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     Network Working Group                              J. Parello
     Internet-Draft                                      B. Claise
     Intended Status: Informational             Cisco Systems, Inc.
     Expires: March 23, 2014                          B. Schoening
                                            Independent Consultant
                                                        J. Quittek
                                                    NEC Europe Ltd
     
                                                September 23, 2013
     
     
                        Energy Management Framework
                       draft-ietf-eman-framework-10
     
     
     Status of this Memo
     
        This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with
        the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
     
        Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet
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        This Internet-Draft will expire on March 23, 2014.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     Copyright Notice
     
        Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        the document authors. All rights reserved.
     
        This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's
        Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
        (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the
        date of publication of this document. Please review these
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        in the Simplified BSD License.
     
     Abstract
     
        This document defines a framework for providing Energy
        Management for devices and device components within or
        connected to communication networks.  The framework
        presents a physical reference model and information model.
        The information model consists of an Energy Management
        Domain as a set of Energy Objects. Each Energy Object is
        identified, classified and given context.  Energy Objects
        can be monitored and controlled with respect to Power,
        Power State, Energy, Demand, Power Attributes, and Battery.
        Additionally the framework models relationships and
        capabilities between Energy Objects.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     Table of Contents
     
        1. Introduction........................................... 3
           1.1. Energy Management Documents Overview.............. 4
        2. Terminology............................................ 5
        3. Concerns Specific to Energy Management................ 11
           3.1. Target Devices................................... 11
           3.2. Physical Reference Model......................... 12
           3.3. Concerns Differing from Network Management....... 13
           3.4. Concerns Not Addressed........................... 14
        4. Energy Management Abstraction......................... 14
           4.1. Conceptual Model................................. 15
           4.2. Energy Object.................................... 15
           4.3. Energy Object Attributes......................... 16
           4.4. Measurements..................................... 19
           4.5. Control.......................................... 21
           4.6. Relationships.................................... 26
        5. Energy Management Information Model................... 30
        6. Modeling Relationships between Devices................ 34
           6.1. Power Source Relationship........................ 34
           6.2. Metering Relationship............................ 37
           6.3. Aggregation Relationship......................... 39
        7. Relationship to Other Standards....................... 40
        8. Security Considerations............................... 40
           8.1. Security Considerations for SNMP................. 41
        9. IANA Considerations................................... 42
           9.1. IANA Registration of new Power State Sets........ 42
           9.2. Updating the Registration of .. Power State Sets. 43
        10. References........................................... 43
        11. Acknowledgments...................................... 47
     
     1. Introduction
     
        Network management is often divided into the five main
        areas defined in the ISO Telecommunications Management
        Network model: Fault, Configuration, Accounting,
        Performance, and Security Management (FCAPS) [X.700].  Not
        covered by this traditional management model is Energy
        Management, which is rapidly becoming a critical area of
        concern worldwide, as seen in [ISO50001].
     
        This document defines an energy management framework for
        devices within or connected to communication networks.  The
        devices, or components of these devices (such as router
        line cards, fans, disks), can then be monitored and
        controlled.  Monitoring includes measuring power, energy,
        demand, and attributes of power.  Energy control can be
        performed by setting a devices' or components' power state.
     
     
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        If a device contains batteries, these can also be monitored
        and controlled.
     
        This framework further describes how to identify, classify
        and provide context for such devices.  While the context
        information is not specific to Energy Management, some
        context attributes are specified in the framework,
        addressing the following use cases: how important is a
        device in terms of its business impact, how should devices
        be grouped for reporting and searching, and how should a
        device role be described.  These context attributes help in
        fault management and impact analysis while controlling the
        power states.  Guidelines for using context for energy
        management are described.
     
        The framework introduces the concept of a power interface
        that is analogous to a network interface. A power interface
        is defined as an interconnection among devices where energy
        can be provided, received, or both.
     
        The most basic example of Energy Management is a single
        device reporting information about itself.  In many cases,
        however, energy is not measured by the device itself, but
        measured upstream in the power distribution tree.  For
        example, a power distribution unit (PDU) may measure the
        energy it supplies to attached devices and report this to
        an energy management system.  Therefore, devices often have
        relationships to other devices or components in the power
        network.  An EnMS (Energy Management System) generally
        requires an understanding of the power topology (who
        provides power to whom), the metering topology (who meters
        whom), and an understanding of the potential aggregation
        (ex: does a meter aggregate values from other devices).
     
        The relationships build on the power interface concept. The
        different relationships among devices and components,
        specified in this document, include: power source
        relationship, metering relationship, and aggregation
        relationship.
     
     1.1. Energy Management Documents Overview
     
        The EMAN standard provides a set of specifications for
        Energy Management.  This document specifies the framework,
        per the Energy Management requirements specified in [EMAN-
        REQ].
     
        The applicability statement document [EMAN-AS] includes use
        cases, a cross-reference between existing standards and the
     
     
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        EMAN standard, and a description of this framework's
        relationship to other frameworks.
     
        The Energy Object Context MIB [EMAN-OBJECT-MIB] specifies
        objects for addressing Energy Object Identification,
        classification, context information, and relationships from
        the point of view of Energy Management.
     
        The Power and Energy Monitoring MIB [EMAN-MON-MIB]
        specifies objects for monitoring of Power, Energy, Demand,
        Power Attributes, and Power States.
     
        The Battery Monitoring MIB [EMAN-BATTERY-MIB] defines
        managed objects that provide information on the status of
        batteries in managed devices.
     
     2. Terminology
     
        The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL",
        "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY",
        and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as
        described in RFC-2119 [RFC2119].
     
        In this document these words will appear with that
        interpretation   only when in ALL CAPS. Lower case uses of
        these words are not to be    interpreted as carrying RFC-
        2119 significance.
     
        In this section some terms have a NOTE that is not part of
        the definition itself, but accounts for differences between
        terminologies of different standards organizations or
        further clarifies the definition.
     
        $ Energy Management
          Energy Management is a set of functions for measuring,
          modeling, planning, and optimizing networks to ensure
          that the network and network attached devices use energy
          efficiently and appropriately for the nature of the
          application and the cost constraints of the organization.
     
          Reference: Adapted from [ITU-T-M-3400]
     
          NOTES:
          1. Energy management refers to the activities, methods,
          procedures and tools that pertain to measuring, modeling,
          planning, controlling and optimizing the use of energy in
          networked systems [NMF].
     
     
     
     
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          2. Energy Management is a management domain which is
          congruent to any of the FCAPS areas of management in the
          ISO/OSI Network Management Model [TMN]. Energy Management
          for communication networks and attached devices is a
          subset or part of an organization's greater Energy
          Management Policies.
     
        $ Energy Management System (EnMS)
          An Energy Management System is a combination of hardware
          and software used to administer a network with the
          primary purpose of energy management.
     
          NOTES:
          1. An Energy Management System according to [ISO50001]
          (ISO-EnMS) is a set of systems or procedures upon which
          organizations can develop and implement an energy policy,
          set targets, action plans and take into account legal
          requirements related to energy use.  An ISO-EnMS allows
          organizations to improve energy performance and
          demonstrate conformity to requirements, standards, and/or
          legal requirements.
     
          2. Example ISO-EnMS:  Company A defines a set of policies
          and procedures indicating there should exist multiple
          computerized systems that will poll energy measurements
          from their meters and pricing / source data from their
          local utility. Company A specifies that their CFO (Chief
          Financial Officer) should collect information and
          summarize it quarterly to be sent to an accounting firm
          to produce carbon accounting reporting as required by
          their local government.
     
          3. For the purposes of EMAN, the definition herein is the
          preferred meaning of an Energy Management System (EnMS).
          The definition from [ISO50001] can be referred to as ISO
          Energy Management System (ISO-EnMS).
     
        $ Energy Monitoring
          Energy Monitoring is a part of Energy Management that
          deals with collecting or reading information from Energy
          Objects to aid in Energy Management.
     
        $ Energy Control
          Energy Control is a part of Energy Management that deals
          with directing influence over Energy Objects.
     
        $ Electrical Equipment
          A general term including materials, fittings, devices,
          appliances, fixtures, apparatus, machines, etc., used as
     
     
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          a part of, or in connection with, an electric
          installation.
          Reference: [IEEE100]
     
        $ Non-Electrical Equipment (Mechanical Equipment)
          A general term including materials, fittings, devices,
          appliances, fixtures, apparatus, machines, etc., used as
          a part of, or in connection with, non-electrical power
          installations.
     
          Reference: Adapted from [IEEE100]
     
        $ Device
          A piece of electrical or non-electrical equipment.
          Reference: Adapted from [IEEE100]
     
        $ Component
          A part of an electrical or non-electrical equipment
          (Device).
          Reference: Adapted from [ITU-T-M-3400]
     
        $ Power Inlet
          A Power Inlet (or simply inlet) is an interface at which
          a device or component receives energy from another device
          or component.
     
        $ Power Outlet
          A Power Outlet (or simply outlet) is an interface at
          which a device or component provides energy to another
          device or component.
     
