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Versions: (draft-cuellar-geopriv-reqs) 00 01 02 03 04 RFC 3693

Internet Draft                                                J. Cuellar
Document: draft-ietf-geopriv-reqs-00.txt                      Siemens AG

                                                     John B. Morris, Jr.
                                     Center for Democracy and Technology

                                                             D. Mulligan
                     Samuelson Law, Technology, and Public Policy Clinic

Expires: Dec. 2002                                             June 2002

                          Geopriv requirements


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2001).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   Location-based services, navigation applications, emergency services,
   management of equipment in the field, and other location-dependent
   services need geographic location information about a target (user,
   resource or other entity).  There is a need to securely gather and
   transfer location information for location services, protecting the
   privacy of the individuals involved.

   This document describes the requirements for the geopriv Location
   Object (used to transfer location data and perhaps some other

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   information) and for further IETF protocols that use this Location
   Object as an embedded protocol. We focus on authorization, integrity
   and privacy requirements.


Table of Contents

    1. Overview.......................................................2
    2. Conventions used in this document..............................4
    3. Usage Model....................................................4
       3.1. Roles and attributes......................................4
       3.2. Data......................................................8
       3.3. Identification, Authentication, and Authorization.........9
          3.3.1. Identifiers..........................................9
          3.3.2. Authentication......................................10
          3.3.3. Authorization.......................................10
       3.4. Data Flows...............................................10
          3.4.1. Relationship framework..............................12
          3.4.2. Scenarios of Data Flow..............................12
       3.5. Further explanations.....................................14
          3.5.1. Location Data Types.................................14
          3.5.2. Public Global Identities............................15
          3.5.3. Authorization without Explicit Authentication.......15
    4. Requirements..................................................17
       4.1. Protocols................................................17
       4.2. Policy based Location Data transfer......................17
       4.3. Location Object, Location Field..........................18
       4.4. Requests.................................................19
       4.5. Identity Protection......................................19
       4.6. Authentication Requirements..............................20
       4.7. Actions to be secured....................................21
       4.8. Non-Requirements.........................................21
    5. Security Considerations.......................................21
    6. Acknowledgements..............................................21
    7. References....................................................22
    8. Author's Addresses............................................22
    9. Full Copyright Statement......................................22

1. Overview

   Location-based services (applications that require geographic
   location information as input) are becoming increasingly common.  The
   collection and transfer of location information about a particular
   device and/or target can have privacy implications.

   The ability to derive or compute a device's location, and access to
   the derived or computed location, are key elements of the location-
   based services privacy equation.  Central to a target's privacy are
   (a) the identity of entities that have access to raw location data,

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   derive or compute location, and/or have access to derived or computed
   location information, and (b) whether those entities can be trusted
   to know and follow the target's (or better Rule Maker's) policy.

   In this paper we assume that "location information" is a relatively
   specific way of describing where a device is located and that the
   location information is either (a) derived or computed from
   information generally not available to the general public, or (b)
   determined by a device that is not generally publicly addressable or
   accessible.  For example, location information could include
   information calculated by triangulating on a wireless signal with
   respect to cell phone towers, or longitude and latitude information
   determined by a device with GPS (global positioning satellite)
   capabilities.

   Excluded from the discussion below is the determination of location
   information wholly without the knowledge or consent of the target (or
   the target's network or access service provider), based on generally
   available information such as an IP or e-mail address.  It is
   important to note that information like IP address can enable someone
   to roughly or in some instances precisely estimate a location.
   Commercial services exist, for example, that offer to provide rough
   location information based on IP address.  Currently, this type of
   location information is typically less accurate and has a coarser
   granularity than the type of location information addressed in this
   document.  This less accurate type of location computation still
   raises significant potential privacy and public policy concerns, but
   such scenarios are generally outside the scope of this document.

   For the purposes of this document, "policies" or "privacy rules" are
   rules that regulate an entity's activities with respect to location
   information, including, but not limited to, the collection, use,
   disclosure, and retention of location information.  These rules must
   generally comply with fair information practices.  For instance, see
   the OECD Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transporter
   Flows of Personal Data at http://www.oecd.org.

   The main principles guiding the requirements exposed in this paper
   are:

   1) Security of the protocol is of essential to guarantee the
      correctness (integrity) and the confidentiality of the location
      information.  This includes authenticating the main entities of
      the protocol and securing the exchanged messages.

   2) A critical role is played by user-controlled policies, which
      describe the permissions (or consent) given by the user.  (In
      this introductory section we use the word "user" informally; to
      be more precise, instead of "user", we should say "Rule Maker"
      but this term has not been introduced yet.)  The policies specify
      the necessary conditions that allow a Location Server to forward
      (transformed or filtered) location information to a Location
      Recipient and the conditions under which and purposes for which

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      location information can be used.  That is, using policies, the
      user is able to specify which component or derived measure of the
      information is to be released to whom and in which granularity or
      accuracy.  The exact form or expressiveness of policies is not
      further discussed in this paper.

