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Versions: (draft-jhs-forces-tmlsp) 00 01

     ForCES Working Group                                      W. M. Wang
     Internet-Draft                              Zhejiang Gongshang Univ.
     Expires: August, 2007                                  J. Hadi Salim
                                                            Znyx Networks
                                                                Alex Audu
                                                         Garland SoftWorx
                                                           February, 2007
  
  
             ForCES Transport Mapping Layer (TML) Service Primitives
  
                          draft-ietf-forces-tmlsp-01.txt
  
  
  
  Status of this Memo
  
     By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
     applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
     have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
     aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
  
     Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
     Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
     other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.
  
     Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
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     at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
     material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
  
     The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
     http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
  
     The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
     http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
  
  
  Conventions used in this document
  
     The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
     "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
     document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
  
  Abstract
  
     This document specifies Transport Mapping Layer (TML) Service
     Primitives for Forwarding and Control Element Separation (ForCES).
     Based on the service primitives, TML services that are provided by
     TML to ForCES Protocol Layer (PL) are standardized. To define the
  
  


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     primitives, TML properties represented as TML events, TML attributes,
     and TML capabilities are also specified in the document.
  
  
  Table of Contents
  
     1. Introduction....................................................2
     2. Definitions.....................................................3
     3. Overview........................................................3
        3.1. ForCES Protocol Framework..................................3
        3.2. TML Requirements...........................................4
     4. TML Representation..............................................5
        4.1. TML events.................................................6
        4.2. TML attributes............................................11
        4.3. TML capabilities..........................................14
     5. TML Service Primitives.........................................15
        5.1. Design Principles.........................................15
        5.2. TML Open..................................................15
        5.3. TML close.................................................16
        5.4. TML Configuration.........................................17
        5.5. TML Query.................................................18
        5.6. TML send..................................................20
        5.7. TML receive...............................................21
     6. Operation Notes................................................22
     7. Security Considerations........................................23
     8. Acknowledgements...............................................24
     9. References.....................................................24
     10. Author's Address..............................................24
  
  
  1. Introduction
  
     ForCES aims to define a set of specifications for routers, firewalls,
     gateways, etc based on the architecture of separation of Forwarding
     Elements (FEs) and Control Elements (CEs). RFC3654 has presented the
     ForCES requirements, and RFC3746 has defined the ForCES framework.
     The ForCES FE model [ForCES-Model] is specifying the model to
     represent an FE. The ForCES protocol [ForCES-PL] is specifying the
     information exchanging protocol between CE and FE.
  
     The ForCES protocol infrastructure consists of two layers:
  
     1. The Protocol Layer (PL), which is responsible for generating
     ForCES protocol messages, and processing protocol messages that come
     from peering protocol layer in the same ForCES NE.
  
     2. The Transport Mapping Layer (TML), which is responsible for
     transportation of ForCES protocol messages over variant transport
     media, like IP, Ethernet, ATM, etc.
  
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     The ForCES protocol [ForCES-PL] document defines the specifications
     for PL, while TMLs of different transport media types are to be
     defined by individual IETF documents. A ForCES PL implementation must
     be portable across all TMLs. It is feasible that the implementers of
     TML and PL may be from different organizations. As a result, services
     TML provides to PL must be specified in a standardizing way.
  
     The purpose of this document is to specify the services that various
     TMLs must provide for ForCES PL layer. The TML services are
     represented by a set of TML service primitives and associated TML
     properties (TML attributes, etc).
  
     Note that this document specifies TML services more at a semantic
     level, i.e., it does not try to specify details on how the defined
     TML services shall be implemented. Different Operating System
     platforms that PL and TML may rely on to be developed may have
     different programming methods, process techniques, data structures,
     etc for realizing the set of TML services. As a result, TML interface
     APIs constructed according to this document may vary in some way. In
     this condition, one PL portable to various TMLs actually means the PL
     must provide various interface drivers for different TMLs, while
     keeping the PL kernel the same for the TML operations.
  
  2. Definitions
  
     This document follows the terminology used by RFC3654, RFC3746, the
     ForCES protocol[ForCES-PL], and the ForCES FE model [ForCES-Model].
     For convenience, some definitions are just copied here:
  
     ForCES Protocol Layer (ForCES PL) -- A layer in ForCES protocol
     architecture that defines the ForCES protocol messages, the protocol
     state transfer scheme, as well as the ForCES protocol architecture
     itself (including requirements of ForCES TML (see below).
     Specifications of ForCES PL are defined by [ForCES-PL].
  
     ForCES Protocol Transport Mapping Layer (ForCES TML) -- A layer in
     ForCES protocol architecture that uses the capabilities of existing
     transport protocols to specifically address protocol message
     transportation issues, such as how the protocol messages are mapped
     to different transport media (like TCP, IP, ATM, Ethernet, etc), and
     how to achieve and implement reliability, multicast, ordering, etc.
     The ForCES TML specifications are detailed in separate ForCES
     documents, one for each TML.
  
  3. Overview
  
  3.1. ForCES Protocol Framework
  
  
  
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     The ForCES protocol document has presented the protocol framework as
     in Figure 1. The framework shows the relationship between Protocol
     Layer (PL) and Transport Mapping Layer (TML). According to this
     framework, TML lies under PL and provides transportation services for
     protocol messages to PL.  CE PL communicates with FE PL via CE TML
     and FE TML. On transmission, PL delivers its ForCES messages to its
     TML. The TML further delivers the messages to the destination peering
     TML(s). On receive, TML delivers ForCES messages it has received to
     its PL.
  