        $ Energy
          That which does work or is capable of doing work. As used
          by electric utilities, it is generally a reference to
          electrical energy and is measured in kilowatt hours
          (kWh).
     
          Reference: [IEEE100]
     
          NOTES
          1. Energy is the capacity of a system to produce external
          activity or perform work [ISO50001]
     
        $ Provide Energy
          A device (or component) "provides" energy to another
          device if there is an energy flow from this device to the
          other one.
     
        $ Receive Energy
     
     
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          A device (or component) "receives" energy from another
          device if there is an energy flow from the other device
          to this one.
     
        $ Meter (energy meter)
          a device intended to measure electrical energy by
          integrating power with respect to time.
     
          Reference: Adapted from [IEC60050]
     
        $ Battery
          one or more cells (consisting of an assembly of
          electrodes, electrolyte, container, terminals and usually
          separators)  that are a source and/or store of electric
          energy.
     
          Reference: Adapted from [IEC60050]
     
        $ Power
          The time rate at which energy is emitted, transferred, or
          received; usually expressed in watts (joules per second).
     
          Reference: [IEEE100]
     
        $ Nameplate Power
          The Nameplate Power is the nominal Power of a device as
          specified by the device manufacturer.
     
        $ Power Attributes
          Measurements of the electrical current, voltage, phase
          and frequencies at a given point in an electrical power
          system.
          Reference: Adapted from [IEC60050]
     
          NOTES:
          1. Power Attributes are not intended to be judgmental
          with respect to a reference or technical value and are
          independent of any usage context.
     
        $ Power Quality
          Characteristics of the electrical current, voltage, phase
          and frequencies at a given point in an electric power
          system, evaluated against a set of reference technical
          parameters. These parameters might, in some cases, relate
          to the compatibility between electricity supplied in an
          electric power system and the loads connected to that
          electric power system.
     
          Reference: [IEC60050]
     
     
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          NOTES:
          1. Electrical characteristics representing power quality
          information are typically required by customer facility
          energy management systems. It is not intended to satisfy
          the detailed requirements of power quality monitoring.
          Standards typically also give ranges of allowed values;
          the information attributes are the raw measurements, not
          the "yes/no" determination by the various standards.
     
          Reference: [ASHRAE-201]
     
        $ Demand
          The average value of power or a related quantity over a
          specified interval of time. Note: Demand is expressed in
          kilowatts, kilovolt-amperes, kilovars, or other suitable
          units.
     
          Reference: [IEEE100]
     
          NOTES:
          1. For EMAN we use kilowatts.
     
        $ Power State
          A Power State is a condition or mode of a device that
          broadly characterizes its capabilities, power
          consumption, and responsiveness to input.
     
          Reference: Adapted from [IEEE1621]
     
        $ Power State Set
          A Power State Set is a collection of Power States that
          comprises a named or logical control grouping.
     
        $ Energy Object
          An Energy Object (EO) is an information model (class)
          that represents a piece of equipment that is part of, or
          attached to, a communications network which is monitored,
          controlled, or aids in the management of another device
          for Energy Management.
     
        $ Power Interface
          A Power Interface (or simply interface) is an information
          model (class) that represents the interconnections among
          devices or components where energy can be provided,
          received, or both.
     
        $ Energy Management Domain
     
     
     
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          An Energy Management Domain is a set of Energy Objects
          that is considered one unit of management.
     
        $ Energy Object Identification
          Energy Object Identification is a set of attributes that
          enable an Energy Object to be universally unique or
          linked to other systems.
     
        $ Energy Object Context
          Energy Object Context is a set of attributes that allow
          an Energy Management System to classify an Energy Object
          within an organization.
     
        $ Energy Object Relationship
          An Energy Object Relationship is an association among
          Energy Objects.
     
          NOTES
          1. Relationships can be named and could include
          Aggregation, Metering, and Power Source.
          Reference: Adapted from [CHEN]
     
        $ Power Source Relationship
          A Power Source Relationship is an Energy Object
          Relationship where one Energy Object provides power to
          one or more Energy Objects. These Energy Objects are
          referred to as having a Power Source Relationship.
     
        $ Metering Relationship
          A Metering Relationship is an Energy Object Relationship
          where one Energy Object measures power, energy, demand or
          power attributes of one or more other Energy Objects. The
          measuring Energy Object has a Metering Relationship with
          each of the measured objects.
     
        $ Aggregation Relationship
          An Aggregation Relationship is an Energy Object
          Relationship where one Energy Object aggregates Energy
          Management information of one or more other Energy
          Objects. The aggregating Energy Object has an Aggregation
          Relationship with each of the other Energy Objects.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     3. Concerns Specific to Energy Management
     
        This section explains areas of concern for Energy
        Management that do not exist in traditional Network
        Management. This section describes target devices, outlines
        physical reference models, and lists the major concerns
        specific to Energy Management.
     
     3.1. Target Devices
     
        With Energy Management, there exists a wide variety of
        devices that may be contained in the same deployment as a
        communication network but comprise a separate facility,
        home, or power distribution network.
     
        Energy Management has special challenges because a power
        distribution network supplies energy to devices and
        components, while a separate communications network
        monitors and controls the power distribution network.
     
        The target devices for Energy Management are all devices
        that can be monitored or controlled (directly or
        indirectly) by an Energy Management System (EnMS). These
        target devices include:
           o     Simple electrical appliances and fixtures
           o     Hosts, such as a PC, a server, or a printer
           o     Switches, routers, base stations, and other
              network equipment and middle boxes
           o     Components within devices, such as a battery
              inside a PC, a line card inside a switch, etc.
           o     Power over Ethernet (PoE) endpoints
           o     Power Distribution Units (PDU)
           o     Protocol gateway devices for Building Management
              Systems (BMS)
           o     Electrical meters
           o     Sensor controllers with subtended sensors
     
        Target devices will primarily communicate via Internet
        Protocols (IP). The target devices may also include those
        communicating via non-IP protocols deployed among the power
        distribution and IP communication network. These types of
        target devices are expect to be managed through gateways or
        proxies that can communicate using IP.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     3.2. Physical Reference Model
     
        The following reference models describe physical power
        topologies that exist in parallel to the communication
        topology. While many more permutations of topologies can be
        created the following are some basic ones that show how
        Energy Management topologies differ from Network Management
        topologies.
     
        Basic Energy Management
     
                               +--------------------------+
                               | Energy Management System |
                               +--------------------------+
                                           ^  ^
                                monitoring |  | control
                                           v  v
                                       +---------+
                                       | device  |
                                       +---------+
     
        Basic Power Supply
     
                    +-----------------------------------------+
                    |         energy management system        |
                    +-----------------------------------------+
                          ^  ^                       ^  ^
               monitoring |  | control    monitoring |  | control
                          v  v                       v  v
                    +--------------+        +-----------------+
                    | power supply |########|      device     |
                    +--------------+        +-----------------+
     
        Single Power Supply with Multiple Devices
     
                      +---------------------------------------+
                      |       energy management system        |
                      +---------------------------------------+
                         ^  ^                       ^  ^
              monitoring |  | control    monitoring |  | control
                         v  v                       v  v
                      +--------+        +------------------+
                      | power  |########|         device 1 |
                      | supply |   #    +------------------+-+
                      +--------+   #######|         device 2 |
                                     #    +------------------+-+
                                     #######|         device 3 |
                                            +------------------+
     
     
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        Multiple Power Supplies with Single Devices
     
             +----------------------------------------------+
             |          energy management system            |
             +----------------------------------------------+
                 ^  ^              ^  ^              ^  ^
            mon. |  | ctrl.   mon. |  | ctrl.   mon. |  | ctrl.
                 v  v              v  v              v  v
             +----------+      +----------+      +----------+
             | power    |######|  device  |######| power    |
             | supply 1 |######|          |      | supply 2 |
             +----------+      +----------+      +----------+
     
     3.3. Concerns Differing from Network Management
     
           o  Identification of the power source of a device may be
              independent of the communication network and require
              unique identifiers.
     
           o  Controlling power for a device may have to be
              fulfilled by addressing the power source as opposed
              to directing control to the device. For example
              controlling a device by controlling the outlet of the
              PDU or controlling a simple light by controlling its
              outlet.
     
           o  Control of a device may need to be coordinated if
              there are multiple power supplies.
     
           o  Modeling of power when the flow of energy can be bi-
              directional and require a separate interface model
              from Network Management. For example energy received
              into a battery or energy provided from battery).
     
           o  Some devices may need out-of-band or proxy
              capabilities to respond to communications request
              even though it is in a non-operational power state.
     
           o  Estimates and source of measurements may vary among
              devices. For example when devices do not have the
              capability to measure power an estimate can be
              provided from the device or estimated by the EnMS.
              This may require annotation of a measurement.
     
           o  A device may require a separate abstract model to
              describe its components and interconnections than a
              model used to describe it for Network Management.
     
     
     
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     3.4. Concerns Not Addressed
     
        Non-Electrical Equipment
     
        The primary focus of this framework is the management of
        Electrical Equipment.  Some Non-Electrical Equipment may be
        connected to communication networks and could have their
        energy managed if normalized to the electrical units for
        power and energy. Non-
        Electrical equipment that do not convert-to or present-as
        equivalent to Electrical Equipment is not addressed.
     