   3) Whenever possible, the location information should not be linked
      to the real identity of the user or a static identifier easily
      linked back to the real identity of the user (e.g., the phone
      number).  Rather, the user is able to specify which local
      identifier, pseudonym, or private identifier is to be linked to
      the location information.

   4) The user may want to hide the real identities of himself and his
      partners not only to eavesdroppers but also to other entities
      participating in the protocol.

   Although complete anonymity may not be appropriate because of legal
   constraints or because some location services may in fact need
   explicit identifications, in most cases the location services only
   need some type of authorization information and/or perhaps anonymous
   identifiers of the entities in question.


2. Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [1].

   Note that the requirements discussed here are requirements on privacy
   protocols for location services.  Thus the requirements sometimes
   refer only to the capabilities of these protocols.  For example,
   requiring that the protocol support integrity is not the same thing
   as requiring that all protocol traffic be authenticated.  In other
   cases, the requirement may be that the user always obtains a notice
   when his location data was not authenticated.  This is clearly not
   just a capability of the protocol.

3. Usage Model

   The following usage model will be discussed more extensively in
   another framework and scenarios document.  We present here a summary
   of the terminology of the usage model for convenience.

3.1. Roles and attributes

   The entities of a geopriv application or scenario may be given
   explicit roles:

      Target:
         The entity whose location is desired by the Location Seeker.


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         In many cases the Target will be the human "user" of a Device
         or an object such as a vehicle or shipping container to which
         the device is attached. In some instances the target will be
         the device itself.

      Device:
         The technical device the location of which is tracked as a
         proxy for the location of a Target.  A Device might, for
         example, be a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) receiver, a
         laptop equipped with a wireless access device, or a
         transmitter that emits a signal that can be tracked or
         located. In some situations there may be no Device, in the
         sense of this definition, but for instance a user is entering
         the location information manually.

      Rule Maker:
         The individual or entity who has the authorization to set the
         applicable privacy rules, collectively known also as the
         policy.  In some cases this is the user who is in possession
         of the Device, but is some cases it is not.  For example,
         parents may control what happens to the location information
         derived from their children's cell phones.  The Rule Maker is
         often, but not always, the "owner" of the Device used to track
         location.  For example, a company may own and provide a cell
         phone to an employee but permit him/her to set the privacy
         rules.  Other proposed names are "Owner (of the privacy
         rights)" or "policy maker"

      Unintended Target:
         A person or object tracked by proximity to the Target. This
         special case most frequently occurs if the target is not a
         person. For example, the Target may be a rental car equipped
         with a GPS device, used to track car inventory.  The rental
         company may not care about the driver's location, but the
         driver's privacy is implicitly affected.  Working group
         protocols may or may not protect or affect the privacy of
         Unintended Targets, but the impact on Unintended Targets
         should be acknowledged.


      Data Transporter ("DT"):
         An entity or sub-network that receives and forwards data
         without processing or altering it.  A Data Transporter could
         theoretically be involved in almost any transmission between a
         Device and a Location Processor, a Location Processor and a
         second Location Processor, or a Location Processor and a
         Location Seeker.  Some location tracking scenarios may not
         involve a Data Transporter.

      Location Seeker ("LS")
         An individual or entity who seeks to receive location data
         about a Target.


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      Computational Location Server ("CLServ")
         A Device or entity that computes or processes raw data to
         compute or derive location data, or processes location data to
         transform or refine the data into new location data. The
         actual computation of location information is beyond geopriv's
         scope, the distribution of location information is not.

      Location Storage ("LStor")
         (. Location Server: Think of pure storage devices as disks.
         They matter for privacy purposes!)
         A Device or entity that stores raw or location data. The data
         storage policy of LStor is crucial to privacy considerations,
         because this policy may influence what location information
         the Rule Maker will reveal. The different actors in a location
         information request create intertwined privacy concerns. If
         data about a requester is stored and correlated with data
         about a Target, it may be possible to infer more information
         from the aggregate than one or both entity's rules would
         allow. Unlinkable identifiers provide the ideal solution to
         this problem, but may be impossible in practice. Stored
         identifiers SHOULD use the closest possible approximation to
         unlinkable identifiers. LStor devices SHOULD follow the Rule
         Maker's policies regarding permissible duration of data
         storage, etc.
         <Although it is clear that aggregation in particular and data
         storage policies in general pose serious privacy questions, it
         is open how much of this concern falls within geopriv scope.>

      Rule Repository ("RR")
         A repository that contains private (authenticated, but not
         signed) or public (signed) policies, identifiers, and perhaps
         also stores requests.