  
         +-------------------+                  +-------------------+
         |    CE PL layer    |                  |    FE PL layer    |
         +-------------------+                  +-------------------+
         |    CE TML layer   |                  |    FE TML layer   |
         +-------------------+                  +-------------------+
                   ^                                      ^
                   |        ForCES protocol messages      |
                   +--------------------------------------+
  
                      Figure 1. ForCES Protocol Framework
  
  3.2. TML Requirements
  
     The ForCES protocol docuement has also presented TML requirements.
     We list the requirements as below. Each TML specification must
     describe how it contributes to achieving the requirements. If, for
     any reason, a TML does not provide a service listed by the
     requirements, a justification needs to be provided.
  
     The TML requirements are:
  
     1. Reliability
     As defined by RFC 3654, section 6 #6.
  
     2. Security
     TML provides security services to the ForCES PL. TML layer should
     support the following security services and describe how they are
     achieved.
  
            *  Endpoint authentication of FE and CE.
  
            *  Message Authentication
  
            *  Confidentiality service
  
     3. Congestion Control
     The congestion control scheme used needs to be defined. The
     congestion control mechanism defined by the TML should prevent the FE
     from being overloaded by the CE or the CE from being overwhelmed by
  
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     traffic from the FE.  Additionally, the circumstances under which
     notification is sent to the PL to notify it of congestion must be
     defined.
  
     4.Uni/multi/broadcast addressing/delivery if any
     If there is any mapping between PL and TML level Uni/Multi/Broadcast
     addressing it needs to be defined.
  
     5. HA decisions
     It is expected that availability of transport links is the TML's
     responsibility.  However, on config basis, the PL layer may wish to
     participate in link failover schemes and therefore the TML must
     support this capability.
  
     6. Encapsulations used.
     Different types of TMLs will encapsulate the PL messages on
     different types of headers. The TML needs to specify the
     encapsulation used.
  
     7. Prioritization
     It is expected that the TML will be able to handle up to 8 priority
     levels needed by the PL layer and will provide preferential treatment.
     TML needs to define how this is achieved. The requirement for
     supporting up to 8 priority levels does not mean that the underlying
     TML MUST be capable of handling up to 8 priority levels.  In such an
     event the priority levels should be divided between the available TML
     priority levels.  For example, if the TML only supports 2 priority
     levels, the 0-3 could go in one TML priority level, while 4-7 could
     go in the other.
  
     8. Protection against DoS attacks
     As described in the Requirements RFC 3654, section 6
  
  4.  TML Representation
  
     The document is to define a set of general services for TML that
     various TMLs and their implementations must fundamentally provide for
     ForCES PL layer. For this sake, a TML representation is necessary
     that describes general properties of various TMLs. The following
     entities are used to represent various TML properties.
  
     TML Events:
     When the events happen in TML, PL may be interested to be notified.
  
     TML attributes:
     Represent the TML parameters that should be configured by PL when PL
     asks TML to provide services.
  
     TML capabilities:
     TML abilities or capacities that PL is interested to know.
  
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     Note that, not all TML properties should be made perceivable and
     controllable by PL. PL only cares those TML properties that PL should
     interact with in order for TML to properly provide services to the PL.
  
  4.1. TML events
  
     TML events are triggered by some TML status changes when TML is
     running. PL layer may be interested to be notified when some TML
     events occur. TML is responsible to asynchronously notify PL of these
     events.
  
     How a TML event is asynchronously notified to PL highly depends upon
     operating system environments PL and/or TML implementations may be
     based. As an example, some environments may adopt a callback
     mechanism for notification of events between program processes. In
     this case and for the PL/TML usage, PL may first construct a callback
     function to process every event, and then tell TML the callback
     function handle. Whenever an interested event happens in TML, the TML
     will notify PL of the event by invoking the callback handle and let
     PL execute the callback function. In this way, the TML asynchronously
     passes the event notification to the PL.
  
     However, this document does not try to define specific means for
     PL/TML notification. Any appropriate means can be adopted under
     condition that it shall meet the service requirements.
  
     A TML event may appear as a sustained event, i.e., the event will
     last until the condition triggered the event is changed and the event
     is then released. For instance, when an error happens in TML, it will
     last until the error is finally by any means removed. In the
     sustained event case, PL may be interested in knowing not only when
     the event takes place, but also when the event is released. To meet
     this need, an event status parameter should be defined and associated
     with a sustained event report. The parameter will mark the associated
     event with either 'occurring' or 'is released' to indicate the two
     different status of a sustained event. Nevertheless, not all events
     are sustained events, so that not all event reports need this kind of
     parameters.
  
     A TML event shall be distinguished as being subscription-free or
     subscription-requested. A subscription-free TML event will inevitably
     be notified to PL when it occurs. A subscription-requested TML event
     is only notified to PL when it has been subscribed for by the PL. A
     way for PL to subscribe for a subscription-requested TML event will
     be provided by defining an event handle TML attribute as in 1) of
     Section 4.2. The TML attribute can also provide more events
     parameters configuration. See Section 4.2 for more details on the
     attribute definition.
  
  
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     An TML event is assigned a TML event id, so that PL can identify the
     event uniquely.
  
     Followed are descriptions of TML events that must be available for
     all TML specifications. If, for any reason, an individual TML
     specification does not provide the events, a justification needs to
     be provided in the specification.
  