     
        Energy Procurement and Manufacturing
     
        While an EnMS may be a central point for corporate
        reporting, cost computation, environmental impact analysis,
        and regulatory compliance reporting - Energy Management in
        this framework excludes energy procurement and the
        environmental impact of energy use.
     
        As such the framework does not include:
           o  Cost in currency or environmental units of
              manufacturing a device.
           o  Embedded carbon or environmental equivalences of a
              device
           o  Cost in currency or environmental impact to dismantle
              or recycle a device.
           o  Supply chain analysis of energy sources for device
              deployment
           o  Conversion of the usage or production of energy to
              units expressed from the source of that energy (such
              as the greenhouse gas emissions associated with
              1000kW from a diesel source).
     
     4. Energy Management Abstraction
     
        Network management is often divided into the five main
        areas defined in the ISO Telecommunications Management
        Network model: Fault, Configuration, Accounting,
        Performance, and Security Management (FCAPS) [X.700].  This
        traditional management model does not cover Energy
        Management.
     
        This section describes a conceptual model of information
        that can be used for Energy Management. The classes and
        categories of attributes in the model are described with
        rationale for each.
     
     
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     4.1. Conceptual Model
     
        This section describes an information model addressing
        issues specific to Energy Management, which complements
        existing Network Management models.
     
        An information model for Energy Management will need to
        describe a means to report information, provide control,
        and model the interconnections among physical entities
        (equipment).
     
        Therefore, this section proposes a similar conceptual model
        for physical entities to that used in Network Management:
        devices, components, and interfaces. This section then
        defines the additional attributes specific to Energy
        Management for those entities that are not available in
        existing Network Management models.
     
        For modeling the physical entities this section describes
        three classes:  a Device, a Component, and a Power
        Interface. These classes are sub-types of an abstract
        Energy Object class.
     
        For modeling additional attributes, this section describes
        attributes of an Energy Object for: identification,
        classification, context, control, power and energy.
     
        Since the interconnections between physical entities for
        Energy Management may have no relation to the
        interconnections for Network Management the Energy Object
        classes contain a separate Relationships class as an
        attribute to model these types of interconnections.
     
        The remainder of this section describes the conceptual
        model of the classes and categories of attributes in the
        information model. The formal definitions of the classes
        and attributes are specified in Section 5.
     
     4.2. Energy Object
     
        An Energy Object is an abstract class that contains the
        base attributes for Energy Management.  There are three
        types of Energy Objects: Device, Component and Power
        Interface.
     
     
     4.2.1. Device Class
     
     
     
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        The Device Class is a sub-class of Energy Object that
        represents a physical piece of equipment.
     
        A Device Class instance may represent a device that is a
        consumer, producer, meter, distributor, or store of energy.
     
        A Device Class instance may represent a physical device
        that contains other components.
     
     4.2.2. Component Class
     
        The Component Class is a sub-class of Energy Object that
        represents a part of a physical piece of equipment.
     
     4.2.3. Power Interface Class
     
        The power interface class is a sub-class of Energy Object
        that represents the interconnection among devices and
        components.
        There are some similarities between Power Interfaces and
        network interfaces.  A network interface can be set to
        different states, such as sending or receiving data on an
        attached line.  Similarly, a Power Interface can be
        receiving or providing power.
     
        Physically, a Power Interface instance can represent an AC
        power socket, an AC power cord attached to a device, or an
        8P8C (RJ45) PoE socket, etc.
     
     4.3. Energy Object Attributes
     
        This section describes categories of attributes for an
        Energy Object.
     
     4.3.1. Identification
     
        A Universal Unique Identifier (UUID) [RFC4122] is used to
        uniquely and persistently identify an Energy Object.
        Ideally the UUID is used to distinguish the Energy Object
        within the EnMS.
     
        Every Energy Object has an optional unique printable name.
        Possible naming conventions are: textual DNS name, MAC
        address of the device, interface ifName, or a text string
        uniquely identifying the Energy Object.  As an example, in
        the case of IP phones, the Energy Object name can be the
        device's DNS name.
     
     
     
     
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        Additionally an alternate key is provided to allow an
        Energy Object to be optionally linked with models in
        different systems.
     
     4.3.2. Context in General
     
        In order to aid in reporting and in differentiation between
        Energy Objects, each object optionally contains information
        establishing its business, site, or organizational context
        within a deployment.
     
        Energy Objects contain a category attribute that broadly
        describes how the object is used in a deployment. The
        category indicates if the Energy Object is primarily
        functioning as a consumer, producer, meter, distributor or
        store of energy.
     
        Given the category and context of an object, an EnMS can
        summarize or analyze measurements. For example, metered
        usage reported by a meter and consumption usage reported by
        a device connected to that meter may measure the same
        usage. With the two measurements identified by category and
        context an EnMS can make summarizations and inferences.
     
     4.3.3. Context: Importance
     
        An Energy Object can provide an importance value in the
        range of 1 to 100 to help rank a device's use or relative
        value to the site.  The importance range is from 1 (least
        important) to 100 (most important).  The default importance
        value is 1.
     
        For example: A typical office environment has several types
        of phones, which can be rated according to their business
        impact.  A public desk phone has a lower importance (for
        example, 10) than a business-critical emergency phone (for
        example, 100).  As another example: A company can consider
        that a PC and a phone for a customer-service engineer are
        more important than a PC and a phone for lobby use.
     
        Although EnMS and administrators can establish their own
        ranking, the following example is a broad recommendation
        for commercial deployments [CISCO-EW]:
     
           90 to 100 Emergency response
           80 to 90 Executive or business-critical
           70 to 79 General or Average
           60 to 69 Staff or support
           40 to 59 Public or guest
     
     
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           1  to 39 Decorative or hospitality
     
     4.3.4. Context: Keywords
     
        An Energy Object can provide a set of keywords.  These
        keywords are a list of tags that can be used for grouping,
        summary reporting within or between Energy Management
        Domains, and for searching.  All alphanumeric characters
        and symbols (other than a comma), such as #, (, $, !, and
        &, are allowed.  Potential examples are: IT, lobby,
        HumanResources, Accounting, StoreRoom, CustomerSpace,
        router, phone, floor2, or SoftwareLab.  There is no default
        value for a keyword.
        Multiple keywords can be assigned to a device.  White
        spaces before and after the commas are excluded, as well as
        within a keyword itself. In such cases, commas separate the
        keywords and no spaces between keywords are allowed.  For
        example, "HR,Bldg1,Private".
     
     4.3.5. Context: Role
     
        An Energy Object contains a "role description" string that
        indicates the purpose the Energy Object serves in the
        deployment.  This could be a string describing the context
        the device fulfills in deployment.
     
        Administrators can define any naming scheme for the role of
        a device.  As guidance, a two-word role that combines the
        service the device provides along with type can be used
        [IPENERGY].
     
        Example types of devices: Router, Switch, Light, Phone,
        WorkStation, Server, Display, Kiosk, HVAC.
     
        Example Services by Line of Business:
     
           Line of Business     Service
           Education            Student, Faculty, Administration,
                                Athletic
           Finance              Trader, Teller, Fulfillment
           Manufacturing        Assembly, Control, Shipping
           Retail               Advertising, Cashier
           Support              Helpdesk, Management
           Medical              Patient, Administration, Billing
     
        Role as a two-word string: "Faculty Desktop", "Teller
        Phone", "Shipping HVAC", "Advertising Display", "Helpdesk
        Kiosk", "Administration Switch".
     
     
     
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     4.3.6. Context: Domain
     
        An Energy Object contains a string to indicate membership
        in an Energy Management Domain. An Energy Management Domain
        can be any collection of devices in a deployment, but it is
        recommended to map 1:1 with a metered or sub-metered
        portion of the site.
     
        In building management, a meter refers to the meter
        provided by the utility used for billing and measuring
        power to an entire building or unit within a building.  A
        sub-meter refers to a customer- or user-installed meter
        that is not used by the utility to bill but is instead used
        to get measurements from sub portions of a building.
        An Energy Object should be a member of a single Energy
        Management Domain therefore one attribute is provided.  The
        Energy Management Domain may be configured on an Energy
        Object.
     
     4.4. Measurements
     
        An Energy Object contains attributes to describe power,
        energy and demand measurements.
     
        For the purposes of this framework, energy will be limited
        to electrical energy in watt-hours.  Other forms of Energy
        Objects that use or produce non-electrical energy may be
        modeled as an Energy Object but must provide information
        converted to and expressed in watt-hours.
     
        An analogy for understanding power versus energy
        measurements can be made to speed and distance in
        automobiles. Just as a speedometer indicates the rate of
        change of distance (speed), a power measurement indicates
        the rate of transfer of energy. The odometer in an
        automobile measures the cumulative distance traveled and
        similarly an energy measurement indicates the accumulated
        energy transferred.
     
        Demand measurements are averages of power measurements over
        time. So using the same analogy to an automobile: measuring
        the average vehicle speed over multiple intervals of time
        for a given distance travelled, demand is the average power
        measured over multiple time intervals for a given energy
        value.
     