   Roles of Location Information Requesters

   An entity that seeks to access the location data is a Location Seeker
   and may act in one or more of the following roles: as the Location
   Sighter (Location Data Source), as a Location Server, or as an
   Ultimate Location Recipient.

      Location Sighter (LoSi), or Location Data Source
         The original source of the sighting of a target in a given
         transaction.

      Location Server (LS), or Intermediate Location Recipient:
         A Device or entity that provides access to raw data or
         location data after processing or altering it or not.  Some
         location tracking scenarios may not involve a Location Server.




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      Ultimate Location Recipient (ULR):
         An individual or entity who receives location data about a
         Target and does not transmit the location information or
         information based on the Target's location (such as driving
         directions to or from the target) to another party distinct
         from the target or the Rule Maker.

      A data transporter may be an

      Initial Access Provider ("IAP"):
         A data transporter that provides the initial network access or
         other data communications services essential for the operation
         of communications functions of the Device or computer
         equipment in which the Device operates.  Often, the IAP --
         which will be a wireless carrier, an Internet Service
         Provider, or an internal corporate network -- will be
         identical to the LoSi.  Other cases may involve no IAP at all.
         But in other instances the IAP's infrastructure may be
         controlled by another party.  In these cases the IAP could be
         seen as a "dumb" LoSi, one that transmits geopriv data but
         does not implement any part of the geopriv protocol.


   The rules of the Target may be accessible to a Location Server in the
   form of Private or Public Rules Repositories:

      Public Policy Repository:
         A repository where signed policies, identifiers, and perhaps
         also requests are stored.

      Private Policy Repository:
         A repository of authenticated policies, identifiers, and
         perhaps also requests are stored, for the private use of one
         Location Server.

   The following table shows the possible roles of the geopriv entities.


















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     +------------------+-----+------+--------+---------+----------+
     |              role| IAP | ULR  | Public | Private | Location |
     |entity            |     |      |   RR   |   RR    |  Sighter |
     +------------------+-----+------+--------+---------+----------+
     |Target            |     |      |        |         |    x     |
     +------------------+-----+------+--------+---------+----------+
     |Device            |     |      |        |         |    x     |
     +------------------+-----+------+--------+---------+----------+
     |Rule Maker        |  x  |      |        |         |    x     |
     +------------------+-----+------+--------+---------+----------+
     |Unintended Target |     |      |        |         |          |
     +------------------+-----+------+--------+---------+----------+
     |Data Transporter  |  x  |      |        |         |    x     |
     +------------------+-----+------+--------+---------+----------+
     |Location Seeker   |  x  |  x   |        |         |          |
     +------------------+-----+------+--------+---------+----------+
     |Location Server   |  x  |      |        |         |    x     |
     +------------------+-----+------+--------+---------+----------+
     |Rule Repository   |     |      |    x   |    x    |          |
     +------------------+-----+------+--------+---------+----------+


3.2. Data

   The main data used by the protocol is the Location Object (LO). It
   contains the sighting information (the identity/location pair) and
   some other information to be determined, e.g., time information, some
   types of policies, authenticators, etc.  If no time information is
   included, this implicitly means "at the current time" or "at a very
   recent time".

      Sighting: the location information for a target.  This is the
         main private data accessed by Location Servers and/or Ultimate
         Location Recipients.  Some variant of the sighting information
         is included in the Location Object.  Abstractly, it consists
         of two separate data fields:

              (Sighting-Identifier, Location)

         Sighting-Identifier is the identifier assigned to a target or
         device being sighted, and Location is the current position of
         that target or device being sighted.

         Not all entities have access to exactly the same piece of
         sighting information.  The sighting may be transformed to a
         new sighting pair:

              (Sighting-Identifier-1, Location-1)

         before it is provided by  the Location Data Source or the
         Location Server to another Location Recipient.


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      Policy:
         A set of rules that regulate an entity's activities with
         respect to location information, including the collection,
         use, disclosure, and retention of location information.  In
         particular, the policy describes how location information may
         be used by an entity and which transformed location
         information may be released to which entities under which
         conditions.  Policies contain "rules" or "assertions".
         Policies must be obeyed; they are not advisory.  To make this
         more explicit, the term "rules" is also used instead of
         "policy".

   Data attributes:
      Filtered:
         Location information that has been computationally modified.


3.3. Identification, Authentication, and Authorization

   This subsection introduces some terms to be used later in the
   Requirements Section.

3.3.1. Identifiers

   The LO has a filed for identification of the target.  Geopriv-
   compliant systems MUST implement a means of asserting identities and
   inserting and using the identifiers in the LO, but the LO needs not
   use identifiers under all circumstances.