     1) TML error event
  
     This event reports a TML error during TML running to PL. When the
     event is invoked, something might be wrong in the TML. Failures like
     TML link failure in TML are also taken as TML errors, which can be
     understood as fatal errors for some cases.
  
     When the event occurs and an event report is notified to PL, an
     error code is associated with the event report so as to pass more
     information about the error to PL layer. The code may expose PL the
     reason of the error, the type of the error, as such.
  
     TML error event is a subscription-free event. When the event occurs,
     it will always invoke a report to PL.
  
     TML error event is a sustained event. The error status will last
     until the error is removed by any means.
  
     As a result, when the event is notified to PL, the following
     information shall be associated with the event report:
  
       o TML error code and associated data
  
       o event status
               1    The event is occurring
               0    The event is released
  
     Note that it is not restricted that more information may also be
     associated with the event report, depending upon each TML
     specification or implementation.
  
     This document defines the following TML errors and associated data.
     These errors are usually common to all types of TMLs.
  
      TML error code    TML error                  Associated Data
  
           1        all local TML link failure      none
           2        some local TML link failure  peer TML CE/FE ID(s) the
                                                 link is connected
           3          peer TML unavailable       peer TML CE/FE ID(s)
           4          peer TML abnormally left   peer TML CE/FE ID(s)
  
  
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     Each TML specification may define its specific errors. There is also
     a room for each TML implementation to define specific errors.
  
     TML error event is assigned with a TML event id = 1.
  
     2) Message arrive event
  
     TML shall be able to make it as an event occurrence when it has
     received a PL ForCES protocol message from peer TML and has made it
     ready to deliver to local PL. In this way, an asynchronous message
     receive mode can be realized in PL. In addition to this asynchronous
     mode, PL can also use a specific TML receive service primitive as
     defined in Section 5.8 for PL synchronous receiving of ForCES
     messages.
  
     This event is a subscription-requested event, i.e, unless PL has
     requested TML to do so, TML will not use an asynchronous event
     notification way to deliver arrived messages to PL. In this case, PL
     can still use a TML receive primitive to receive ForCES messages.
  
     When the event is notified to PL, the following information shall be
     associated:
  
        o the arrived ForCES message length
  
        o the whole arrived ForCES message Protocol Data Unit (PDU)
  
     It is not restricted that other information might also be associated
     with this event report, depending upon requirements of individual TML
     specifications or implementations.
  
     Note that the message arrive event is not a sustained event, and
     there is no need to distinguish its status as occurring or released.
     When the message is reported to PL, the event is automatically
     released.
  
     TML message arrive event is assigned with TML event id = 2.
  
  
     3) TML congestion alert
  
     Although it is expected that TML provide a ForCES message
     transportation free of congestion, as a general problem for current
     Internet society, congestion problem is still quite hard to be
     completely avoided if mechanisms are purely limited in TML resources
     and without help from PL resources. In many cases, with the help from
     the resources in PL layer, congestion problem may be much better
     suppressed. For example, in cases where the OS a TML adopts is
     capable of detecting an ECN (Early/explicit congestion notification)
     where the underlying IP protocol is capable of passing information to
  
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     the application, then the TML could pass such information to the PL.
     The PL could use this information for example to adjust its sending
     rates or increase or reduce the priority of certain PL messages, etc.
     More over, even in the case PL could help little for TML congestion,
     it is still very helpful for PL to know the TML congestion state if
     it does happen. As a result, in the TML requirement in Section 3.2,
     it is required that TML must be defined with a method to notify PL of
     congestion state.
  
  
     This document specifies that a TML congestion alert event must be
     supplied with various TMLs and their implementations if the TMLs and
     implementations are not free from congestion problems due to any
     reasons. TML notifies PL of congestion state by this TML congestion
     alert event. It is an alert event because we expect that TML notifies
     PL of the event when TML is in danger of, rather than in the state of,
     congestion. An alert event is more helpful, because TML is the only
     path that an FE is connected to CE, and a complete congestion state
     in TML may lead to CE lost control of the FE, which is fatal for the
     FE.
  
     A TML congestion alert event is defined as a subscription-requested
     event. It means PL will subscribe for it if PL requires the
     congestion alert. During some usage cases or during some period of
     usage, PL may not be interested to be notified of such event. For
     instance, in many cases, congestion problem at CE side are not so
     serious as that at FE side where FE side often risk DoS attacks from
     redirect data. In this case, CE side congestion alert event may be
     turned off so as to save CPU resources, while FE side congestion
     alert is always open.
  
     A TML congestion alert event is a sustained event. When congestion
     alerts, it will last until its state is changed back to free of
     danger for congestion. TML should notify PL twice for the whole
     congestion report. When there is a congestion alert, TML sends one
     notification to PL, when it is released, TML sends another
     notification to PL.
  
     TML congestion alert event is assigned with TML event id = 3.
  
     When the event is notified to PL, the following information will be
     associated with its report:
  
       o TML congestion alert type
               1    congestion alert from control message transmission
               2    congestion alert from redriect message transmission
               3    alert from redirect DoS attack
       o event status
               1    The event is happening
               0    The event is released
  
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     Note that it is not restricted that other information may also be
     associated with the congestion alert report, depending upon
     individual TML specifications or implementations. For instance, in
     several cases, it may be of great help to associate with some extra
     information as which CE/FE link is the congestion located. However,
     it may be quite difficult for all TMLs and implementations to provide
     such information, therefore, as a more suitable choice, it is just
     left each TML or implementation to decide.
  