     4.4.1. Measurements: Power
     
     
     
     
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        Each Energy Object contains a Nameplate Power attribute
        that describes the nominal power as specified by the
        manufacturer. The EnMS can use the Nameplate Power for
        provisioning, capacity planning and (potentially) billing.
     
        Each Energy Object will have information that describes the
        present power information, along with how that measurement
        was obtained or derived (e.g., actual, estimated, or
        static).
     
        A power measurement is qualified with the units, magnitude
        and direction of power flow, and is qualified as to the
        means by which the measurement was made.
     
        Power measurement magnitude conforms to the [IEC61850]
        definition of unit multiplier for the SI (System
        International) units of measure.  Measured values are
        represented in SI units obtained by BaseValue * (10 ^
        Scale).  For example, if current power usage of an Energy
        Object is 3, it could be 3 W, 3 mW, 3 KW, or 3 MW,
        depending on the value of the scaling factor.  3W implies
        that the BaseValue is 3 and Scale = 0, whereas 3mW implies
        BaseValue = 3 and ScaleFactor = -3.
     
        An Energy Object indicates how the power measurement was
        obtained with a caliber attribute that indicates:
           o  Whether the measurements were made at the device
              itself or at a remote source.
           o  Description of the method that was used to measure
              the power  and whether this method can distinguish
              actual or estimated values.
           o  Accuracy for actual measured values
     
     4.4.2. Measurements: Power Attributes
     
        Optionally, an Energy Object describes the Power
        measurements with Power Attribute information reflecting
        the electrical characteristics of the measurement. These
        Power Attributes adhere to the [IEC-61850-7-2] standard for
        describing AC measurements.
     
     4.4.3. Measurements: Energy
     
        Optionally, an Energy Object that can report actual power
        readings will have energy attributes that provide the
        energy used, produced, or stored in kWh.
     
     4.4.4. Measurements: Demand
     
     
     
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        Optionally, an Energy Object will provide demand
        information over time. Demand measurements can be provided
        when the Energy Object is capable of measuring actual
        power.
     
     4.5. Control
     
        An Energy Object can be controlled by setting a Power
        State.  An Energy Object implements at least one set of
        Power States consisting of at least two states, an on state
        and an off state.
     
        Each Energy Object should indicate the sets of Power States
        that it implements.  Well-known Power State Sets are
        registered with IANA.
     
        When a device is set to a particular Power State, it may be
        busy. The device will set the desired Power State and then
        update the actual Power State when it changes.  There are
        then two Power State control variables: actual and
        requested.
        There are many existing standards for and implementations
        of Power States.  An Energy Object can support a mixed set
        of Power States defined in different standards. A basic
        example is given by the three Power States defined in
        IEEE1621 [IEEE1621]: on, off, and sleep. The DMTF [DMTF],
        ACPI [ACPI], and PWG define larger numbers of Power States.
     
        The semantics of a Power State are specified by
           a) the functionality provided by an Energy Object in
        this state,
           b) a limitation of the power that an Energy Object uses
        in this state,
           c) a combination of a) and b)
     
        The semantics of a Power State should be clearly defined.
        Limitation (curtailment) of the power used by an Energy
        Object in a state may specified by:
           o  an absolute power value
           o  a percentage value of power relative to the energy
              object's nameplate power
           o  an indication of power relative to another power
              state. For example: Specify that power in state A is
              less than in state B.
           o  For supporting Power State management an Energy
              Object provides statistics on Power States including
              the time an Energy Object spent in a certain Power
              State and the number of times an Energy Object
              entered a power state.
     
     
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        When requesting an Energy Object to enter a Power State an
        indication of the Power State's name or number can be used.
        Optionally an absolute or percentage of Nameplate Power can
        be provided to allow the Energy Object to transition to a
        nearest or equivalent Power State.
     
     4.5.1. Power State Sets
     
        There are several standards and implementations of Power
        State Sets.  An Energy Object can support one or multiple
        Power State Set implementation(s) concurrently.
     
        There are currently three Power State Sets advocated:
          IEEE1621(256) - [IEEE1621]
          DMTF(512)     - [DMTF]
          EMAN(768)     - [EMAN-MON-MIB]
     
        The respective specific states related to each Power State
        Set are specified in the following sections. The guidelines
        for the modification of Power State Sets are specified in
        the IANA Considerations Section.
     
     4.5.2. Power State Set: IEEE1621
     
        The IEEE1621 Power State Set [IEEE1621] consists of 3
        rudimentary states: on, off or sleep.
     
           o  on(0)    - The device is fully On and all features of
              the device are in working mode.
           o  off(1)   - The device is mechanically switched off
              and does not consume energy.
           o  sleep(2) - The device is in a power saving mode, and
              some features may not be available immediately.
     
     4.5.3. Power State Set: DMTF
     
        The DMTF [DMTF] standards organization has defined a power
        profile standard based on the CIM (Common Information
        Model) model that consists of 15 power states:
     
        {ON (2), SleepLight (3), SleepDeep (4), Off-Hard (5), Off-
        Soft (6), Hibernate(7), PowerCycle Off-Soft (8), PowerCycle
        Off-Hard (9), MasterBus reset (10), Diagnostic Interrupt
        (11), Off-Soft-Graceful (12), Off-Hard Graceful (13),
        MasterBus reset Graceful (14), Power-Cycle Off-Soft
        Graceful (15), PowerCycle-Hard Graceful (16)}
     
     
     
     
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        The DMTF standard is targeted for hosts and computers.
        Details of the semantics of each Power State within the
        DMTF Power State Set can be obtained from the DMTF Power
        State Management Profile specification [DMTF].
     
        The DMTF power profile extends ACPI power states. The
        following table provides a mapping between DMTF and ACPI
        Power State Set:
     
             DMTF                              ACPI
            Reserved(0)
            Reserved(1)
            ON (2)                             G0-S0
            Sleep-Light (3)                    G1-S1 G1-S2
            Sleep-Deep (4)                     G1-S3
            Power Cycle (Off-Soft) (5)         G2-S5
            Off-hard (6)                       G3
            Hibernate (Off-Soft) (7)           G1-S4
            Off-Soft (8)                       G2-S5
            Power Cycle (Off-Hard) (9)         G3
            Master Bus Reset (10)              G2-S5
            Diagnostic Interrupt (11)          G2-S5
            Off-Soft Graceful (12)             G2-S5
            Off-Hard Graceful (13)             G3
            MasterBus Reset Graceful (14)      G2-S5
            Power Cycle off-soft Graceful (15) G2-S5
            Power Cycle off-hard Graceful (16) G3
     
     4.5.4. Power State Set: IETF EMAN
     
        An EMAN Power State Set represents an attempt at a standard
        approach for modeling the different levels of power of a
        device.  The EMAN Power States are an expansion of the
        basic Power States as defined in [IEEE1621] that also
        incorporates the Power States defined in [ACPI] and [DMTF].
        Therefore, in addition to the non-operational states as
        defined in [ACPI] and [DMTF] standards, several
        intermediate operational states have been defined.
     
        An Energy Object may implement fewer or more Power States
        than a particular EMAN Power State Set specifies. In this
        case, the Energy Object implementation can determine its
        own mapping to the predefined EMAN Power States within the
        EMAN Power State Set.
     
        There are twelve EMAN Power States that expand on
        [IEEE1621]. The expanded list of Power States is derived
        from [CISCO-EW] and is divided into six operational states
        and six non-operational states.
     
     
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        The lowest non-operational state is 1 and the highest is 6.
        Each non-operational state corresponds to an [ACPI] Global
        and System state between G3 (hard-off) and G1 (sleeping).
        Each operational state represents a performance state, and
        may be mapped to [ACPI] states P0 (maximum performance
        power) through P5 (minimum performance and minimum power).
     
        In each of the non-operational states (from mechoff(1) to
        ready(6)), the Power State preceding it is expected to have
        a lower Power value and a longer delay in returning to an
        operational state:
     
                 mechoff(1) : An off state where no Energy Object
        features are available.  The Energy Object is unavailable.
        No energy is being consumed and the power connector can be
        removed.
     
                 softoff(2) : Similar to mechoff(1), but some
        components remain powered or receive trace power so that
        the Energy Object can be awakened from its off state.  In
        softoff(2), no context is saved and the device typically
        requires a complete boot when awakened.
     
                 hibernate(3): No Energy Object features are
        available.   The Energy Object may be awakened without
        requiring a complete boot, but the time for availability is
        longer than sleep(4). An example for state hibernate(3) is
        a save to-disk state where DRAM context is not maintained.
        Typically, energy consumption is zero or close to zero.
     
                 sleep(4)    : No Energy Object features are
        available, except for out-of-band management, such as wake-
        up mechanisms.  The time for availability is longer than
        standby(5). An example for state sleep(4) is a save-to-RAM
        state, where DRAM context is maintained.  Typically, energy
        consumption is close to zero.
     
                 standby(5) : No Energy Object features are
        available, except for out-of-band management, such as wake-
        up mechanisms.  This mode is analogous to cold-standby.
        The time for availability is longer than ready(6).  For
        example processor context is may not be maintained.
        Typically, energy consumption is close to zero.
     
                 ready(6)    : No Energy Object features are
        available, except for out-of-band management, such as wake-
        up mechanisms. This mode is analogous to hot-standby.  The
        Energy Object can be quickly transitioned into an
     
     
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        operational state.  For example, processors are not
        executing, but processor context is maintained.
     
                 lowMinus(7) : Indicates some Energy Object
        features may not be available and the Energy Object has
        taken measures or selected options to provide less than
        low(8) usage.
     
                 low(8)      : Indicates some features may not be
        available and the Energy Object has taken measures or
        selected options to provide less than mediumMinus(9) usage.
     
                 mediumMinus(9): Indicates all Energy Object
        features are available but the Energy Object has taken
        measures or selected options to provide less than
        medium(10) usage.
     
                 medium(10)  : Indicates all Energy Object features
        are available but the Energy Object has taken measures or
        selected options to provide less than highMinus(11) usage.
                 highMinus(11): Indicates all Energy Object
        features are available and power usage is less than
        high(12).
     
                 high(12)    : Indicates all Energy Object features
        are available and the Energy Object is consuming the
        highest power.
     