      <Need to define pseudonym here.>

   Using protocols should be able to handle LOs with identifiers, LOs
   without identifiers, and LOs with pseudonyms. The identity of the
   requester may be irrelevant in some cases, whereas the identity of
   the Target may be irrelevant in others. In particular, geopriv does
   not suggest that a LO with no identifier provides anonymity.

      Entity-Identifier: The names used by the entities of the protocol
         to identify, authenticate or authorize themselves to other
         entities. Policies also use entity-identifiers to express
         which Location Seekers may receive which transformed sighting
         information.

   The next type of identifier may not be used as an Entity-Identifier,
   since it can be shared by several, perhaps many, different entities:

      Role identifier
         ("administrator", "member-of-club-A", etc.) The meaning of the
         role may be context dependent.
         Geopriv will probably does not support role identifiers in any
         particular way.

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3.3.2. Authentication

   People use the word authentication with different meanings.  Some
   people insist that authentication associates an entity with a more or
   less well-known identity.  This basically means that if A
   authenticates another entity as being "B", then the label "B" has
   also a meaning for many entities different from A.  In this case, the
   label "B" is called a publicly known identifier, and the
   authentication is "explicit":

      Explicit Authentication
         The act of verifying a claimed static identity easily linked
         back to the real identity of the user, in the form of a pre-
         existing label from a predefined name space, as the sole
         originator of a message (message authentication) or as the
         end-point of a channel (entity authentication).

3.3.3. Authorization

      Authorization
         The act of determining if a particular right, such as access
         to some resource, can be granted to the presenter of a
         particular credential.

         Depending on the type of credential, authorization may imply
         Explicit Authentication or not.

3.4. Data Flows

   Figure 1 presents the entities of a "typical" protocol setting, using
   the Location Object and the data flows between those entities.  Not
   all steps discussed here necessarily occur in every scenario.  The
   data flows may be one-step message exchanges, or multi-step sub-
   protocols and the actual transport of the Location Object may be done
   via some other transport entities not included in the diagram.  The
   data flows to be considered by the geopriv WG, in the sense that WG
   will assess their authentication, authorization and privacy
   requirements, are the following.  They are shown in Figure 1 by
   normal arrows ("--->")

      LI (Location Information):
         the location data source sends the "full" location information
         to the location server. Then the location server sends the
         full or filtered location information to the Location
         Recipient.  The information may be filtered in the sense that
         in general a less precise or a computed version of the
         information is being delivered.

      Pol (Policy):
         The Rule Maker(or in particular, the target itself) sends a
         Policy to the location server.


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      PolInfo (Policy Information):
         the server informs the Location Seeker which data type(s) of
         filtered location information are available to him for a given
         target.  This mechanism must be able to be invoked by the
         Location Seeker before he sends an LRequest.


      LRequest (Location Information Request):
         the Location Seeker requests location information for a
         target, a given class of targets, or for targets with a
         particular set of attributes.  In this request, the Location
         Seeker may select which location information data type it
         prefers.  The Location Seeker can also specify the need for
         periodic location information updates.


  +---------+   Locate    +-----------+
  | Location|<************| Location  |         SPol +------------+
  |  Data   |     LI      | Server +  |<*************| Public     |
  | Source  |------------>| Private   |         *    | Policy     |
  |  + IAP  |             | Repository|<---\    *    | Repository |
  +---------+             +-----------+    |    *    +------------+
                           ^ |    |        |    *            ^
                   LRequest| |LI  |PolInfo |    *            * SPol
                           | V    V        |    *            *
  +----------+             +-----------+   |    *            *
  | Target   |             | Location  |<**+****/        +----------+
  |   or     |<***********>| Server +  |   |             |          |
  |Rule Maker|   Service   | Private   |   | <-----------|Rule Maker|
  +----------+             | Repository|<--/     Pol     |          |
       ^                   +-----------+                 +----------+
       *                   ^ |    |
       *           LRequest| |LI  |PolInfo
       *                   | V    V
       *                  +----------+
       *                  | Ultimate |
       ******************>| Location |
              Service     | Recipient|
                          +----------+

                   Figure 1: The Entities and Data Flows

   The following Data Flows MAY be outside of the scope of the geopriv
   WG, but should be mentioned for understandability.  They are shown in
   Figure 1 as while starred arrows ("***>").

      Service: (Service Information, Negotiation and Delivery):
         The target (or the Rule Maker) and the client exchange
         information about the service and negotiate it.  The client
         provides service delivery to the target and accounting or
         billing data, as necessary.



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      SPol (Signed Policy):
         As an alternative to Pol, the Rule Maker may write a policy
         and place it in the Open Repository.  The entities access the
         repository via SPol.