     More specific definitions of the three types of TML congestion alerts
     are presented as below:
  
     1. Congestion alert from control message transmission
  
     We define that ForCES control messages are all kinds of ForCES
     protocol messages but ForCES redirect messages. ForCES message types
     are identified by the message type in the ForCES message header.
     ForCES redirect messages are the messages whose types are marked as
     'PacketRedirect'[ForCES-PL]. ForCES redirect messages are used to
     load redirect data between FE and CE.
  
     Congestion alert from control message transmission indicates that TML
     is in a state where control message transmission channel is in danger
     of congestion and control messages is becoming hard to be transmitted
     to peering TML(s). Individual TML specifications or implementations
     may specifically define the detailed invoking state for the alert.
  
     Because ForCES control messages are vital for ForCES network elements
     to properly work, the congestion alert from control message
     transmission is an important signal for PL to timely take actions to
     secure the network element.
  
     2. Congestion alert from redirect message transmission
  
     This congestion alert is invoked when the TML comes to a risk that
     redirect messages are congested during transmission. Each TML
     specification or implementation may specifically define the detailed
     invoking state for the alert.
  
     ForCES redirect messages that load redirect data between FE and CE,
     congestion of which may not be so harmful as that of ForCES control
     messages, but some redirected data are still vital for ForCES network
     elements to properly work. For instance  routing protocol messages
     are shipped via ForCES redirect messages. A long time congestion of
     the messages will severely affect actions of routing protocols. Hence,
     this congestion alert should be used by PL to avoid redirect message
     congestion as much as possible to improve performance of whole
     network elements.
  
  
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     3. Alert from redirect DoS attack
  
     As described, ForCES redirect messages ship redirect data. In FEs,
     redirect data come via FE interfaces from outer networks. This may
     leave a hole for malicious attackers [RFC3654, RFC3746]. Attackers
     may try to start a DoS attack by initiating huge amount of redirect
     data to some specific ForCES CE. It may make some FE TML abnormally
     busy transporting redirect data. Because TML channels for ForCES
     redirect messages and ForCES control messages are often intervened in
     many TML implementations in the same physical links, it may
     eventually making control messages transmission blocked by redirect
     messages transmission, making the network element in a denial of
     service state.
  
     This alert is used to indicate an alert for redirect DoS attack. Each
     TML specification or implementation will specifically define the
     actual invoking state or take a mechanism for the alert to be invoked,
     or make a justification if the TML is considered free from such DoS
     attack. If a TML has taken some specific mechanism to make
     straightforward detection of DoS attacks from redirect data, this
     alert may just be a result report of the DoS detection.
  
     The TML alert from redirect DoS attack may not be sufficient enough
     for the PL to assure the DoS attack state. PL may synthesize
     information from other part of the FE, like information from some FE
     LFBs, to finally decide it. Whereas, this alert has already been an
     enough signal for PL to go into some urgent state for the whole
     system security. Approaches should be taken immediately by PL to try
     to release the alert state so that the FE is not in a risk of losing
     control from CE.
  
  4.2.TML attributes
  
     TML attributes usually represent those TML parameters that need to be
     configured by PL. To represent them as TML attributes, PL can then
     use TML configuration service primitive as defined in Section 5.5 to
     make operations to the parameters. PL can then also use TML query
     service primitive defined in Section 5.6 to retrieve the status of
     the parameters.
  
     Every TML attribute shall be assigned with a unique id for PL to
     identify the attribute. The id is called TML attribute id.
  
     Followed are descriptions of basic TML attributes that shall be used
     by all TMLs. Each TML or implementation may provide more detailed
     definitions of these TML attributes based on the basic descriptions.
     Individual TMLs or implementations are also allowed to define more
     specific TML attributes on their own if necessary.
  
     1) TML event handle
  
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     This TML attribute is used for PL to set some parameters for
     individual TML events. Each TML may individually define its data
     structure for this attribute, whereas, the data structure may have to
     appear as a list and every element of the list may have to at least
     include the following information:
  
     o TML event id
       This id acts as an index for individual TML events.
  
     o subscription flag, if described is a subscription-requested TML
     event
       This flag is to indicate the state for TML event subscription. To
     subscribe/unsubscribe an event is to set/reset the flag.
  
     The attribute may also include other information for each TML event
     implementation. For instance, for an implementation that adopts a
     callback mechanism for event notifications, the attribute may include
     a callback handle, which is used for PL to tell TML the callback
     function handle.
  
     The 'TML event handle' is assigned with a TML attribute id = 1.
  
     2) Multicast list
  
     ForCES protocol requires that TML must support for ForCES message
     delivery in multicast ways. This multicast is defined at ForCES PL
     level, i.e., to multicast a ForCES protocol message, a multicast
     'Destination ID' at the ForCES message header will be specified (See
     [ForCES-PL] for more details). To support the PL level multicast, TML
     must be told the members of the multicast, so that the TML can
     accordingly deliver messages to all the multicast members. A
     multicast list is used for this purpose. The multicast list comprises
     a multicast id, which is exactly the multicast 'Destination ID', and
     numerous associated members, which are also represented by ForCES
     'Destination ID's, represented as below:
  
       multicast list = {multicast id, member1, member2, ... memberN}
  
     When TML is told this multicast list, it means whenever TML is asked
     by PL to send a ForCES message whose Destination ID is this multicast
     id, the TML must deliver the message to all destination CEs or FEs
     whose ids are individually represented by member1, member2, ... , and
     memberN. Individual TML specifications should define how such
     multicast list maps to TML transport level multicast mechanisms. For
     instance, if TML adopts multiple TCP links for this PL level
     multicast, every member in the multicast list may be mapped to a
     specific TCP port and an associated IP address. If TML adopts UDP
     multicast for this PL level multicast, a UDP multicast group with the
  
  
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     same numbers may be constructed and the multicast is mapped to the
     UDP multicast group.
  
