
       Energy Object Relationship
     
          An Energy Object Relationship is a functional association
          among Energy Objects
     
          NOTES
          1. Relationships can be named and could include
          Aggregation, Metering, Power Source, Proxy and
          Dependency.
          2. The Energy Object is the noun or entity in the
          relationship with the relationship described as the verb.
     
          Example: If EO x is a piece of Electrical Equipment and
          EO y is an electrical meter clamped onto x's power cord,
          then x and y have a Metering Relationship. It follows
          that y meters x and that x is metered by y.
          Reference: Adapted from [CHEN]
     
     
        Aggregation Relationship
     
          An Aggregation Relationship is an Energy Object
          Relationship where one Energy Object aggregates the
          Energy Management information of one or more other Energy
          Objects. These Energy Objects are referred to as having
          an Aggregation Relationship.
     
          NOTES:
          Aggregate values may be obtained by reading values from
          multiple Energy Objects and producing a single value of
     
     
     
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          more significant meaning such as average, count, maximum,
          median, minimum, mode and most commonly sum [SQL].
     
     
        Metering Relationship
     
          A Metering Relationship is an Energy Object Relationship
          where one Energy Object measures the Power or Energy of
          one or more other Energy Objects. These Energy Objects
          are referred to as having a Metering Relationship.
     
          Example: a PoE port on a switch measures the Power it
          provides to the connected Energy Object.
     
     
       Power Source Relationship
          A Power Source Relationship is an Energy Object
          Relationship where one Energy Object is the source of or
          distributor of Power to one or more other Energy Objects.
          These Energy Objects are referred to as having a Power
          Source Relationship.
     
          Example: a PDU provides power for a connected device.
     
     
        Proxy Relationship
     
          A Proxy Relationship is an Energy Object Relationship
          where one Energy Object provides the Energy Management
          capabilities on behalf of one or more other Energy
          Objects. These Energy Objects are referred to as having a
          Proxy Relationship.
     
          Example: a protocol gateways device for Building
          Management Systems (BMS) with subtended devices.
     
     
       Energy Object Parent
     
          An Energy Object Parent is an Energy Object
          that participates in an Energy Object
          Relationships and is considered as providing
          the capabilities in the relationship.
     
          Example: in a Metering Relationship, the
          Energy Object that is metering is called the
          Energy Object Parent, while the Energy Object
     
     
     
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          that is metered is called the Energy Object
          Child.
     
     
       Energy Object Child
     
          An Energy Object Child is an Energy Object
          that participates in an Energy Object
          Relationships and is considered as receiving
          the capabilities in the relationship.
     
          Example: in a Metering Relationship, the
          Energy Object that is metering is called the
          Energy Object Parent, while the Energy Object
          that is metered is called the Energy Object
          Child.
     
     
        Power Interface
     
          A power interface is an Energy Object that serves as a
          interconnection among Energy Objects, and participates in
          a
          Power Source Relationship.
     
     
       Power State
     
          A Power State is a condition or mode of a
          device that broadly characterizes its
          capabilities, power consumption, and
          responsiveness to input.
     
          Reference: Adapted from [IEEE1621]
     
          NOTES:
     
          1. A Power State can be seen as a power setting
             of an Energy Object that influences the
             power consumption, the available
             functionality, and the responsiveness of the
             Energy Object.
     
          2. A Power State can be viewed as one method
             for Energy Control
     
     
     
     
     
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       Power State Set
     
          A collection of Power States that comprise one
          named or logical grouping of control is a
          Power State Set.
     
          Example: The states {on, off, and sleep} as
          defined in [IEEE1621], or the 16 power states
          as defined by the [DMTF] can be considered two
          different Power State Sets.
     
     
       Nameplate Power
     
          The Nameplate Power is the maximal (nominal)
          Power that a device can support.
     
          NOTES:
     
          1. This is typically determined via load
             testing and is specified by the manufacturer
             as the maximum value required for operating
             the device.  This is sometimes referred to
             as the worst-case Power.  The actual or
             average Power may be lower.  The Nameplate
             Power is typically used for provisioning and
             capacity planning.
     
     
     
     3. Requirements & Use Cases
     
        Requirements for Power and Energy monitoring for networking
        devices are specified in [EMAN-REQ].  The Energy Management
        use cases covered by this framework are covered in the EMAN
        applicability statement document in [EMAN-AS].  Typically
        requirements and use cases for communication networks cover
        the devices that make up the communication network and
        endpoints.
     
        With Energy Management, there exists a wide variety of
        devices that may be contained in the same deployments as a
        communication network but comprise a separate facility,
        home, or power distribution network.
     
        Target devices for Energy Management are all Energy Objects
        that can directly or indirectly be monitored or controlled
     
     
     
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        by an Energy Management System (EnMS) using the Internet
        protocol, for example:
            - Simple electrical appliances / fixtures
            - Hosts, such as a PC, a datacenter server, or a
        printer
            - Routers
            - Switches
            - A component within devices, such as a battery inside
        a PC, a line card inside a switch, etc...
            - Power over Ethernet (PoE) endpoints
            - Power Distribution Units (PDU)
            - Protocol gateway devices for Building Management
        Systems (BMS)
            - Electrical meters
            - Sensor controllers with subtended sensors
     
        There may also exist varying protocols deployed among these
        power distributions and communication networks.
     
        For an Energy Management framework to be useful, it should
        also apply to these types of separate networks as they
        connect and interact with a communications network.
     
        This is the first version of the IETF Energy Management
        framework.  Though it already covers a wide range of use
        cases, there are still a lot of potential ones that are not
        covered, yet.  A simple example is the limitation to
        discrete power states without parameters.  Some devices
        have energy-related properties that not well described with
        discrete power
        states, for example a dimmer with a continuous power range
        from 0%-100%.  Other devices may have even more parameters
        than just a single percentage value.
     
        Also policy-controlled energy management functions at
        Energy Devices are not covered.  An example would be a
        policy telling a Energy Device not to raise its power above
        a given power value.  These and further use cases would
        need an extension of the framework described in this
        document.  It is up to future updates of this document to
        select more of such use-cases and to cover them by
        extensions or revisions of the present framework.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     4. Energy Management Issues
     
        This section explains special issues of Energy Management
        particularly concerning power supply, Power and Energy
        metering, and the reporting of low Power States.
     
        To illustrate the issues we start with a simple and basic
        scenario with a single powered device that receives Energy
        and that reports energy-related information about itself to
        an Energy Management System (EnMS), see Figure 1
     
     
     
                               +--------------------------+
                               | Energy Management System |
                               +--------------------------+
                                           ^  ^
                                monitoring |  | control
                                           v  v
                                    +-----------------+
                                    | powered device  |
                                    +-----------------+
     
                Figure 1: Basic energy management scenario
     
     
        The powered device may have local energy control
        mechanisms, for example putting itself into a sleep mode
        when appropriate, and it may receive energy control
        commands for similar purposes from the EnMS.  Information
        reported from a powered device to the EnMS includes at
        least the Power State of the powered device (on, sleep,
        off, etc.).
     
        This and similar cases are well understood and likely to
        become very common for Energy Management.  They can be
        handled with well established and standardized management
        procedures.  The only missing components today are
        standardized information and data models for reporting and
        configuration, such as, for example, energy-specific MIB
        modules [RFC2578] and YANG modules [RFC6020].
     
        However, the nature of energy supply and use introduces
        some issues that are special to Energy Management.  The
        following subsections address these issues and illustrate
        them by extending the basic scenario in Figure 1.
     
     
     
     
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     4.1. Power Supply
     
        A powered device may supply itself with power.  Sensors,
        for example, commonly have batteries or harvest Energy.
        However, most powered devices that are managed by an EnMS
        receive external power.
     
        While a huge number of devices receive Power from unmanaged
        supply systems, the number of manageable power supply
        devices is increasing.
     
        In datacenters, many Power Distribution Units (PDUs) allow
        the EnMS to switch power individually for each socket and
        also to measure the provided Power.  Here there is a big
        difference to many other network management tasks: In such
        and similar cases, switching power supply for a powered
        device or monitoring its power is not done by communicating
        with the actual powered device, but with an external power
        supply device (in this case, the PDU). Note that those
        external power supply devices may be an external power
        meter).
     
        Consequently, a standard for Energy Management must not
        just cover the powered devices that provide services for
        users, but also the power supply devices (which are powered
        devices as well) that monitor or control the power supply
        for other powered devices.
     
        A very simple device such as a plain light bulb can be
        switched on or off only by switching its power supply.
        More complex devices may have the ability to switch off
        themselves or to bring themselves to states in which they
        consume very little power.  For these devices as well, it
        is desirable to monitor and control their power supply.
     
        This extends the basic scenario from Figure 1 by a power
        supply device, see Figure 2.
     
     
                    +-----------------------------------------+
                    |         energy management system        |
                    +-----------------------------------------+
                          ^  ^                       ^  ^
               monitoring |  | control    monitoring |  | control
                          v  v                       v  v
                    +--------------+        +-----------------+
                    | power supply |########| powered device  |
                    +--------------+        +-----------------+
     
     
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                            ######## power supply line
     
                          Figure 2: Power Supply
     
        The power supply device can be as simple as a plain power
        switch.  It may offer interfaces to the EnMS to monitor and
        to control the status of its power outlets, as with PDUs
        and Power over Ethernet (PoE) [IEEE-802.3at] switches.
     