      Locate:
         Request to locate the target.  When a Location Server receives
         an LRequest for a target for which has no current location
         information, the server may send this "Locate" request to the
         Location Data Source.

3.4.1. Relationship framework

   Location information can be used in very different environments. In
   some cases the participants will have longstanding relationships
   while in others participants may have discrete interactions.

   The different relationships raise different concerns for the
   implementation of privacy rules, including the need to communicate
   privacy instructions. A public rule repository for example seems to
   be superfluous in a trusted environment where more efficient methods
   of addressing privacy issues likely exist. We propose the following
   attributes as modifiers to a given data flow:

      Trusted:
         The data flow is governed by a contract that protects location
         privacy.

      Non-trusted:
         The data flow is not governed by a contract that protects
         location privacy.

3.4.2. Scenarios of Data Flow

   In this subsection we introduce two short scenarios to illustrate how
   these terms and attributes describe location information
   transactions.

   SCENARIO 1: GPS Device with Internal Computing Power: Closed System

   In this example, the target wishes to know his/her location using
   Global Positioning System (GPS) and the device is capable of
   independently processing the raw data to determine its location.  The
   location is derived as follows: the device receives transmissions
   from the GPS satellites, internally computes and displays location.
   This is a closed system.  For the purpose of this and subsequent
   examples, it is assumed that the GPS satellite broadcasts some
   signal, and has no information about the identity or whereabouts of
   devices using the signal.





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        GPS Satellite
                |
                |
                |
                |
                V             GPS Device
         --------------------------------------------------
        /                                                  \
        |  Data         -----  Location  -----  Location   |
        |  Transporter          Server            Storage  |
        \                                           |      /
         -------------------------------------------|------
                                                    |
                                        ------------|------
                                       /            V      \
                                      / Target    Location  \
                                      |           Seeker     |
                                      |                      |
                                      \    Rule Maker       /
                                       \                   /
                                        -------------------

   In this scenario the GPS device is both the IAP and the LoSi. The
   interaction occurs in a Trusted environment because it occurs in the
   Rule Maker’s device.

   SCENARIO 2:  Cell Phone Roaming

   In this example, a cell phone is used outside its home service area
   (roaming). Also, the cell phone service provider (cell phone Corp 2)
   outsourced the accounting of cell phone usage. The cell phone is not
   GPS-enabled.  Location is derived by the cell phone network in which
   the target and device are roaming.  When the target wishes to use the
   cell phone, cell phone Corp 1 (IAP) provides the roaming service for
   the target, which sends the raw data about usage (e.g., duration of
   call, location ­ roaming network, etc.) to cell phone Corp 2, the
   home service provider.  Cell phone Corp 2 submits the raw data to the
   accounting company which processes the raw data for the accounting
   statements.  Finally, the raw data is sent to a data warehouse where
   the raw data is stored in a location server (e.g., computer server).














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              Cell Phone Corp 1                 Cell Phone Corp 2
              -----------------                -----------------
  Sighting   /                 \  Sighting    /                 \
Device ---  | Data Transporter| ---------  | Data Transporter |
             \                 /              \                 /
              -----------------               / -----------------
Target                                       /         |
                                            /  sighting|
                                           /           |
                                -----------            |
                               /                       V
             ------------     /                  ----------
            /            \   /                  /          \
           /   Location   \ /                  |  Location  |
           |   Storage     |   Location Info   |  Storage   |
           |               |<----------------- |            |
           |   Location    |                   |  Location  |
           |   Seeker      |                   |  Seeker    |
            \             /                     \          /
             -------------                       ----------


   Here cell phone corp 1 is the IAP and the LoSi. Cell phone corp 1
   could be  Non-trusted (the Rule Maker does not have a contract
   protecting location information with corp 1 and there is no
   contractual relationship with privacy provisions between corp 1 and
   corp 2) or Trusted (contract with privacy protections between cell
   phone corp 2 and corp 1).  Cell phone corp 2 is Trusted.



3.5. Further explanations

   <Note: Although this section is relevant to the requirements, it
   could probably be condensed.>

3.5.1. Location Data Types

   Two apparently different data types may contain the same information
   if it is possible to transform one data type into the other and vice-
   versa without information loss.

   One location data type DT1 may contain more location information than
   another DT2 in at least two different senses:

      - DT1 may have the same dimensions as DT2 has, plus some extra
         ones.  (For instance, DT1 contains velocity, while DT2 does
         not).

      - DT1 may be more accurate than DT2.