     The multicast list must be set into TML by PL, hence it is defined
     as a TML attribute. PL sets up the attribute by use of a TML
     configuration service primitive.
  
     There might be several multicast lists set to a TML so as to
     construct multiple multicast paths for PL in this TML. The multicast
     lists may form a table then in the TML. In this case, a multicast id
     in every multicast list may act as an index for access of the table.
  
     The 'TML multicast list' is assigned with a TML attribute id = 2.
  
     3) Working TML Type
  
     A TML implementation may be capable of several TML transport ways.
     For example, a TML with IP transport media may be able to support TML
     schemes as TCP for control messages transmission and DCCP for
     redriect message transmission, or TCP for control messages and UDP
     for redirect messages. In this case, it may be helpful for PL to
     dynamically specify which TML transport scheme to adopt for current
     work.
  
     The working TML type is used for above purpose. It is defined as an
     TML attribute.
  
     It should be noted that, in many cases, PL does not have to manage
     working TML type. TML may more rely on its own management tool or a
     CE/FE manager for TML type management. As a result, this TML
     attribute is defined as an optional TML attribute, i.e., it is
     allowed that a TML may not provide this TML attribute for PL.
  
     Whereas if the attribute is provided, it should include the
     following information:
  
     o Working TML Type id
       the TML type represented by an id, which is set to the TML for it
     works in this type. The TML type id may be assigned with one of the
     following values:
       1 - an IP TML type with the protocol scheme as TCP+UDP, i.e., TCP
            for control message transmission and UDP for redirect data
            transmission.
       2 - an IP TML type with the protocol scheme as TCP+DCCP, i.e., TCP
            for control message transmission and DCCP for redirect data
            transmission.
       3 - an IP TML type with the protocol scheme as SCTP, i.e., SCTP for
            both control and redirect data transmissions.
       4 - an Ethernet TML type
       5 – an ATM based TML type
  
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     The 'Working TML type' is assigned with a TML attribute id = 3.
  
     4) TML media specific attributes
  
     An individual TML specification may require PL to configure some
     extra TML parameters specific to this TML media. If any, the TML
     specification shall provide detailed definitions for such attributes.
  
     5) Implementation specific TML attributes
  
     An individual TML implementation may require PL to configure some
     TML parameters specific to this implementation. If any, the
     individual implementation will provide detailed definitions for such
     attributes.
  
  4.3. TML capabilities
  
     TML capabilities represent TML abilities or capacities to provide
     services to PL. A TML capability can only be read by PL via TML query
     service primitive.
  
     Note that, the TML query service primitive as described in Section
     5.6 is used to query status of TML attributes as well as TML
     capabilities. A TML attribute id or a TML capability id is
     simultaneously used for the query operation. As a result, TML
     attribute id and TML capability id should be kept harmonious and
     unique to each other.
  
     1) Supported TML type
  
     PL may be interested to know what TML transportation type(s) the
     associated TML can support. A TML implementation may be capable of
     only one TML transport type or simultaneously several TML transport
     types. This TML capability indicates the relative information to PL.
  
     Note that, as mentioned before, in many cases, PL does not have to
     manage TML types. TML may more rely on its own management tool or the
     CE/FE managers for TML type management. As a result,  this capability
     is defined as an optional TML property, i.e., it is allowed some TML
     implementations may decide not to provide this information to PL.
  
     Whereas, if the capability is provided, it should include the
     following information:
  
     o a list of supported TML Type id(s)
       the TML Type id is as defined before.
     o configurable indicator
  
  
  
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       a flag to indicate if the TML is configurable or not for its
     working type, i.e., if PL can use a working TML type attribute to set
     the type to the TML.
  
     The 'Supported TML type' capability is assigned with a TML
     capability id = 10.
  
  5. TML Service Primitives
  
  5.1.Design Principles
  
     The following principles are applied to the PL-TML service
     primitives design:
  
     1.PL-TML service primitives should hide implementation details
     regarding reliability, security, multicast, congestion control, etc
     from PL.
  
     2.PL-TML service primitives should be decoupled from possible
     changes of ForCES PL layer such as the update of ForCES protocol and
     ForCES FE model. More specifically, primitives should be avoided to
     be coupled with ForCES protocol PDU format.
  
  5.2.  TML Open
  
     Format:
        Result = TMLopen( )
  
     Result:
     the returned result; it shall indicate whether the TML open is
     succeeded or not. Moreover, if not succeeded, an id called 'TML id'
     and used to identify the TML should be returned by the primitive. If
     not succeeded, an error code may be returned to indicate the error
     type.
  
     Parameters:
     none
  
     Service Description:
     The primitive is for PL to indicate a TML that the PL is going to
     associate itself with the TML for services and hence the TML should
     be ready for use. It highly depends upon each TML specification or
     individual implementations on what a TML should do when it receives
     this primitive. For some TMLs, this primitive may just act as an
     indicator that the PL and the TML has been associated, while every
     thing for providing services has already been there in the TML. For
     other TMLs, when received the primitive, they may have to do
     something to make it ready. For example, for a TML that adopts a
     connectionless path as one of its transmission path, the path may
     always be ready for message transportation without any extra setup;
  
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     while for a connection-oriented TML path, a TML open or a TML close
     (see below) primitive may act as an indicator for the TML path to be
     set or reset. However, it is also possible that some TML
     specifications or implementations may choose to have such connection-
     oriented path always ready for use when the TML has been initially
     booted.
  