        The relationship between supply devices and the powered
        devices they serve creates several problems for managing
        power supply:
           o  Identification of corresponding devices
              *  A given powered device may be need to identify the
                 supplying power supply device.
              *  A given power supply device may need to identify
        the
                 corresponding supplied powered device(s).
           o  Aggregation of monitoring and control for multiple
        powered
              devices
              *  A power supply device may supply multiple powered
                 devices with a single power supply line.
           o  Coordination of power control for devices with
        multiple
              power inlets
              *  A powered device may receive power via multiple
        power
                 lines controlled by the same or different power
        supply
                 devices.
     
     
     4.1.1 Identification of Power Supply and Powered Devices
     
        When a power supply device controls or monitors power
        supply at one of its power outlets, the effect on other
        devices is not always clear without knowledge about wiring
        of power lines.  The same holds for monitoring.  The power
        supplying device can report that a particular socket is
        powered, and it may even be able to measure power and
        conclude that there is a consumer drawing power at that
        socket, but it may not know which powered device receives
        the provided power.
     
        In many cases it is obvious which other device is supplied
        by a certain outlet, but this always requires additional
        (reliable) information about power line wiring.  Without
     
     
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        knowing which device(s) are powered via a certain outlet,
        monitoring data are of limited value and the consequences
        of switching power on or off may be hard to predict.
     
        Even in well organized operations, powered devices' power
        cords can be plugged into the wrong socket, or wiring plans
        changed without updating the EnMS accordingly.
     
        For reliable monitoring and control of power supply
        devices, additional information is needed to identify the
        device(s) that receive power provided at a particular
        monitored and controlled socket.
     
        This problem also occurs in the opposite direction.  If
        power supply control or monitoring for a certain device is
        needed, then the supplying power supply device has to be
        identified.
     
        To conduct Energy Management tasks for both power supply
        devices and other powered devices, sufficiently unique
        identities are needed, and knowledge of their power supply
        relationship is required.
     
     
     4.1.2 Multiples Devices Supplied by a Single Power Line
     
        The second fundamental problem is the aggregation of
        monitoring and control that occurs when multiple powered
        devices are supplied by a single power supply line.  It is
        often required that the EnMS has the full list of powered
        devices connected to a single outlet as in Figure 3.
     
     
     
     
                      +---------------------------------------+
                      |       energy management system        |
                      +---------------------------------------+
                         ^  ^                       ^  ^
              monitoring |  | control    monitoring |  | control
                         v  v                       v  v
                      +--------+        +------------------+
                      | power  |########| powered device 1 |
                      | supply |   #    +------------------+-+
                      +--------+   #######| powered device 2 |
                                     #    +------------------+-+
                                     #######| powered device 3 |
                                            +------------------+
     
     
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                Figure 3: Multiple Powered Devices Supplied
                           by Single Power Line
     
     
        With this list, the single status value has clear meaning
        and is the sum of all powered devices.  Control functions
        are limited by the fact that supply for the concerned
        devices can only be switched on or off for all of them at
        once.  Individual control at the supply is not possible.
     
        If the full list of devices powered by a single supply line
        is not known by the controlling power supply device, then
        control of power supply is problematic, because the
        consequences of control actions can only be partially
        known.
     
     
     4.1.3 Multiple Power Supply for a Single Powered Device
     
        The third problem arises from the fact that there are
        devices with multiple power supplies.  Some have this for
        redundancy of power supply, some for just making internal
        power converters (for example, from AC mains power to DC
        internal power) redundant, and some because the capacity of
        a single supply line is insufficient.
     
     
                   +----------------------------------------------+
                   |          energy management system            |
                   +----------------------------------------------+
                       ^  ^              ^  ^              ^  ^
                  mon. |  | ctrl.   mon. |  | ctrl.   mon. |  |
        ctrl.
                       v  v              v  v              v  v
                   +----------+      +----------+      +----------+
                   | power    |######| powered  |######| power    |
                   | supply 1 |######| device   |      | supply 2 |
                   +----------+      +----------+      +----------+
     
         Figure 4: Multiple Power Supply for Single Powered Device
     
        The example in Figure 4 does not necessarily show a real
        world scenario, but it shows the two cases to consider:
           o  multiple power supply lines between a single power
        supply
              device and a powered device
     
     
     
     
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           o  different power supply devices supplying a single
        powered
              device
        In any such case there may be a need to identify the
        supplying power supply device individually for each power
        inlet of a powered device.
     
        Without this information, monitoring and control of power
        supply for the powered device may be limited.
     
     
     4.1.4 Bidirectional Power Interfaces
     
        Low wattage DC systems may allow power to be delivered bi-
        directionally.  Energy stored in batteries on one device
        can be delivered back to a power hub which redirects the
        current to power another device.  In this situation, the
        interface can function as both an inlet and outlet.
     
        The framework for Energy Management introduces the notion
        of  Power Interface, which can model a power inlet and a
        power outlet, depending on the conditions.  The Power
        Interface reports power direction, as well as the energy
        received, supplied and the net result.
     
     
     4.1.5 Relevance of Power Supply Issues
     
        In some scenarios, the problems with power supply do not
        exist or can be sufficiently solved.  With Power over
        Ethernet (PoE) [IEEE-802.3at], there is always a one-to-one
        relationship between a Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE) and a
        Powered Device (PD).  Also, the Ethernet link on the line
        used for powering can be used to identify the two connected
        devices.
     
        For supply of AC mains power, the three problems described
        above cannot be solved in general.  There is no commonly
        available protocol or automatic mechanism for identifying
        endpoints of a power line.
     
        And, AC power lines support supplying multiple powered
        devices with a single line and commonly do.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     4.1.6 Remote Power Supply Control
     
        There are three ways for an energy management system to
        change the Power State of an powered devices.  First is for
        the EnMS to provide policy or other useful information
        (like the electricity price) to the powered device for it
        to use in determining its Power State.  The second is
        sending the powered devices a command to switch to another
        Power State.  The third is to utilize an upstream device
        (to the powered device) that has capabilities to switch on
        and off power at its outlet.
     
        Some Energy Objects do not have capabilities for receiving
        commands or changing their Power States by themselves.
        Such Energy Objects may be controlled by switching on and
        off the power supply for them and so have particular need
        for the third method.
     
        In Figure 4, the power supply can switch on and off power
        at its power outlet and thereby switch on and off power
        supply for the connected powered device.
     
     
     4.2. Power and Energy Measurement
     
        Some devices include hardware to directly measure their
        Power and Energy consumption.  However, most common
        networked devices do not provide an interface that gives
        access to Energy and Power measurements.  Hardware
        instrumentation for this kind of measurements is typically
        not in place and adding it incurs an additional cost.
     
        With the increasing cost of Energy and the growing
        importance of Energy Monitoring, it is expected that in
        future more devices will include instrumentation for power
        and energy measurements, but this may take quite some time.
     
     
     4.2.1 Local Estimates
     
        One solution to this problem is for the powered device to
        estimate its own Power and consumed Energy.  For many
        Energy Management tasks, getting an estimate is much better
        than not getting any information at all.
     
        Estimates can be based on actual measured activity level of
        a device or it can just depend on the power state (on,
        sleep, off, etc.).
     
     
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        The advantage of estimates is that they can be realized
        locally and with much lower cost than hardware
        instrumentation.  Local estimates can be dealt with in
        traditional ways.  They don't need an extension of the
        basic scenarios above.  However, the powered device needs
        an energy model of itself to make estimates.
     
     
     
     4.2.2 Management System Estimates
     
        Another approach to the lack of instrumentation is
        estimation by the EnMS.  The EnMS can estimate Power based
        on basic information on the powered device, such as the
        type of device, or also its brand/model and functional
        characteristics.
     
        Energy estimates can combine the typical power level by
        Power State with reported data about the Power State.
     
        If the EnMS has a detailed energy model of the device, it
        can produce better estimates including the actual power
        state and actual activity level of the device.  Such
        information can be obtained by monitoring the device with
        conventional means of performance monitoring.
     
     
     4.3. Reporting Sleep and Off States
     
        Low power modes pose special challenges for energy
        reporting because they may preclude a device from listening
        to and responding to network requests.  Devices may still
        be able to reliably track energy use in these modes, as
        power levels are usually static and internal clocks can
        track elapsed time in these modes.
     
        Some devices do have out-of-band or proxy abilities to
        respond to network requests in low-power modes.  Others
        could use proxy abilities in an energy management protocol
        to improve this reporting, particularly if the powered
        device sends out notifications of power state changes.
     
     4.4. Energy Device and Energy Device Components
     
        While the primary focus of energy management is entire
        powered devices, i.e. Energy Devices, sometimes it is
        necessary or desirable to manage Energy Device Components
        such as line cards, fans, disks, etc.
     
     
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        The concept of a Power Interface may not apply to Energy
        Device Components since they may receive Energy from a pool
        available from the encompassing device.  For example, a DC-
        powered blade server in a chassis may have its own identity
        on the network and be managed as a single device but its
        energy may be received from a shared power source among all
        blades in the chassis.
     