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   In general, if DT1 has more information than DT2, then there is one a
   function that "translates correctly" from DT1 to DT2.  There are
   other types of transformations that introduce errors (obfuscation:
   intentionally make the location values less accurate by adding
   randomness).  During a transformation, information can be lost, but
   not gained.  Of course, a transformation that merges information from
   several sources clearly increases the information of each one.  Thus
   a transformation is a filtering of information.  For instance there
   are transformation functions from both data types "(latitude,
   longitude, altitude)" and "(country, state, province, city)" to the
   data types "(country, state)" and "time zone", but not vice-versa.

   Notice that if the space regions determined by different location
   values of DT2 do not overlap, then there is at most one
   transformation from DT1 to DT2.  If the space regions of DT2 overlap,
   then usually there is some choice, which can be given by a (pseudo-)
   random function.

   If DT1 does not have more information than DT2, then there is no
   function that "translates correctly" from DT1 to DT2.  In other
   words: there are many functions that translate from DT1 to DT2, but
   all introduce some degree of error.  We believe that this kind of
   functions should be avoided.

3.5.2. Public Global Identities

   If A has some information about a public global identifier "ID" and A
   discloses this information to B, then B may associate this
   information with the same entity as A did.  In this way, B may
   accumulate information about the entity labeled by "ID".

   A public identity is a well-known label that identifies an entity for
   a (rather large) group of entities.

   A public identity may be the subscription identity at the home domain
   (if applicable), a well-known identity (name, address or Tel Number),
   etc.

   An entity may regard the disclosure of his public identity (in
   connection with some activity of him, his location or other
   attribute) as a violation of his privacy right.

3.5.3. Authorization without Explicit Authentication

   In order to remain anonymous, an entity may use private identifiers.
   Private identifiers convey less information than public identities,
   because they are meaningful to a smaller number of entities and in
   use for a shorter duration.  Thus if A discloses a private identifier
   to B, B is less likely to associate this information with a known
   individual or entity than if a public identifier was disclosed.




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      Short-lived identifier
         an identifier that is used only for one or a limited number of
         "sessions".

   Short-lived identifiers may be used to anonymously authenticate
   entities in some settings.

   In many situations, including pre-paid services, token-based or role-
   based authorizations, unauthenticated key agreement, and purpose-
   based identifiers, there is no need for explicit authentication.

   Using weaker forms of authentication, the communication partner may
   still want to make sure that he is communicating to the same entity
   during the whole session, or that he is communicating with an
   authorized entity.  Thus message authentication codes are used, based
   on "unauthenticated keys".

   Authorization credentials may be used in the same way as
   authentication credentials to secure a key agreement in the following
   sense: one party is assured that no other party aside from the owner
   of the authorization credentials (and possibly additional identified
   trusted parties) may gain access to the agreed secret key.  The
   resulting keys are called authorized keys.  Those keys may be used
   for message authentication, without implying an explicit
   authentication.

   In real life this corresponds for instance to the following
   situation: at a cloakroom a person deposits his coat and receives a
   credential that he may use later to obtain back the coat.

   One possible goal of the Rule Maker is to hide the identity of the
   Location Recipient to the Location Server.  Nevertheless, the
   Location Server has to be sure that the Rule Maker has authorized the
   Recipient to access the location.  This is a case of authorization
   without explicit authentication: the Location Server has to be sure
   that the Location Recipient is a particular (i.e., authorized)
   communication partner of the Rule Maker.

   This may be done for instance as follows: consider a Location Seeker
   that obtains a set of "traveller's cheques" from the Rule Maker.  The
   cheques will be used to "buy" location information from a Location
   Service.  Initially, the Location Seeker signs for a first time the
   cheques with any "signature" that he wants to use.  The Rule Maker,
   through his own signature, authorizes the signature of the Location
   Seeker.  When presented to the Location Server, the cheques may be
   countersigned so that the server is sure that the signer is the same
   as the one who was authorized by the Rule Maker.  This
   countersignature does not only authenticate the Location Seeker to
   the verifier, but also indirectly to the Rule Maker, when the cheque
   is later presented to him.  Incidentally, the Rule Maker may achieve
   full information about who has accessed to his location information.



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   To hide the real identity of the Rule Maker to the Location Server,
   the following dual solution can be used.  The Rule Maker buys (say,
   using e-cash) a service from a Location Seeker (e.g., a navigation
   service).  During this transaction, the Location Seeker and the Rule
   Maker agree on one or several pseudonyms and a set of "traveller's
   cheques" that the target may use later to authenticate himself to the
   server and thus indirectly also to the Location Seeker.
   Since e-cash protocols may be also anonymous, this may be used to
   hide simultaneously,

          o the identity of the target from the Location Server,
          o the identity of the Location Seeker from the Location
             Server,
          o the identity of the target from the Location Seeker.

   But notice that the Location Data Source is in general not able to
   localize the target based on some short-lived identifier.  In this
   scenario, the Location Data Source should be a Location Server, a
   different one from the one from whom the identity of the target is to
   be hidden.