     4.5.5. Power State Sets Comparison
     
        A comparison of Power States from different Power State
        Sets can be seen in the following table:
          IEEE1621  DMTF         ACPI           EMAN
     
          Non-operational states
          off       Off-Hard     G3, S5         MechOff(1)
          off       Off-Soft     G2, S5         SoftOff(2)
          sleep     Hibernate    G1, S4         Hibernate(3)
          sleep     Sleep-Deep   G1, S3         Sleep(4)
          sleep     Sleep-Light  G1, S2         Standby(5)
          sleep     Sleep-Light  G1, S1         Ready(6)
     
          Operational states:
          on        on           G0, S0, P5     LowMinus(7)
          on        on           G0, S0, P4     Low(8)
          on        on           G0, S0, P3     MediumMinus(9)
          on        on           G0, S0, P2     Medium(10)
          on        on           G0, S0, P1     HighMinus(11)
          on        on           G0, S0, P0     High(12)
     
     
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     4.6. Relationships
     
        Two Energy Objects can establish an Energy Object
        Relationship to model the deployment topology with respect
        to Energy Management.
     
        Relationships are modeled with a Relationship class that
        contains the UUID of the participants in the relationship
        and a description of the type of relationship. The types of
        relationships are:  power source, metering, and
        aggregations.
     
           o  The Power Source Relationship gives a view of the
              physical wiring topology.  For example: a data center
              server receiving power from two specific Power
              Interfaces from two different PDUs.
     
              Note: A power source relationship may or may not
              change as the direction of power changes between two
              Energy Objects. The relationship may remain to
              indicate the change of power direction was unintended
              or an error condition.
     
           o  The Metering Relationship gives the view of the
              metering topology.  Physical meters can be placed
              anywhere in a power distribution tree.  For example,
              utility meters monitor and report accumulated power
              consumption of the entire building. Logically, the
              metering topology overlaps with the wiring topology,
              as meters are connected to the wiring topology.  A
              typical example is meters that clamp onto the
              existing wiring.
     
           o  The Aggregation Relationship gives a model of devices
              that may aggregate (sum, average, etc) values for
              other devices.  The Aggregation Relationship is
              slightly different compared to the other
              relationships as this refers more to a management
              function.
     
        In some situations, it is not possible to discover the
        Energy Object Relationships, and they must be set by an
        EnMS or administrator.  Given that relationships can be
        assigned manually, the following sections describes
        guidelines for use.
     
     
     
     
     
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     4.6.1. Relationship Conventions and Guidelines
     
        This Energy Management framework does not impose many
        "MUST" rules related to Energy Object Relationships. There
        are always corner cases that could be excluded with too
        strict specifications of relationships. However, this
        Energy Management framework proposes a series of
        guidelines, indicated with "SHOULD" and "MAY".
     
     4.6.2. Guidelines: Power Source
     
        Power Source relationships are intended to identify the
        connections between Power Interfaces. This is analogous to
        a Layer 2 connection in networking devices (a "one-hop
        connection").
     
        The preferred modeling would be for Power Interfaces to
        participate in Power Source Relationships. It some cases
        Energy Objects may not have the capability to model Power
        Interfaces.  Therefore a Power Source Relationship can be
        established between two Energy Objects or two non-connected
        Power Interfaces.
     
        While strictly speaking Components and Power Interfaces on
        the same device do provide or receive energy from each
        other, the Power Source relationship is intended to show
        energy transfer between Devices. Therefore the relationship
        is implied when on the same Device.
     
        An Energy Object SHOULD NOT establish a Power Source
        Relationship with a Component.
           o  A Power Source Relationship SHOULD be established
              with the next known Power Interface in the wiring
              topology.
     
           o  The next known Power Interface in the wiring topology
              would be the next device implementing the framework.
              In some cases the domain of devices under management
              may include some devices that do not implement the
              framework. In these cases, the Power Source
              relationship can be established with the next device
              in the topology that implements the framework and
              logically shows the Power Source of the device.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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           o  Transitive Power Source relationships SHOULD NOT be
              established.  For example, if an Energy Object A has
              a Power Source Relationship "Poweredby" with the
              Energy Object B, and if the Energy Object B has a
              Power Source Relationship "Poweredby" with the Energy
              Object C, then the Energy Object A SHOULD NOT have a
              Power Source Relationship "Poweredby" with the Energy
              Object C.
     
     4.6.3. Guidelines: Metering Relationship
     
        Metering Relationships are intended to show when one Device
        acting as a Meter is measuring the power or energy at a
        point in a power distribution system. Since one point of a
        power distribution system may cover many Devices within a
        wiring topology, this relationship type can be seen as an
        arbitrary set.
     
        Some Devices, however, may include measuring hardware for
        components and Power Interfaces or for the entire Device.
        For example, some PDUs may have the ability to measure
        Power for each Power Interface (metered by outlet). Others
        may be able to control power at each Power Interface but
        can only measure Power at the Power Inlet and a total for
        all Power Interfaces (metered by device).
     
        While the Metering Relationship SHOULD be used between
        devices, in some cases the Device MAY be modeled as an
        Energy Object that meters all of its Power Outlets and each
        Power Outlet MAY be metered by the Energy Object
        representing the Device.
     
        In general:
           o  A Metering Relationship MAY be established with any
              other Energy Object, Component, or Power Interface.
     
           o  Transitive Metering relationships MAY be used.
     
           o  When there is a series of meters for one Energy
              Object, the Energy Object MAY establish a Metering
              relationship with one or more of the meters.
     
     4.6.4. Guidelines: Aggregation
     
        Aggregation relationships are intended to identify when one
        device is used to accumulate values from other devices.
        Typically this is for energy or power values among devices
        and not for Components or Power Interfaces on the same
        device.
     
     
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        The intent of Aggregation relationships is to indicate when
        one device is providing aggregate values for a set of other
        devices when it is not obvious from the power source or
        simple containment within a device.
     
        Establishing aggregation relationships within the same
        device would make modeling more complex and the aggregated
        values can be implied from the use of Power Inlets, outlet
        and Energy Object values on the same device.
     
        Since an EnMS is naturally a point of aggregation it is not
        necessary to model aggregation for Energy Management
        Systems.
     
        Aggregation SHOULD be used for power and energy. It MAY be
        used for aggregation of other values from the information
        model, but the rules and logical ability to aggregate each
        attribute is out of scope for this document.
     
        In general:
           o  A Device SHOULD NOT establish an Aggregation
              Relationship with Components contained on the same
              device.
           o  A Device SHOULD NOT establish an Aggregation
              Relationship with the Power Interfaces contained on
              the same device.
           o  A Device SHOULD NOT establish an Aggregation
              Relationship with an EnMS.
           o  Aggregators SHOULD log or provide notification in the
              case of errors or missing values while performing
              aggregation.
     
     4.6.5. Energy Object Relationship Extensions
     
        This framework for Energy Management is based on three
        relationship types: Aggregation , Metering, and Power
        Source.
        This framework is defined with possible future extension of
        new Energy Object Relationships in mind.
        For example:
           o  Some Devices that may not be IP connected. This can
              be modeled with a proxy relationship to an Energy
              Object within the domain. This type of proxy
              relationship is left for further development.
     
     
     
     
     
     
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           o  A Power Distribution Unit (PDU) that allows physical
              entities like outlets to be "ganged" together as a
              logical entity for simplified management purposes,
              could be modeled with an extension called a "gang
              relationship", whose semantics would specify the
              Energy Objects' grouping.
     
     5. Energy Management Information Model
     
        This section presents an information model expression of
        the concepts in this framework as a reference for
        implementers. The information model is implemented as a MIB
        in the different related IETF EMAN documents.  However,
        other programming structures with different data models
        could be used as well.
     
        Data modeling specifications of this information model may
        where needed specify which attributes are required or
        optional.
     