     
     4.5. Non-Electrical Equipment
     
        The primary focus of this framework is for the management
        of Electrical Equipment.  Some Non-Electrical Equipment may
        be connected to a communication networks and could have
        their energy managed if normalize to the electrical units
        for power and energy.
     
        Some examples of Non-Electrical Equipment that may be
        connected to a communication network are:
        1) A controller for compressed air.  The controller is
          electrical only for its network connection.  The
          controller is fueled by natural gas and produces
          compressed air.  The energy transferred via compressed
          air is distributed to devices on a factory floor via a
          Power Interface: tools (drills, screwdrivers, assembly
          line conveyor belts). The energy measured is non-
          electrical (compressed air).
          EDITOR'S NOTE: Note that, in such as case, some might
          argue that the "energy interface" term might be more
          accurate than Power Interface. To be discussed.
     
        2) A controller for steam. The controller is electrical for
          its network attachment but it burns tallow and produces
          steam to subtended boilers. The energy is non-electrical
          (steam).
     
     5. Energy Management Reference Model
     
        The scope of this framework is to enable network and
        network-attached devices to be administered for Energy
        Management.  The framework recognizes that in complex
        deployments Energy Objects may communicate over varying
        protocols.  For example the communications network may use
        IP Protocols (SNMP) but attached Energy Object Parent may
        communicate to Energy Object Children over serial
        communication protocols like BACNET, MODBUS etc.  The
        likelihood of getting these different topologies to convert
     
     
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        to a single protocol is not very high considering the rate
        of upgrades of facilities and energy related devices.
        Therefore the framework must address the simple case of a
        uniform IP network and a more complex mixed
        topology/deployment.
     
        As displayed in Figure 5, the most basic energy management
        reference model is composed of an EnMS that obtains Energy
        Management information from Energy Objects.  The Energy
        Object (EO) returns information for Energy Management
        directly to the EnMS.
     
        The protocol of choice for Energy Management is SNMP, as
        three MIBs are specified for Energy Management: the energy-
        aware MIB [EMAN-AWARE-MIB], the energy monitoring MIB
        [EMAN-MON-MIB], and the battery MIB [EMAN-BATTERY-MIB].
        However, the EMAN requirement document [EMAN-REQ] also
        requires support for a push model distribution of time
        series values.  The following diagrams mention IPFIX
        [RFC5101] as one possible solution for implementing a push
        mode transfer, however this is for illustration purposes
        only.  The EMAN standard does not require the use of IPFIX
        and acknowledges that other alternative solutions may also
        be acceptable.
     
                            +---------------+
                            |      EnMS     |                -   -
                            +-----+---+-----+                ^   ^
                                  |   |                      |   |
                                  |   |                      |S  |I
                        +---------+   +----------+           |N  |P
                        |                        |           |M  |F
                        |                        |           |P  |I
               +-----------------+      +--------+--------+  |   |X
               | EO            1 |  ... | EO            N |  v   |
               +-----------------+      +-----------------+  -   -
     
                    Figure 5: Simple Energy Management
     
     
        As displayed in the Figure 5, a more complex energy
        reference model includes Energy Managed Object Parents and
        Children.  The Energy Managed Object Parent returns
        information for themselves as well as information according
        to the Energy Managed Object Relationships.
     
     
                           +---------------+
     
     
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                           |      EnMS     |               -   -
                           +-----+--+------+               ^   ^
                                 |  |                      |   |
                                 |  |                      |S  |I
                    +------------+  +--------+             |N  |P
                    |                        |             |M  |F
                    |                        |             |P  |I
            +------------------+     +------+-----------+  |   |X
            | EO               |     | EO               |  v   |
            | Parent 1         | ... | Parent N         |  -   -
            +------------------+     +------------------+
                           |||                  .
          One or           |||                  .
          Multiple         |||                  .
          Energy           |||                  .
          Object           |||                  .
          Relationship(s): |||
          - Aggregation    |||      +-----------------------+
          - Metering       |||------| EO Child 1            |
          - Power Source   ||       +-----------------------+
          - Proxy          ||
                           ||       +-----------------------+
                           ||-------| EO Child 2            |
                           |        +-----------------------+
                           |
                           |
                           |--------           ...
                           |
                           |
                           |        +-----------------------+
                           |--------| EO Child M            |
                                    +-----------------------+
     
     
     
                 Figure 6: Complex Energy Management Model
     
     
        While both the simple and complex Energy Management models
        contain an EnMS, this framework doesn't impose any
        requirements regarding a topology with a centralized EnMS
        or one with distributed Energy Management via the Energy
        Objects within the deployment.
     
        Given the pattern in Figure 6, the complex relationships
        between Energy Objects can be modeled (refer also to
        section 5.3):
     
     
     
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             - A PoE device modeled as an Energy Object Parent with
               the Power Source, Metering, and Proxy Relationships
               for one or more Energy Object Children
             - A PDU modeled as an Energy Object Parent with the
               Power Source and Metering Relationships for the
               plugged in Electrical Equipment (the Energy Object
               Children)
             - Building management gateway, used as proxy for non
               IP protocols, is modeled as an Energy Object Parent
               with the Proxy Relationship, and potentially the
               Aggregation Relationship to the managed Electrical
               Equipment
             - Etc.
     
     The communication between the Energy Object Parent and Energy
     Object Children is out of the scope of this framework.
     
     5.1. Energy Object, Energy Object Components and Containment
        Tree
     
        The framework for Energy Management manages two different
        types of Energy Objects: Energy Device and Energy Device
        Components.  A typical example of anEnergy Device is a
        switch.  However, a port within the switch, which provides
        Power to one end point, is also an Energy Object if it
        meters the power provided.  A second example is PC, which
        is a typical Energy Device, while the battery inside the PC
        is a Energy Object Component, managed as an individual
        Energy Object.  Some more examples of Energy Device
        Components: power supply within a router,  an outlet within
        a smart PDU, etc...
     
        In the [EMAN-AWARE-MIB], each Energy Object is managed with
        an unique value of the entPhysicalIndex index from the
        ENTITY-MIB [RFC4133]
     
        The ENTITY-MIB [RFC4133] specifies the notion of physical
        containment tree, as:
          "Each physical component may be modeled as 'contained'
          within
          another physical component.  A "containment-tree" is the
          conceptual sequence of entPhysicalIndex values that
          uniquely specifies the exact physical location of a
          physical component within the managed system.  It is
          generated by 'following and recording' each
          'entPhysicalContainedIn' instance 'up the tree towards
     
     
     
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          the root', until a value of zero indicating no further
          containment is found."
     
        A Energy Object Component in the Energy Management context
        is a special Energy Object that is a physical component as
        specified by the ENTITY-MIB physical containment tree.
     
     
     
     6. Framework High Level Concepts and Scope
     
        Energy Management can be organized into areas of concern
        that include:
     
        - Energy Object Identification and Context - for modeling
        and planning
        - Energy Monitoring - for energy measurements
        - Energy Control - for optimization
        - Energy Procurement - for optimization of resources
     
        While an EnMS may be a central point for corporate
        reporting, cost, environmental impact, and regulatory
        compliance, Energy Management in this framework excludes
        Energy procurement and the environmental impact of energy
        use.  As such the framework does not include:
        - Manufacturing costs of an Energy Object in currency or
        environmental units
        - Embedded carbon or environmental equivalences of an
        Energy Object
        - Cost in currency or environmental impact to dismantle or
        recycle an Energy Object
        - Supply chain analysis of energy sources for Energy Object
        deployment
        - Conversion of the usage or production of energy to units
        expressed from the source of that energy (such as the
        greenhouse gas emissions associated with 1000kW from a
        diesel source).
     
        The next sections describe Energy Management organized into
        the following areas:
     
         - Energy Object and Energy Management Domain
         - Energy Object Identification and Context
         - Energy Object Relationships
         - Energy Monitoring
         - Energy Control
     
     
     
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         - Deployment Topologies
     
     
     6.1. Energy Object and Energy Management Domain
     
        In building management, a meter refers to the meter
        provided by the utility used for billing and measuring
        power to an entire building or unit within a building.  A
        sub-meter refers to a customer or user installed meter that
        is not used by the utility to bill but instead used to get
        readings from sub portions of a building.
     
        An Energy Management Domain should map 1:1 with a metered
        or sub-metered portion of the site.  An Energy Object is
        part of a single Energy Management Domain.  The Energy
        Management Domain MAY be configured on an Energy Object:
        the default value is a zero-length string.
     
        If all Energy Objects in the physical containment tree (see
        ENTITY-MIB) are part of the same Energy Management Domain,
        then it is safe to state that the Energy Object at the root
        of that containment tree is in that Energy Management
        Domain.
     
        An Energy Object Child may inherit the domain value from an
        Energy Object Parent or the Energy Management Domain may be
        configured directly in an Energy Object Child.
     
     
     
     6.2. Power Interface
     
        There are some similarities between Power Interfaces and
        network interfaces.  A network interface can be used in
        different modes, such as sending or receiving on an
        attached line.  The Power Interface can be receiving or
        providing power.
     
        Most Power Interfaces never change their mode, but as the
        mode is simply a recognition of the current direction of
        electricity flow, there is no barrier to a mode change.
     