4. Requirements

4.1. Protocols

      Req. 1.  The geopriv protocol MUST be an embedded protocol: it
            defines a Location Object (LO), together with the security
            mechanisms used to secure it.  The security mechanisms are
            of two types: on one hand the Location Object as such is
            secured, using cryptographic checksums or encryption as
            part of the Location Object itself, and on the other hand
            security mechanisms may be provided by the embedding using
            <or usage?> protocol that uses the Location Object.  If
            possible, security mechanisms on the Location Object itself
            are to be preferred.

   We refer to the embedded protocol also as the geopriv protocol and to
   the combination of both the embedded protocol and the using <usage?>
   protocol as the combined protocol.

4.2. Policy based Location Data transfer

      Req. 2.  The decision of a Location Server to provide a Location
            Seeker access to location information is based on Rule
            Maker-defined privacy policies.

      Req. 3.  The Location Data Source may be unaware of the full
            policies defined by the Rule Maker, but in that case it
            will have to obey another set of "generic" policies,
            consented to by the Rule Maker, to transfer Location Data
            (raw or not) to another entity.


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      Req. 4.  An Ultimate Location Recipient does not need to be aware
            of the full policies defined by the Rule Maker, but it will
            obey a set of policies regarding the use and retention of
            the location information.

      Req. 5.  The "generic" policies (as opposed to the policies
            created by the Rule Maker) used by the Location Data
            Source, by the Ultimate Location Recipients and by the
            Location Server of some special scenarios MUST be made
            explicit.

      Req. 6.  The combined protocol MAY specify a policy language.
            This policy language MAY be an existing one, an adaptation
            of an existing one or a new policy language.

            If specified, the policy language MUST be strong enough to
            express policies of the form: a group G of clients are
            allowed to know a certain transformation A of the location
            L of a target together with a given identifier I of the
            target for a given purpose, for a given period of time.

            If specified, the policy language MUST be strong enough to
            express conditions on G and A as follows:
            G, the group of clients SHOULD be characterized by the
            possession of (identifiers, credentials) with a certain
            syntactic property.
            A, the transformation function MAY be specified by data
            type of the expected filtered location information.

            Within those constraints, the policy language SHOULD be as
            simple as possible, or it SHOULD be an existing policy
            language.

4.3. Location Object, Location Field

   The Location Object has at least the following optional fields
   (attributes): Identifier, Location, Location Data Type, Policy,
   Request, and Version.  The definition of the Location Object should
   be flexible enough to accommodate new application-specific fields.

      Req. 7.  The embedded protocol MUST define one Location Object
            (LO) -- both in syntax and semantics -- that must be
            supported by all geopriv entities.

            Some fields of the Location Object MAY be optional.  This
            means that an instance of a Location Object MAY contain the
            fields or not.

            Some fields of the Location Object MAY be opaque to the
            embedded protocol.  This means that the syntax and
            semantics of these fields is not defined in the embedded


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            protocol, but rather it is only clear in the using
            protocol.  Nevertheless the embedded protocol MUST know how
            large the fields are.

      Req. 8.  The Location Object MUST contain one optional Identifier
            Field.

      Req. 9.  The embedded protocol MUST define of at least one
            Location Data Type supported by all geopriv implementations
            and entities.

      Req. 10.  The Location Object MUST contain one optional Location
            Field.  An instance of a Location Object MAY contain zero,
            one, or several Location Fields.  (We also say in this case
            that the LO contains several Locations.)  Each Location
            Field may contain one or more Location Representations.

   <Locations (= Location Fields), and Location Representations are
   discussed further in another draft, draft-morris-geopriv-location-
   object-issues-00.txt.>

   When transmitting location information, (LI in Figure 1), the sender
   and the receiver must agree on the data type of the location
   information.  The combined protocol may specify that the data type
   information is part of the Location Object or that sender and
   receiver have agreed on it before the actual data transfer.

      Req. 11.  The Location Object MUST contain one optional Location
            Data Type Field.  The Location Data Type Field may be used
            to specify the type of a Location Field or Location
            Representation, or to request a Location Field of this
            particular type.

      Req. 12.  The Location Object MUST contain one optional Policy
            Field.

      Req. 13.  The Location Object MUST contain a version number.

      Req. 14.  The protocol MUST be extensible, allowing the
            definition of new attributes in the Location Object.

4.4. Requests

      Req. 15.  The Location Object MUST contain one optional Request
            Field, encoding the type of remote request. Examples of
            remote requests are: "send me the location information in a
            given format", "send me a pseudonym to be used later",
            "send me a pseudonym to be used later", "confirm the
            purpose built key", etc.