        EDITORs NOTE:  The working group is converging on the use
        of code/pseudo-code rather than ascii UML diagram. IF so we
        would have to define priimitve type as reference (eg. Int,
        string, etc)If agreeable we can either indicate a BNF
        syntax in a formal syntax section or use the following
        table if obvious:
     
        Syntax
     
          UML Construct
          [ISO-IEC-19501-2005] Equivalent Notation
          -------------------- ------------------------------------
          Notes                // Notes
          Class
          (Generalization)     CLASS name {member..}
          Sub-Class
          (Specialization)     CLASS subclass
                                     EXTENDS superclass {member..}
          Class Member
          (Attribute)          attribute : type
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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        Model
     
        CLASS EnergyObject {
     
           // identification / classification
           index        : int
           identifier   : uuid
           alternatekey : string
     
           // context
           domainName      : string
           role            : string
           keywords [0..n] : string
           importance      : int
     
           // relationship
           relationships [0..n] : Relationship
     
           // measurements
           nameplate    : Nameplate
           power     : PowerMeasurement
           energy    : EnergyMeasurment
           demand    : DemandMeasurement
     
           // control
           powerControl [0..n] : PowerStateSet
        }
     
        CLASS Device EXTENDS EnergyObject {
              eocategory   : enum { producer, consumer, meter,
        distributor, store }
        }
     
        CLASS Component EXTENDS EnergyObject
              eocategory   : enum { producer, consumer, meter,
        distributor, store }
        }
     
        CLASS Interface EXTENDS EnergyObject{
              eoIfType : enum ( inlet, outlet, both}
        }
     
        CLASS Nameplate {
              nominalPower : PowerMeasurement
              details      : URI
        }
     
     
     
     
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        CLASS Relationship {
              relationshipType    : enum { meters, meteredby,
        powers, poweredby, aggregates, aggregatedby }
              relationshipObject  : uuid
        }
     
        CLASS Measurement {
              multiplier: enum { -24..24}
              caliber   : enum { actual, estimated, static }
              accuracy  : enum { 0..10000} // hundreds of percent
        }
     
        CLASS PowerMeasurement EXTENDS Measurement {
              value          : long
              units          : "W"
              powerAttribute : PowerAttribute
        }
     
        CLASS EnergyMeasurement EXTENDS Measurement {
              startTime : time
              units     : "kWh"
              provided  : long
              used      : long
              produced  : long
              stored    : long
        }
     
        CLASS TimedMeasurement EXTENDS Measurement {
              startTime  : timestamp
              value      : Measurement
              maximum    : Measurement
        }
     
        CLASS TimeInterval {
              value      : long
              units      : enum { seconds, miliseconds,...}
        }
     
        CLASS DemandMeasurement EXTENDS Measurement {
              intervalLength : TimeInte
        rval
              interval       : long
              intervalMode   : enum { periodic, sliding, total }
              intervalWindow : TimeInterval
              sampleRate     : TimeInterval
              status         : enum { active, inactive }
              measurements[0..n] : TimedMeasurements
        }
     
     
     
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        CLASS PowerStateSet {
              powerSetIdentifier : int
              name               : string
              powerStates [0..n] : PowerState
              operState          : int
              adminState         : int
              reason             : string
              configuredTime     : timestamp
        }
     
        CLASS PowerState {
              powerStateIdentifier  : int
              name             : string
              cardinality      : int
              maximumPower     : PowerMeasurement
              totalTimeInState : time
              entryCount       : long
        }
     
        CLASS PowerAttribute {
     
           // container for attributes
                 acQuality   : ACQuality
        }
     
        CLASS ACQuality {
           acConfiguration : enum {SNGL, DEL,WYE}
           avgVoltage   : long
           avgCurrent   : long
           frequency    : long
           unitMultiplier  : int
           accuracy    : int
           totalActivePower   : long
           totalReactivePower : long
           totalApparentPower : long
           totalPowerFactor : long
           phases [0..2]  : ACPhase
        }
     
        CLASS ACPhase {
           phaseIndex : long
           avgCurrent : long
           activePower : long
           reactivePower : long
           apparentPower : long
           powerFactor : long
        }
     
     
     
     
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        CLASS DelPhase EXTENDS ACPhase {
           phaseToNextPhaseVoltage  : long
           thdVoltage : long
           thdCurrent : long
        }
     
        CLASS WYEPhase EXTENDS ACPhase {
           phaseToNeutralVoltage : long
           thdCurrent : long
           thdVoltage : long
        }
     
     6. Modeling Relationships between Devices
     
        In this section we give examples of how to use the Energy
        Management framework relationships to model physical
        topologies.  Where applicable, we show how the framework
        can be applied when Devices have the capability to model
        Power Interfaces.  We also show how the framework can be
        applied when devices cannot support Power Interfaces but
        only monitor information or control the Device as a whole.
        For instance, a PDU may only be able to measure power and
        energy for the entire unit without the ability to
        distinguish among the inlets or outlet.
     
     6.1. Power Source Relationship
     
        The Power Source relationship is used to model the
        interconnections between Devices, Components and/Power
        Interfaces to indicate the source of energy for an Energy
        Object. In the following examples we show variations on
        modeling the reference topologies using relationships.
     
        Given for all cases:
     
        Device W: A computer with one power supply. Power interface
        1 is an inlet for Device W.
     
        Device X: A computer with two power supplies. Power
        interface 1 and power interface 2 are both inlets for
        Device X.
     
        Device Y: A PDU with multiple Power Interfaces numbered
        0..10. Power interface 0 is an inlet and power interface
        1..10 are outlets.
     
        Device Z: A PDU with multiple Power Interfaces numbered
        0..10. Power interface 0 is an inlet and power interface
        1..10 are outlets.
     
     
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        Case 1: Simple Device with one Source
     
        Physical Topology:
     
           o  Device W inlet 1 is plugged into Device Y outlet 8.
     
        With Power Interfaces:
     
           o  Device W has an Energy Object representing the
              computer itself as well as one Power Interface
              defined as an inlet.
           o  Device Y would have an Energy Object representing the
              PDU itself (the Device), with a Power Interface 0
              defined as an inlet and Power Interfaces 1..10
              defined as outlets.
     
        The interfaces of the devices would have a Power Source
        Relationship such that:
        Device W inlet 1 is powered by Device Y outlet 8.
     
           +-------+------+       poweredBy +------+----------+
           | PDU Y | PI 8 |-----------------| PI 1 | Device W |
           +-------+------+ powers          +------+----------+
     
        Without Power Interfaces:
     
           o  Device W has an Energy Object representing the
              computer.
           o  Device Y would have an Energy Object representing the
              PDU.
     
        The devices would have a Power Source Relationship such
        that:
        Device W is powered by Device Y.
     
     
           +----------+       poweredBy +------------+
           |  PDU Y   |-----------------|  Device W  |
           +----------+ powers          +------------+
     
        Case 2: Multiple Inlets
     
        Physical Topology:
           o  Device X inlet 1 is plugged into Device Y outlet 8.
           o  Device X inlet 2 is plugged into Device Y outlet 9.
     
        With Power Interfaces:
     
     
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           o  Device X has an Energy Object representing the
              computer itself. It contains two Power Interfaces
              defined as inlets.
           o  Device Y would have an Energy Object representing the
              PDU itself (the Device), with a Power Interface 0
              defined as an inlet and Power Interfaces 1..10
              defined as outlets.
     
        The interfaces of the devices would have a Power Source
        Relationship such that:
        Device X inlet 1 is powered by Device Y outlet 8.
        Device X inlet 2 is powered by Device Y outlet 9.
     
           +-------+------+        poweredBy+------+----------+
           |       | PI 8 |-----------------| PI 1 |          |
           |       |      |powers           |      |          |
           | PDU Y +------+        poweredBy+------+ Device X |
           |       | PI 9 |-----------------| PI 2 |          |
           |       |      |powers           |      |          |
           +-------+------+                 +------+----------+
     
        Without Power Interfaces:
     
           o  Device X has an Energy Object representing the
              computer. Device Y has an Energy Object representing
              the PDU.
     
     
        The devices would have a Power Source Relationship such
        that:
        Device X is powered by Device Y.
     
           +----------+       poweredBy +------------+
           |  PDU Y   |-----------------|  Device X  |
           +----------+ powers          +------------+
     
        Case 3: Multiple Sources
     
        Physical Topology:
           o  Device X inlet 1 is plugged into Device Y outlet 8.
           o  Device X inlet 2 is plugged into Device Z outlet 9.
     
        With Power Interfaces:
     
     
     
     
     
     
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           o  Device X has an Energy Object representing the
              computer itself. It contains two Power Interface
              defined as inlets.
           o  Device Y would have an Energy Object representing the
              PDU itself  (the Device), with a Power Interface 0
              defined as an inlet and Power Interfaces 1..10
              defined as outlets.
           o  Device Z would have an Energy Object representing the
              PDU itself  (the Device), with a Power Interface 0
              defined as an inlet and Power Interfaces 1..10
              defined as outlets.
     
        The interfaces of the devices would have a Power Source
        Relationship such that:
        Device X inlet 1 is powered by Device Y outlet 8.
        Device X inlet 2 is powered by Device Z outlet 9.
     