        A power interface can have capabilities for metering power
        and other electric quantities at the shared power
        transmission medium.
     
     
     
     
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        This capability is modeled by an association to a power
        meter.
     
        In analogy to MAC addresses of network interfaces, a
        globally
        unique identifier is assigned to each Power Interface.
     
        Physically, a Power Interface can be located at an AC power
        socket, an AC power cord attached to a device, an 8P8C
        (RJ45) PoE socket, etc.
     
     
     
     6.3. Energy Object Identification and Context
     
     6.2.1 Energy Object Identification
     
        Energy Objects MUST be associated with a value that
        uniquely identifies the Energy Object among all the Energy
        Management Domains within an EnMS.  A Universal Unique
        Identifier (UUID) [RFC4122] MUST be used to uniquely
        identify an Energy Object.
     
        Every Energy Object SHOULD have a unique printable name
        within the Energy Management Domain.  Possible naming
        conventions are: textual DNS name, MAC-address of the
        device, interface ifName, or a text string uniquely
        identifying the Energy Object.  As an example, in the case
        of IP phones, the Energy Object name can be the device's
        DNS name.
     
     
     
     6.2.2 Context in General
     
        In order to aid in reporting and in differentiation between
        Energy Objects, each Energy Object optionally contains
        information establishing its business, site, or
        organizational context within a deployment, i.e. the Energy
        Object Context.
     
     
     
     6.2.3 Context: Importance
     
        An Energy Object can provide an importance value in the
        range of 1 to 100 to help rank a device's use or relative
        value to the site.  The importance range is from 1 (least
     
     
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        important) to 100 (most important).  The default importance
        value is 1.
     
        For example: A typical office environment has several types
        of phones, which can be rated according to their business
        impact.  A public desk phone has a lower importance (for
        example, 10) than a business-critical emergency phone (for
        example, 100).  As another example: A company can consider
        that a PC and a phone for a customer-service engineer is
        more important than a PC and a phone for lobby use.
     
        Although EnMS and administrators can establish their own
        ranking, the following is a broad recommendation:
     
        . 90 to 100 Emergency response
     
        . 80 to 90 Executive or business-critical
     
        . 70 to 79 General or Average
     
        . 60 to 69 Staff or support
     
        . 40 to 59 Public or guest
     
        . 1  to 39 Decorative or hospitality
     
     
     
     6.2.4 Context: Keywords
     
        An Energy Object can provide a set of keywords.  These
        keywords are a list of tags that can be used for grouping,
        summary reporting within or between Energy Management
        Domains, and for searching.  All alphanumeric characters
        and symbols (other than a comma), such as #, (, $, !, and
        &, are allowed.  Potential examples are: IT, lobby,
        HumanResources, Accounting, StoreRoom, CustomerSpace,
        router, phone, floor2, or SoftwareLab.  There is no default
        value for a keyword.
     
        Multiple keywords can be assigned to a device.  White
        spaces before and after the commas are excluded, as well as
        within a keyword itself. In such cases, the keywords are
        separated by commas and no spaces between keywords are
        allowed.  For example, "HR,Bldg1,Private".
     
     
     
     
     
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     6.2.5 Context: Role
     
        An Energy Object can provide a "role description" string
        that indicates the purpose the Energy Object serves in the
        EnMS.  This could be a string describing the context the
        device fulfills in deployment.
     
        Administrators can define any naming scheme for the role of
        a device.  As guidance a two-word role that combines the
        service the device provides along with type can be used
        [IPENERGY]
     
        Example types of devices: Router, Switch, Light, Phone,
        WorkStation, Server, Display, Kiosk, HVAC.
     
        Example Services by Line of Business:
     
          Line of Business     Service
     
           Education            Student, Faculty, Administration,
                                Athletic
     
          Finance              Trader, Teller, Fulfillment
     
          Manufacturing        Assembly, Control, Shipping
     
          Retail               Advertising, Cashier
     
          Support              Helpdesk, Management
     
          Medical              Patient, Administration, Billing
     
        Role as a two-word string: "Faculty Desktop", "Teller
        Phone", "Shipping HVAC", "Advertising Display", "Helpdesk
        Kiosk", "Administration Switch".
     
     
     
     6.4. Energy Object Relationships
     
        Two Energy Objects MAY establish an Energy Object
        Relationship. Within a relationship one Energy Object
        becomes an Energy Object Parent while the other becomes an
        Energy Object Child.
     
        The Power Source Relationship gives the view the wiring
        topology.  For example: a data center server receiving
     
     
     
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        power from two specific Power Interfaces from two different
        PDUs.
     
        The Metering Relationship gives the view of the metering
        topology.  Standalone meters can be placed anywhere in a
        power distribution tree.  For example, utility meters
        monitor and report accumulated power consumption of the
        entire building. Logically, the metering topology overlaps
        with the wiring topology, as meters are connected to the
        wiring topology.  A typical example is meters that clamp
        onto the existing wiring.
     
        The Proxy Relationship allows software objects to be
        inserted into the wiring or metering topology to aid in
        managing (monitoring and/or control) the Energy Domain.
     
        From a EnMS management point of view, this implies that
        there is yet another management topology that EnMS will
        need to be aware of.
     
        In the ideal situation, the wiring, the metering, and the
        management topologies overlap.  For Example: A Power-over-
        Ethernet (PoE) device (such as an IP phone or an access
        point) is attached to a switch port.  The switch port is
        the source of power for the attached device, so the Energy
        Object Parent is the switch port, which acts as a Power
        Interface, and the Energy Object Child is the device
        attached to the switch.  This Energy Object Parent (the
        switch) has three Energy Object Relations with this Energy
        Object Child (the remote Energy Object): Power Source
        Relationship, Metering Relationship, and Proxy
        Relationship.
     
        However, the three topologies (wiring, metering, and
        management) don't always overlap.  For example, when a
        protocol gateways device for Building Management Systems
        (BMS) controls subtended devices, which themselves receive
        Power from PDUs or wall sockets.
     
        Note: The Aggregation Relationship is slightly different
        compared to the other relationships (Power Source,
        Metering, and Proxy Relationships) as this refers more to a
        management function.
     
        The communication between the parent and child for
        monitoring or collection of power data is left to the
        device manufacturer.  For example: A parent switch may use
        LLDP to communicate with a connected child, and a parent
     
     
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        lighting controller may use BACNET to communicate with
        child lighting devices.
     
        The Energy Object Child MUST keep track of its Energy
        Object Parent(s) along with the Energy Object Relationships
        type(s).  The Energy Object Parent MUST keep track of its
        Energy Object Child(ren), along with the Energy Object
        Relationships type(s).
     
     
     
     6.4.1 Energy Object Children Discovery
     
        There are multiple ways that the Energy Object Parent can
        discover its Energy Object Children: :
     
          . In case of PoE, the Energy Object Parent automatically
             discovers an Energy Object Child when the Child
             requests power.
          . The Energy Object Parent and Children may run the Link
             Layer Discovery Protocol [LLDP], or any other
             discovery protocol, such as Cisco Discovery Protocol
             (CDP).  The Energy Object Parent might even support
             the LLDP-MED MIB [LLDP-MED-MIB], which returns extra
             information on the Energy Object Children.
          . The Energy Object Parent may reside on a network
             connected to a facilities gateway.  A typical example
             is a converged building gateway, monitoring several
             other devices in the building, and serving as a proxy
             between SNMP and a protocol such as BACNET.
          . A different protocol between the Energy Object Parent
             and the Energy Object Children.  Note that the
             communication specifications between the Energy Object
             Parent and Children is out of the scope of this
             document.
     
        However, in some situations, it is not possible to discover
        the Energy Object Relationships, and they must be set
        manually.  For example, in today' network, an administrator
        must assign the connected Energy Object to a specific PDU
        Power Interface, with no means of discovery other than that
        manual connection.
     
     
        When an Energy Object Parent is a Proxy, the Energy Object
        Parent SHOULD enumerate the capabilities it is providing
        for the Energy Object Child.  The child would express that
        it wants its parent to proxy capabilities such as, energy
     
     
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        reporting, power state configurations, non physical wake
        capabilities (such as WoL)), or any combination of
        capabilities.
     
     
     6.4.2 Energy Object Relationship Conventions and Guidelines
     
        EDITOR'S NOTE: this section needs to be completed
     
        This Energy Management framework doesn't impose too many
        "MUST" rules related to the Energy Object Relationships.
        Indeed, there are always corner cases that would be
        excluded with too strict specifications. However, this
        Energy Management framework proposes a series of
        guidelines, indicated with "SHOULD" and "MAY":
        - The Energy Device SHOULD NOT establish Power Source
          Relationship with Energy Device Component
        - Power Source Relationship SHOULD be established with next
          known Power Interface in the wiring topology.  It may
          happen that the some Energy Objects in the wiring
          topology are not known to the administrator.  Therefore,
          it may happen that a Power Source Relationship is
          established between two non connected Power Interfaces.
        - If an Energy Object A has a Power Source Relationship
          "Poweredby" with the Energy Object B, and if the Energy
          Object B has a Power Source Relationship "Poweredby" with
          the Energy Object C, then the Energy Object A SHOULD NOT
          have a Power Source Relationship "PoweredBby" the Energy
          Object C.
     