     The 'TML id' returned by this primitive is as an identifier for the
     PL to recognize the TML. Other primitives as described below will use
     this id to identify a TML for operations. Having defined the TML id,
     we imply that the usage scenario as one PL being associated with more
     than one TML will not excluded by any TML specifications, and may be
     applied in actual implementations.
  
     An important note is, to better synchronize the operations between
     peering PLs, if a TML has, for any reason, received any PL messages
     from peering PL before local PL has formally opened the TML, the TML
     shall discard all these messages.
  
  5.3. TML close
  
     Format:
       Result = TMLclose(
                     TML id
                         )
  
     Result:
     the returned result; it shall indicate whether the TML close
     operation is succeeded or not. Moreover, if succeeded, an error code
     may be returned to indicate the error type for the failed TML close.
  
     Parameters:
     o TML id (input)
       the id of the TML to be closed.
  
     Service Description:
     By this primitive, a PL tears down its association with a TML. It
     highly depends upon each TML specification or implementation on what
     a TML should do when received this primitive. For some TMLs, this
     primitive may just act as an indication that the association of the
     PL and the TML is terminated and nothing more need to be done. For
     other TMLs, when received the primitive, they may have to manage to
     make it terminate the association, e.g., by disconnecting a
     connection with peering TML. However, it is out of scope of this
     document to have more details specified.
  
     An important note is, to better synchronize the operations between
     peer PLs, if a TML has, for any reason, received any PL messages from
     peer PL after local PL has formally closed the TML, the TML shall
     discard all these messages.
  
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  5.4.TML Configuration
  
     Format:
         Result = TMLconfig(
                     TML id,
                     operation type,
                     TML attribute id,
                     TML attribute data
                     [,optional parameters]
                            )
  
     Result:
     the returned result; it shall indicate whether the TML configuration
     is succeeded or not. Moreover, if not succeeded, an error code may be
     returned to indicate the error type for the failed configuration.
  
     Parameters:
     o TML id (input)
       the id of the TML to be configured.
     o operation type (input)
       As an input parameter, it specifies the operation type the TML
     configuration primitive will do. The following operations must be
     included:
             SET – to set data to an attribute in the TML
             DELETE – to delete data from an attribute in the TML or to
     totally remove the attribute from the TML.
     The following operation may be included:
             MODIFY – to modify data for an attribute in the TML
  
     Individual TMLs or implementations may define other operations if
     necessary.
  
     o TML attribute id (input)
       the id inputted to TML; it uniquely specifies the TML attribute
     the primitive is going to operate on. The id is assigned by
     individual TML attribute definitions.
  
     o TML attribute data (input)
       a data unit that contains data elements to be configured to a TML
     attribute. Actual data structure of the data unit will be defined by
     individual TML implementations.
  
     o optional parameters (input or output):
       Individual TMLs or implementations may allow more parameters for
     the TML attribute configuration. For e.g., some implementations may
     choose to take an extra timeout parameter to make the primitive as a
     non-blocking primitive call. This document does not exclude such
     usages.
  
  
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     Service Description:
     This primitive is used by PL to configure attributes of TML
     according to service requirements made to the TML. TML attributes are
     basically described as in Section 4.2. Every attribute to be operated
     is identified by the TML attribute id. The TML attribute data
     parameter provides necessary data for the operation. It is up to
     individual TML implementations to specify data structure for the
     attribute. It may be organized as an atomic data element or a
     compound data element. Individual TML implementations should provide
     detailed description on the data structure used for individual TML
     attributes.
  
     SET or DELETE operations are two basic operation types to a TML
     attribute operation. In some cases, more operation types may be
     required so that management to TML attributes may become more
     portable to users. This is especially useful for management of TML
     attributes like TML multicast lists. When PL configures multicast
     lists to TML, it may require some form of operation variations
     besides general operations as setting a new multicast list or
     deleting an existing multicast list. For instance, PL may be
     interested to add a member to, or delete a member from, an existing
     multicast list. There may be two approaches for each TML
     implementation to realize this. One is to define more types of
     operations. The other is to specifically associate attribute data
     structure definitions with operation types. Below is an example to
     show that this is feasible:
  
       o operation = SET, data = {multicast id, member1, member2, ...}
          If the multicast list with the multicast id does not exist in
     the TML, it is to set a new multicast list, or else, to add the new
     members as listed to the existing multicast list.
  
       o operation = DELETE, data = {multicast id }
         to delete the whole multicast list with the multicast id.
  
       o operation = DELETE, data = {multicast id, member1, member2, ...}
         to delete the members as listed from an existing multicast list,
     while keeping the multicast list id.
  
     Note that the TML configuration service primitive is not designed to
     return any attribute status after configured. To check the TML
     attribute status, a TML query primitive as defined below should be
     specifically used.
  
  5.5. TML Query
  
     Format:
         Result = TMLquery(
                     TML id,
                     TML attribute id or TML capability id,
  
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                     [,optional parameters]
                            )
  
     Result:
     The result includes a returned result and a queried result;
  
     The returned result shall indicate whether the primitive operation is
     succeeded or not. Moreover, if not succeeded, an error code may be
     returned to indicate the error type for the failed query operation.
  