           +-------+------+        poweredBy+------+----------+
           | PDU Y | PI 8 |-----------------| PI 1 |          |
           |       |      |powers           |      |          |
           +-------+------+                 +------+          |
                                                   | Device X |
           +-------+------+        poweredBy+------+          |
           | PDU Z | PI 9 |-----------------| PI 2 |          |
           |       |      |powers           |      |          |
           +-------+------+                 +------+----------+
     
        Without Power Interfaces:
     
           o  Device X has an Energy Object representing the
              computer. Device Y and Z would both have respective
              Energy Objects representing each entire PDU.
     
        The devices would have a Power Source Relationship such
        that:
        Device X is powered by Device Y and powered by Device Z.
     
           +----------+           poweredBy +------------+
           |  PDU Y   |---------------------|  Device X  |
           +----------+ powers              +------------+
     
           +----------+           poweredBy +------------+
           |  PDU Z   |---------------------|  Device X  |
           +----------+ powers              +------------+
     
     6.2. Metering Relationship
     
     
     
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        Case 1: Metering between two Devices
     
        The metering topology between two devices is closely
        related to the power source topology.  It is based on the
        assumption that in many cases the power provided and the
        power received is the same for both peers of a power source
        relationship.
     
        We define in this case a Metering Relationship between two
        Devices or Power Interfaces of Devices that have a power
        source relationship.  Power and energy values measured at
        one peer of the power source relationship are reported for
        the other peer as well.
     
        The Metering Relationship is independent of the direction
        of the Power Source Relationship.  The most common case is
        that values measured at the power provider are reported for
        the power receiver.
     
        +-----+---+    meteredBy +--------+   poweredBy +-------+
        |Meter| PI|--------------| switch |-------------| phone |
        +-----+---+ meters       +--------+ powers      +-------+
                |                                           |
                |                                 meteredBy |
                +-------------------------------------------+
                 meters
     
        Case 2: Metering among many Devices
     
        A Sub-meter in a power distribution system can logically
        measure the
        power or energy for all devices downstream from the meter
        in the power distribution system.  As such, a Power
        metering relationship can be seen as a relationship between
        a meter Device and all of the devices downstream from the
        meter.
     
        We define in this case a Power Source relationship between
        a metering device and devices downstream from the meter.
     
        In cases where the Power Source topology cannot be
        discovered or derived from the information available in the
        Energy Management Domain, the Metering Topology can be used
        to relate the upstream meter to the downstream devices in
        the absence of specific power source relationships.
     
        A Metering Relationship can occur between devices that are
        not directly connected, as shown in the following figure:
     
     
     
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                           +---------------+
                           |   Device 1    |
                           +---------------+
                           |      PI       |
                           +---------------+
                                   |
                           +---------------+
                           |     Meter     |
                           +---------------+
                                   .
                                   .
                                   .
                  meters        meters           meters
            +----------+   +----------+   +-----------+
            | Device A |   | Device B |   | Device C  |
            +----------+   +----------+   +-----------+
     
        An analogy to communications networks would be modeling
        connections between servers (meters) and clients (devices)
        when the complete Layer 2 topology between the servers and
        clients is not known.
     
     6.3. Aggregation Relationship
     
        Some devices can act as aggregation points for other
        devices.  For example, a PDU controller device may contain
        the summation of power and energy readings for many PDU
        devices.  The PDU controller will have aggregate values for
        power and energy for a group of PDU devices.
     
        This aggregation is independent of the physical power or
        communication topology.
        An Aggregation Relationship is an Energy Object
        Relationship where one Energy Object (called the Aggregate
        Energy Object) aggregates the Energy Management information
        of one or more other Energy Objects.  These Energy Objects
        are said to have an Aggregation Relationship.
     
        The functions that the aggregation point may perform
        include the calculation of values such as average, count,
        maximum, median, minimum, or the listing (collection) of
        the aggregation values, etc.
        Based on the experience gained on aggregations at the IETF
        [draft-ietf-ipfix-a9n-08], the aggregation function in the
        EMAN framework is limited to the summation.
     
        When aggregation occurs across a set of entities, values to
        be aggregated may be missing for some entities.  The EMAN
     
     
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        framework does not specify how these should be treated, as
        different implementations may have good reason to take
        different approaches.  One common treatment is to define
        the aggregation as missing if any of the constituent
        elements are missing (useful to be most precise). Another
        is to treat the missing value as zero (useful to have
        continuous data streams).
     
        The specifications of aggregation functions are out of
        scope of the EMAN framework, but must be clearly specified
        by the equipment vendor.
     
     7. Relationship to Other Standards
     
        This Energy Management framework uses, as much as possible,
        existing standards especially with respect to information
        modeling and data modeling [RFC3444].
     
        The data model for power- and energy-related objects is
        based on [IEC61850].
     
        Specific examples include:
           o  The scaling factor, which represents Energy Object
              usage magnitude, conforms to the [IEC61850]
              definition of unit multiplier for the SI (System
              International) units of measure.
           o  The electrical characteristic is based on the ANSI
              and IEC Standards, which require that we use an
              accuracy class for power measurement.  ANSI and IEC
              define the following accuracy classes for power
              measurement:
           o  IEC 62053-22  60044-1 class 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1  3.
           o  ANSI C12.20 class 0.2, 0.5
           o  The electrical characteristics and quality adhere
              closely to the [IEC61850-7-2] standard for describing
              AC measurements.
           o  The power state definitions are based on the DMTF
              Power State Profile and ACPI models, with operational
              state extensions.
     
     8. Security Considerations
     
        Regarding the data attributes specified here, some or all
        may be considered sensitive or vulnerable in some network
        environments. Reading or writing these attributes without
        proper protection such as encryption or access
        authorization may have negative effects on the network
        capabilities.
     
     
     
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     8.1. Security Considerations for SNMP
     
        Readable objects in MIB modules (i.e., objects with a MAX-
        ACCESS other than not-accessible) may be considered
        sensitive or vulnerable in some network environments.  It
        is important to control GET and/or NOTIFY access to these
        objects and possibly to encrypt the values of these objects
        when sending them over the network via SNMP.
     
        The support for SET operations in a non-secure environment
        without proper protection can have a negative effect on
        network operations.
     
        For example:
           o  Unauthorized changes to the Energy Management Domain
              or business context of a device may result in
              misreporting or interruption of power.
           o  Unauthorized changes to a power state may disrupt the
              power settings of the different devices, and
              therefore the state of functionality of the
              respective devices.
           o  Unauthorized changes to the demand history may
              disrupt proper accounting of energy usage.
     
        With respect to data transport, SNMP versions prior to
        SNMPv3 did not include adequate security.  Even if the
        network itself is secure (for example, by using IPsec),
        there is still no secure control over who on the secure
        network is allowed to access and GET/SET
        (read/change/create/delete) the objects in these MIB
        modules.
     
        It is recommended that implementers consider the security
        features as provided by the SNMPv3 framework (see
        [RFC3410], section 8), including full support for the
        SNMPv3 cryptographic mechanisms (for authentication and
        privacy).
        Further, deployment of SNMP versions prior to SNMPv3 is not
        recommended.  Instead, it is recommended to deploy SNMPv3
        and to enable cryptographic security.  It is then a
        customer/operator responsibility to ensure that the SNMP
        entity giving access to an instance of these MIB modules is
        properly configured to give access to the objects only to
        those principals (users) that have legitimate rights to GET
        or SET (change/create/delete) them.
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     9. IANA Considerations
     9.1. IANA Registration of new Power State Sets
     
        This document specifies an initial set of Power State Sets.
        The list of these Power State Sets with their numeric
        identifiers is given is Section 4. IANA maintains the lists
        of Power State Sets.
     
        New assignments for Power State Set are administered by
        IANA through Expert Review [RFC5226], i.e., review by one
        of a group of experts designated by an IETF Area Director.
        The group of experts MUST check the requested state for
        completeness and accuracy of the description. A pure vendor
        specific implementation of Power State Set shall not be
        adopted; since it would lead to proliferation of Power
        State Sets.
     
        Power states in a Power State Set are limited to 255
        distinct values. New Power State Set must be assigned the
        next available numeric identifier that is a multiple of
        256.
     
     9.1.1. IANA Registration of the IEEE1621 Power State Set
     
        This document specifies a set of values for the IEEE1621
        Power State Set [IEEE1621].  The list of these values with
        their identifiers is given in Section 4.6.2.  IANA created
        a new registry for IEEE1621 Power State Set identifiers and
        filled it with the initial list of identifiers.
     
        New assignments (or potentially deprecation) for the
        IEEE1621 Power State Set is administered by IANA through
        Expert Review [RFC5226], i.e., review by one of a group of
        experts designated by an IETF Area Director.  The group of
        experts must check the requested state for completeness and
        accuracy of the description.
     
     9.1.2. IANA Registration of the DMTF Power State Set
     
        This document specifies a set of values for the DMTF Power
        State Set.  The list of these values with their identifiers
        is given in Section 4. IANA has created a new registry for
        DMTF Power State Set identifiers and filled it with the
        initial list of identifiers.
     