     
     6.5. Energy Monitoring
     
        For the purposes of this framework energy will be limited
        to electrical energy in watt hours.  Other forms of Energy
        Objects that use or produce non-electrical energy may be
        part of an Energy Management Domain (See Section 4.5. )
        but MUST provide information converted to and expressed in
        watt hours.
     
        Each Energy Object will have information that describes
        power information, along with how that measurement was
        obtained or derived (actual measurement, estimated, or
        presumed).  For Energy Objects that can report actual power
        readings, an optional energy measurement can be provided.
     
     
     
     
     
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        Optionally, an Energy Object can further describe the Power
        information with Power Quality information reflecting the
        electrical characteristics of the measurement.
     
        Optionally, an Energy Object that can report actual power
        readings can have odometers that provide the energy used,
        produced, and net energy in kWh.  These values are
        odometers that accumulate the power readings.  If energy
        values are returned then the three odometers must be
        provided along with a description of accuracy.
     
        Optionally, an Energy Object can provide demand information
        over time.
     
     
     
     6.5.1 Power Measurement
     
        A power measurement MUST be qualified with the units,
        magnitude, direction of power flow, and SHOULD be qualified
        by what means the measurement was made (ex: Root Mean
        Square versus Nameplate).
     
        In addition, the Energy Object should describe how it
        intends to measure power as one of consumer, producer or
        meter of usage.  Given the intent, readings can be
        summarized or analyzed by an EnMS.  For example metered
        usage reported by a meter and consumption usage reported by
        a device connected to that meter may naturally measure the
        same usage.  With the two measurements identified by intent
        a proper summarization can be made by an EnMS.
     
        Power measurement magnitude should conform to the IEC 61850
        definition of unit multiplier for the SI (System
        International) units of measure.  Measured values are
        represented in SI units obtained by BaseValue * (10 ^
        Scale).  For example, if current power usage of an Energy
        Object is 3, it could be 3 W, 3 mW, 3 KW, or 3 MW,
        depending on the value of the scaling factor.  3W implies
        that the BaseValue is 3 and Scale = 0, whereas 3mW implies
        BaseValue = 3 and ScaleFactor = -3.
     
        Energy is often billed in kilowatt-hours instead of
        megajoules from the SI units.  Similarly, battery charge is
        often measured as miliamperes-hour (mAh) instead of
        coulombs from the SI units.  The units used in this
        framework are: W, A, Wh, Ah, V.  A conversion from Wh to
     
     
     
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        Joule and from Ah to Coulombs is obviously possible, and
        can be described if required.
     
        In addition to knowing the usage and magnitude, it is
        useful to know how an Energy Object usage measurement was
        obtained:
     
        . Whether the measurements were made at the device itself
        or from a remote source.
     
        . Description of the method that was used to measure the
        power and whether this method can distinguish actual or
        estimated values.
     
        An EnMS can use this information to account for the
        accuracy and nature of the reading between different
        implementations.
     
        The EnMS can use the Nameplate Power for provisioning,
        capacity planning and potentially billing.
     
     
     
     6.5.2 Optional Power Quality
     
        Given a power measurement, it may in certain circumstances
        be desirable to know the Power Quality associated with that
        measurement.  The information model must adhere to the IEC
        61850 7-2 standard for describing AC measurements.  Note
        that the Power Quality includes two sets of
        characteristics: characteristics as received from the
        utility, and characteristics depending on how the power is
        used.
     
        In some Energy Management Domains, the power quality may
        not be needed, available, or relevant to the EnMS.
     
        Optional Demand
     
        It is well known in commercial electrical utility rates
        that demand is part of the calculation for billing.  The
        highest peak demand measured over a time horizon, such as 1
        month or 1 year, is often the basis for charges.  A single
        window of time of high usage can penalize the consumer with
        higher energy consumption charges.  However, it is relevant
        to measure the demand only when there are actual power
        measurements from an Energy Object, and not when the power
        measurement is assumed or predicted.
     
     
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        Optional Battery
     
        Some Energy Objects may use batteries for storing energy
        and for receiving power supply.  These Energy Objects
        should report their current power supply (battery, power
        line, etc.) and the battery status for each contained
        battery.   Battery-specific information to be reported
        should include the number of batteries contained in the
        device and per battery the state information as defined in
        [EMAN-REQ].
     
        Beyond that a device containing a battery should be able to
        generate alarms when the battery charge falls below a given
        threshold and when the battery needs to be replaced.
     
     
     
     6.6. Energy Control
     
        Energy Objects can be controlled by setting it to a
        specific Power State. Power States Set can be seen as an
        interface by which an Energy Object can be controlled.
        Each Energy Object should indicate the Power State Sets
        that it implements.  Well known Power State Sets should be
        registered with IANA
     
        When an individual Power State is configured from a
        specific Power State Set, an Energy Object may be busy at
        the request time.  The Energy Object will set the desired
        state and then update the actual Power State when the
        priority task is finished.  This mechanism implies two
        different Power State variables: actual versus desired
     
        There are several standards and implementations of Power
        State Sets.  An Energy Object can support one or multiple
        Power State Set implementations concurrently.
     
        This framework identifies three initial possible Power
        State Series that can be supported by an Energy Object:
     
        IEEE1621 - [IEEE1621]
     
        DMTF - [DMTF]
     
        EMAN - Specified here
     
     
     
     
     
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     6.5.1 IEEE1621 Power State Series
     
        The IEEE1621 Power State Series [IEEE1621] consists of 3
        rudimentary states : on, off or sleep.
     
          on(0)    - The device is fully on and all features of
        the device are in working mode.
     
          off(1)   - The device is mechanically switched off and
        does not consume energy.
     
          sleep(2) - The device is in a power saving mode, and
        some features may not be available immediately.
     
     
     
     6.5.2 DMTF Power State Series
     
        DMTF [DMTF] standards organization has defined a power
        profile standard based on the CIM (Common Information
        Model) model that consists of 15 power states ON (2),
        SleepLight (3), SleepDeep (4), Off-Hard (5), Off-Soft (6),
        Hibernate(7), PowerCycle Off-Soft (8), PowerCycle Off-Hard
        (9), MasterBus reset (10), Diagnostic Interrupt (11), Off-
        Soft-Graceful (12), Off-Hard Graceful (13), MasterBus reset
        Graceful (14), Power-Cycle Off-Soft Graceful (15),
        PowerCycle-Hard Graceful (16).  DMTF standard is targeted
        for hosts and computers.  Details of the semantics of each
        Power State within the DMTF Power State Series can be
        obtained from the DMTF Power State Management Profile
        specification [DMTF].
     
        DMTF power profile extends ACPI power states.  The
        following table provides a mapping between DMTF and ACPI
        Power State Series and EMAN Power State Sets (described in
        the next section):
     
     
                State      DMTF Power     ACPI            EMAN
        Power
                             State       State            State
        Name
     
        Non-operational states:
     
                  1        Off-Hard      G3, S5
        MechOff(1)
     
     
     
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                  2        Off-Soft      G2, S5
        SoftOff(2)
                  3        Hibernate     G1, S4
        Hibernate(3)
                  4        Sleep-Deep    G1, S3           Sleep(4)
                  5        Sleep-Light   G1, S2
        Standby(5)
                  6        Sleep-Light   G1, S1           Ready(6)
     
        Operational states:
                  7        On            G0, S0, P5
        LowMinus(7)
                  8        On            G0, S0, P4       Low(8)
                  9        On            G0, S0, P3
        MediumMinus(9)
                 10        On            G0, S0, P2
        Medium(10)
                 11        On            G0, S0, P1
        HighMinus(11)
                 12        On            G0, S0, P0       High(12)
     
                 Figure 7: DMTF / ACPI Power State Mapping
     
     
     6.5.3 EMAN Power State Set
     
        The EMAN Power State Set represents an attempt for a
        standard approach to model the different levels of power of
        a device.  The EMAN Power States are an expansion of the
        basic Power States as defined in [IEEE1621] that also
        incorporates the Power States defined in [ACPI] and [DMTF].
        Therefore, in addition to the non-operational states as
        defined in [ACPI] and [DMTF] standards, several
        intermediate operational states have been defined.
     
        There are twelve Power States, that expand on [IEEE1621]
        on, sleep and off.  The expanded list of Power States are
        divided into six operational states, and six non-
        operational states.  The lowest non-operational state is 1
        and the highest is 6.  Each non-operational state
        corresponds to an [ACPI] Global and System states between
        G3 (hard-off) and G1 (sleeping).  Each operational state
        represents a performance state, and may be mapped to [ACPI]
        states P0 (maximum performance power) through P5 (minimum
        performance and minimum power).
     