     The queried result shall include the queried data if the query
     operation is succeeded. Each TML implementation shall define the data
     structure for the queried result data. Each TML attribute or TML
     capability may all have its specific data structure.
  
     Note that it is not specified and restricted how the queried result
     should be implemented in reality. Any techniques may be applied for
     this purpose under condition that the queried data can be transferred
     back to PL layer. For instance, some implementations may adopt a
     return of function call for transferring the queried result data,
     while some others may just adopt a parameter of function call for the
     transferring.
  
     Parameters:
     o TML id (input)
       the id of the TML to be operated.
  
     o TML attribute id or TML capability id (input)
       the id that uniquely specifies the TML attribute or TML capability
     the primitive is going to query.
  
     o optional parameters (input or output):
       Besides the mandatory parameters as presented, individual TMLs or
     implementations may adopt more parameters to customize the query
     operation. For instance, it may be interested to query a multicast
     list with a specified multicast id, rather than to query the whole
     existing multicast lists. This may be realized by defining a
     parameter composed of a multicast id as an index for the query. The
     primitive may also include a timeout parameter to make the primitive
     as a non-blocking operation. This document does not exclude such
     usages.
  
     Service Description:
     This primitive is used by PL to query TML attributes or TML
     capabilities to know their current status. The TML attribute id or
     TML capability id is used to specify which attribute the primitive is
     interested to query. Queried data are included in result of the
     primitive execution. Note that this primitive definition does not
     specify any technology on how the queried data shall be transferred
  
  
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     from TML to PL, so as to make the primitive definition independent of
     any specific OS environments or implementation techniques.
  
  5.6. TML send
  
     Format:
       Result = TMLsend(
                      TML id,
                      message destination id,
                      message type,
                      message priority,
                      message length,
                      message PDU
                      [, timeout]
                      [, more optional parameters]
                        )
  
     Result:
     a returned code indicating if the TML send primitive is successful
     or failed. If successful, a success code is returned. If failed, an
     error code indicating the failure type is returned.
  
     Parameters:
     o TML id (input)
       the id of the TML to be operated.
  
     o message destination id (input)
       the id indicating the destination of the ForCES PL message to be
     sent; equal to the destination ID in the protocol message header.
  
     o message type (input)
       the type of the ForCES protocol message to be sent; equal to the
     message type in the protocol message header.
  
     o message priority (input)
       the message priority of the protocol message to be sent; equal to
     the priority bits in the protocol message header.
  
     o message length (input)
       the ForCES protocol message length to be sent, equal to the
     message length field in the protocol message header, representing the
     whole protocol message length in DWORDS ( 4 bytes) units.
  
     o message PDU (input)
       Protocol Data Unit for the whole ForCES protocol message,
     including the message header and the body. Individual implementations
     may need to further specify the endian way (big-endian or little-
     endian, etc).
  
     o timeout (input, optional parameter)
  
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       This is an optional parameter to optionally specify the primitive
     as a non-blocking primitive call. The timeout value specifies how
     long it may wait before abortion of the primitive call. If not
     adopted, the primitive is executed in a blocking way.
  
     o other optional parameters
       Individual TMLs or implementations may specify more optional
     parameters if necessary.
  
     Service description:
     By this service, PL tries to send a message to one (unicast) or more
     (multicast) peer PLs via the TML. Note that this primitive has
     explicitly included all information that are necessary for TML to
     manage transmission of the PL message, therefore, there is no need
     for the TML to further retrieve more information by reading the PL
     message body PDU. In this way, it may be decoupled of changes in
     ForCES protocol PDU (e.g., by the protocol update) from TML services.
  
     The message destination id is used by the TML to map to TML layer
     transport addresses for the message transmission. This also includes
     the mapping of PL layer multicast ids to TML layer multicast
     addresses. Each TML specification should define the way for such
     mapping.
  
     The message type is used for the TML to infer the requirements from
     PL level for the message transmission, regarding its reliability,
     timeliness, security, and congestion control. With this message type,
     it is easy to recognize PL redirect messages from PL control messages.
     Individual TML specifications shall define how the message types are
     mapped to their individual transportation resources.
  
     The message priority is used for the TML to meet the PL requirement
     for the message transmission priority; it may also be used for TML to
     meet the requirements for reliability, timeliness, security, and
     congestion control. Individual TML specifications may define how the
     priority is mapped to their available transport mechanisms for
     prioritized timely transmission. Individual TML specifications may
     also define how the priority is used for other TML requirements.
  
     By use of an optional timeout parameter, the primitive may be
     applied either in a blocking way or a non-blocking way.
  
  5.7. TML receive
  
     Format:
       Result = TMLreceive(
                      TML id,
                      message length,
                      message PDU,
                      timeout,
  
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                      [, optional parameters]
                        )
  
     Result:
     a returned code indicating if the TML receive primitive is
     successful or failed. If successful, a success code is returned. If
     failed, an error code indicating the failure type is returned.
  
     Parameters:
     o TML id (input)
       the id of the TML to be operated.
  
     o message length (output)
       the length of the received ForCES protocol message, representing
     the whole protocol message length in DWORDS ( 4 bytes) units. It is a
     parameter output to PL by TML via this primitive.
  
     o message PDU (output)
       Protocol Data Unit for the whole ForCES protocol message received,
     including the message header and the bogy. Individual implementations
     may need to specify the endian way (big-endian or little-endian, etc).
     It is a parameter output to PL by TML via this primitive.
  
     o timeout (input)
       This is a mandatory parameter for the TML receive primitive. It
     mandates that the primitive shall work in a non-blocking way. The
     timeout value specifies how long it will mostly wait before abortion
     of this time receiving process.
  
     o optional parameters (input or output)
       Individual TMLs or implementations may specify more optional
     parameters for the primitive if necessary.
  