        New assignments (or potentially deprecation) for the DMTF
        Power State Set is administered by IANA through Expert
        Review [RFC5226], i.e., review by one of a group of experts
        designated by an IETF Area Director.  The group of experts
     
     
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        must check the conformance with the DMTF standard [DMTF],
        on the top of checking for completeness and accuracy of the
        description.
     
     9.1.3. IANA Registration of the EMAN Power State Set
     
        This document specifies a set of values for the EMAN Power
        State Set.  The list of these values with their identifiers
        is given in Section 4.6.4.  IANA has created a new registry
        for EMAN Power State Set identifiers and filled it with the
        initial list of identifiers.
     
        New assignments (or potentially deprecation) for the EMAN
        Power State Set is administered by IANA through Expert
        Review [RFC5226], i.e., review by one of a group of experts
        designated by an IETF Area Director.  The group of experts
        must check the requested state for completeness and
        accuracy of the description.
     
     9.1.4. Batteries Power State Set
     
        Batteries have operational and administrational states that
        could be represented as a power state set. Since the work
        for battery management is parallel to this document, we are
        not proposing any Power State Sets for batteries at this
        time.
     
     9.2. Updating the Registration of Existing Power State Sets
     
        With the evolution of standards, over time, it may be
        important to deprecate some of the existing the Power State
        Sets, or to add or deprecate some Power States within a
        Power State Set.
     
        The registrant shall publish an Internet-draft or an
        individual submission with the clear specification on
        deprecation of Power State Sets or Power States registered
        with IANA.  The deprecation or addition shall be
        administered by IANA through Expert Review [RFC5226], i.e.,
        review by one of a group of experts designated by an IETF
        Area Director. The process should also allow for a
        mechanism for cases where others have significant
        objections to claims on deprecation of a registration.
     
     10. References
     
     Normative References
     
     
     
     
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        [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to
                  Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
                  March 1997
     
        [RFC3410]  Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D., and B.
                  Stewart, "Introduction and Applicability
                  Statements for Internet Standard Management
                  Framework ", RFC 3410, December 2002
     
        [RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz," A
                  Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) URN
                  Namespace", RFC 4122, July 2005
     
        [RFC5226] Narten, T., and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for
                  Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs",
                  RFC 5226, May 2008
     
        [RFC6933]  Bierman, A. and K. McCloghrie, "Entity MIB
                  (Version4)", RFC 6933, May 2013
     
        [RFC3444] Pras, A., Schoenwaelder, J. "On the Differences
                  between Information Models and Data Models", RFC
                  3444, January 2003
     
        [ISO-IEC-19501-2005] ISO/IEC 19501:2005, Information
                  technology, Open Distributed Processing --
                  Unified Modeling Language (UML), January 2005
     
     Informative References
     
        [RFC2578] McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., and J.
                  Schoenwaelder, "Structure of Management
                  Information Version 2 (SMIv2", RFC 2578, April
                  1999
     
     
        [RFC5101bis] Claise, B., Ed., and Trammel, T., Ed.,
                  "Specification of the IP Flow Information Export
                  (IPFIX) Protocol for the Exchange of IP Traffic
                  Flow Information ", draft-ietf-ipfix-protocol-
                  rfc5101bis-08, (work in progress), June 2013
     
        [RFC6020] M. Bjorklund, Ed., " YANG - A Data Modeling
                  Language for the Network Configuration Protocol
                  (NETCONF)", RFC 6020, October 2010
     
        [ACPI] "Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
                  Specification", http://www.acpi.info/spec30b.htm
     
     
     
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        [IEEE1621]  "Standard for User Interface Elements in Power
                  Control of Electronic Devices Employed in
                  Office/Consumer Environments", IEEE 1621,
                  December 2004
     
        [LLDP]  IEEE Std 802.1AB, "Station and Media Control
                  Connectivity Discovery", 2005
     
        [LLDP-MED-MIB]  ANSI/TIA-1057, "The LLDP Management
                  Information Base extension module for TIA-TR41.4
                  media endpoint discovery information", July 2005
     
        [EMAN-REQ] Quittek, J., Winter, R., Dietz, T., Claise, B.,
                  and M. Chandramouli, "Requirements for Energy
                  Management", draft-ietf-eman-requirements-14,
                  (work in progress), May 2013
     
        [EMAN-OBJECT-MIB] Parello, J., and B. Claise, "Energy
                  Object Contet MIB", draft-ietf-eman-energy-aware-
                  mib-08, (work in progress), April 2013
     
        [EMAN-MON-MIB] Chandramouli, M.,Schoening, B., Quittek, J.,
                  Dietz, T., and B. Claise, "Power and Energy
                  Monitoring MIB", draft-ietf-eman-energy-
                  monitoring-mib-05, (work in progress), April 2013
     
        [EMAN-BATTERY-MIB] Quittek, J., Winter, R., and T. Dietz, "
                  Definition of Managed Objects for Battery
                  Monitoring", draft-ietf-eman-battery-mib-08,
                  (work in progress), February 2013
     
        [EMAN-AS] Schoening, B., Chandramouli, M., and B. Nordman,
                  "Energy Management (EMAN) Applicability
                  Statement", draft-ietf-eman-applicability-
                  statement-03, (work in progress), April 2013
     
        [ITU-T-M-3400] TMN recommandation on Management Functions
                  (M.3400), 1997
     
        [NMF] "Network Management Fundamentals", Alexander Clemm,
                  ISBN: 1-58720-137-2, 2007
     
        [TMN] "TMN Management Functions : Performance Management",
                  ITU-T M.3400
     
        [IEEE100] "The Authoritative Dictionary of IEEE Standards
                  Terms"
                  http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/mostRecentIssue.js
                  p?punumber=4116785
     
     
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        [ISO50001] "ISO 50001:2011 Energy management systems -
                  Requirements with guidance for use",
                  http://www.iso.org/
     
        [IEC60050] International Electrotechnical Vocabulary
                  http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/welcome?o
                  penform
     
        [IEC61850] Power Utility Automation,
                  http://www.iec.ch/smartgrid/standards/
     
        [IEC61850-7-2] Abstract communication service interface
                  (ACSI), http://www.iec.ch/smartgrid/standards/
     
        [IEEE-802.3at] IEEE 802.3 Working Group, "IEEE Std 802.3at-
                  2009 - IEEE Standard for Information technology -
                  Telecommunications and information exchange
                  between systems - Local and metropolitan area
                  networks - Specific requirements - Part 3:
                  Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
                  Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical
                  Layer Specifications - Amendment: Data Terminal
                  Equipment (DTE) -  Power via Media Dependent
                  Interface (MDI) Enhancements", October 2009
     
        [DMTF] "Power State Management Profile DMTF  DSP1027
                  Version 2.0"  December 2009
                  http://www.dmtf.org/sites/default/files/standards
                  /documents/DSP1027_2.0.0.pdf
     
        [IPENERGY] R. Aldrich, J. Parello "IP-Enabled Energy
                  Management", 2010, Wiley Publishing
     
        [X.700]  CCITT Recommendation X.700 (1992), Management
                  framework for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
                  for CCITT applications
     
        [ASHRAE-201] "ASHRAE Standard Project Committee 201
                        (SPC 201)Facility Smart Grid Information
                        Model", http://spc201.ashraepcs.org
     
        [CHEN] "The Entity-Relationship Model: Toward a Unified
                  View of Data",  Peter Pin-shan Chen, ACM
                  Transactions on Database Systems, 1976
     
     
     
     
     
     
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        [CISCO-EW] "Cisco EnergyWise Design Guide",  John Parello,
                  Roland Saville, Steve Kramling, Cisco Validated
                  Designs, September 2010,
                  http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/solutions/Enterpr
                  ise/Borderless_Networks/Energy_Management/energyw
                  isedg.html
     
     
     
     11. Acknowledgments
     
        The authors would like to Michael Brown for his editorial
        work improving the text dramatically. Thanks to Rolf Winter
        for his feedback and to Bill Mielke for feedback and very
        detailed review. Thanks to Bruce Nordman for brainstorming
        with numerous conference calls and discussions. Finally,
        the authors would like to thank the EMAN chairs: Nevil
        Brownlee, Bruce Nordman, and Tom Nadeau.
     
        This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot.
     
     Authors' Addresses
     
        John Parello
        Cisco Systems, Inc.
        3550 Cisco Way
        San Jose, California 95134
        US
     
        Phone: +1 408 525 2339
        Email: jparello@cisco.com
     
        Benoit Claise
        Cisco Systems, Inc.
        De Kleetlaan 6a b1
        Diegem 1813
        BE
     
        Phone: +32 2 704 5622
        Email: bclaise@cisco.com
     
     
        Brad Schoening
        44 Rivers Edge Drive
        Little Silver, NJ 07739
        US
     
        Phone:
        Email: brad.schoening@verizon.net
     
     
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        Juergen Quittek
        NEC Europe Ltd.
        Network Laboratories
        Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
        69115 Heidelberg
        Germany
     
        Phone: +49 6221 90511 15
        EMail: quittek@netlab.nec.de
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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