        In each of the non-operational states (from mechoff(1) to
        ready(6)), the Power State preceding it is expected to have
     
     
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        a lower Power value and a longer delay in returning to an
        operational state:
     
                 mechoff(1) : An off state where no Energy Object
        features are available.  The Energy Object is unavailable.
        No energy is being consumed and the power connector can be
        removed. This corresponds to ACPI state G3.
     
                 softoff(2) : Similar to mechoff(1), but some
        components remain powered or receive trace power so that
        the Energy Object can be awakened from its off state.  In
        softoff(2), no context is saved and the device typically
        requires a complete boot when awakened.  This corresponds
        to ACPI state G2.         hibernate(3): No Energy Object
        features are available.   The Energy Object may be awakened
        without requiring a complete boot, but the time for
        availability is longer than sleep(4). An example for state
        hibernate(3) is a save to-disk state where DRAM context is
        not maintained.  Typically, energy consumption is zero or
        close to zero.  This corresponds to state G1, S4 in ACPI.
     
                 sleep(4)    : No Energy Object features are
        available, except for out-of-band management, such as wake-
        up mechanisms.  The time for availability is longer than
        standby(5). An example for state sleep(4) is a save-to-RAM
        state, where DRAM context is maintained.  Typically, energy
        consumption is close to zero.  This corresponds to state
        G1, S3 in ACPI.
     
                 standby(5) : No Energy Object features are
        available, except for out-of-band management, such as wake-
        up mechanisms.  This mode is analogous to cold-standy.  The
        time for availability is longer than ready(6).  For
        example, the processor context is not maintained.
        Typically, energy consumption is close to zero.  This
        corresponds to state G1, S2 in ACPI.
     
                 ready(6)    : No Energy Object features are
        available, except for out-of-band management, such as wake-
        up mechanisms. This mode is analogous to hot-standby.  The
        Energy Object can be quickly transitioned into an
        operational state.  For example, processors are not
        executing, but processor context is maintained.  This
        corresponds to state G1, S1 in ACPI.         lowMinus(7) :
        Indicates some Energy Object features may not be available
        and the Energy Object has selected measures/options to
        provide less than low(8) usage.  This corresponds to ACPI
     
     
     
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        State G0.  This includes operational states lowMinus(7) to
        full(12).
     
                 low(8)      : Indicates some features may not be
        available and the Energy Object has taken measures or
        selected options to provideless than mediumMinus(9) usage.
     
                 mediumMinus(9): Indicates all Energy Object
        features are available but the Energy Object has taken
        measures or selected options to provide less than
        medium(10) usage.
     
                 medium(10)  : Indicates all Energy Object features
        are available but the Energy Object has taken measures or
        selected options to provide less than highMinus(11) usage.
     
                 highMinus(11): Indicates all Energy Object
        features are available and power usage is less than
        high(12).
     
                 high(12)    : Indicates all Energy Object features
        are available and the Energy Object is consuming the
        highest power.
     
        The Figure 8 displays the mappings from the IEEE1621 Power
        State Series to the EMAN Power State Series, showing that
        the EMAN twelve Power States expand on [IEEE1621] on, sleep
        and off.
     
                IEEE1621               EMAN Power State Name
     
        Non-operational states:
     
                Power(off)             MechOff(1)
                Power(off)             SoftOff(2)
                Power(sleep)            Hibernate(3)
                Power(sleep)            Sleep(4)
                Power(sleep)            Standby(5)
                Power(sleep)            Ready(6)
     
        Operational states:
                Power(on)              LowMinus(7)
                Power(on)               Low(8)
                Power(on)              MediumMinus(9)
                Power(on)              Medium(10)
                Power(on)              HighMinus(10)
                Power(on)              High(11)
     
     
     
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                 Figure 8: DMTF / ACPI Power State Mapping
     
     
     6.7. Energy Objects Relationship Extensions
     
        This framework for Energy Management, is based on four
        Energy Objects Relationships: Aggregation Relationship,
        Metering Relationship, Power Source Relationship, and Proxy
        Relationship.
     
        This framework is defined with possible extension of new
        Energy Objects Relationships in mind.  For example, a Power
        Distribution Unit (PDU) that allows physical entities like
        outlets to be "ganged" together as a logical entity for
        simplified management purposes, could be modeled with a
        future extension based on "gang relationship", whose
        semantic would specify the Energy Objects grouping.
     
     
     7. Structure of the Information Model: UML Representation
     
        The following basic UML represents an information model
        expression of the concepts in this framework.  This
        information model, provided as a reference for
        implementers, is represented as a MIB in the different
        related IETF Energy Monitoring documents.  However, other
        programming structure with different data models could be
        used as well.
     
        Notation is a shorthand UML with lowercase types considered
        platform or atomic types (i.e. int, string, collection).
        Uppercase types denote classes described further.
        Collections and cardinality are expressed via qualifier
        notation.  Attributes labeled static are considered class
        variables and global to the class.  Algorithms for class
        variable initialization, constructors or destructors are
        not shown
     
        EDITOR'S NOTE: the first part of the UML must be aligned
        with the latest [EMAN-AWARE-MIB] document version. Also,
        received the following comment referring to the arrows in
        the following figure: "It is not clear to me what UML
        relationships are being specified here in the ASCIIfied UML
        relationships.  Please provide a legend to make your
        conventions for mapping to UML clear."
     
     
                      EO RELATIONSHIPS AND CONTEXT
     
     
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                                        +--------------------------
        --+
                                        | _Child Specific Info __
        |
                                        |--------------------------
        --|
        +---------------------------+   |  parentId : UUID
        |
        |    Context Information    |   |  parentProxyAbilities
        |
        |---------------------------|   |           : bitmap
        |
        |  roleDescription : string |   |  mgmtMacAddress : octets
        |
        |  keywords[0..n] : string  |   |  mgmtAddress :
        inetaddress |
        |  importance : int         |   |  mgmtAddressType : enum
        |
        |  category :  enum         |   |  mgmtDNSName :
        inetaddress |
        +---------------------------+   +--------------------------
        --+
                  |                            |
                  |                            |
                  |                            |
                  v                            v
          +-----------------------------------------+
          |  Energy Object Information              |
          |-----------------------------------------|
          | index : int                             |
          | energyObjectId | UUID                   |
          | name : string                           |
          | meterDomainName | string                |
          | alternateKey | string                   |
          +-----------------------------------------+
                  ^
                  |
                  |
                  |
        +-------------------------+
        |    Links Object         |
        |-------------------------|
        |  physicalEntity : int   |
        |  ethPortIndex : int     |
        |  ethPortGrpIndex : int  |
        |  lldpPortNumber : int   |
     
     
     
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        +-------------------------+
     
     
     
                     EO AND MEASUREMENTS
     
     
        +-----------------------------------------------+
        |                 Energy Object                 |
        |-----------------------------------------------|
        |  nameplate : Measurement                      |
        |  battery[0..n]: Battery                       |
        |  measurements[0..n]: Measurement              |
        | --------------------------------------------- |
        | Measurement instantaneousUsage()              |
        | DemandMeasurement historicalUsage()           |
        +-----------------------------------------------+
     
          +-----------------------------------+
          |  Measurements                     |
          | __________________________________|
          +-----------------------------------+
                            ^
                            |
                            |
         +------------------+----------------------------+
         |         PowerMeasurement                      |
         |-----------------------------------------------|
         | value : long                                  |
         | rate : enum {0,millisecond,seconds,           |
         |              minutes,hours,...}               |
         | multiplier : enum {-24..24}                   |
         | units : "watts"                               |
         | caliber : enum { actual, estimated,           |
         |                  trusted, assumed...}         |
         | accuracy : enum { 0..10000}                   |
         | current :  enum {AC, DC}                      |
         | origin : enum { self, remote }                |
         | time : timestamp                              |
         | quality : PowerQuality                        |
         +-----------------------------------------------+
                            |
                            |
         +------------------+----------------------------+
         |         EnergyMeasurement                     |
         |-----------------------------------------------|
         | consumed : long                               |
         | generated : long                              |
     
     
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         | net : long                                    |
         | accuracy : enum { 0..10000}                   |
         +-----------------------------------------------+
     
     
         +-----------------------------------------------+
         |         TimeMeasurement                       |
         |-----------------------------------------------|
         | startTime : timestamp                         |
         | usage : Measurement                           |
         | maxUsage : Measurement                        |
         +-----------------------------------------------+
                            |
                            |
         +----------------------------------------+
         |        TimeInterval                    |
         |--------------------------------------- |
         |value : long                            |
         |units : enum { seconds, miliseconds..}  |
         +----------------------------------------+
                            |
                            |
         +----------------------------------------+
         |        DemandMeasurement               |
         |----------------------------------------|
         |intervalLength :  TimeInterval          |
         |intervalNumbers: long                   |
         |intervalMode :  enum { period, sliding, |
         |total }                                 |
         |intervalWindow : TimeInterval           |
         |sampleRate : TimeInterval               |
         |status : enum {active, inactive }       |
         |measurements : TimedMeasurement[]       |
         +----------------------------------------+
     
     
     
                       QUALITY
     
         +----------------------------------------+
         |            PowerQuality                |
         |----------------------------------------|
         |                                        |
         +----------------------------------------+
                            ^
                            |
                            |
         +------------------+--------------------+
     