4.5. Identity Protection



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      Req. 16.  The combined protocol MUST be able to hide the real
            identity or linkable identifiers associated with the real
            identity of the Rule Maker, the target, and the device from
            the Ultimate Location Recipient.

   This may be easily done using short-lived identifiers.

      Req. 17.  The combined protocol MUST be able to hide the real
            identity of the Rule Maker to a Location Seeker, including
            a Location Server.


      Req. 18.  The combined protocol MUST be able to hide the real
            identity of the Location Recipient to the Location Server.

   Thus here the target is not concerned about the Server identifying
   him and knowing his location, but identifying his business partners,
   and therefore his habits, etc.  One reason for hiding the real
   identities of the Location Recipients may be that this knowledge may
   be used to infer the identity of the target.  Or perhaps I have just
   asked a certain organization (say, a political party or a night club)
   to send me driving directions, but it could be embarrassing for me if
   certain people find out that I have some relationship to that
   organization. I do not want to let the Location Server know about
   this. Even if my Server is trustworthy, it would be better if this
   explicit information was never disclosed to anybody.  Another reason
   for not wanting the Server to know the real identity of the location
   recipients is that the dossier telling who has obtained my location
   information over a long period of time gives quite a lot of
   information on my habits, movements, etc.  Even if the location
   service providers agree to respect the privacy of the user, are
   compelled by laws or regulations to protect the privacy of the user,
   and misbehavior or negligence of the Location Server can be ruled
   out, there is still a chance that personal data may become available
   to unauthorized persons through attacks from outsiders, unauthorized
   access from insiders, or technical or human errors.

      Req. 19.  When a Location Server accepts a policy from the Rule
            Maker, the target MUST prove to the combined protocol that
            he owns the claimed group or role identifier that should be
            passed to the Location Recipient.

   For instance, if a Target wants the role identifier "medical doctor"
   to be passed to a Location Recipient, the Target must prove the
   claims to be a medical doctor.  <But probably group or role
   identifiers will be discouraged in geopriv.>

4.6. Authentication Requirements

      Req. 20.  The combined protocol MUST allow different
            authentication schemes. The combined protocol MUST
            guarantee that appropriate keys (shared or asymmetric) are

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            generated and available to secure the Location Object
            within the embedded protocol.

      Req. 21.  The combined protocol MUST allow authorization without
            explicit authentication.

4.7. Actions to be secured

      Req. 22.  The embedded protocol MUST be able to secure the
            Location Object for the following message flows (mutual
            end-point authentication, data object integrity, data
            object confidentiality, replay protection, in the absence
            of a time parameter): LI, Pol, LIF, LRequest, and PolInfo.

      Req. 23.  The embedded protocol MUST specify a minimum mandatory
            to implement Location Object security including mandatory
            to implement crypto transforms.

      Req. 24.  The embedding protocol MAY provide extra security for
            these flows (hop-by-hop or end-to-end).

   In full details, these requirements have many consequences: the
   communicating parties MUST have security relationships between them,
   allowing them to construct secure channels between them.  This may
   imply that some scenarios should not be permitted in general.  The
   Rule Maker MAY choose to use the security provided by the embedded or
   by the embedding protocol, or none.

4.8. Non-Requirements

      Req. 25.  The geopriv specification SHOULD NOT specify the
            bridging to non-IP networks (PSTN, etc).

5. Security Considerations

   The purpose of the geopriv protocol is to allow a policy-controlled
   disclosure of location information for location services.  Only the
   information carried within the Location Object is secured in a way
   compliant with the privacy and security policies of the target.  This
   does not mean that geopriv secures the target against general traffic
   analysis attacks or other forms of privacy violations.

   The Location Server is assumed to be trustworthy.

6. Acknowledgements

   We wish to thank the members of the IETF geopriv WG for their
   comments and suggestions. Detailed comments or text were provided by
   Aaron Burstein, Mehmet Ersue, Allison Mankin, Randall Gellens, and
   the participants of the geopriv interim meeting in San Diego.




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7. References

   [1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
          Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.


8. Author's Addresses

   Jorge R Cuellar
   Siemens AG
   Corporate Technology
   CT IC 3
   81730 Munich                   Email:  Jorge.Cuellar@mchp.siemens.de
   Germany

   John B. Morris, Jr.
   Director, Internet Standards, Technology & Policy Project
   Center for Democracy and Technology
   1634 I Street NW, Suite 1100
   Washington, DC 20006                         Email:  jmorris@cdt.org
   USA                                               http://www.cdt.org

   Deirdre K. Mulligan
   Samuelson Law, Technology and Public Policy Clinic
   Boalt Hall School of Law
   University of California
   Berkeley, CA 94720-7              Email:  dmulligan@law.berkeley.edu


9. Full Copyright Statement

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   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING


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   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
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   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
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