     Service description:
     This service is used for PL to synchronously receive ForCES protocol
     messages from peering TML via local TML. A received protocol message
     is returned via the parameters. The primitive specifies that it
     should be implemented in a non-blocking way. It is because that
     usually such receiving process may take high priority resources and a
     blocking way may make the system risk more of fatal errors.
  
     Note that a message arrive event as described before can also be
     used for PL to receive PL messages from TML. The difference is that
     this TML receive primitive makes PL to synchronously receive messages,
     while a message arrive event works in an asynchronous way receiving a
     message. Usually, an asynchronous method exploits more efficiency in
     terms of CPU resources.
  
  6. Operation Notes
  
  
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     1) multicast
  
     In a ForCES architecture, PL level multicast may be most commonly
     for a CE to multicast a ForCES protocol message to multiple FEs.
     Operation steps for the ForCES system to setup this type of multicast
     may be presented as below:
  
     a. Before a PL level multicast could be established, usually a PL
     level unicast mechanism should first be established in the ForCES
     network element. This means a ForCES message should be able to be
     delivered in a unicast way between CE and FEs before we setup a
     multicast path.
  
     b. The CE PL (or its application layer) forms a PL level multicast
     list as defined in 2) of Section 4.2. Note that, because it
     represents multicast of a CE to FEs, the multicast list shall include
     a multicast id, the CE id, and a number of member FE ids.
  
     c. The multicast list should be sent to the CE TML by TML
     configuration service primitive as described by this document. When
     CE TML receives this multicast list, the TML is responsible to map
     the multicast list to its TML multicast mechanism.
  
     d. The multicast list may also need to be sent to all FE members of
     the multicast by use of ForCES protocol configure messages in order
     for the FEs to know they belong to this multicast group. Note that a
     multicast list has been defined in FE as an attribute of the FE
     Protocol LFB [ForCES-PL]. The FEs further send the PL multicast list
     to their FE TMLs by means of TML configuration primitive. When the
     FEs TMLs receive this multicast list, each TML is responsible to map
     the multicast list to its TML multicast mechanism.
  
     e. When a CE PL generates a message with the multicast id as its
     destination id and sends it to CE TML, the CE TML will use its TML
     level multicast mechanism to distribute the messages to individual
     FEs in the multicast group.
  
     f. At the FEs side, when a CE PL message with the multicast id
     arrives at the FEs TMLs, each TML use its TML multicast mechanism to
     accept the message, and further deliver it to the FE PL.
  
     Above steps may vary in some way according to different TML types
     with their different mechanism supporting for TML level multicast.
  
     2) TBD
  
  7. Security Considerations
     The risk of being DoS attacked by redirect data has already been
     addressed by RFC 3654, RFC 3746, the ForCES protocol specification
     [ForCES-PL], etc. Prevention of the DoS attack is one of the key
  
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     points to secure the ForCES system. This document specified a TML
     event notification of alert from redirect DoS attack to specifically
     support a ForCES system to prevent such attack.
  
     TML congestion problem is a broader point of view that may affect
     performance of a ForCES system greatly. A TML event notification of
     TML congestion alert is defined for TML by this document, so that TML
     primitives defined by this document is more capable of improvement of
     ForCES system performance.
  
     This document does not define any mechanisms for security services
     like endpoint authentication of FE and CE, message authentication,
     and confidentiality service This document just reaffirms the
     requirement for this security service. This is because that this kind
     of security requirement are all specific to TML specifications of
     different TML media or individual implementations. Each TML
     specification shall provide detailed description on how to meet this
     requirement.
  
  8. Acknowledgements
     The authors would like to thank Joel M. Halpern, Huaiyuan Ma, et al
     for their invaluable comments during evolution of the document.
  
  9. References
  
     [RFC3654] H. Khosravi, et al., Requirements for Separation of IP
     Control and Forwarding, RFC 3654, November 2003.
  
     [RFC3746] L. Yang, et al., Forwarding and Control Element Separation
     (ForCES) Framework, RFC 3746, April 2004.
  
     [ForCES-PL] A. Doria, et al., ForCES protocol specifications, draft-
     ietf-forces-protocol-08.txt, work-in-progress, Mar. 2006.
  
     [ForCES-Model] J. Halpern, E. Deleganes, ForCES Forwarding Element
     Model, draft-ietf-forces-model-06.txt. work-in-progress, Oct. 2006.
  
  10. Author's Address
  
     Weiming Wang
     Zhejiang Gongshang University
     149 Jiaogong Road
     Hangzhou  310035
     P.R.China
     Phone: +86-571-28877721
     EMail: wmwang@mail.zjgsu.edu.cn
  
     Jamal Hadi Salim
     Znyx Networks
     195 Stafford Rd. West
  
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     Ottawa, Ontario
     Canada
     Phone:
     Email: hadi@znyx.com
  
  
     Alex Audu
     Garland SoftWorx
     Garland, Texas
     USA
  
     Phone:
     Email: alex.audu@garlandnetworx.com
  
  Copyright Statement
  
     Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
  
     This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
     contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
     retain all their rights.
  
     This document and the information contained herein are provided on
     an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE
     REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE
     IETF TRUST AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM
     ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
     ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT
     INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
     OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
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