     
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         |         ACQuality                     |
         |---------------------------------------|
         | acConfiguration : enum {SNGL, DEL,WYE}|
         | avgVoltage   : long                   |
         | avgCurrent   : long                   |
         | frequency    : long                   |
         | unitMultiplier  : int                 |
         | accuracy  : int                       |
         | totalActivePower  : long              |
         | totalReactivePower : long             |
         | totalApparentPower : long             |
         | totalPowerFactor : long               |
         +---------+-----------------------------+
                   | 1
                   |
                   |
                   |
                   |        +------------------------------------+
                   |        |         ACPhase                    |
                   |     *  |------------------------------------|
                   +--------+ phaseIndex : long                  |
                            | avgCurrent : long                  |
                            | activePower : long                 |
                            | reactivePower : long               |
                            | apparentPower : long               |
                            | powerFactor : long                 |
                            +------------------------------------+
                                        ^           ^
                                        |           |
                                        |           |
                                        |           |
                                        |           |
        +-------------------------------+---+       |
        |        DelPhase                   |       |
        |-----------------------------------|       |
        |phaseToNextPhaseVoltage  : long    |       |
        |thdVoltage : long                  |       |
        |thdCurrent : long                  |       |
        +-----------------------------------+       |
                                                    |
                                 +------------------+-----------+
                                 |        WYEPhase              |
                                 |------------------------------|
                                 |phaseToNeutralVoltage : long  |
                                 |thdCurrent : long             |
                                 |thdVoltage : long             |
                                 +------------------------------+
     
     
     
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                           EO & STATES
     
           +----------------------------------------------+
           |             Energy Object                    |
           |----------------------------------------------|
           | currentLevel : int                           |
           | configuredLevel : int                        |
           | configuredTime : timestamp                   |
           | reason: string                               |
           | emanLevels[0..11] : State                    |
           | levelMappings[0..n] : LevelMapping           |
           +----------------------------------------------+
     
            +-------------------------------+
            |        State                  |
            |-------------------------------|
            | name : string                 |
            | cardinality : int             |
            | maxUsage : Measurement        |
            +-------------------------------+
     
     
     
     
     
              Figure 9: Information Model UML Representation
     
     
     8. Configuration
     
        This power management framework allows the configuration of
        the following key parameters:
     
     
          . Energy Object name: A unique printable name for the
             Energy Object.
          . Energy Object role: An administratively assigned name
             to indicate the purpose an Energy Object serves in the
             network.
          . Energy Object importance: A ranking of how important
             the Energy Object is, on a scale of 1 to 100, compared
             with other Energy Objects in the same Energy
             Management Domain.
     
     
     
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          . Energy Object keywords: A list of keywords that can be
             used to group Energy Objects for reporting or
             searching.
          . Energy Management Domain: Specifies the name of an
             Energy Management Domain for the Energy Object.
          . Energy Object Power State: Specifies the current Power
             State for the Energy Object.
          . Demand parameters: For example, which interval length
             to report the Demand over, the number of intervals to
             keep, etc.
          . Assigning an Energy Object Parent to an Energy Object
             Child
          . Assigning an Energy Object Child to an Energy Object
             Parent.
     
     
        This framework supports multiple means for setting the
        Power State of a specific Energy Objects. However, the
        Energy Object might be busy executing an important task
        that requires the current Power State for some more time.
        For example, a PC might have to finish a backup first, or
        an IP phone might be busy with a current phone call.
        Therefore a second value contains the actual Power State.
        A difference in values between the two objects indicates
        that the Energy Object is currently in Power State
        transition.
     
        Other, already well established means for setting Power
        States, such as DASH [DASH], already exist.  Such a
        protocol may be implemented between the Energy Object
        Parent and the Energy Object Child, when the Energy Object
        Parent acts as a Proxy.  Note that the Wake-up-on-Lan (WoL)
        mechanism allows to transition a device out of the Off
        Power State.
     
     
     
     9. Fault Management
     
        [EMAN-REQ] specifies some requirements about Power States
        such as "the current state - the time of the last change",
        "the total time spent in each state", "the number of
        transitions to each state", etc.  Such requirements are
        fulfilled via the pmPowerStateChange NOTIFICATION-TYPE
        [EMAN-MON-MIB].  This SNMP notification is generated when
        the value(s) of Power State has changed for the Energy
        Object.
     
     
     
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        Regarding high and low thresholding mechanism, the RMON
        alarm and event [RFC2819] allows to periodically takes
        statistical samples from Energy Object variables, compares
        them to previously configured thresholds, and to generate
        an event (i.e. an SNMP notification) if the monitored
        variable crosses a threshold. The RMON alarm can monitor
        variables that resolve to an ASN.1 primitive type of
        INTEGER (INTEGER, Integer32, Counter32, Counter64, Gauge32,
        or TimeTicks), so basically most the variables in [EMAN-
        MON-MIB].
     
     
     10. Examples
     
     
        In this section we will give examples of how to use the
        Energy Management framework.  In each example we will show
        how it can be applied when Energy Devices have the
        capability to model Power Interfaces.  We will also show in
        each example how the framework can be applied when devices
        cannot support Power Interfaces but only monitor
        information or control the Energy Device as a whole. For
        instance a PDU may only be able to measure power and energy
        for the entire unit without the ability to distinguish
        among the inlets or outlet.
     
        Together these examples show how the framework can be
        adapted for Energy Devices with different capabilities
        (typically hardware) for Energy Management.
     
        Given for all Examples:
     
        Energy Device W: A computer with one power supply. Power
        interface 1 is an inlets for Device W.
     
        Energy Device X: A computer with two power supplies. Power
        interface 1 and power interface 2 are both inlets for
        Device X.
     
        Energy Device Y: A PDU with multiple Power Interfaces
        numbered 0..10, Power interface 0 is an inlet and power
        interface 1..10 are outlets.
     
        Energy Device Z: A PDU with multiple Power Interfaces
        numbered 0..10, Power interface 0 is an inlet and power
        interface 1..10 are outlets.
     
     
     
     
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                    Example I: Simple Device with one Source
     
        Topology:
          Energy Device W inlet 1 is plugged into Device Y outlet
        8.
     
        With Power Interfaces:
     
          Device W has an Energy Object representing the computer
          itself as well as one Power Interface defined as an
          inlet.
     
          Device Y would have an Energy Object representing the PDU
          itself (the Energy Device) with a Power Interface 0
          defined as an inlet and Power Interfaces 1..10 defined as
          outlets.
     
          The interfaces of the devices would have a Power Source
          Relationship such that:
          Device W inlet 1 is powered by Device Y outlet 8
     
        Without Power Interfaces:
     
          In this case Device W has an Energy Object representing
          the computer.  Device Y would have an Energy Object
          representing the PDU.
     
          The devices would have a Power Source Relationship such
          that:
          Device W is powered by Device Y.
     
     
                    Example II: Multiple Inlets
     
        Topology:
          Energy Device X inlet 1 is plugged into Device Y outlet
        8.
          Energy Device X inlet 2 is plugged into Device Y outlet
        9.
     
        With Power Interfaces:
     
          Device X has an Energy Object representing the computer
          itself. It contains two Power Interface defined as
          inlets.
     
          Device Y would have an Energy Object representing the PDU
          itself  (the Energy Device) with a Power Interface 0
     
     
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          defined as an inlet and Power Interface 1..10 defined as
          outlets.
     
     
          The interfaces of the devices would have a Power Source
          Relationship such that:
          Device X inlet 1 is powered by Device Y outlet 8
          Device X inlet 2 is powered by Device Y outlet 9
     
        Without Power Interfaces:
     
          In this case Device X has an Energy Object representing
          the computer. Device Y would have an Energy Object
          representing the PDU.
     
          The devices would have a Power Source Relationship such
          that:
          Device X is powered by Device Y.
     
     
                    Example III: Multiple Sources
     
        Topology:
          Energy Device X inlet 1 is plugged into Device Y outlet
        8.
          Energy Device X inlet 2 is plugged into Device Z outlet 9
     
        With Power Interfaces:
     
          Device X has an Energy Object representing the computer
          itself. It contains two Power Interface defined as
          inlets.
     
          Device Y would have an Energy Object representing the PDU
          itself  (the Energy Device) with a Power Interface 0
          defined as an inlet and Power Interface 1..10 defined as
          outlets.
     
          Device Z would have an Energy Object representing the PDU
          itself  (the Energy Device) with a Power Interface 0
          defined as an inlet and Power Interface 1..10 defined as
          outlets.
     
          The interfaces of the devices would have a Power Source
          Relationship such that:
          Device X inlet 1 is powered by Device Y outlet 8
          Device X inlet 2 is powered by Device Z outlet 9
     
     
     
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        Without Power Interfaces:
     
          In this case Device X has an Energy Object representing
          the computer. Device Y and Z would both have respective
          Energy Objects representing each entire PDU.
     
          The devices would have a Power Source Relationship such
          that:
          Device X is powered by Device Y and powered by Device Z.
     
     
     
     11. Relationship with Other Standards Development
                       Organizations
     
     11.1. Information Modeling
     
        This power management framework should, as much as
        possible, reuse existing standards efforts, especially with
        respect to information modeling and data modeling
        [RFC3444].
     
        The data model for power and energy related objects is
        based on IEC 61850.
     
        Specific examples include:
     
          . The scaling factor, which represents Energy Object
             usage magnitude, conforms to the IEC 61850 definition
             of unit multiplier for the SI (System International)
             units of measure.
     
          . The electrical characteristic is based on the ANSI and
             IEC Standards, which require that we use an accuracy
             class for power measurement.  ANSI and IEC define the
             following accuracy classes for power measurement:
     
             . IEC 62053-22  60044-1 class 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1  3.
     
             . ANSI C12.20 class 0.2, 0.5
     
          . The electrical characteristics and quality adheres
             closely to the IEC 61850 7-2 standard for describing
             AC measurements.
     
          . The power state definitions are based on the DMTF
             Power State Profile and ACPI models, with operational
     
     
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             state extensions.
     
     
     12. Security Considerations
     
        Regarding the data attributes specified here, some or all
        may be considered sensitive or vulnerable in some network
        environments. Reading or writing these attributes without
        proper protection such as encryption or access
        authorization may have negative effects on the network
        capabilities.
     
     
     12.1. Security Considerations for SNMP
     
        Readable objects in a MIB modules (i.e., objects with a
        MAX-ACCESS other than not-accessible) may be considered
        sensitive or vulnerable in some network environments.  It
        is thus important to control GET and/or NOTIFY access to
        these objects and possibly to encrypt the values of these
        objects when sending them over the network via SNMP.
     
        The support for SET operations in a non-secure environment
        without proper protection can have a negative effect on
        network operations.  For example:
     
          . Unauthorized changes to the Power Domain or business
             context of an Energy Object may result in misreporting
             or interruption of power.
          . Unauthorized changes to a power state may disrupt the
             power settings of the different Energy Objects, and
             therefore the state of functionality of the respective
             Energy Objects.
          . Unauthorized changes to the demand history may disrupt
             proper accounting of energy usage.
     
        With respect to data transport SNMP versions prior to
        SNMPv3 did not include adequate security.  Even if the
        network itself is secure (for example, by using IPsec),
        there is still no secure control over who on the secure
        network is allowed to access and GET/SET
        (read/change/create/delete) the objects in these MIB
        modules.
     
        It is recommended that implementers consider the security
        features as provided by the SNMPv3 framework (see
        [RFC3410], section 8), including full support for the
     
     
     
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        SNMPv3 cryptographic mechanisms (for authentication and
        privacy).
     
        Further, deployment of SNMP versions prior to SNMPv3 is not
        recommended.  Instead, it is recommended to deploy SNMPv3
        and to enable cryptographic security.  It is then a
        customer/operator responsibility to ensure that the SNMP
        entity giving access to an instance of these MIB modules is
        properly configured to give access to the objects only to
        those principals (users) that have legitimate rights to GET
        or SET (change/create/delete) them.
     
     
     
     13. IANA Considerations
     
     
        Initial values for the Power State Sets, together with the
        considerations for assigning them, are defined in [EMAN-
        MON-MIB].
     
     
     
     14. Acknowledgments
     
        The authors would like to Michael Brown for improving the
        text dramatically, and Rolf Winter for his feedback.  The
        award for the best feedback and reviews goes to Bill
        Mielke.
     
     
     15. References
     
     Normative References
     
     
        [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to
                Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
                March 1997.
     
        [RFC2819]  S. Waldbusser, "Remote Network Monitoring
                Management Information Base", STD 59, RFC 2819, May
                2000
     
        [RFC3410]  Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D., and B.
                Stewart, "Introduction and Applicability Statements
     
     
     
     
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                for Internet Standard Management Framework ", RFC
                3410, December 2002.
     
        [RFC4133]  Bierman, A. and K. McCloghrie, "Entity MIB
                (Version3)", RFC 4133, August 2005.
     
        [RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz," A
                Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN
                Namespace", RFC 4122, July 2005
     
     Informative References
     
     
        [RFC2578] McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., and J.
                Schoenwaelder, "Structure of Management Information
                Version 2 (SMIv2", RFC 2578, April 1999
     
        [RFC3444] Pras, A., Schoenwaelder, J. "On the Differences
                between Information Models and Data Models", RFC
                3444, January 2003.
     
        [RFC5101] B. Claise, Ed., Specification of the IP Flow
                Information Export (IPFIX) Protocol for the
                Exchange of IP Traffic Flow Information, RFC 5101,
                January 2008.
     
        [RFC6020] M. Bjorklund, Ed., " YANG - A Data Modeling
                Language for the Network Configuration Protocol
                (NETCONF)", RFC 6020, October 2010.
     
        [ACPI] "Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
                Specification", http://www.acpi.info/spec30b.htm
     
        [IEEE1621]  "Standard for User Interface Elements in Power
                Control of Electronic Devices Employed in
                Office/Consumer Environments", IEEE 1621, December
                2004.
     
        [LLDP]  IEEE Std 802.1AB, "Station and Media Control
                Connectivity Discovery", 2005.
     
        [LLDP-MED-MIB]  ANSI/TIA-1057, "The LLDP Management
                Information Base extension module for TIA-TR41.4
                media endpoint discovery information", July 2005.
     
        [EMAN-REQ] Quittek, J., Winter, R., Dietz, T., Claise, B.,
                and M. Chandramouli, "Requirements for Energy
     
     
     
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                Management", draft-ietf-eman-requirements-05, (work
                in progress), November 2011.
     
        [EMAN-AWARE-MIB] Parello, J., and B. Claise, "Energy-aware
                Networks and Devices MIB", draft-ietf-eman-energy-
                aware-mib-04, (work in progress), February 2012.
     
        [EMAN-MON-MIB] Chandramouli, M.,Schoening, B., Quittek, J.,
                Dietz, T., and B. Claise, "Power and Energy
                Monitoring MIB", draft-ietf-eman-energy-monitoring-
                mib-02, (work in progress), March 2012.
     
        [EMAN-BATTERY-MIB] Quittek, J., Winter, R., and T. Dietz, "
                Definition of Managed Objects for Battery
                Monitoring", draft-ietf-eman-battery-mib-05, (work
                in progress), March 2012.
     
        [EMAN-AS] Schoening, B., Chandramouli, M., and B. Nordman,
                "Energy Management (EMAN) Applicability Statement",
                draft-ietf-eman-applicability-statement-00, (work
                in progress), October 2011
     
        [EMAN-TERMINOLOGY] J. Parello, "Energy Management
                Terminology", draft-parello-eman-definitions-05,
                (work in progress), March 2012
     
        [ITU-T-M-3400] TMN recommandation on Management Functions
                (M.3400), 1997
     
        [NMF] "Network Management Fundamentals", Alexander Clemm,
                ISBN: 1-58720-137-2, 2007
     
        [TMN] "TMN Management Functions : Performance Management",
                ITU-T M.3400
     
        [1037C] US Department of Commerce, Federal Standard 1037C,
                http://www.its.bldrdoc.gov/fs-1037/fs-1037c.htm
     
        [IEEE100] "The Authoritative Dictionary of IEEE Standards
                Terms"
                http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/mostRecentIssue.jsp?
                punumber=4116785
     
        [DASH] "Desktop and mobile Architecture for System
                Hardware", http://www.dmtf.org/standards/mgmt/dash/
     
     
     
     
     
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        [ISO50001] "ISO 50001:2011 Energy management systems -
                Requirements with guidance for use",
                http://www.iso.org/
     
        [IEC60050] International Electrotechnical Vocabulary
                http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/welcome?ope
                nform
     
        [SQL] ISO/IEC 9075(1-4,9-11,13,14):2008
     
        [IEEE-802.3at] IEEE 802.3 Working Group, "IEEE Std 802.3at-
                2009 - IEEE Standard for Information technology -
                Telecommunications and information exchange between
                systems - Local and metropolitan area networks -
                Specific requirements - Part 3: Carrier Sense
                Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
                Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications -
                Amendment: Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) -  Power
                via Media Dependent Interface (MDI) Enhancements",
                   October 2009.
     
        [DMTF] "Power State Management Profile DMTF  DSP1027
                Version 2.0"  December 2009
                http://www.dmtf.org/sites/default/files/standards/d
                ocuments/DSP1027_2.0.0.pdf
     
        [IPENERGY] R. Aldrich, J. Parello "IP-Enabled Energy
                Management", 2010, Wiley Publishing
     
        [X.700]  CCITT Recommendation X.700 (1992), Management
                framework for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
                for CCITT applications.
     
        [CHEN] "The Entity-Relationship Model: Toward a Unified
                View of Data",  Peter Pin-shan Chen, ACM
                Transactions on Database Systems, 1976
     
     
     Authors' Addresses
     
      Benoit Claise
      Cisco Systems, Inc.
      De Kleetlaan 6a b1
      Diegem 1813
      BE
     
      Phone: +32 2 704 5622
     
     
     
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      Email: bclaise@cisco.com
     
     
      John Parello
      Cisco Systems, Inc.
      3550 Cisco Way
      San Jose, California 95134
      US
     
      Phone: +1 408 525 2339
      Email: jparello@cisco.com
     
     
      Brad Schoening
      44 Rivers Edge Drive
      Little Silver, NJ 07739
      US
     
      Phone:
      Email: brad@bradschoening.com
     
     
     Juergen Quittek
     NEC Europe Ltd.
     Network Laboratories
     Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
     69115 Heidelberg
     Germany
     
     Phone: +49 6221 90511 15
     EMail: quittek@netlab.nec.de
     
     
     Bruce Nordman
     Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
     1 Cyclotron Road
     Berkeley  94720
     US
     
     Phone: +1 510 486 7089
     Email: bnordman@lbl.gov
     
     
     
     
     
     
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